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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

IT/IS Project Management
Theory Paper: Project Quality Management

Submitted to:
Mr. Shankar Gokule
Submitted by:
Chiragkumar Patoliya
Course Code:
Due Date:
17th Oct-2009

Patoliya Chiragkumar (ECU ID: 10164346) Page 1
IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Table of Contents
Table of Contents _____________________________________________________________ 2

Introduction _________________________________________________________________ 3

Quality Characteristics ________________________________________________________ 4

Issues Related to Project Quality Management _____________________________________ 5

Approach to Related Issues _________________________________________________________ 5

Quality Management Framework ________________________________________________ 6

Quality Planning __________________________________________________________________ 7
Tools and technique ______________________________________________________________________8

Quality Assurance (QA) ____________________________________________________________ 9
Tools and technique ______________________________________________________________________9

Quality Control (QC) _________________________________________________________ 10
Tools and technique _____________________________________________________________________10

Conclusion _________________________________________________________________ 11

References _________________________________________________________________ 12

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Quality is defined as “the sum of attribute of a thing or entity that tolerate on its capacity to
satisfy direct or indirect needs.” Quality management is a procedure to make sure that all project
tasks or processes essential to plan, design and execute a project are valuable and capable with
respect to the justification of the performance and objective (Dale, 2006). Project quality
management is not divide and self-governing activities that happen at the end of an activity to
evaluate the degree of quality output (Barad & Raz, 2000). More than that it is not a valuable
material or service that you can purchase from market, the quality management is art of maturity
that you can develop within your organization with the maturity extract of experience and
knowledge (Murphy, 2008). Quality is not an additional feature to the product or service but it is
excellence of internal feeling of consumers’ satisfaction.

Project quality management is a permanent concept of objective that remains same when project
starts till end of project (Hides, 2000). Quality management concentration on enhancing
stakeholders’ ultimate satisfaction through continuous improvement to the project tasks and
processes by removing non value added activities. The interest in particular research area is to
develop the ultimate customer satisfaction model which covers all aspect of total quality
management (Steyn, 2008). It must be analyzed equally align with cost, time and scope. Goals of
quality program include:
1. Fitness for use
2. Fitness for purpose
3. Customer satisfaction
4. Conformance to the requirements

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Quality Characteristics
There is an attachment of attribute with each product, process and service which defines or easy
to measure the nature of quality (Murphy, 2008). The characteristics define how project’s
processes or products and services are able to meet the requirement of the project which is fit for
use for process or product owner. Some of the key characteristics are listed below.

1. Functionality: Functionality is a level, by product or process performs its directed functions.
It is important that desired product behave as expected and shows it’s as of use.
2. Performance: It is how well product or process performs when it is required to perform.
3. Reliability: It is an ability to perform products’ or processes’ desired behavior under normal
conditions without failure. For example Material used for blood testing should be able to
present the information in a reliable and dependable manner that will help identify significant
diseases. The trust of the beneficiaries depend on the quality of the tests
4. Relevance: it’s the attribute of how a product or service meets the defined needs of the
beneficiaries or user; it should be related, appropriate, and fit to its proposed use or
5. Timeliness: It is how the product or service is conveyed in time to deliver the desired
behavior when it’s required and not later; this is a critical quality attribute for healthcare and
retail project.
6. Suitability: It defines the robustness of its use, it aptness and correctness.
7. Completeness: degree of quality that the service is absolute and covers all the total scope of
feature of product or services.
8. Consistency: services or product’s attributes are delivered in the same way for every user
with respect to time and cost also.

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Issues Related to Project Quality Management
Delivering IT projects and support to its clients’ business on time is a major issue for IT
enterprise. Business can be on risk and huge operational cost is hidden to clients’ business
without delivering quality to service or product (Steyn, 2008). IT project need to develop
maturity to adopt possible best practices to be effectual because quality does not comes free. All
processes are guided with appropriate practical matrices with understanding business model of
clients’ business objectives (Hides, 2000).

IT organizations are facing the challenges with the changing nature of clients’ business sue to
high degree of competitiveness. So the aspects of quality are being changed within industries
(Chao & Ishii, 2004). IT organization required to be highly dynamic in ability to adopt changes
of quality objectives otherwise organization continues with failure of project (Barad & Raz,
2000). Key dynamic changes in quality issues are listed below.
 Applications are less secluded or independent today because organizations require high
degree of integration and need to have all application perform into one like ERP
application deployment.
 There is high level of diversity in application in terms of platforms, languages and
 E-business focused business applications and fashion of 24x7 performance monitoring.
 Development of quality is affected by the shift to web 2.0 technologies and service
oriented architecture (SOA).

Approach to Related Issues
Above listed issues can be a major risk for organization if they are not capable to manage it.
Here are some brief approaches listed to overcome such issues in IT project quality management.
 Set up a transparent foundation, initiating with defining roles, processes and standards.
 Comprise generating or adopting a typical set of training, not only for the testing team,
however also for developers.
 Identify that agile techniques make a more quality-focused approach, but tasks aren't
well-defined external of core expansion.
 Understand that outsourced maturity also hampers feasible development practices.

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Quality Management Framework
Project quality management includes philosophies or approaches, techniques and processes to
make sure and advance quality. The viewpoints as well as the procedures are explains well in
journals. Methods to supervise project quality have however not established the similar
awareness and where practices are addressed, the stress is primarily on arithmetical process
control (Steyn, 2008). A framework of project quality management projected in figure 1. The
framework contains statistical procedure control practices but also integrate a mixture of other
methods that are frequently used by practitioners (Dale, 2006). The three major process of
quality management are quality planning, quality assurance and quality control which are plotted
major project area below in table 1.
Input Process Output
 WBS  Plan-Quality Planning  Quality Standards
 Scope  Do-Quality Assurance  Quality Plan
 Policies  Check-Quality Control  Lesson Learned
 Act-Quality Improvements
Table 1: Quality Approach in Project

More than that table 2 contains tools and techniques of project quality management which are
mentioned in PMBOK.
Quality Planning Quality Assurance (QA) Quality Control (QC)
 Cost-benefit analysis  Quality planning tools and  Cause and effect diagram
 Benchmarking techniques  Control charts
 Design of experiments  Quality audits  Flowcharting
 Cost of quality  Process analysis  Histogram
 Additional quality planning  Quality control tools and  Pareto chart
tools techniques  Run chart
 Scatter diagram
 Statistical sampling
 Inspection
 Defect repair review

Table 2: project quality management tools and techniques

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Figure 1: Project quality management framework

Quality Planning
Quality planning contains assessments concerning events necessary to meet quality necessities
and the designed quality actions frequently involve the use of definite QA and QC methods
(Steyn, 2008). The QA and QC methods therefore need to be determined throughout quality
planning in the case of projects to develop new systems.

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Tools and technique
 Define the outcome quality and prepare the checklist of it. Figure 2 shows the steps
involved in preparing product quality checklists.
 Quality requirements and standards including benchmarking with respected to other
projects and prepare the project priority matrix shown in figure 3.
 Processes needed in the on the whole project plan to meet the quality specifications and
principles, containing the tools and techniques that would be used in QC and QA.
 Decision matrices to check whether standards are being match with specifications.
 Judgment on how the entity of project under reflection could assist the continuous
improvement of project policies and processes to improve organization wide quality.

Figure 2: Product Quality Checklist Figure 3: Project Priority Matrix

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Quality Assurance (QA)
QA is not only mandatory on each project to make sure fulfillment with requirements, another
part is continuous improvement in inter-project environment that is assisted by methodical
project close-out (Steyn, 2008). Therefore, in a project background, Continuous Improvement
(CI) is another inevitable part with QA. CI comes with the enterprise experience and wide
knowledge on quality aspects. When QA for project is determined with a defined project only,
CI advances the enterprise capability to handle projects and improves the maturity quality
management (Murphy, 2008).

Tools and technique
Quality Audits:
Quality audits are used to confirm the project management process and technical process with
respect to approved processes and specifications
Process Analysis
Process analysis ensures the current running processes perform well or not. Output of this
method will feed to the quality control techniques.
PCDA Cycle
PCDA stands for Plan Do Check Act cycle, generally used for continuous improvements
of quality aspects in terms of process, product or services of project as shown in figure 4.

Figure 4: PDCA Cycle

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Quality Control (QC)
Two sides of project quality control are designed quality control and unplanned problem working
out. Formal QC tasks have procedures that can be considered to a relative level of detail before.
Casual difficulties are obviously creates surprising delays, and incident reserves in budgets and
schedules should make provision for activities to examine and resolve such problems (Hides,

Tools and technique
Route Cause Analysis
Route cause analysis contains the fundamental key drivers of changes which are responsible for
causes in project. Ishikawa diagram is used to define the route cause analysis shown in figure 5.

Figure 5: Ishikawa Diagram
Inspections are repeatedly used as quality control technique through final approval; inspections
could shape fractions of audits and to make sure that precise mechanism fulfill requirements
prior to integration into the superior system.
FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis)
It is a practice to decide in what behavior a system might stop working as well as what the result
of the possible failures might be. FMEA provides inputs to classify characteristics.

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Pareto Charts
According to Pareto’s definition, 20 percents of causes creates 80 percents of problems. That
carts is formed with histogram which explained the magnitude of problems, figure 6 explains the
Pareto charts.

Figure 6: Sample Pareto Chart

Going through all aspects and main processes of project quality management, it is clearly defines
that quality does not comes over night. Lots of practices and vast knowledge and experience
shape the fruitful enterprise quality bunch. Extracting this theory paper and journal articles cited,
it is sure that quality starts from enterprise wide program to smaller process which you cannot
separate from them.

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IT/IS Project Management Project Quality Management

Barad, M., & Raz, T. (2000). Contribution of quality management tools and practices to project
management performance. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management , 17 (4/5),

Chao, L. P., & Ishii, K. (2004). Project quality function deployment. International Journal of
Quality & Reliability Management , 21 (9), 938-958.

Dale, B. (2006). Quality and risk management:what are the key issues? The TQM Magazine , 18
(1), 67-86.

Hides, M. (2000). Facilitating total quality through effective project management. International
Journal of Quality & Reliability Management , 18 (4), 407-422.

Murphy, T. E. (2008, 08 08). Key Issues for Software Quality and Testing, 2008. Gartner
Research , pp. 21-28.

Steyn, H. (2008). A Framework for Managing Quality on System Development Projects.
PICMET 2008 Proceedings (pp. 1295-1302). Cape Town: PICMET.

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