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Because teeth are very resistant - often preserved when bones are not - and reflect the diet
of the host organism, they are very valuable to archaeologists and palaeontologists. Early
fish such as the thelodonts had teeth for scales, suggesting that the origin of teeth was
scales which were retained in the mouth. Fish as early as the late Cambrian had dentine in
their exoskeleton, which may have functioned in defense or for sensing their
environment. Dentine can be as hard as the rest of teeth, and is composed of collagen
fibres, reinforced with hydroxyapatite.

North Hill Dental : Dentists also encourage prevention of dental caries through proper
hygiene (tooth brushing and flossing), fluoride, and tooth polishing. Dental sealants are
plastic materials applied to one or more teeth, for the intended purpose of preventing
dental caries (cavities) or other forms of tooth decay. Recognized but less conventional
preventive agents include xylitol, which is bacteriostatic, casein derivatives, and
proprietary products such as Cavistat BasicMints

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The cells of the periodontal ligaments include osteoblasts, osteoclasts, fibroblasts,
macrophages, cementoblasts, and epithelial cell rests of Malassez. Consisting of mostly
Type I and III collagen, the fibers are grouped in bundles and named according to their
location. The groups of fibers are named alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, periapical,
and interradicular fibers. The nerve supply generally enters from the bone apical to the
tooth and forms a network around the tooth toward the crest of the gingiva.

Dental fluorosis is condition which results from ingesting excessive amounts of fluoride
and leads to teeth which are spotted, yellow, brown, black or sometimes pitted. Enamel
hypoplasia resulting from syphilis is frequently referred to as Hutchinson's teeth, which is
considered one part of Hutchinson's triad.

Armin Hedayat : Periodontal ligaments

The periodontal ligament is a specialized connective tissue that attaches the cementum of
a tooth to the alveolar bone. This tissue covers the root of the tooth within the bone. Each
ligament has a width of 0.15 - 0.38 mm, but this size decreases over time. The functions
of the periodontal ligaments include attachment of the tooth to the bone, support for the
tooth, formation and resorption of bone during tooth movement, sensation, and eruption.

Some animals develop only one set of teeth (monophyodont) while others develop many
sets (polyphyodont). Sharks, for example, grow a new set of teeth every two weeks to
replace worn teeth. Rodent incisors grow and wear away continually through gnawing,
maintaining relatively constant length. Many rodents such as voles (but not mice) and
guinea pigs, as well as rabbits, have continuously growing molars in addition to incisors.

About Armin Hedayat Pink and red discolorations are also associated in patients with
lepromatous leprosy. Some medications, such as tetracycline antibiotics, may become
incorporated into the structure of a tooth, causing intrinsic staining of the teeth.

Armin Hedayat A tooth may have multiple roots or just one root. Canines and most
premolars, except for maxillary (upper) first premolars, usually have one root. Maxillary
first premolars and mandibular molars usually have two roots. Maxillary molars usually
have three roots. Additional roots are referred to as supernumerary roots.

The cells of the periodontal ligaments include osteoblasts, osteoclasts, fibroblasts,
macrophages, cementoblasts, and epithelial cell rests of Malassez. Consisting of mostly
Type I and III collagen, the fibers are grouped in bundles and named according to their
location. The groups of fibers are named alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, periapical,
and interradicular fibers. The nerve supply generally enters from the bone apical to the
tooth and forms a network around the tooth toward the crest of the gingiva.

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