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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

CHAPTER 3 : CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS- ANSWER
Activity 1

1. the average mass of one atom of the element

2. solid at room temperature

3.

Element Relative Atomic Mass Element Relative Atomic Mass

Calcium, Ca 40 Argon, Ar 40
Sodium, Na 23 Silver, Ag 108
Iron, Fe 56 Caesium, Cs 133
Copper, Cu 64 Lead, Pb 207
Carbon, C 12 Chlorine, Cl 35.5
Hydrogen, H 1 Flourine, F 19
Potassium, K 39 Aluminium, Al 27
Lithium, Li 7 Zinc, Zn 65
Bromine, Br 80 Helium, He 4

Activity 2 (refer text book pg 29 )

1. the average mass of a molecule of the substance, carbon-12

2.
Substance
Molecular formula Relative molecular mass, Mr
Hydrogen gas H2 2(1) = 2
Propane C3H8 3(12) + 8(1) = 44
Ethanol C2H5OH 2(12) + 5(1) + 16 + 1 = 46
Bromine gas Br2 2(80) = 160
Methane CH4 12 + 4(1) = 16
Glucose C6H12O6 6(12) + 12(1) + 6(16) = 180

Ammonia NH3 14 + 3(1) = 17

3.
Substance Compound formula Relative formula mass, Fr

Potassium oxide K2O 2(39) + 16 = 94

Aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3 2(27)+3[32+4(16)]=342

Zinc nitrate Zn(NO3)2 65 + 2[14 + 3(16)] = 189

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

Aluminium nitrate Al(NO3)3 27 + 3[14 + 3(16)] = 213

Calcium carbonate CaCO3 40 + 12 + 3(16) = 100

Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 40 + 2[16 + 1] = 74

Hydrated copper(II) CuSO4.5H2O 64 + 32 + 4(16) + 5[2(1) + 16]=250
sulphate

Hydrated sodium Na2CO3.10H2O 2(23) + 12 + 3(16) + 10[2(1) + 16]
carbonate = 286

Sodium hydrogen NaHSO4 23 + 1 + 32 + 4(16) = 120
sulphate

Aluminium chloride AlCl3 27 + 3(35.5) = 133.5

Copper(II) sulphate CuSO4 64 + 32 + 4(16) = 160

Zinc carbonate ZnCO3 65 + 12 + 3(16) = 125

Potassium K2CO3 2(39) + 12 + 3(16) = 138
carbonate

Activity 3 (refer text book pg 30 )

2. number of atoms

4. Avogadro constant

5. In other words:

a. 1 mol of atomic substance contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms

b. 1 mol of molecular substance contains6.02 x 1023 molecules

c. 1 mol of ionic substance contains 6.02 x 1023 formula units

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

6. Relationship between number of moles and number of particles (atom/ion/molecules):

x Avogadro Constant
number of moles number of particles
∻ A
vogadro Constant

Number of moles Number of particles

0.5 mol of carbon atoms 3.01 x 1023 atoms of carbon

0.2 moles of hydrogen gas ( H2) (i) 1.204 x 1023 molecules
of hydrogen
(ii) 2.408 x 1023 atoms of hydrogen

2 mol of carbon dioxide molecules 2 x 6.02 x 10 23 molecules of carbon
dioxide contains :

1.204 x 1024 atoms of C and 2.408 x 1024
atoms of O

0.007 mol of calcium ions 4.214 x 1021 calcium ions

100 mol of water 6.02 x 10 25 molecules of water

0.4 mol of ozone gas ( O3) 2.408 x 10 23 molecules of ozone,

contains :

7.224 x 1023 atoms of O

7.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

a) 1 mol of calcium contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms

b) 2 mol of iron contains 2 x 6.02 x 1023 atoms

c) 2 mol of magnesium oxide, (MgO) contains 2 x 2 x 6.02 x 1023 ions

d) 2 mol of sodium carbonate, (Na2CO3) contains 2 x 3 x 6.02 x 1023 ions

e) 3 mol of carbon dioxide, (CO2) contains 3 x 6.02 x 1023 molecules .

f) 0.5 mol Copper (II) nitrate, ( Cu[NO3]2 )contains 0.5 x 1 x 6.02 x 1023 Cu2+ ions

and 0.5 x 2 x 6.02 x 1023 NO3- ions

Activity 4 (refer text book pg 33 )

1. The molar mass of a substance
= The molar mass of one mole of the substance.

= The mass of (NA) number of particles

= The mass of 6.02 x 1023 particles

3.

a) 3 moles of lithium atoms b) 0.5 moles of oxygen (O2)
Mass = 3 x 7 = 21 g Mass = 0.5 x 2(16) = 16 g

c) 0.1 moles of sodium d) 2 moles of chlorine molecules (Cl2)
Mass = 0.1 x 2 x 23 = 4.6 g Mass = 2 x 2(35.5) = 142 g

e) 1 mole of carbon dioxide ( CO2) f) 3 moles of nitric acid, ( HNO3 )
Mass = 1 x [12 + 2(16) = 44 g Mass = 3 x [1 + 14 + 3(16)] = 189 g

g) 2 moles of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) h) 0.25 moles of calcium chloride (CaCl2 )
Mass = 2 x 100 = 200 g Mass = 0.25 x 111 = 27.75 g
[RMM CaCO3 = 100]
i) 0.25 moles of sodium hydroxide j) 0.25 moles of sodium carbonate
(NaOH) (Na2CO3)
Mass = 0.25 x 40 = 10 g Mass = 0.25 x 106 = 26.5 g

k) 0.5 moles of potassium manganate l) 0.25 moles of hydrated magnesium
(KMnO4) sulphate (MgSO4.7H2O)
Mass = 0.5 x 158 = 79 g Mass = 0.25 x 246 = 61.5 g
m) 1.3 moles of ammonium sulphate n) 0.8 moles of potassium dichromate (VI)
171.6g 235.2g

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

Activity 5

4.
a) 2g of helium atoms b) 6g of carbon atoms
= 2/4 = 0.5 mol = 6/12 = 0.5 mol
c) 16g of helium atoms d) 4g of sulphur atoms
= 16/4 = 4 mol = 4/32 = 0.125 mol
e) 4g of oxygen molecules (O2) f) 213g of chlorine molecules (Cl2)
= 4/32 = 0.125 mol = 213/71 = 3 mol
g) 0.56g of nitrogen molecules (N2) h) 254g of iodine molecules (I2)
= 0.56/ 28 = 0.02 mol = 254/ 254 = 1 mol
i) 88g of carbon dioxide (CO2) j) 3.1g of sulphur dioxide (SO2)
= 88/ 44 = 2mol = 3.1/ 64 = 0.048 mol
k) 560g of potassium hydroxide (KOH) l) 392g of sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
= 560/ 56 = 10 mol = 392/ 98 = 4 mol
m) 170g of ammonia (NH3) n) 120g of magnesium oxide (MgO)
= 170/ 17 = 10 mol = 120/ 40 = 3 mol
o) 4g of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) p) 73g of hydrogen choride (HCl)
= 4/ 40 = 0.1 mol = 73/ 36.5 = 2 mol
q) 15.8g of potassium manganate (VII) r) 8g of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)
KMnO4 = 8/ 80 = 0.1 mol
= 15.8/ 158 = 0.1 mol
s) 0.78g of aluminium hydroxide Al(OH)3 t) 0.92g of ethanol (C2H5OH)
= 0.78/ 78 = 0.01 mol = 0.92/ 46 = 0.02 mol

Activity 6
5.

Chemical
Element/compound formulae Molar mass Calculate
Copper Cu RAM= 64 (a)Mass of 1 mol = 64 g
(b) Mass of 2 mol = 128 g
(c)Mass of ½ mol = 32 g
(d)Mass of 3.01x1023 Cu atoms
= 32 g

Sodium hydroxide NaOH RFM= 40 (a) Mass of 3 mol of sodium
hydroxide = 120 g

(b) Number of moles of sodium
hydroxide in 20 g = 0.5 mol

Zinc nitrate Zn(NO3)2 RFM = 189 a) Number of moles in 37.8 g of
zinc nitrate :
= 37.8/ 189 = 0.2 mol

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

Activity 7 (refer text book pg 36, 37 )

1. volume of one mol of the gas

2. same volume

3. The molar volume of any gas is

• 24 dm3 at room conditions or

• 22.4 dm3 at standard temperature and pressure (STP)

4.

a) 3 moles of oxygen b) 2 moles of CH4
Volume = 3 x 22.4 dm3 Volume = 2 x 22.4 dm3
= 67.2 dm3 = 44.8 dm3
c) 0.3 moles of Argon d) 0.2 moles of SO3
Volume = 0.3 x 22.4 dm3 Volume = 0.2 x 22.4 dm3
= 6.72 dm3 = 4.48 dm3
e) 0.1 moles of N2 f) 1.5 mol of N2
Volume = 0.1 x 22.4 dm3 Volume = 1.5 x 22.4 dm3
= 2.24 dm3 = 33.6 dm3

5. Complete the above diagram (Refer to Page 33, 34 & 38-Chemistry textbook)

Volume of gas
(dm3)

X 22.4dm3 ÷ 22.4dm3

÷ Molar Mass X 6.02 x 1023

Mass in gram Number of moles No of particles
÷ 6.02
X Molar Mass
x 1023

Notes : Activity 8 : Answer has already given
ACTIVITY 9 (Refer text book pg 40)

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

1) atoms , atoms.

The letter H
shows Subscript shows 2
symbol of
Hydrogen H2 hidrogen atom in a
molecule
atom

2) Complete this table
Chemical subtance Chemical Notes
formulae

Water H2O 2 atoms of H combine with 1 atom of O

Ammonia NH3 3 atoms of H combine with 1 atom of N
Propene C3H8 3 atoms of C combine with 8 atom of H

Magnesium oxide
MgO 1 atom of Mg combine with 1 atom of O

Sulphuric acid H2SO4 2 atoms of H combine with 1 atom of
sulphur and 4 atoms of O

3).
** Empirical Formula  The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element
in the compound.
** Molecular Formula  The actual number of atoms of each element that are
present in a molecule of the compound
Example: (i) CH2 (ii) CH2O

Activity 10

1 Find the empirical formula of a compound
Example of calculation:
a) When 11.95 g of metal X oxide is reduced by hydrogen, 10.35 g of metal X is

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

produced. Find the empirical formula of metal X oxide [ RAM; X,207; O,16 ]

Element X O
Mass of element(g) 10.35 11.95-10.35
Number of moles of atoms 10.35÷207 (11.95-10.35)÷16

Ratio of moles 0.05 0.1
Simplest ratio of moles 1 2

Empirical formula : X2O
b)
Element Na Br O
Mass of element(g) 15.23 52.98 31.79
Number of moles atoms 15.23 ÷23 52.98÷80 31.79÷16
Ratio of moles 0.662 0.662 1.986
Simplest ratio of moles 1 1 3

Empirical formula : NaBrO3
c)
Compound Molecular Formula Empirical formula Value of n
Water H2O H2O 1
Carbon Dioxide CO2 CO2 1
Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 H2SO4 1
Ethane C2H4 CH2 2
Benzene C6H6 CH 6
Glucose C6H12O6 CH2O 2

d) 2.52g of a hydrocarbon contains 2.16 g of carbon. The relative molecular mass of the
hydrocarbon is 84. [RAM H,1; C,12]
i. Find the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon
Element C H
Mass of element (g) 2.16 0.36
Numberof moles atoms 0.18 0.36
Ratio of moles 1 2
Empirical formula : C1H2 = CH2
ii. Find the molecular formula of the carbon.
n(CH2 ) = 84
n [ 12 + 2(1) ] = 84
n = 84 / 14 = 6
Molecular formula = (CH2)6 = C6H12

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae

Activity 11
Complete the table below :
Cation Formula Anion Formula
Hydrogen ion H+ Flouride ion F−
Lithium ion Li+ Chloride ion Cl-
Sodium ion Na+ Bromide ion Br-
Potassium ion K+ Iodide ion I-
Magnesium ion Mg2+ Hydroxide ion OH-
Calcium ion Ca 2+ Nitrate ion NO3-
Barium ion Ba 2+ Manganate(VII) ion MnO4-
Copper(II) ion Cu2+ Ethanoate ion CH 3COO −

Iron(II) ion Fe2+ Oxide ion O 2−
Iron (III) ion Fe3+ Sulphate ion SO42-
Lead (II) ion Pb2+ Sulphide ion S 2−
Zinc ion Zn2+ Carbonate ion CO32-
Chromium (III) ion Cr3+ Dichromate (VI) ion Cr 2 O7
2−

Aluminium ion Al 3+ Phosphate ion PO 4
3−

Ammonium ion NH4+ Chromate (VI) CrO42-

Avtivity 12
a) Cu(NO3)2
b)
(i). Magnesium chloride (ii). Potassium carbonate (iii). Calcium sulphate
MgCl2 K2CO3 CaSO4
(iv). Copper (II) oxide (v). Silver nitrate (vi). Zinc nitrate
CuO AgNO3 Zn(NO3)2
(vii). Aluminium oxide (viii). Iron(II) hydroxide (ix). Lead(II) sulphide
Al2O3 Fe(OH)2 PbS

(x). Chromium sulphate, Cr2(SO4)3

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WAJA F4 Chemistry Chapter 3 : Chemical Formulae and Equations

Activity 13 (refer text book pg 48)

1)
b) reactants
c) products
d) solid: (s), liquid (l), gas (g) and aqueous solution : aq
2)
a) Sodium + chlorine  Sodium chloride
2 Na(s) + Cl2 (g)  2 NaCl (s)
b) Carbon + Oxygen  Carbon dioxide
C (s) + O2 (g)  CO2 (g)
c) Sulphur + oxygen  Sulphur dioxide
S(s) + O2 (g)  SO2 (g)
d) Zinc + oxygen  Zinc oxide
2Zn (s) + O2 (g)  2ZnO (s).

3)
(a). C (s) + O2 (g)  CO2 (g)
Interpreting :
1 mole of C reacts with 1 mol of O2 to produce 1 mole of CO2

(b). 3H2 (g) + N2 (g)  2NH3 (g)
Interpreting :
3 moles of H2 reacts with 1 mol of N2 to produce 2 moles of NH3

(c). 2Al (s) + Fe2O3 (s)  Al2O3 + 2 Fe
Interpreting:
2 moles of Al reacts with 1 mole of Fe2O3 to produce 1 mole of Al2O3 and
2 moles of Fe

Notes: Activity 14 : Answer has already given.

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