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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

CHAPTER 4 :PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

A ANALYSING THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• describe the contributions of scientists in the historical development of the Periodic Table,
• identify groups and periods in the Periodic Table,
• state the basic principle of arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from their proton numbers,
• relate the electron arrangement of an element to its group and period,
• explain the advantages of grouping elements in the Periodic Table,
• predict the group and the period of an element based on its electron arrangement.

Activity 1

Draw lines to match name of scientist with their contribution

Name of Scientist Contribution

Lothar Meyer First scientist to classify
substances

Henry J. G. Moseley Classified the elements into
group of three with similar
chemical properties

Antoine Lavoisier Arranged the known elements
in order of increasing atomic
mass . Elements with similar
properties recurred at every
eighth element.

John Newlands Plotted a graph of the atomic
volume against the atomic
mass of elements

Johann W. Dobereiner Left gaps in the table to be
filled by undiscovered
elements

Dimitri Mendeleev Rearranging the elements in
order of increasing proton
number

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

Activity 2

1 Arrangement of elements in the Periodic Table

a) Elements are arranged in an increasing order of …………………………

b) Each vertical column is called a ………………..

c) Each horizontal rows is called …………………………….

d) Elements with similar chemical properties are placed in the same …………………………

e) (The period number of an element) = (The number of …………. occupied with electrons
in its atom.)

2. Complete the table below.
Element Electron Number of Group Number of Period
arrangement valence shells
electrons occupied with
electrons

1
1 H

4
2 He 1

7
3 Li 2.1

11
5 B 2.3

12
6 C 2 2

14
7 N 5 15

16
8 O

19
9 F 17

20
10 Ne 2.8

24
12 Mg

27
13 Al 2.8.3

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14 Si

32
16 S

35 .
17 Cl

39
19 K

40
20 Ca

3. An atom of element E has 10 neutrons. The nucleon number of element E is 19. In
which group and period is element E located in the Periodic Table?

Answer: Group …………………………

Period …………………………

4. An atom of element G has 3 shells occupied with electrons. It is placed in group
17 of the Periodic Table. What is the electron arrangement of atom G?

Answer : Electron arrangement of atom G …………………

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

B ANALYSING GROUP 18 ELEMENTS
Learning Outcomes:
You should be able to:
• list all Group 18 elements,
• state in general the physical properties of Group 18 elements,
• describe the changes in the physical properties of Group 18 elements,
• describe the inert nature of elements of Group 18,
• relate the inert nature of Group 18 elements to their electron arrangements,
• relate the duplet and octet electron arrangements of Group 18 elements to their stability,
• describe uses of Group 18 elements in daily life..

Activity 3 :

Analysing Group 18 Elements

1 Physical Properties of Group 18 Elements

Circle the correct answer
Down the Group :
a) Atomic radius /Atomic size increase/ decrease

b) Melting point and Boiling point increase/ decrease

c) Density increase/ decrease

2 Complete the figure below by giving the uses of Group 18 .

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

3 All noble gases are ……………………. which means chemically unreactive. This is
because they have ………………………. Electron arrangement.
Example : (i) Helium atom has …………………. valence electrons which is called a
…………………………… electron arrangement
(ii) Other noble gases has …………………… valence electrons which is
called an ………………………. electron arrangement.

4 The noble gases exists as ……………………. gases because their electron arrangement
are very …………………………..

C ANALYSING GROUP 1 ELEMENTS
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• list all Group 1 elements.
• state the general physical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium,
• describe changes in the physical properties from lithium to potassium,
• list the chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium,
• describe the similarities in chemical properties of lithium, sodium and potassium,
• relate the chemical properties of Group 1 elements to their electron arrangements,
• describe changes in reactivity of Group 1 elements down the group,
• predict physical and chemical properties of other elements in Group 1

Activity 4

A State 3 physical properties of group 1 elements.

a) ………………………………………………………………………………………………

b) ………………………………………………………………………………………………

c) ………………………………………………………………………………………………

B Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements (Alkali metals )

1. Group 1 elements react vigorously with water to produce alkaline metal hydroxide
solutions and hydrogen gas
Example: 2 Li + 2 H 2 O  2 LiOH + H 2
Write down the balanced equation when potassium reacts with water

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

2. Group 1 elements react with oxygen gas rapidly to produce white solid metal oxides.

Example: 4 Li + O2  2 Li 2 O
Write down the balanced equation when rubidium reacts with oxygen

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
3. Group 1 elements react t with chlorine gas Cl 2 , to form white solid metal chlorides.
Example: 2 Na + Cl 2  2 NaCl
Write down the balanced equation when potassium reacts with chlorine gas

………………………………………………………………………………………………..
4 The reactivity of Group 1 elements increases when going down the group.
Explain why.

a) When going down Group 1 the single valence electron in the outermost occupied
shell become ………………….. from the nucleus.
b) The attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron become …………. .
c) Therefore it is ……………. for the atom to donate the single valence electron to
achieve the stable electron arrangement.

5 Potassium reacts more vigorously with water as compared to sodium. Explain.
(Proton number: Na, 11 ; K, 19)

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Activity 5

Complete the table below and answer the followi
ng questions :

Alkali Metal Proton Number of Electron Number of
number electrons arrangement valence
electrons
Lithium 3
Sodium 11
Potassium 19
Rubidium 37 37 2.8.18.8.1
Caesium 55 55 2.8.18.18.8.1

1) Lithium , sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties .
Explain why

Lithium , sodium and potassium have …………electron in their outermost occupied shell.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

2) What has to happen to an atom of alkali metal for it to achieve a stable electron
arrangement of inert gas ?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………..
3) What is the charge of an alkali metal ion ? .

…………............................................................................................…………………

4) Reactivity of alkali metals increases from Lithium to Caesium . Explain why .

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

......................................................................................................................................

Activity 6

To Investigate The Chemical Properties of Lithium, Sodium & Potassium

1) The Reaction of alkali metals with water, H 2 O

Problem Statement: How does the reactivity of Group 1 elements change when
they react with water?

Hypothesis: When going down Group 1, alkali metals become more
reactive in their reactions with water.

Variables: Manipulated variable – Different types of alkali metals
Responding variable – Reactivity of metals with water
Fixed variables – water, size of metals

Water alkali metal

a) Write the procedure to carry out this experiment.
(refer to practical book pg 39)

b) Complete this table (Data & Observation )

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

Alkali metal Observation
Lithium

Sodium

Potassium

2) The Reaction of alkali metals With Oxygen, O2
(This procedure can also be used to test the reaction of alkali metals with chlorine gas!)

a) Problem Statement:

……………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………...

b) Hypothesis:

…………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………

c) Variables:
Manipulated variable – …………………………………………………….

Responding variable – …………………………………………………….

Fixed variables – …………………………………………………………...

Alkali metal

oxygen
d) Write the procedure of this experiment.
(refer to practical book pg 36)

e) Data & Observation

Alkali metal Observation
Lithium

Sodium

Potassium

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

f) Based on your results, arrange the alkali metals in ascending order of
reactivity.

……………………………………………………………………………………

D ANALYSING GROUP 17 ELEMENTS
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• list all Group 17 elements,
• state the general physical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine,
• describe changes in the physical properties from chlorine to iodine,
• list the chemical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine,
• describe the similarities in chemical properties of chlorine, bromine and iodine,
• describe changes in reactivity of Group 17 elements down the group,
• predict physical and chemical properties of other elements in Group 17,.

Activity 7

1) State the uses of Chlorine and iodine

a) Chlorine – …………………………………………………………………………….

b) Iodine – ………………………………………………………………………………..

2 (a) Give the physical state of halogens below at room temperature :

i) Fluorine: ……………………………………………

ii) Chlorine: ……………………………………………

iii) Bromine: …………………………………………….

iv) Iodine : ………………………………………….

(b) Fill in the blanks below.

Cl 2 melting and colour of Density
Br 2 boiling points halogens ……….
I2 ……….. becomes
………….

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

3) When going down the Group 17, the melting and boiling points increase. Explain

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

4) Chemical Properties of Group 17 Elements
a) Group 17 elements react with water to form two acids
Example: Cl 2 + H 2 O  HCl + HOCl
hydrochloric hypochlorus
acid acid

Write a balanced equation when bromine reacts with water.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

b). In gaseous state they react with hot iron to form a brown solid, iron (III) halides.
Example: 2 Fe + 3Br 2  2FeBr 3

Write a balanced equation when iodine vapour reacts with iron

………………………………………………………………………………………
c). Group 17 elements react t with sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH , to form
sodium halide, sodium halate (I) and water

Example: I 2 + 2 NaOH  NaI + NaOI + H 2O

Write a balanced equation when chlorine reacts with sodium hydroxide solution

………………………………………………………………………………………….
5) The reactivity of Group 17 elements decreases when going down the group.
Explain why.

a) When going down the Group 17 atomic size ……………………………..
b) The outermost occupied shell becomes …………………. from the nucleus.
c) Therefore the strength to attract one electron into the outermost occupied shell
by the nucleus becomes ………………………

6) Chlorine gas reacts more vigorously with hot iron as compared to bromine gas.
Explain (Proton number: Cl, 17 ; Br, 35)

…………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………..
Activity 8

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

To investigate the Chemical properties of Group 17 elements.

The Reaction of halogens with iron (refer practical book pg 44)

1) Data and Observation (Complete the following table)

Halogen Observation
Reactant Chlorine Bromine Iodine

Water

Iron wool

Sodium hydroxide , NaOH
solution

2) Based on your results, arrange the halogens, Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2 in ascending order of
reactivity.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3) Element E is placed below element D in Group 17 of the Periodic Table.
(a). Compare the melting and boiling points of element D with element E.
Explain your answer

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

(b). Write a chemical equation for the reaction between element D and hot iron.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

E ANALYSING ELEMENTS IN A PERIOD

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• list all elements in Period 3,
• write electron arrangements of all elements in Period 3,
• describe changes in the properties of elements across Period 3,
• state changes in the properties of the oxides of elements across Period 3,
• predict changes in the properties of elements across Period 2,

Activity 9
Period 3 in the Periodic Table – Properties of Elements

1) Complete the table and answer the question given below

Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar

Proton number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Electron
arrangement
Number of valence
electrons
Atomic radius (pm) 186 160 143 118 110 104 100 94

Physical state at Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Gas Gas
room temperature
Electronegativity 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 -

2) Fill in the blanks with the correct answer.
a). The proton number ……………………….. by one unit from one element to the next
element
b) All the atoms of elements have ……………………….. shells occupied with electrons.

c) The number of valence electrons in each atom …………………………. from 1 to 8.

d) The physical state at room temperature changes from ……………… to …………………..

e) The atomic radius (atomic size) of elements ………………… from left to right across the
period 3
f) The electronegativity of elements. …………………….. from left to right across the period 3 .

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

Activity 10

1) Below are some oxides of elements of Period 3.

*Sodium oxide, Na 2 O *Silicon (IV) oxide, SiO 2
*Aluminium oxide, Al 2 O3 *Sulphur dioxide, SO 2

(a). Which of these oxides can react with
(i) dilute nitric acid? ………………………………………………………….
(ii) sodium hydroxide solution? …………………………………………….

(b). Based on your answers in (a), what inferences can you make about the
properties of each of the oxides?

Oxide of elements in Period 3 Acidic / Basic / Amphoteric
Sodium oxide
Magnesium oxide
Aluminium oxide
Silicon (IV) oxide
Phosphorus (V) oxide
Sulfur dioxide
2)
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3 Li , 6 C , 199 F

The diagram above shows the symbols of lithium, carbon and fluorine.

(a). Which period in the Periodic Table can you find the three elements? Explain.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

………………………………………………………………………………………….
(b). Arrange the three elements in order of increasing atomic size.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

(c). Compare the electronegativity of the three elements. Explain your answer.

The electronegativity of the elements (i)………………………… from Li , C , F

This is due to the (ii)………………….. nuclei attraction on the valence electrons and the

(iii)……………………………… in atomic size.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

F TRANSITION ELEMENTS
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• identify the positions of transition elements in the Periodic Table,
• give examples of transition elements,
• describe properties of transition elements,
• state uses of transition elements in industries.

Activity 11

1 (a) Transtition elements are elements from Group ………………. to Group ……………….

(b) State 3 examples of transtition elements found in Period 4

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2 Complete the diagram below.

Special characteristics of Transition elements

3 Transition elements and their compounds are useful catalysts.
Complete the table below

Chemical Process Product Catalysts
Haber
Ostwald
Contact

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

4 Transition elements form coloured ions or compound
Complete the table below

Ion of transition element Formula of the ion Colour of aqueous solution

Cooper (II) ion
Fe 2+
Iron (II) ion
Yellowish Brown

Iron (III) ion

Chromium (III) ion

Chromate (VI) ion

Dichromate (VI) ion

Manganese (II) ion

Manganate (VI) ion

4 Transition elements form ions with different Oxidation Numbers.
Elements Compound Chemical Formula Oxidation Number
Manganese Manganese (II) chloride
Manganese (IV) oxide
Potassium manganate (VI)
Iron Iron (II) chloride
Iron (III) chloride
Copper Copper (I) chloride
Copper (II) oxide

**(Precious stones such as emerald, rubies, sapphire and jade are beautiful due to the colours
of the transition element compounds present in them )

Activity 12

1 Diagram 1 shows part of the Periodic Table of the Elements. D, E, G, L, M, and J, that do not

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

represent the actual symbol of the element

L
D
M J
E G

Diagram 1

Using the letters in the Periodic Table of the Elements in Diagram 1, answer the following
questions.

(a) (i) State the position of element E in the Periodic Table.

……………………………………………………………………………………..

(ii) Choose the element which exhibit different oxidation numbers in its compounds.

…………………………………………………………...………………………..

(b) Element D combines with element L to form a compound.
Write the chemical formula of this compound.

..............................…………………………………………………………………

(c) D and E have the same chemical properties

(i) Which element is more reactive?

...............................................................................................................................

(ii) Explain your answer in (c) (i).

……………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………..

(d) Which element exists as diatomic molecules?

……..….…………………………………………………………………………

2 The information shows the chemical symbols which represent elements W, X, Y and Z.

27 35 16 12 23

13 17 6 11
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 :Periodic Table of Elements

W X Y Z

(a) State three subatomic particles in an atom.
.
……….............……………………………………………………...............………...…

(b) (i) What is the meaning of the “period” in the Periodic Table of element?

.......................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................................................

(ii) State the period of element W in the Periodic Table of element. Explain.

....….…………………………………………………..............….......…….

..............................................................................................................

(c) (i) Compare the atomic size of element W and X.

.............................................................................................................

(ii) Explain your answer in (c) (i).

...................................................................................................................

..............................................................................................................

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