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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

MARKING SCHEME : CHAPTER 4 :PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

Activity 1

1 Draw lines to match Name of scientist with their contribution

Name of Scientist Contribution

Lothar Meyer Plotted a graph of the atomic
volume against the atomic
mass of elements
Rearranging the elements in
Henry J. G. Moseley order of increasing proton
number
First scientist to classify
Antoine Lavoisier substances
Arranged the known elements
John Newland in order of increasing atomic
mass . Elements with similar
properties recurred at every
eighth element.
Classified the elements into
Johann W. Dobereiner group of three with similar
chemical properties
Left gaps in the table to be
Dimitri Mendeleev filled by undiscovered
elements

Activity 2
1
a) Proton number b) Group c) Period d) Group e) Shells

2. Complete the table below
Element Electron Number of Group Number of shells Period
arrangement valence electrons occupied

1
1 H 1 1 1 1 1

4
2 He 2 2 18 1 1

7
3 Li 2.1 1 1 2 2

11
5 B 2.3 3 13 2 2

12
6 C 2.4 4 14 2 2

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

Element Electron Number of Group Number of shells Period
arrangement valence electrons occupied

14
7 N 2.5 5 15 2 2

16
8 O 2.6 6 16 2 2

19
9 F 2.7 7 17 2 2

20
10 Ne 2.8 8 18 2 2

24
12 Mg 2.8.2 2 2 3 3

27
13 Al 2.8.3 3 13 3 3

28
14 Si 2.8.4 4 14 3 3

32
16 S 2.8.6 6 16 3 3

35
17 Cl 2.8.7 7 17 3 3

39
19 K 2.8.8.1 1 1 4 4

40
20 Ca 2.8.8.2 2 2 4 4

2. Answer: Group 17 Period 2

3. Answer :Electron arrangement : 2.8.7

Activity 3 :
1 Physical Properties of Group 18 Elements
Down the Group :
a) increase b) increase c) increase

2 the uses of Group 18 .
Helium -fill airships and weather balloons
- Artificial atmosphere for divers
- To cool metals into superconductor
Neon - advertising lights
- Television tubes
Argon - gas to fill light bulbs
- Welding at high temperature
Krypton - lasers to repair the retina of the eye.
- To fill photographic flash lamps

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

Radon - treatment of cancer
Xenon - making electron tubes and stroboscopic lamps

3 Inert, stable
Example (i) two , duplet
(ii)eight, octet

4 Monoatomic , stable

Activity 4
A (i) Has shiny surface,
(ii) low melting and boiling point
(iii) soft
(iv) good conductor of heat and electricity
(v) low density
( any 3 answers)

B

1. 2K + 2 H2O  2 KOH + H2

2. 4Rb + O2  2 Rb2O

3. 2K + Cl2  2 KCl

4 a) further away b) weaker . c) easier
5 i) Force of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron for potassium is
weaker then sodium
ii) Therefore it is easier for potassium atom to donate the single valance electron
than sodium atom.

Activity 5
Complete the table below and answer the following questions :
Alkali Metal Proton Number of Electron Number of
number electrons arrangement valence
electrons
Lithium 3 3 2.1 1
Sodium 11 11 2.8.1 1
Potassium 19 19 2.8.8.1 1
Rubidium 37 37 2.8.18.8.1 1
Caesium 55 55 2.8.18.18.8.1 1

1) One .
2) Donating one electron from its outermost occupied shell.
3) Ion with a charge of -1 .
4) -Going down the group 1 ,the single valence electron in the outermost occupied shell
become further away from the nucleus .
-Hence the attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron becomes weaker .
-Therefore it is easier for the atom to donate the single valence electron .

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

Activity 6
To Investigate The Chemical Properties of Lithium, Sodium & Potassium
1) The Reaction of alkali metals With Water, H 2 O
a) (refer to practical book pg 39)
b) Data & Observation (complete this table!)
Alkali metal Observation
Lithium Floats on water and reacts quickly
Sodium Floats on water and burns with yellow
flame
Potassium Floats on water and reacts violently
(explodes)

2) The Reaction of alkali metals With Oxygen, O2

a) Problem Statement: How does the reactivity of Group 1 elements change when
they react with oxygen .

b) Hypothesis: When going down Group 1, alkali metals become more
reactive in their reactions with oxygen

c) Variables: Manipulated variable – Different types of alkali metals
Responding variable – Reactivity of metals .
Fixed variables – size of gas jar, size of metals
d) (refer practical book pg 36)

e) Data & Observation

Alkali metal Observation
Lithium Burns with red flame
Sodium Burns with bright yellow flame
Potassium Burns violently

f) Lithium , Sodium , Potassium

Activity 7

1) a) Chlorine – water treatment, bleaching agent
b) Iodine – needed in human thyroid gland to produce hormones
2) (a) i) Fluorine: gas
ii) Chlorine: gas
iii) Bromine: liquid
iv) Iodine: solid

(b) Cl 2 melting and colour of Density
Br 2 boiling points halogens increases
I2 increases becomes
darker

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

3) Going down the group 17, the molecular sizes will increase therefore force of
attraction between molecules will also increase.

4) a) Br2 + H2O  H Br + HO Br

b) 2 Fe + 3 I2  2 Fe I3

c). Cl2 + 2 Na OH  NaCl + NaOCl + H2O

5) a) increases b) further . c) weaker .

6) i) Molecular sizes of bromine gas is bigger than chlorine gas.
ii) Therefore the strength to attract one electron by the nucleus becomes weaker

Activity 8
1) Data and Observation (Complete the following table)
Halogen Observation
Reactant Chlorine Bromine Iodine
Dissolve quickly in Dissolve slowly Dissolve very slowly
Water water to produce in water to in water to produce a
pale yellow solution produce pale brown solution
yellowish brown
solution
Iron wool glows Iron wool glows Iron wool glows
Iron wool brightly, brown solid moderately dimly , brown solid
formed bright, brown formed
solid formed
Sodium hydroxide , NaOH Dissolve rapidly to Dissolve steadily Dissolve slowly to
solution produce a colourless to produce a produce a colourless
solution colourless solution
solution

2) Iodine , Bromine , Chlorine

3) a). Melting points and boiling points of element E is higher than element D
because molecular size of element E is larger than element D therefore
forces of attraction between molecules will be stronger More heat
energy is needed required to overcome the forces of attraction .

b) 3 D2 + 2 Fe  2 Fe D3

Activity 9
1))Complete the table and answer the question given below
Element Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Proton number 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Electron 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8
arrangement
Number of valence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

electrons
Atomic radius (pm) 186 160 143 118 110 104 100 94
Physical state at Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Solid Gas Gas
room temperature
Electronegativity 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 -

2) a). increases b). three c). increases d). solid to gas
e). decreases f). . Increases

Activity 10
1) (a). (i) Sodium oxide and aluminium oxide .
(ii) Aluminium oxide and sulphur dioxide
(b).
Oxide of elements in Period 3 Acidic / Basic / Amphoteric
Sodium oxide Basic
Magnesium oxide Basic
Aluminium oxide Amphoteric
Silicon (IV) oxide Acidic
Phosphorus (V) oxide Acidic
Sulfur dioxide Acidic

2) (a). Period two because all elements have two shells occupied with electrons
(b). F , C , Li

(c). i) increases ii) increasing ii) decreases

Activity 11
1 (a) 3, 12 b) refer to Periodic Table of elements page 179 text book

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Special characteristies of Transition elements

Form coloured ions or compounds

Form complex ions

Different oxidation numbers

Use as catalysts

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Chemical Process Product Catalysts
Haber Ammonia Iron
Ostwald Nitric acid Platinum
Contact Sulphuric acid Vanadium(V) oxide

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

4 Transition elements form coloured ions or compound
Complete the table below
Ion of transition element Formula of the ion Colour of aqueous solution
Cooper (II) ion Cu2+ Blue
Iron (II) ion Fe 2+ Pale green
Iron (III) ion Fe3+ Yellowish Brown
Chromium (III) ion Cr3+ Green
Chromate (VI) ion Cr O4 2- Yellow
Dichromate (VI) ion Cr2 O7 2- Orange
Manganese (II) ion Mn 2+ Light pink (Colourless)
Manganate (VI) ion Mn O4 - Purple

5 Transition elements form ions with different Oxidation Numbers.
Elements Compound Chemical Formula Oxidation Number
Manganese Manganese (II) chloride MnCl2 +2
Manganese (IV) oxide Mn O2 +4
Potassium manganate (VI) K2 MnO4 +6
Iron Iron (II) chloride Fe Cl2 +2
Iron (III) chloride Fe Cl3 +3
Copper Copper (I) chloride Cu Cl +1
Copper (II) oxide Cu Cl2 +2

Activity 12
1 (a) (i) Group : 1
Period : 5
(ii) Element G
(b) D2 L
(c) (i) Element E
(ii) The nuclei attraction towards the valence electrons is weaker in E.
Thus it is easier for E to lose / release an electron to form a positively charged
ion.
(d) Element M

2 (a) Proton ,Electron and Neutron
(b) (i) A horizontal row of elements in the periodic Table of Element.
(ii) Period 3
Its has three shells filled with electrons .
(c) (i) Atomic size of element W is bigger than element X.
(ii) Because force of attraction between outermost electron and nucleus for
element W is less compared to element X .Therefore saiz of
element W is bigger

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