AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009

Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

MARKING SCHEME : CHAPTER 4 :PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
Activity 1 1 Draw lines to match Name of scientist with their contribution Name of Scientist Lothar Meyer Contribution Plotted a graph of the atomic volume against the atomic mass of elements Rearranging the elements in order of increasing proton number First scientist to classify substances Arranged the known elements in order of increasing atomic mass . Elements with similar properties recurred at every eighth element. Classified the elements into group of three with similar chemical properties Left gaps in the table to be filled by undiscovered elements

Henry J. G. Moseley Antoine Lavoisier John Newland

Johann W. Dobereiner Dimitri Mendeleev Activity 2 1 a) Proton number

b) Group c) Period d) Group Number of valence electrons 1 2 1 3 4

e) Shells Number of shells occupied 1 1 2 2 2 Period 1 1 2 2 2

2. Complete the table below Element Electron arrangement
1 1 4 2

Group 1 18 1 13 14

H

1 2 2.1 2.3 2.4

He
Li B C

7 3

1 1 5 1 2 6

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009

Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

Element
1 4 7 1 6 8

Electron arrangement 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.6 2.8.7 2.8.8.1 2.8.8.2 Group 17

Number of valence electrons 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 6 7 1 2 Period 2 2.8.7

Group 15 16 17 18 2 13 14 16 17 1 2

Number of shells occupied 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4

Period 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4

N O F N e

1 9 9

20 10

24 12

Mg
A l

27 13

28 14
3 2 1 6 35 17 39 19 40 20

Si
S

Cl K

Ca

2. Answer:

3. Answer :Electron arrangement :

Activity 3 : 1 Physical Properties of Group 18 Elements Down the Group : a) increase b) increase c) increase 2 the uses of Group 18 . Helium -fill airships and weather balloons - Artificial atmosphere for divers

Neon Argon Krypton

To cool metals into superconductor

- advertising lights - Television tubes - gas to fill light bulbs - Welding at high temperature - lasers to repair the retina of the eye. - To fill photographic flash lamps

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009

Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

Radon Xenon 3

- treatment of cancer - making electron tubes and stroboscopic lamps

Inert, stable Example (i) two , duplet (ii)eight, octet Monoatomic , stable

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Activity 4 A (i) Has shiny surface, (ii) low melting and boiling point (iii) soft (iv) good conductor of heat and electricity (v) low density ( any 3 answers) B 1. 2. 3. 4 5 a) i) ii) 2K 4Rb 2K + + 2 H2O  2 KOH + H2

+ O2  2 Rb2O Cl2  2 KCl

further away b) weaker . c) easier Force of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron for potassium is weaker then sodium Therefore it is easier for potassium atom to donate the single valance electron than sodium atom.

Activity 5 Complete the table below and answer the following questions : Alkali Metal Proton Number of Electron Number of number electrons arrangement valence electrons Lithium 3 3 2.1 1 Sodium 11 11 2.8.1 1 Potassium 19 19 2.8.8.1 1 Rubidium 37 37 2.8.18.8.1 1 Caesium 55 55 2.8.18.18.8.1 1 1) 2) 3) 4) One . Donating one electron from its outermost occupied shell. Ion with a charge of -1 . -Going down the group 1 ,the single valence electron in the outermost occupied shell become further away from the nucleus . -Hence the attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron becomes weaker . -Therefore it is easier for the atom to donate the single valence electron .

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009

Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

Activity 6
To Investigate The Chemical Properties of Lithium, Sodium & Potassium 1) The Reaction of alkali metals With Water, H 2 O a) (refer to practical book pg 39) b) Data & Observation (complete this table!) Alkali metal Observation Lithium Floats on water and reacts quickly Sodium Floats on water and burns with yellow flame Potassium Floats on water and reacts violently (explodes) 2) The Reaction of alkali metals With Oxygen, O2 a) Problem Statement: How does the reactivity of Group 1 elements change when they react with oxygen . b) Hypothesis: c) Variables: When going down Group 1, alkali metals become more reactive in their reactions with oxygen

Manipulated variable – Different types of alkali metals Responding variable – Reactivity of metals . Fixed variables – size of gas jar, size of metals d) (refer practical book pg 36) e) Data & Observation Alkali metal Lithium Sodium Potassium f) Lithium , Sodium , Potassium Observation Burns with red flame Burns with bright yellow flame Burns violently

Activity 7 1) a) Chlorine – water treatment, bleaching agent b) Iodine – needed in human thyroid gland to produce hormones 2) (a) i) Fluorine: gas ii) Chlorine: gas iii) Bromine: liquid iv) Iodine: solid (b)

C 2 l B 2 r I2

melting and boiling points increases

colour of halogens becomes darker

Density increases

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009

Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

3) Going down the group 17, the molecular sizes will increase therefore force of attraction between molecules will also increase. 4) a) b) c). 5) 6) Br2 + H2O  H Br 2 Fe + 3 I2  Cl2 + 2 Na OH 2 Fe I3  NaCl weaker . + NaOCl + H2O + HO Br

a) increases i) ii)

b) further . c)

Molecular sizes of bromine gas is bigger than chlorine gas. Therefore the strength to attract one electron by the nucleus becomes weaker

Activity 8 1)

Data and Observation (Complete the following table) Halogen Observation Reactant Chlorine Bromine Dissolve quickly in Dissolve slowly Water water to produce in water to pale yellow solution produce yellowish brown solution Iron wool glows Iron wool glows Iron wool brightly, brown solid moderately formed bright, brown solid formed Sodium hydroxide , NaOH Dissolve rapidly to Dissolve steadily solution produce a colourless to produce a solution colourless solution 2) 3) energy is Iodine , Bromine , Chlorine

Iodine Dissolve very slowly in water to produce a pale brown solution Iron wool glows dimly , brown solid formed Dissolve slowly to produce a colourless solution

a). Melting points and boiling points of element E is higher than element D because molecular size of element E is larger than element D therefore forces of attraction between molecules will be stronger More heat needed required to overcome the forces of attraction . b) 3 D2 + 2 Fe  2 Fe D3

Activity 9 1))Complete the table and answer the question given below Element Na Mg Al Si P Proton number 11 12 13 14 15 Electron 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.8.5 arrangement Number of valence 1 2 3 4 5

S 16 2.8.6 6

Cl 17 2.8.7 7

Ar 18 2.8.8 8

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009

Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

electrons Atomic radius (pm) Physical state at room temperature Electronegativity 2) a). increases

186 Solid 0.9 b). three

160 Solid 1.2 c).

143 Solid 1.5 increases

118 Solid 1.8 d).

110 Solid 2.1

104 Solid 2.5

100 Gas 3.0

94 Gas -

solid to gas

e). decreases f). . Increases Activity 10 1) (a). (i) Sodium oxide and aluminium oxide . (ii) Aluminium oxide and sulphur dioxide (b). Oxide of elements in Period 3 Acidic / Basic / Amphoteric Sodium oxide Basic Magnesium oxide Basic Aluminium oxide Amphoteric Silicon (IV) oxide Acidic Phosphorus (V) oxide Acidic Sulfur dioxide Acidic 2) (a). (b). (c). Activity 11 1 (a) 3, 12 2
Special characteristies of Transition elements

Period two because all elements have two shells occupied with electrons F , C , Li i) increases ii) increasing ii) decreases

b) refer to Periodic Table of elements page 179 text book

Form coloured ions or compounds

Form complex ions

Different oxidation numbers

Use as catalysts

3 Chemical Process Haber Ostwald Contact

Product Ammonia Nitric acid Sulphuric acid

Catalysts Iron Platinum Vanadium(V) oxide

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AnswerWAJA F4 Chemistry 2009

Chapter 4 Periodic Table of Elements

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Transition elements form coloured ions or compound Complete the table below Ion of transition element Formula of the ion Cooper (II) ion Cu2+ Iron (II) ion Fe 2+ Iron (III) ion Fe3+ Chromium (III) ion Cr3+ Chromate (VI) ion Cr O4 2Dichromate (VI) ion Cr2 O7 2Manganese (II) ion Mn 2+ Manganate (VI) ion Mn O4 Transition elements form ions with different Oxidation Numbers. Compound Manganese (II) chloride Manganese (IV) oxide Potassium manganate (VI) Iron (II) chloride Iron (III) chloride Copper (I) chloride Copper (II) oxide

Colour of aqueous solution Blue Pale green Yellowish Brown Green Yellow Orange Light pink (Colourless) Purple

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Elements Manganese Iron Copper Activity 12 1 (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) (i) (ii)

Chemical Formula MnCl2 Mn O2 K2 MnO4 Fe Cl2 Fe Cl3 Cu Cl Cu Cl2

Oxidation Number +2 +4 +6 +2 +3 +1 +2

(d) 2 (a) (b)

Group : 1 Period : 5 Element G D2 L Element E The nuclei attraction towards the valence electrons is weaker in E. Thus it is easier for E to lose / release an electron to form a positively charged ion. Element M

Proton ,Electron and Neutron (i) A horizontal row of elements in the periodic Table of Element. (ii) Period 3 Its has three shells filled with electrons . (c) (i) Atomic size of element W is bigger than element X. (ii) Because force of attraction between outermost electron and nucleus for element W is less compared to element X .Therefore saiz of element W is bigger

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