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MARKING SCHEME - ACIDS AND BASES

ACTIVITY ANSWERS

1 Refer to page 117 – 118 - F4 Chemistry book
2 Refer to page 118 - F4 Chemistry book
3 Refer to page 118 – 119 - F4 Chemistry book and page 84 – 86 - F4 Chemistry
Practical book
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
F F F T T T T T F T F T T F

5 Refer to page 119 - F4 Chemistry textbook and page 87 - 90 Chemistry Practical
book
6 Refer to page 120 - F4 Chemistry textbook and page 91 Chemistry Practical book
7 Refer to page 121 - F4 Chemistry textbook

8 No.1 Strong acid Chracteristic Weak acid
high Degree of dissociation low
completely Ionization of water partially
high Concentration of ions low
1-3 pH value 4-6
HCl/HNO3/H2SO4 Examples CH3COOH
+
2 (a) HNO3 (aq) → H (aq) + NO3 - (aq)
(b) H2SO4 (aq) → 2H+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq)
(c) HCl (aq) → H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
+
(d) CH3COOH (aq)  H (aq) + CH3COO- (aq)

9 1 Strong alkali Chracteristic Weak alkali
high Degree of dissociation low
completely Ionization of water partially
high Concentration of ions low
11 - 14 pH value 8-9
NaOH/KOH Examples Aq. ammonia,NH3

2 (a) NaOH (aq) → Na+ (aq) + OH - (aq)
(b) KOH (aq) → K+ (aq) + OH - (aq)
(c) NH3 + H2O (l) ⇋ +
NH4 (aq) + OH - (aq)
10 1 concentration
(a) mass of solute(g)
Volume of solution(dm3)
(b) no. of mole of solute(mol)
Volume of solution(dm3)
2 molarity , g dm-3
12 1 Standard solution – a solution in which its concentration is accurately known
5 (a) • Calculate the mass of solute needed.
• Weigh out the exact mass of solute needed in a weighing bottle.
• Dissolved the solute in a small amount of distilled water.
(b) • Wash and rinse the weighing bottle ,small beaker and filter funnel to

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ensure no solute remains in any of the apparatus used.
• Transfer the dissolved solute into a suitable volumetric flask.
(c) • Add more water carefully to the volumetric flask and swirl gently.
• Shake well to ensure thorough mixing.
(d) • Add water slowly by using a dropper to bring the level of the
solution to the calibration mark.
• The volumetric flask is closed tightly and inverted several times to
get a uniform or homogenous solution.
13 3 (a) • Calculate the volume of stock solution required.
(b) • Use a pipette to draw up the required volume of stock solution.
(c) • Transfer the stock solution to a suitable volumetric flask.
(d) • Add water slowly by using a dropper to bring the level of the
solution to the calibration mark.
• The volumetric flask is closed tightly and inverted several times to
get a uniform or homogenous solution.
14 Refer to page 128 - F4 Chemistry textbook
15 3 (a) 2HNO3 + Ba(OH)2 (aq) → Ba(NO3)2 (aq) + H2O (aq)
(b) H2SO4 + 2NaOH (aq) → Na2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (aq)
(c) 2H3PO4 + 3Ca(OH)2 (aq) → Ca3(PO4)2 (aq) + 6H2O (aq)
(d) CH3COOH + KOH (aq) → CH3COOK4 (aq) + H2O (aq)
4 Refer to page 128 - 129 - F4 Chemistry textbook
16 3 Colour in solution of:
Indicator
Acid Alkali
Red litmus paper red blue
Blue litmus paper blue red
Phenolphthalein colourless pink
Methyl orange red yellow
4 Refer to page 103 - F4 Chemistry Practical book
18 1(a) Initial burette readings: 0.80 cm3, 13.40 cm3, 25.90 cm3
Final burette readings : 13.40 cm3, 25.90 cm3, 38.40 cm3
(b) Titration No. I II II
Initial burette reading/cm3 0.80 13.40 25.90
Final burette reading/cm3 13.40 25.90 38.40
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Volume of acid used/cm 12.60 12.50 12.50
(c) Volume of acid used = 12.60 + 12.50 + 12.50
3
= 12.50 cm3
(d) 2 mol dm-3
(e) 6.25 cm3
(f) Strong acids: hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid
Weak acids: ethanoic acid, carbonic acid
(g) Pink to colourless
(h) Yellow to red
(i) HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O

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