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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in

Industry

CHAPTER 9 : MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

A : SULPHURIC ACID

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• list uses of sulphuric acid
• explain industrial process in the manufacture of sulphuric acid
• explain that sulphur dioxide causes environmental pollution.

Activity 1 : SULPHURIC ACID

1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured through the (a)……………………..……………………
.
2. Contact Process consists of three stages:
(Complete the table below)

Stage 1 Preparation of (b)……………………………… gas

Chemical equation : S + O2 SO2

Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide

Stage 2 Chemical equation : (c)…………. + ………..… …….

Catalyst : (d)……………………………………..

Temperature : (e)……………….. oC

Pressure : (f)……….. atm

Production of sulphuric acid

Stage 3 Chemical equation : (g)……… + H2SO4 …………..

(h)………. + H2O …………….

3. State six uses of sulphuric acid.

i)…………………………………………………………………………………………..

ii)…………………………………………………………………………………………..

iii)………………………………….. ………………………………………………………..

iv). ……………………………………………………………………………………………

v)…………………………………… …………………………………………………………

vi). ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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4. ……………… ……………………….gas from the burning of product manufactured

from sulphuric acid can cause ………………………disease and ……………… rain.

5. Figure 1 below shows the waste product from a factory which affect the quality of the
environment.

Figure 1
a) By referring to the Figure 1 above, state the following,

i) Types of waste products and their sources.

• …………………………………………………………………………………

• …………………………………………………………………………………

ii) How acid rain is formed and its effect.

• Formation of acid rain:
……………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………….

• Effects on environment:……………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………

iii) How does the toxic waste affect the environment and its effect

…………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………..

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
Industry

B : AMMONIA
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• list uses of ammonia
• state the properties of ammonia
• explain the industrial process in the manufacture of ammonia
• design an activity to prepare ammonium fertilizer.

Activity 2 : AMMONIA

1. Ammonia is manufactured through the Haber Process by combining

………………… gas and …………………………….gas.

2. (i). The reaction can be represented by the chemical equation

……………………………………………………………………………

(ii) State the condition necessary to produce ammonia.

Catalyst : (a) ……………………………………………………

Temperature : (b) ……………………………………………………

Pressure : (c)……………………………………………………

Ratio N2 :H2 : (d) ……………………………………………………

3. The following statements refer to the uses of ammonia. Fill in the blank with the correct
words.

(a) To manufacture ……………………………….. such as ammonium sulphate and
ammonium nitrate.

The chemical equation for producing ammonium sulphate is given by

………………………………………………………………………

(b) Ammonia is used as raw material to produce …………………………. in the Ostwald
Process.

(c) Ammonia is also used as an alkali to prevent the ………………………………of latex.

4. Listed below are three properties of ammonia. Fill in the blank according to the aspect
given.

(a) Colour: Ammonia is a……………………………….. gas.

(b) Solubility: Ammonia is very……………………………in water.

(a) Smell : Ammonia has a …………………………… smell.

(b) Ammonia dissolves in water to produce an ………………………………. solution.

5. Ammonium fertiliser can be prepared in the laboratory by adding ammonia solution
and certain acids as shown in the table below.
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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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Neutralisation reactions Name of ammonium salt (fertiliser)

Alkali Acid

Aqueous + Phosphoric Ammonium phosphate

ammonia acid Formula:………………………………..

Aqueous + Nitric Ammonium nitrate

ammonia acid Formula:………………………………..

Aqueous + Sulphuric Ammonium sulphate

ammonia acid (c ) Formula:……………………………….

(i) Write the formulae for the three ammonium salts in the above table.

(ii) Calculate the percentage of nitrogen found in each of the ammonium
fertilisers.
[Relative atomic mass: H = 1; N = 14; O = 16; P = 31; S = 32]

(iii) From the calculations in (b)(ii), deduce the type of ammonium compound
that is most suitable for use as a nitrogenous fertiliser. Give reasons for
your answer.

……………………………………………………………………………………

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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…………………………………………………………………………………
Activity 3

Complete the chart below.
Manufacture of ammonia: Haber
Process (a)

Equation:
……………………………………

Raw
material:............................................
......

Temperature:
……………………………………………….

Pressure:
………………………………………………

Catalyst:
………………………………………………

Uses of ammonia: Properties of ammonia: Test for ammonia:
(b) (c ) (d)

………………………… ………………………………… …………………………
………………………… …………………………
…………………………………
………………………… …………………………
………………………………… …………………………
…………………………
………………………………… …………………………

Product formed from the reaction of ammonia, (e)

with acids:
…………………………………………………………………………
C : ALLOY with metal ions:
…………………………………………………………………………………
Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• relate the arrangement of atoms in metals to their ductile and malleable properties
• state the meaning of alloy
• state the aim of making alloys
• list examples of alloys
• list compositions and properties of alloys
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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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• relate the arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness
• relate properties of alloys to their uses.

Activity 4: ALLOY

1. What is alloy?

Alloy is a ..................................................................................................................

Figure 2

2. A pure metals contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly

manner. Pure metal are ……………………………….. and ……………….……………

because …………………………………………………….… when external force is

applied on them.

3. In an alloy, the foreign metal atoms ………………………..arrangement of metal atoms

and the layers of metal atoms are prevented from …………...over each other easily.

4. Complete the sequences by drawing the arrangement of atoms in the box below.

+

Pure metal Another pure alloy
metal

5. Three aims of alloying a pure metal are :

a. to increase the …………………………. and ……………………….. of metal.

b. to prevent ……………………………… or rusting.

c. to improve the …………………………. of metal surface.

6. Examples of alloy.

(Complete the table below)

Alloy Composition Properties Uses

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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(i) 99% Iron Hard Bridges, vehicles,

…………………… 1% (ii)………….. heavy machinery
framework

(iii) 97% (iv)………… Hard and shiny Decorative
ornaments,
……………… 3% lead and
antimony souvenirs

90% (v)………… Hard and shiny Decorative
ornaments ,
Bronze 10% tin
art crafts

Brass 70% Copper Hard and shiny Decorative
ornaments,
30% (vi)…………
musical instrument

Magnalium 70% Aluminium Hard and light (viii)………………

30% (vii)………… ……………………

D : POLYMERS

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• state the meaning of polymers
• list naturally occurring polymers
• list synthetic polymers and their uses
• identify the monomers in the synthetic polymers
• justify uses of synthetic polymers in daily life.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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Activity 5: POLYMERS
Fill in the blanks below.
1. Polymers are ……………… …………………... made up of many smaller and

identical separating unit called ……………………………………..

2. …………………………………… is the process by which the monomers are

joined together to form a big molecule known as the polymer.

3. Give at least two examples of:naturally occurring polymers and at least two examples
of synthetic polymers.

Naturally occurring polymers Synthetic polymers

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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4. Match the synthetic polymers with their respective monomer

Synthetic Polymer Monomer

Polyethylene Phenylethene
Polypropylene Chloroethene
Polyvinylchloride Ethene
Polystyrene Propene
Perspex Tetrafluoroethene
Teflon Methylmethacrylate

6. Complete the table.

Synthetic Polymer Uses
Polyethylene

Polypropylene

Polyvinylchloride

Polystyrene

Perspex

Teflon

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
Industry

E : GLASS AND CERAMICS

Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• list uses of glass
• list uses of ceramics
• list types of glass and their properties
• state properties of ceramics.

Activity 6: GLASS AND CERAMIC

Fill in the blanks below.

1. Main composition of glass is ………………………………, SiO2.

2. Complete the table below.

Type of glass Chemical Properties Examples
composition of uses

Very high softening point
(1700oC). Mirrors,
(a) Silica 99% Transparent to ultra violet and Lenses,
Boron oxide infra red light. Laboratory
1% Difficult to be made into different glass
………………………. shapes. wares.
Does not crack with sudden
temperature change.
Very resistant to chemical attack.

Silica 70% Low softening point (700oC).
Sodium Breaks easily. Bottles,
(b) oxide 15% Cracks easily with sudden Window,
Calcium temperature changes. Light bulb,
oxide 10% Less resistant to chemical attack. Bowl
………………………. Others 5% Easy to make into different
shapes.
Silica 80% High softening points(800oC). Laboratory
Boron oxide Does not crack easily with apparatus,
15% sudden temperature change. Cooking
Sodium Transparent to ultra violet light. utensils,
(c) oxide 3% Very resistant to chemical attack. Electrical
Aluminium tubes.
oxide 1%
……………………….

Silica 55% Low softening point (600oC). Decorative
Lead oxide High density. items,
(d) 30% High refractive index. Crystal
Potassium Reflects light rays and appears glass

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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……………………….. oxide 10% shiny. wares,
Sodium Lens,
oxide 3% Prisms
Alimunium Chandeliers
oxide 2%

3. ……………………………are made from clay that is dried and then baked in a kiln at
high temperatures.

4. The main constituent of clay is ……………………………………………….. ….
(aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide).

5 …………………... ……………………...consists of hydrated aluminosilicate crystals.
(High quality white clay)

6. Complete the table.

Composition Properties Examples of uses

Construction materials,

Aluminosilicate (i)………………………………………. Tableware,

(aluminium oxide (ii)………………………………………. Insulators in electric
and silicon dioxide) equipments,
(iii)……………………………………….
Refractories.
(iv)……………………………………….
Flowerpots
(v)………………………………………..

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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Activity 7

1. Compare and contrast between glass and ceramic.

Glass Ceramic

Main components: (a) Main components: (b)

………………………………………. ……………………………………………...
. ……………………………………………..

4 types of glass: (c) 4 examples of ceramics: (e)

………………………………………. ……………………………………………..

………………………………………. ……………………………………………...

……………………………………… ……………………………………………..

……………………………………… ……………………………………………..

Improved Glass: (d) Improved Ceramics: (f)

………………………...................... ……………………………………………..

5 common Properties: (g)

…………………………………………….......

…………………………………………………

…………………………………………………

…………………………………………………

…………………………………………………

2 differences: (h)

…………………………………………………

…………………………………………………

F : COMPOSITE MATERIALS
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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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Learning Outcomes
You should be able to:
• describe needs to produce new materials for specific purposes
• state the meaning of composite materials
• list examples of composite materials and their components
• compare and contrast properties of composite materials with those of their original
components.

Activity 8: COMPOSITE MATERIALS

1. Composite material is a structural material that is formed by ………….........……..

…………or ....................... different substances such as metal, alloys, glass,

ceramics and polymers.

2. Give three examples of composite materials.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. State the purpose of creating composite materials.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4. Photochromic glass is an example of composite material.

a) Compare to a normal glass, what is added to a photochromic glass?

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

b) State the special feature of a photochromic glass.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………

5. Complete the table below.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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Example Composition Properties Uses

(i) (ii)

Reinforced …………………... Strong but brittle, …………………..
concrete
…………………... Weak in tension …………………..

…………………… …………………..

(iii) (iv)

………………….. Conducting electricity ……………………

Superconductors ………………….. ……………………

………………….. ……………………

(v)

………………….. Low material costs, Transmit data,
voice and image in
Fibre optic ………………….. High transmission a digital format.
capacity, chemical
………………….. stability,

Less susceptible to
interference.

(vi) (vii)

………………….. High tensile strength, …………………..

Fibre glass ………………….. Easy to colour, …………………..

………………….. Low in density, ……………………

Very strong. ……………………

(viii) (ix)

………………….. When it is exposed to …………………..
light, silver chloride is
Photochromic …………………... converted to silver and …………………..
glass darken the glass
………………….. …………………..

…………………..

Activity 9

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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1. (a) Bronze is an alloy of copper.

(i) Name the element that is added to copper to form bronze.

…………………………………………………………………………………..[1 mark]

(ii) Explain why bronze is harder than pure copper.

…………………………………………………………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………..[2 marks]

(iii) Draw and label the arrangement of particles in pure copper and bronze.

Pure copper Bronze [2 marks]

(b) Synthetic polymers are widely used in our daily lives.

(i) Complete the table with the correct monomers.

Polymer Monomer

Polyvinylchloride

Polyethene

[2 marks]

(ii) State one example of polyvinylchloride commonly used n our daily lives.

………………………………………………………………………………[1 mark]

(c) Glass and ceramic have similar characteristics.

(i) State one similar characteristic of glass and ceramic.

………………………………………………………………………………[1 mark]

(ii) What type of glass is used to make laboratory glassware?

……………………………………………………………………………… [1 mark]

2. Figure 3 shows the flow chart for the industrial manufacture of sulphuric acid and the
production of fertilizer Z.

Sulphur Sulphur V2O5, 1 atm X
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dioxide
WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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Heat 450oC-500 oC Concentrated
H2SO4
Substance
Y
Fertilizer Z Sulphuric Oleum
acid

Figure 3

Based on Figure 3, answer the following questions.

(a) Name the process of manufacturing sulphuric acid.

…………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

(b) Name the substance X.

……………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

(c) Substance X could react directly with water to form sulphuric acid.
Explain why this step is not carried out in the industrial process.

………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………

[1 mark]

(d) Write the chemical equation when oleum reacts with water to form sulphuric acid.

……………………………………………………………………………………………..

[1 mark]

(e) Name the substance Y and the fertilizer Z.

Substance Y: ……………………………………………………………………………

Fertilizer Z :……………………………………………………………………………...

The combustion of petrol in the engines of vehicles
produce sulphur dioxide. This gas when dissolved
in rain water is corrosive.

(f) Write a chemical equation when sulphur dioxide reacts with rain water.

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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2009 Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in
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……………………………………………………………………………………………….

[1 mark )

3 A student conducts an experiment to study the hardness of two metallic
plates, R and S. He drops a steel ball on R a few times and each time, the
diameter of the dent is measured. He repeats the same procedure on the S
plate. The reading of the diameter of the dents made on each metallic plates
are as follows,

Diameter of dent made (mm)

Plate I II III Average size

R 2.4 2.3 2.3

S 3.1 3.2 3.2

(a) Write the average size of the dents made by R and S in the table above.
[ 2 marks]

(b) What are the differences seen in the two types of metallic plates based on
their

(i) properties …………………………………………………………………………

(ii) composition………………………………………………………………………

[ 4 marks]

(c) From the observation made in the given table above, which plate would be
made of
(i) iron? …………………………………………………………………………

(ii) steel? …………………………………………………………………………

[ 2 marks]

(d) Give two uses of steel.

……………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………

[ 2 marks ]

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