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L292

SWITCH-MODE DRIVER FOR DC MOTORS

DRIVING CAPABILITY : 2 A, 36 V, 30 KHz
2 LOGIC CHIP ENABLE
EXTERNAL LOOP GAIN ADJUSTEMENT
SINGLE POWER SUPPLY (18 TO 36 V)
INPUT SIGNAL SYMMETRIC TO GROUND Multiwatt 15
THERMAL PROTECTION

DESCRIPTION
The L292 is a monolithic LSI circuit in 15-lead
Multiwatt  package. It is intendedfor use, together
with L290 and L291, as a complete 3-chip motor
positioning system for applications such as car- ORDER CODE : L292
riage/daisy-wheel position control in type-writes.
The L290/1/2 system can be directly controlled by
a microprocessor.

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Symbol Parameter Value Unit

Vs Power Supply 36 V

Vi Input Voltage - 15 to + Vs V

Vinhibit Inhibit Voltage 0 to Vs V

Io Output Current 2.5 A

Ptot Total Power Dissipation (Tcase = 75 °C) 25 W

Tstg Storage and Junction Temperature - 40 to + 150 °C

TRUTH TABLE CONNECTION DIAGRAM (top view)

Vinhibit
Output Stage
Condition
Pin 12 Pin 13

L L Disabled

L H Normal Operation

H L Disabled

H H Disabled

March 1993 1/12

100 µA High Voltage Conditions Vinh(H) = 3.8 V -1.8 mA Vl = +8.8 V Rs1 = Rs2 = 0.2Ω Io = 2A 9. Max. 13) 2 V Inhibit High Level (pin 12.8 V 0.5 V Sensing Rsistor Voltage VRS Tj = 150°C Io = 2 A 0.2Ω 205 220 235 mA/V Vi Rs1 = Rs2 = 0.2 Ω ±2 A VD Total Drop Out Voltage (inluding sensing Io = 2 A 5 V resistors) Io = 1 A 3. Unit Vs Supply Voltage 18 36 V Id Quiescent Drain Current Vs = 20 V (offset null) 30 50 mA Vos Input Offset Voltage (pin 6) Io = 0 ±350 mV Vinh Inhibit Low Level (pin 12.5 mA Vi Input Voltage (pin 6) Rs1 = Rs2 = 0.4Ω 120 mA/V fosc Frequency Range (pin 10) 1 30 KHz BLOCK DIAGRAM AND TEST CIRCUIT 2/12 .1 V Io Output Current Vl = ± 9.44 V Drop Io Transconductance Rs1 = Rs2 =0. 13) 3.2 V Iinh Low Voltage Condition Vinh(L) = 0.L292 THERMAL DATA Symbol Parameter Value Unit Rth-j-case Thermal resistance junction-case Max 3 °C/W ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Vs = 36 V. Tamb = 25 °C.4 V .2 V 10 µA Ii Input Current (pin 6) Vl = -8. fosc = 20 KHz unless otherwise specified) Symbol Parameter Test conditions Min. Typ.1 V Io = -2A -9.

FTA and FTB are filtered microprocessor computes a 5-bit control word that by the networks R2C2 and R3 C3 (referring to Fig. From this basic input. The above function is performed by amplifying the essor lowers the value of the speed-demand word. a description of a typical tenting”. from the optical encoder. where it is held by electronic ”de- usually be used together. whitch in tur gets its information to set the initial position. (strobe signal at pin 8 of L291) system.4) sets the system speed dependent on the distance and are supplied to the FTA/FTB inputs onthe L290. L291 and L292 are intended to be used At the time. the system operates initially in an open-loop configuration as there is no dVAB FTA dVAA FTB Output signal (TACHO) = • − • feedback from the tachometer generator.but since they will a null position. L292 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The L290. the microproc. The optical encoder also provides motor position by means of pulses from the L290 an output at one position on the disk which is used tachometer chip. System Block Diagram The system operates in two modes to achieve high optical encoder which generates two sinusoidal speed.par. It is continuosly updated on the speed of rotation. L290/1/2 system follows. high-accurancy positioning. the tachometer chip output backs off the processor signal thus reducing accel. signals 90° out of phase (leading according to the Speed commands for the system originate in the motor direction) and proportional in frequencyto the microprocessor. As the target position is approached. input signals in A1 and A2 to obtain VAA and VAB this reduces the voltage at the main summing point. The main function on the L290 is to implement the When the motor is stopped and the microprocessor following expression: orders it to a new positio. dt | FTA | dt | FTB | mum speed is reached. (typ. to travel. 3/12 . the The opto encoder signals. From VAA and VAB the external differen- in effect braking the motor. Thus the mean value of TACHO is proportional to ering torque. A maxi. The device may be used separately . the microprocessor orders a switch to as a 3-chip microprocessor controlled positioning the position mode. and within 3 to 4 ms the L292 drives the motor to ticularly the L292 motor driver . The braking is applied tiatior RC networks R5 C6 and R4 C4 give the signals progressively until the motor is running at minimum VMA and VMB which are fed to the multipliers.7 Vp). The motor continues to run at rop the rotation speed and its polarity indicates the speed but under closed-loop control. direction of rotation. The mechanical/electrical interface consists of an Figure 1. speed.

τ = Rτ • Cpin 10. mended τ to avoid simultaneous conduction is 2. This input signals is bidirectional so it must be Thus the output stage may be inhibited by taking converted to a positive signal bacause the L292 pin 12 high or by taking pin 13 low. The pulse width modulated sig- nal controls the duty cycle of the Hbridge to give an Vref = | VAA | + | VAB | output current corresponding to the L292 input signal. 7. using the network shown in fig. The TACHO signal and Vref are sent to the L291 via Since Rτ is approximately 1. The ERRV sognal (from pin 1 . 9) is determined by the motor type and the bandwidth requirements. (pins 12 and 13-active low and high respectively). and subsequently appears on pin 1. The multiplier outputs.the logic signalsSTA (See L292 Transfer Function Calculation in Appli- and STB. by C17 in conjuction with an internal resistor Rτ. L291) is fed to pin Finally. ing off and the other switching on. 2. π Vtacho max = √2 • Vthaco DC The choise of the external components in these RC 4 network (pins 5. The sign bit represets the direction of motor rotation. This signals are used by the microprocessor to The error signal obtained by the additionof the input determine the position by counting the pulses.L292 The second input to each multipler consists of the external RC network (R20. τ.5 KΩ and the recom- filter networks R8 C8 R9 and R6 C7 R7 respectively. The values Using the coparators C1 and C2 another two signals shown in the diagram are for a 5Ω. the out- The max value of TACHO is: put of which is filtered by an external RC network and fed back to the error amplifier. The peak-topeak ripple signal of the TACHOcan be found from the following expression: The oscillator determines the switching frequency of the output stage and should be in the range 1 to π 30 KHz.the level shifter. system where TACHO and the D/Aconverter output The current sense resistors R18 and R19 should be are compared. internally generated 8 V reference.5 nF. is programmed temperature changes and ageing. two enable inputs are provited on the L292 6 of the final chip.5 Pin 12 of this chip is the main summing point of the µs Cpin 10 should be around 1. 5 MH motor. which uses an V. (C17 in the diagram) processor. This reference is used by the D/A converter in the The interval between one side of the bridge switch- L291 to compensate for variations in input levels. R19 and the differential current sense amplifier. from VAA and VAB are derived . C17 . and the current feedback signals (pin 7) is used to The L2910 internal reference voltage is also derived pulse width modulate the oscillator signal by means from VAA and VAB: of the comparator.2 K Ω) CSB.these are obtained using the compa- 1 rators Cs1 and Cs2. Rmax • Io ≤ 0. This is accomplished also be inhibited if the supply voltage falls below 18 by the first stage . This same reference voltage supplies the triangle wave oscillator whose frequency is fixed by the 4/12 .44 V max The (analogue) output of the D/A conveter - DAC/OUT . high precision types (maximum tolerance ± 2 %) The input to D/A converter consists of 5 bit word and the recommended value is given by: plus a sign bit supplied by the microprocessor. The ”one pulse per rotation” opto encoder output This can be foud from: is connected to pin 12 of the L290 (FTF) where it is squared to give the STF logic output for the micro. the L292 H-bridge motor-driver.is compared with the TACHO signal and the risulting error signal is amplified by the error It is possible to synchronize two L292 ’s. if desired. Vrippl e p −p = (√2 − 1) • Vthaco DC Motor current is regulated by an internal loop in the 4 L292 which is performed by the resistors R18. are summed by A3 to give the final output 2RC signal TACHO. CSA and 1 fosc = (with R ≥ 8. cation Information).pins 11 and 10) sign of the first input of the other multiplier before where: differentiation. The output will uses a single supply voltage. amplifier.

3).5 V during Figure 2. Currently available microproces. L292 The enable inputs were implemented in this way power-up. the logical system and power-on reset (see fig. 5/12 . Figure 3. These inputs may be used for a variety because they are intended to be driven directly by of applications such as motor inhibit during reset of a microprocessor. Application Circuit. Figure 4 . sors may generates spikes as high as 1.

RS1 = RS2 = RS (sensing resistors) 1 = 2.5 • 10-3 Ω (current sensing amplifier transconductance) R4 LM = Motor inductance. The schematic diagram used for the Laplace analysis of the system is shown in fig. L292 Block Diagram. Figure 6. Figure 5. IM = Motor current IM Gmo = | s = 0 (DC transfer function from the input of the comparator (VTH) to the motor current (IM)). RM = Motor resistance.L292 APPLICATION INFORMATION This section has been added in order to help the designer for the best choise of the values of external components. 6. 6/12 .

the phase margin must be greater than 45° when | Aβ | = 1. that is : 2 π RF CF 1 Gmo Rs RF CF | Aβ | f = = < 1 (6) 2 π RF CF R4 C √2 Figure 7. L292 Neglecting the VCEsat of the bridge transistors and the VBE of the diodes: 1 2 Vs Gmo = where : VS = supply voltage (1) RM VR VR = 8 V (reference voltage) DC TRANSFER FUNCTION In order to be sure that the current loop is stable the following condition is imposed : LM 1 + sRC = 1 + s (pole cancellation) (2) RM LM from which RC = (Note that in practice R must greater than 5. at fF = must be | Aβ | < 1 (see fig.044 A (o) = • = [ ] (4) VI R1 R3 Rs Rs V OPEN-LOOP GAIN AND STABILITY CRITERION For RC = LM / RM . this is reduced to IM R2 R4 1 0. Open Loop Frequency Response 7/12 .6 KΩ) RM The transfer function is then. the open loop gain is: 1 Rs RF Gmo Rs 1 Aβ = • Gmo = C (5) sR subF C R4 1 + s RF CF R4 s (1 + s RF CF) In order to achieve good stability. 7). IM R2 R4 1 + s RF CF (s) = Gmo (3) VI R1 R3 Gmo Rs + s R4 C + s2 RF CF R4 C In DC condition. 1 That means that.

it is possible to determine the system response to an input step signal.044 t − IM (t) = (1 − cos e 2 RF CF ) Vi Rs 2 RF CF 8/12 . − t 0. t / RFCF).signals analysis. with VI = 1.5 Vp.044 t IM (t) = [1− e 2RF CF (1 + ) ] • Vi Rs 4 RF CF (where Vi is the amplitude of the input step). IM = 100 mA/div. Smal l Si gnal Ste p Respon se The transfer function (3) can be written as follows: (normalized amplitude vs.044 2ξωo (s) = (7) VI Rs 2 ξs + s2 1+ ωo ω o 2  √ s Gmo R where wo = is the cutoff frequency R4 C RF CF  √ R4 C ξ = is the dumping factor 4 RF CF Gmo Rs By choosing the ξ value. 1) ξ = 1 from which t = 100 µs/div.L292 CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM STEP RESPONSE a) Small . Examples : V7 = 200 mV/div. Fi gur e 8 . 1 2) ξ = from which √2 t 0. s 1+ IM 0.

the rise-time of the current current.9 0.044 The cutoff frequency is derived by the expression (9) by putting | | = 0. L292 It is possible to verify that the L292 works in ”closed- 1 loop” conditions during the entire motor current ξmin = 4 (phase margin = 45°) rise-time: the voltage at pin 7 inverting input of the 2√  2 error amplifier) is locked to the reference voltage VR. The L292 works is open-loop condition. In this case. the maximum value of ξ is: CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM BANDWIDTH.9 ωT = fT = RF CF 2π RF CF 9/12 . rate and inductive load. present at the non-inverting input of the same b) Large signal reponse amplifier.044 1 + s RF CF (8) (s) = VI Rs 1 + 2s RF CF + 2s 2 RF 2 CF 2 The module of the transfer function is : IM 0. In this case : IM 0. from VI Rs which : 0.707 • (−3 dB). A good choice for x is the value 1 / √2. But for a good stability. from relationship (6). ample. The large step signal response is limited by slew- The previous linear analysis is correct for this ex. decreases.044  √1 + ω2 RF 2 CF 2 (9) | | = 2 VI Rs √ [ ( 1 + 2 ω RF CF ) 2 + 1 ] • [ ( 1 − 2 ω RF CF ) 2 + 1 ]  IM 0. during the rise-time of the motor Descresing the ξ value.

RC = 1. from (7) follows : 1 400 C ξ2 = = 2 4RF CF • 0. .From relationship (4) : 0.10-3 sec  C = 47 nF 1000 C  R = 22 KΩ .Voltage and current characteristics: Vs = 20 V IM = 2 A VI = 9. = 1 RF CF .2 Ω IM and from (1) : 2VS −1 Gmo = = 1Ω RM VR .Motors characteristics: LM = 5 mH RM = 5 W LM / RM = 1msec .2 .The cutoff frequency is : 143 • 10−3 fT = = 3 kHz RF CF c) Summarising .L292 Example : a) Data .1 V .044 Rs = VI = 0.RC = 1 msec [from expression (2) ].RF CF ≅ 47 µs  For RF = 510 Ω → CF = 92 nF 10/12 .Assuming ξ = 1/ √2 .Closed loop bandwidth : 3 kHz b) Calculation .

022 F 0.429 L7 2.25 17.114 M 4.030 G 1.713 L3 17.179 0.78 18.102 S1 1.85 0. A 5 0.182 0.65 18. MAX.144 0.886 L1 21.9 2.6 0.679 0.040 0. TYP.85 0.6 0.102 Dia1 3.197 B 2. L292 MULTIWATT15 PACKAGE MECHANICAL DATA mm inch DIM.7 10.6 0.104 0.55 0.152 11/12 .2 0.689 0.218 S 1.191 M1 4.65 0.050 0.421 0.690 0.63 5.795 L 21.75 0.65 3.9 2.862 0.710 H1 19.08 5.5 0. MAX.55 4.65 2.49 0.53 0.874 0.27 1.104 C 1.1 0.5 0. MIN.66 0.9 22.1 22.9 0.7 22.695 0.854 0.6 0.870 0.200 0.53 17.772 H2 20.5 17.039 E 0.9 0.02 1.25 4.03 0. TYP.52 0.019 0.700 0.075 0.026 0.699 L4 10.886 L2 17.167 0.075 0.2 22.406 0.75 0.060 G1 17. MIN.3 10.063 D 1 0.

 1994 SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics . 12/12 . Specifications mentioned in this publication are subject to change without notice.Italy .Brazil .S. However.All Rights Reserved SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES Australia .Germany . This publication supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.Singapore - Spain . SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information nor for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use.Hong Kong .Sweden .Japan .L292 Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable.A. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics.Thaliand .Morocco .Taiwan .Korea .Malaysia . SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in life support devices or systems without express written approval of SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics.The Netherlands .United Kingdom .Switzerland .U.France .Malta .