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PROCEEDINGS OF THE

ONE DAY WORKSHOP ON

WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES AND INCENTIVES

07th OCTOBER 2010
OFFICE OF THE DIVISIONAL FOREST OFFICER
SHERGAON FOREST DIVISION
RUPA, ARUNACHAL PRADESH
Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Contents

Acknowledgements 3

Introduction 4

Agenda 5

Introductory Talk 6
Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, H’MLA Rupa- Kalaktang and
Chairman, State Pollution Control Board

Wildlife in Western Arunachal Pradesh, value and threats 8
PK Dutta, WWF

Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s 11
Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust

Innovative Ecotourism models for West Kameng region 14
Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society

Knowledge of the law - Awareness about WP Act 1972 16
KS.Jayachandran, DFO, Shergaon Forest Division

Community based Conservation – The Thembang experience 18
PK Dutta, WWF - India

Future of hunting in a tribal society – Interactive 21
brainstorming session
Discussion and development of action points

ANNEXURES:

TERMS OF REFERENCE – BRAINSTORMING SESSION 23
QUESTIONAIRE 24
PRIZE WINNING SCHOOL PAINTINGS 25

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Acknowledgements
Shergaon Forest Division would especially like to express our gratitude to our
guest of honour, Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, Honorable Member of
Legislative Assembly, Rupa - Kalaktang and Chairman, Arunachal Pradesh
State Pollution Control Board for his eloquent speech that served to open the
workshop. His energy and enthusiasm shaped the events that formed the
main thread of the proceeding.

Shergaon Forest Division would like to thank Shri. J.L. Singh, IFS, Principal
Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife), Government of Arunachal Pradesh for
providing financial sanction for this workshop. We are grateful to Shri. G.N
Roy, IFS, Chief Conservator of Forest, Western Arunachal Circle for being the
constant source of encouragement throughout the entire process. The role of
Shri. P. Ringu, DCF is hereby duly acknowledged for sowing the initial idea of
such a workshop.

Special thanks are addressed to Dr. Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust, Shri. Indi
Glow, Bugun Welfare Society and Shri. PK Dutta, WWF – India for taking part
in the workshop as resource persons. Their sincere role as central pillars of the
entire proceeding was instrumental in ensuring evolution of tangible products
out of the gathering. We thank the DFO, Bomdila Forest Division and the
staff especially Shri. Dechen, Range Officer, Bomdila for helping us with
logistical support.

We also thank the participants and other well wishers and friends for their
encouragement and inputs for the success of the programme.

Dr. KS Jayachandran, IFS
Divisional Forest Officer
Shergaon Forest Division

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Introduction

Shergaon Forest Division is home to several endangered plants and animals.
The geographical and climatic range of the region is variable extending from
sub tropical plains in the south to the temperate mountains in the north. This
gives rise to an amazing range of habitats for biological diversity. The division
borders the largest legally protected area in western Arunachal and Assam
region covering 3500 km2 of prime forests across 100m-3300m in altitude.

The community lands surrounding the protected areas thus serve critical
ecological support functions and are biologically significant lands containing
high priority species and habitats. Both the landscapes are inter-dependent in
terms of habitats: the rich biological diversity of the protected areas on the
surrounding community lands and the communities on the rich ecological
benefits of the protected areas. There is a need for all stakeholders including
the local communities, government departments, NGOs and scientific
communities to seek, evaluate, use and create information especially with
regard to thorough biological inventories of the fringe lands, awareness, and
livelihood issues of neighboring communities; so that wildlife conservation
needs could be addressed in an ecological landscape context.

The present workshop thus sought to involve, inform, and raise awareness
about conservation of wildlife among responsible agencies like the public
leaders, district officers, officials, Gaon Burahs, members of the public, Army
and NGOs.

The one day workshop titled “WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES
AND INCENTIVES” was conducted by Shergaon Forest Division on the
occasion of National Wildlife Week at the Conference hall, Office of the
Divisional Forest Officer, Shergaon Forest division, Rupa on 07th October,
2010.

The objectives of the workshop are as follows:

1. To understand the composition of wildlife in the region, their value and
threats faced and to instill a sense of pride over the resources we
support.
2. To stress the need to manage our wildlife resources and understand the
opportunities for livelihood generation from these resources.
3. To evolve a participatory action plan for effective conservation of
wildlife.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

AGENDA

0930 hrs: Inauguration

0945 hrs: Welcome address:
KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest Division

1000 hrs: Introductory talk:
Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, H’MLA Rupa- Kalaktang,
Chief Guest

1015 hrs: Wildlife in Western Arunachal Pradesh, value and threats:
PK Dutta, WWF

1100 hrs: One land for all
– a photo odyssey into the beautiful world of wildlife

1115 hrs: Tea break
Group Photograph with delegates
Exhibition of paintings

1145 hrs: Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s:
Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust

1215 hrs: Innovative Ecotourism models for West Kameng region:
Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society

1245 hrs: Future of hunting in a tribal society
– Interactive brainstorming session

0200 hrs: Lunch

0245 hrs: Knowledge of the law - Awareness about WP Act 1972:
KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest Division

0300 hrs: Community based Conservation – The Thembang experience:
PK Dutta, WWF

0330 hrs: Feedback session

0430 hrs: Tea break

0445 hrs: Action plan for West Kameng region

0515 hrs: Close

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Introductory talk
Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok,
H’MLA Rupa- Kalaktang and
Chairman, State Pollution Control Board, Chief Guest

I am extremely pleased to be here today at this one day workshop on
wildlife conservation conducted on the occasion of National Wildlife week
celebrations. I expect that good suggestions and innovative ideas will flow in
during the course of the day. I congratulate the DFO, Dr. KS Jayachandran for
this move which will educate not only the officials but also the villagers about
the various aspects of wildlife conservation. And the villagers will gain from
their understanding of these matters to protect our forests and wildlife. The
survival of humans without wildlife and forests is not possible. Arunachal
Pradesh has 82% forests and the daily life of the people of Arunachal Pradesh
is intricately linked with the forests. We cannot afford to be complacent with
this plentiful resource and have to be cautious today so that tomorrow we do
not face the calamitous ecological situation faced by some states and nations
today.

Let me recount some old memories;
way back in 1976 in Oma village
near Itanagar there was 1-2 km
width of forest where I have myself
seen huge herds of elephants, deer,
fish and other wildlife. When I went
to the same area after 11 years in
1987 the jungle was totally devoid of
wildlife. This greatly shocked me
and I returned with a heavy heart.
Shri. Tenzing Norbu Thongdok, Chief
Guest giving the introductory talk
Similarly I remember my childhood when tigers used to visit our homesteads
and the rivers were teeming with fish. We felt at one with wildlife and hunting
took place only with traditional weapons and not firearms. Today the scenario
has changed a lot, sighting a tiger is next to impossible and the rivers do not
yield fish like in the past. The natural balance in nature is lost.

Arunachal Pradesh has many rare and endangered species which are
disappearing due to human interference. Leave alone the unaware villagers
but we educated people are also not concerned about this. It is we, the people,
who have to think of solutions. The ideas given by researchers and think tanks
must be propagated to every village to be implemented by the villagers and
forest dwellers. We generally talk in terms of global issues while discussing
environmental and conservation issues but we need to look into ourselves and
think locally in order to make a difference. Moreover rules and law unless
enforced properly will remain frozen in the statute books. My suggestion to

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

the forest department is to take such awareness programs to the villages and
educate the people on conservation issues, the laws supporting these issues
and ecological and legal implications of destroying forests and wildlife. Village
level institutions too need to assist the forest department in implementing
these laws.

Sherdukpens have traditionally been very skilled hunters and dependant on
wildlife and forests for our daily needs. The traditional systems were
sustainable and did not take a toll on the forest. However now with the
increase in population and shrinking forests we need to rethink our traditions.
Traditional ritualistic hunting can continue with a difference; tracking of the
animals which is the exhilarating part of hunting can be done and the actual
act of killing the animal can be avoided. In fact this can also be used to attract
an innovative form of tourism: - “hunting tourism”; where the tourists track
animals with the hunters and shoot them not with guns but with their
cameras. The need of the hour is to prevent the depletion of natural resources
by providing alternative livelihoods which depend on the conservation of
natural resources. Eco-tourism is one such means of alternative income
generating activity and holds great promise in this area.

Recently the Arunachal Pradesh Government has taken a decision to stop the
killing of birds. This is a step forward in the right direction. The sale of air-
guns should be stopped. Birds have virtually vanished from certain pockets in
the state due to rampant hunting with air-guns and sling shots. Bhalukpong
was full of hornbills now you can see them only if you are lucky. If we continue
with this complacent attitude regarding forest and wildlife we will have to face
dire ecological consequences.

In the end I sincerely appeal to all present here to save forests and wildlife and
thank Shergaon Forest Department for inviting me and giving me an
opportunity to be part of this program.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Wildlife in Western Arunachal Pradesh, value and threats
PK Dutta, WWF

Due to wide altitudinal range of Western Arunachal Pradesh / landscape
(WAL) i.e., 200m to above 5000m, the vegetation varies from tropical to
alpine vegetation.

The vegetation types found along the altitudinal gradient are given below:

TROPICAL VEGETATION
TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST
Mesua, Terminalia, Michelia, Calamus, Musa, Dipterocarpus etc.
TROPICAL SEMI EVERGREEN FOREST
Anthocephalus, Bombax, Terminalia, Dioscorea, Gmelina, Ficus etc.

SUB-TROPICAL VEGETATION
SUBTROPICAL BROAD LEAVED FOREST (900-1200m)
Magnolia, Berberis, Castanopsis, Clerodendrum, Oak etc.
SUBTROPICAL PINE FOREST (1200-1800m)
Rhododendron, Pine, Alnus, Betula, Oak, etc.

TEMPERATE VEGETATION
TEMPERATE BROAD LEAVED FOREST (1800-2800m)
Alnus, Rhododendron, Castanopsis, Poplus, Prunus, Rubus, Illicium, Oak etc.
TEMPERATE CONIFER FOREST (2800-3500m)
Rhododendron, Betula, Ilex, Cupressus, Rosa, Mahonia, Potentila etc.

SUB-ALPINE AND ALPINE VEGETATION
Rhododendron, Abies, Cupressus, Juniperus, Larix, Gaultheria, Aconitum,
Primula, Rheum, Gentiana, Meconopsis, Saussurea, Fragaria, Potentila etc.

Some of the rare and threatened plants found in the region are:
1. Aconitum Spp.
2. Cirsium verutum
3. Picorhiza kurroa
4. Rheum nobile
5. Saussurea gossypiphora
6. Satyrium nepalense
7. Swertia chirata
8. Cordyceps spp.

Rhododendrons:
The State of Arunachal Pradesh has 61 species, 17 sub species and 12 varieties
of Rhododendron, which contributes 84.7% of the country's total
rhododendron species. Out of these, 9 species and 1 variety of rhododendrons
are found to be endemic to the state. From Western Arunachal Pradesh so far

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

35 species, 5 sub species and 3 varieties of rhododendrons have been
identified. Of these 10 species, 1 sub species and 1 variety have been found to
be under rare and threatened category.

Bird diversity:
From WAL, five Important Bird Areas (IBA) have been identified
IBA Site Name Criteria

1. Sangte Valley A1, A3

2. Mandla Phudung Area A1, A2

3. Mago-Thingbu & Luguthang Area A1, A2, A3

4. Zimitahng-Nelya-Sangeshwar Lake Area A1, A2, A3

5. Thungri Changlang Poshingla, Maji, Basti A1, A2

Pheasant diversity:
Globally 50 species have been recorded. From Arunachal Pradesh 13 species
have been recorded. In India Arunachal Pradesh has the maximum diversity
of pheasants. Himalayan Monal, Blood pheasant, Satyr Tragopan, Kalij
Pheasant and Blyth’s Tragopan are some of endangered pheasants in the
region.
Black Necked Crane and Brahminy Shelduck are other endangered birds.

Rich Mammalian Diversity
Thirty four mammals (12 listed as Endangered or Vulnerable in IUCN Red
List) are reported from areas above 3000 m
IUCN Status Name of Animal

Vulnerable Chinese goral, Clouded leopard, Marbled Cat, Red
Goral, Serrow, Takin, Wild Dog

Endangered Himalayan Black Bear, Otter, Red Panda, Snow
Leopard, Tiger

High altitude wetlands:
State of Arunachal has nearly 70% of total wetlands recorded from Indian
Himalaya. In WAL nearly 300 lakes are acting as reservoir for major rivers
like Nyamjangchu river, Tawangchu and Kameng. The catchment area
supports ecologically important Primula, Rhododendron and other rare plants
diversity. Area is habitat of Snow Leopard, Slow Loris, Musk Deer, Red Panda,
Himalayan Black Bear etc.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Threats and pressure:
1. Fuel Wood Cutting
2. Agriculture Extension
3. Invasive Species
4. Unregulated Grazing
5. Tourism and Pilgrimage
6. Unplanned
Infrastructure
Development
7. Hunting
8. Forest Fire Shri. PK Dutta, WWF speaking on values and threats
to wildlife in West Kameng region

Values behind the need to protect wildlife in Western Arunachal
Pradesh:
1. Aesthetic value
2. Religious value
3. Cultural values
4. Scientific rationale – ecological reasons
5. Non consumptive economic values – wildlife tourism

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s
Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust

Arunachal Pradesh is a global biodiversity hotspot because of exceptional
species diversity and rare species. Arunachal Pradesh ranks first in India for
the fraction of area with forest cover (FSI 2003). While all that appear green
on satellite imagery are not necessarily “good” forests it would be safe to say
that a quarter of the state is still covered by intact forests. Its steep topology
with a wide altitudinal range, a gradient in precipitation extending to high
rainfall, largely intact forests,
and special location at the
junction of the Palearctic and
the Indo- Malayan
biogeographic realms makes
Arunachal Pradesh the top
biodiversity region in India.

The protected areas of East
and West Kameng and the
adjacent areas of Assam
comprise one of the largest
contiguous tract of reasonably
Shri. Ramana Athreya, Kaati Trust speaking about
intact forest in Arunachal
incentives for conservation
Pradesh. This Kameng
protected area complex
includes:

1. Pakke tiger reserve (Arunachal): 862 km2; alt. 100m – 2000m; lowland
evergreen and semievergreen forests; subtropical forests; successional
grassland and forests on the floodplains of the rivers.
2. Nameri tiger reserve (Assam): 349 km2; alt. 50 - 150m; “terai” forest
including swamp forests, riverine woodland, and successional grassland and
forests on the floodplains
3. Sonai rupai wildlife sanctuary (Assam): 175 km2; alt. 50 - 150m; with
vegetation similar to Nameri
4. Sessa orchid sanctuary (Arunachal): 100 km2; alt. 1000 - 3100m;
subtropical and temperate broad-leaved forests and bamboo.
5. Eaglenest wildlife sanctuary (Arunachal): 218 km2; alt. 500 - 3250m;
lowland evergreen and semi-evergreen forests; subtropical forest; temperate
broad-leaved and conifer forests; bamboo at all elevations.
6. Surrounding blocks of Reserved Forests of Papum, Doimara, Amortola and
Shergaon forest division which total another 2000 km2 of forests of variable
quality but which form an important buffer zone especially for the movements
of elephants.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

In all, this complex encompasses over 3500 km2 of diverse types of forests
covering 3300m of elevation from lowlands to well into the temperate regions.
This complex, the largest such in western Arunachal Pradesh, has by far the
most critical role in the conservation of biodiversity in that area and should be
the focus of conservation strategies there.

Eaglenest wildlife sanctuary was legally notified in 1989 along with Sessa
orchid sanctuary. The area has traditionally been claimed by the Sherdukpen
tribe of Rupa though they have never had any settlement inside the
boundaries of the sanctuary. Doimara (outside and below Eaglenest) used to
be a thriving settlement during the days of commercial logging operations (up
to 1998) but is now going to seed with less than a dozen farming families
permanently stationed there. Access into Eaglenest from the north is through
the community lands of the Bugun tribe which has its principal settlement at
Singchung near Tenga. A good fraction of Sessa has traditionally been claimed
by the Buguns as part of their territory. Eaglenest apparently derives its name
from Eagle regiment of the Indian army which used to be posted in that area.
The Eaglenest Biodiversity Project yielded several new taxa and globally rare
taxa. At the same time, the surrounding regions outside the purview of these
PA complex harbor potentially rich biodiversity. Conservation is equally
crucial in the fringe regions because ecosystems do not understand legal
boundaries.

Protected Areas is compared against Community Forests with regard to
Wildlife Conservation:

Protected Area Outside PA

Very small fraction of total area in Even smaller fraction of total area
rest of country
Small fraction of total area in Large fraction of total area in
Arunachal Arunachal
“Insurance policy” for wildlife Resource for both wildlife and people
… too many restrictions … only if utilised wisely

Incentives for Wildlife Conservation outside PA’s:

 Much larger area means more wildlife and plants
 Many new species have been discovered in Community Forests.
Examples include Bugun Liocichla and Arunachal Macaque.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Water
• Forests regulate water flow
• Reduce floods during rainy season
• Prevent drought during dry season

Agro diversity
• New food and medicinal species
• Varieties of known species with special characters like resistance to
drought, humidity and temperature

Tourism
• Easy to get legal clearance to set up tourism facilities
• More control for local communities
• Bird tourists come to Eaglenest from all over the world, but spend more
time outside PA’s in Lama Camp, Dirang, Sela and Khellong.
Hence livelihood and income generation opportunities increase for
locals.

Forest Produce
• More construction timber, fire wood and medicinal plants
• “Forest Agriculture” could include tubers, mushroom, orchids etc.

But the disadvantages are:
• Carrying capacity / sustainability of resources
• Regenerative capacity not taken care of
• Common resource: everyone has a right but no one has a duty

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Innovative Ecotourism models for West Kameng region
Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society

Ecotourism in West Kameng region could include casual picnics and
mountain hikes, animal watching, fishing, adventure sports like rafting or
basic camping in beautiful places offering good views or river banks.
Ecotourism does not require massive investment in infrastructure. It only
requires basic camping facilities.

Basic infrastructure includes the following:
a. Running water – piped in from a nearby stream
b. Toilets – simple shower stalls with wash-basin and a septic tank with 2-3
commodes.
c. Kitchen – just a small pad for a couple of stoves and a water connection.

For the toilet as well as the kitchen, portable tents can be used for the walls
and roof, which can be folded and kept away when not in use. All other
requirements can be ferried in by the tour party.

Two principal components are important –
hospitality (which includes boarding,
lodging, transport etc.) and knowledge
(guiding in the field and at the campsite). A
tour could include other components such
as cultural programmes, handicrafts etc.

Training of Personnel: NGOs should
organize training programmes for local
personnel to handle visitors. Camp staff is
to be sensitized to cultural sensitivities of a Shri. Indi Glow, Bugun Welfare Society
diverse national and international clientele deliberating on ecotourism ventures
(social interaction, food habits, personal
privacy, etc), punctuality and hygiene.

Marketing is the most crucial aspect. For initial stages, the tourists to Tawang
and Bomdila could be targeted through good documentation of camp sites,
web pages in the internet, liaising with tourist agencies in Guwahati / Kolkata

There are two main negative consequences that one can expect from
ecotourism; which is cutting of trees for fuel and construction material and
the domination of few powerful people in the venture. Moreover, the youths
engaged today in such ventures do not want to work hard and leave the job
after a few months. Such ventures need time to grow and cannot give over
night benefits

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One can mitigate this with awareness creation to locals. One can ban the use
of firewood as in Kangchendzonga and have all parties ferry in their own
stoves and fuel (gas or kerosene).

To avoid few prominent persons from the community corner much of the
profits from tourism in common resources, highly coordinated efforts and
initiatives from village councils, are required.

Home stays are an inexpensive and easy way by which locals can give
ecotourism facilities. We are planning to send our youths on an exposure visit
to Kalimpong and Sikkim.

The Government should focus on streamlining and simplifying the issue of
tourist permits. Ecotourism should only be seen as one of the agencies of
development – it will not make the entire community rich, or even anyone
rich. Ecotourism can provide seed money for the community to explore other
avenues of revenue generation – e.g. timber plantation (for fuel and
construction), orchid cultivation, mushroom farming in forested areas – and
these should be sincerely explored to spread the benefits across the
community

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Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Knowledge of the law - Awareness about WP Act 1972
KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest Division

Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 is an act for the protection of wild animals,
birds and plants.

The knowledge of the flagship law is essential. Otherwise, several species
could be stamped out. The hunting of herbivores will directly affect the
carnivores that are dependent on them. Thus the prey depletion is one of the
most serious threats to the carnivores. The population densities, survival rates
and chance of persistence are all strongly tied to the densities of their prey
base. Even if small populations exist in an area, they could be “ecologically
extinct”, that is, they no longer fulfill their ecological role in the forest, which
affects the forest population. Vast stretches of forests in Arunachal Pradesh
are bereft of wildlife. Such forests cannot be considered ecologically alive.

Bird hunting is a serious problem. Bird diversity is severely affected. Apart
from habitat destruction, hunting also plays a pivotal role in extinction of
several bird species. Butterflies and moths are placed in Schedule I of the
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, which prohibits commerce in wildlife articles.
Catching and killing frogs are done against the Wildlife Protection Act. Frogs
play a vital role in the food chain of the eco-system, help prevent spread of
diseases by consuming insects and are necessary to maintain the ecological
balance.
Crucial definitions in the
Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
like animal, wildlife, wild
animal, vermin, hunting and
trophy were discussed. Species
under different schedules were
drawn attention to.
Section 9, which is the
cornerstone of the Act, was
discussed and several situations
deliberated whether such
Shri. KS Jayachandran, DFO Shergaon Forest situations under the tribal
Division discussing the WP Act
customs would be covered under
the said section.

Prohibition of picking and uprooting of specified plants especially Ladies
slipper orchids and vandas was also elaborated.

Provisions related to trade or commerce in wild animals, animal articles and
trophies was also discussed.

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Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Penalties for various acts related to different species covered under the 6
schedules were deliberated upon.

The new ‘amnesty’ provisions by the Central amendment to the Environment
Protection Act, 1972, the Declaration Of Wildlife Stock Rules, 2003, permits
persons with ‘prohibited’ wildlife items like captive animal or bird, an article
or trophy derived from animals specified under the Wildlife Protection Act, to
apply for a ‘possession certificate’. Keeping undeclared wildlife products or
animals is punishable with a jail term of 3 to 7 years and a fine of over Rs.
10000.

The huge scope in declaration of Community Reserves was specifically
stressed on. The State Government may, where the community or an
individual has volunteered to conserve wild life and its habitat, declare any
private or community land as a community reserve, for protecting fauna, flora
and traditional or cultural conservation values and practices. A Community
Reserve management committee, consisting of five representatives nominated
by the Village Panchayat and one representative of the State Forests shall be
the authority responsible for conserving, maintaining and managing the
community reserve. The committee shall be the competent authority to
prepare and implement the management plan for the community reserve and
to take steps to ensure the protection of wild life and its habitat in the reserve.
The committee shall elect a Chairman who shall also be the Honorary Wild
Life Warden on the community reserve. No change in the land use pattern
shall be made within the community reserve, except in accordance with a
resolution passed by the management, committee and approval of the same by
the State Government. Many examples of successful community reserves in
other parts of the country were focused on. Apprehensions on increased
control of the government on the reserves were also addressed.

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Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Community based Conservation – The Thembang experience:
PK Dutta, WWF

Community based conservation was initiated as a project through constitution
of Community Conserved Areas (CCA) in the West Kameng region.

Demarcation of 2 CCAs:
1. Thembang Bapu CCA – 31,200 ha
2. Pangchen Lumpo Muchat CCA – 9,800 ha

Achievements:
• Baseline Surveys and listed important, rare and threatened Flora and
Fauna.
• CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT FOR MANAGEMENT OF CCA
• Two local boys working with WWF-India for training on
management of CCAMC
• Basic office infrastructures (Bikes and Computers) have been
provided to CCAMC to do their day today activities
• Appointed local boys who attended various training workshop
organised by WWF-India and other organisations
• Field Training for local villagers on biodiversity survey
technique organised

• CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT ON LIVELIHOOD OPTION
• After feasibility Studies, exposure visit and training for local
villagers for promotion of Community Based Tourism in the
villagers have been organised
• Training workshop on preparation of Rhododendron squash has
been organised
• SUPPORT FOR NEW LIVELIHOOD OPORTUNITY
• Provided all the necessary Camping Materials to both the
CCAMCs

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Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

• Support to villagers to set up 9 Home Stays (5/4) and 4 Home
Based Restaurants (2/2) through CCAMCs
• Construction of CCAMC Office cum Tourism Information
Center with contribution from villagers

PROJECT IMPACT:

1. EARNING SCOPE FOR VILLAGERS
> Home Stay Operators
> Home Based Restaurant Operators
> Pack Animal
> Porter, Guide, Cook and Cook Helpers
> Cultural Program
> Local Handicraft

2. EARNING SCOPE FOR CCAMC (TO DEVELOP CORPUS)
> CCA Entry Fee
> Camera Fee
> Camping Site Charge
> Camping Material Charge
> CCA Conservation Fee (15% and 10% of total service cost for
International and domestic tourist)

Income Source Income (Rs) No. of villagers benefited

1. Home Stay 42,814.00 3

2. Home Based Restaurant 8,048.00 2

3. Porter 29,750.00 13

4. Pack Animal 1,03,450.00 16

5. Cook and Guide 16,550.00 5

6. Cultural Troop 5,600.00 10

7. Fodder (2007) 15,524.00 21

TOTAL 2,21,736.00

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Income Source Income by TBCCAMC
(Rs.)

1. Fodder (2007) 4,669.00

2. Camping Material on rent 15,390.00

3. CCA Entry Fee 4,200.00

4. Camera Fee 1,800.00

5. Donation 1,000.00

6. CCA Conservation Fee 24,385.00

TOTAL 51,444.00

• INCOME FROM CBET – Rs.9,350.00
(Only two groups visited the village)
• INCOME FROM RHODODENDRON SQUASH MARKET – Rs.1100

3. ON CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CCA
• Ban on collection of Firewood for commercial purpose in both sites
• Issue of joint declaration by villagers of 6 villages in around Lumpo and
Muchat to ban hunting and fishing with provision of fine
• Issue of letter by TBCCAMC to ban hunting and collection of medicinal
plants by herders during summer grazing with provision of penalty
• Foreign Tourist caught by TBCCAMC for collecting beetles and wild
mushroom spores
• Villagers surrendered traps and snares in their possession which they
were using for hunting to TBCCAMC
• TBCCAMC for the first time sent two villagers for patrolling inside CCA
to see any illegal activities by herders who are now there for grazing

A participant making a point

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Future of hunting in a tribal society
– Interactive brainstorming session
Discussion and development of action points

Reasons for reduction of forests: Firewood collection was cited to be the
dominant reason causing a strain on forests followed by development projects
and cultivation. Cutting for timber was an insignificant reason.

Wildlife commonly encountered nowadays in this region: Monkeys were the
most common wildlife encountered in this region. Wild boars and barking
deer were the second most sighted wild animals. Wild cats were also
commonly encountered. Bears and goral are the least sighted among the
common animals.

Wild life seen years ago and not seen nowadays in this region - disappeared
wildlife: Musk Deer was the most vociferously voted animal seen aplenty 15 –
20 years ago and very rarely seen nowadays. Otters, wild dogs and red panda
also figured in the discussions as one of the diminishing wild animals.
Leopards were also sighted commonly by elders a decade ago.

Reasons for decline in wildlife: Forest reduction and habitat destruction was
unanimously declared as the most prominent reason behind disappearance of
wildlife. Hunting and Forest fires also caught the attention of the audience as
a major contributing factor. Some villagers argued that hunting by locals is
done sustainably and can not be a reason for the decline. However, they
opined that hunting by government officers is a major concern especially due
to the uninhibited access and modern weapons. Their main victims include
small game like squirrels, monkeys and birds. Road construction has affected
migration of animals especially bears. Moreover, the road network has created
islands of forests accessible from all around for the sake of hunting.

Ideas to protect / conserve wildlife: Government support for community
conservation should be more through incentives and appreciation to
communities. Awareness campaigns for ARF/VRF should be organised to
remove the mistrust and fear amongst communities. Resource persons felt
that a dedicated Forest Protection Force in select areas can prevent wanton
destruction of forests and biodiversity. NREGA funds can be used to generate
local employment for conservation. Awareness regarding the species which
are most endangered and are in most need of conservation should be created
among villagers. Scientific discoveries and concepts have not reached the
masses and this knowledge gap should be filled up by the department.

Wildlife commonly hunted - the most treasured victims: Barking deer is
hunted throughout the year, while wild boars and bears are hunted during
winters.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

Who hunts the most: Government Officers were voted the dominant hunters.
Their victims included mostly small game through modern arms and vehicles
because they lacked the barefoot skills for hunting large game. Winters,
festivals, weekends and holidays were the common periods of hunting. Town
people figured as the next important group of people indulged in hunting
mainly because of the modern arms. Students hunt birds, reptiles and frogs
through catapults. Tourists and Army officers never indulged in hunting.

Reasons for hunting: Government Officers hunt for fun & thrill, while villagers
hunt for consumption. Community hunting happens due to cultural reasons as
part of traditions. After settling community shares, remaining meat is
sometimes sold in market.

Ideas to reduce hunting: Air rifles / guns and ammunition should be banned;
as already done in many parts of the state. Awareness should be spread
through partnerships with schools and colleges about dangers of catapult
hunting. The charm for hunting should be reduced through social
disincentives in village councils. The local councils should be encouraged to
pass local laws regulating hunting. Certain regions should be mapped and
some species shall be identified with the help of Forest department and local
bans should be enforced against hunting in select regions and select species.
Stringent punishment should be meted out especially for government officers.
Religious heads should be actively involved in creating mass awareness and
moulding public opinion.

Action plan for different stake-holders:
People who hunt for subsistence (self consumption / market selling):
Awareness campaigns by department especially about the endangered
species. Religious heads should be actively involved in creating mass
awareness and moulding public opinion. Alternatives like poultry and
animal husbandry shall be encouraged through partnerships with
Veterinary Department.

People who hunt for fun: Local laws by councils to hand over stringent
punishment especially for government officers. Forest Department
should be more vigilant.

How to create awareness?
Awareness campaigns by department like travelling talkies to bastis to instill
a sense of pride over the resources they support. Audio-visual aids would be
most effective in rural areas. Posters of endangered species may be prepared
for township areas especially schools and offices. Multi-departmental
campaigns would have more impact.

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ANNEXURE – I

ONE DAY WORKSHOP ON WILDLIFE CONSERVATION:
VALUES AND INCENTIVES
07TH OCTOBER 2010
TERMS OF REFERENCE – BRAINSTORMING SESSION

1. Reasons for reduction of forests: Development projects / Firewood /
Timber / Cultivation / any other

2. What is the Wildlife commonly encountered nowadays in this region:
common wildlife

3. Wild life seen years ago and not seen nowadays in this region:
disappeared wildlife

4. Reasons for decline in wildlife: Forest reduction / Hunting / Forest
fires / any other

5. Ideas to protect / conserve wildlife:

6. Wildlife commonly hunted: the most treasured victims

7. Who hunts the most: Villagers / Tourists / Students / Town people /
Officers / any other

8. Reasons for hunting: Selling in market / less food for consumption /
fun & thrill / any other

9. Ideas to reduce hunting:

10. Action plan for different stake-holders:
a. People who hunt for subsistence (self consumption / market
selling):
b. People who hunt for fun:
11. How to create awareness?
a. Target groups for awareness?
b. Economic ideas:
12. Any other issue to be discussed

WILDLIFE WEEK CELEBRATIONS, 02 – 08 OCTOBER 2010
Shergaon Forest Division, Rupa
Defend the wild or disappoint a child

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ANNEXURE – II

0NE DAY WORKSHOP ON WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: VALUES AND INCENTIVES
07TH OCTOBER 2010
QUESTIONAIRE
Please write the answers / tick the appropriate option
Wildlife includes monkeys, wild cats, tigers, elephants, bears, panda, deer, wild pigs, rodents, bats,
gaur, wild buffalo, birds, reptiles, insects, amphibians, fish etc.

My Name: ____________________________

What are the uses of wildlife: __________________________________________________________

Wildlife commonly encountered nowadays in this region: ____________________________________

Wild life seen years ago and not seen nowadays in this region: ________________________________

Areas rich in wildlife in this region today: _________________________________________________

Reasons for decline in wildlife:
Forest reduction / Hunting / any other: _________________________________________________

Wildlife commonly hunted: ____________________________________________________________

Who hunts the most:
Villagers / Tourists / Students / Town people / Officers / any other: _________________________

Reasons for hunting:
Selling in market / less food for consumption / fun & thrill / any other: ________________________

Reasons for reduction of forests:
Development projects / Firewood / Timber / Cultivation / any other: _________________________

Ideas to protect / conserve wildlife:
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

What did you like most about this workshop?
______________________________________________________

What did you like least about this workshop?
______________________________________________________

Any other comments?
_________________________________________________________________________

WILDLIFE WEEK CELEBRATIONS, 02 – 08 OCTOBER 2010
Shergaon Forest Division, Rupa
Defend the wild or disappoint a child

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ANNEXURE – III

PRIZE WINNIING PAINTINGS FROM SCHOOL CHILDREN

RAJAN SONAR / CLASS XII ABISHEK PAUL / CLASS VIII
GHSS, RUPA PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA

TOMO RAGYOR / CLASS X TASHI TSERING GLOW /CLASS VII
GHSS, RUPA PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA

AADARSH KUMAR / CLASS V SONAM J SHONGMU / CLASS VII
PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA PINEWOOD SCHOOL, RUPA

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Proceedings of the One day Workshop on
Wildlife Conservation: Values and Incentives

ORGANISING TEAM
OFFICE OF THE DIVISIONAL FOREST OFFICER
SHERGAON FOREST DIVISION
RUPA, ARUNACHAL PRADESH
OCTOBER 2010

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