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# DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

KINGS
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Punalkulam

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS
ACADEMIC YEAR – 2010 – 11(ODD SEMESTER)
QUESTION BANK
SUBJECT NAME: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS YEAR/SEM: III/V

UNIT – I
PROPOSITIONS
PART – A
1. Define Converse, Inverse and Contrapositive of the statement?
2. Define atomic statement. What are the possible truth values for this statement?
3. Express the statement, “The crop will be destroyed if there is a flood” in symbolic form.
4. Write the negation of the following proposition. “To enter into the country you need a passport
or a voter registration card”.
5. State the truth table of “If tigers have wings then the earth travels round the sun”.
6. Construct the truth table for (a) ¬(¬P ∨ ¬Q ) (b) ¬(¬P ∧ ¬Q )
8. Give inverse and the contra positive of the implication “If it is a raining then I get wet”.
9. Write the following statement in symbolic form “If either Ram takes calculus or Krishna takes
sociology, then Sita will take English.
10. Using truth table verify that the proposition (P ∧ Q ) ∧ ¬(P ∨ Q ) is a contradiction.
11. Prove that (P → Q ) and its contrapositive (¬Q → ¬P ) are equivalent.
12. If P,Q and R are statement variable prove that P ∧ ((¬P ∧ Q ) ∨ (¬P ∧ ¬Q )) ⇒ R
13. Show that (¬P ∧ (¬Q ∧ R )) ∨ (Q ∧ R ) ∨ (P ∧ R ) ⇔ R use only notation.
14. Write an equivalent formula for p ∧ (q ↔ r ) which contains neither the biconditional nor
the conditional.
15. Prove that whenever A ∧ B ⇒ C , we also have A ⇒ ( B → C ) and vice versa.
16. Obtain disjunctive normal forms of P ∧ (P → Q )
17. Define P.D.N.F. and P.C.N.F.
18. Define Minterms?
19.When a set of formulae is consistent and inconsistent?
20.Define valid arguments or valid conclusion.
PART - B
1. (a)Show that (¬P ∧ (¬Q ∧ R )) ∨ (Q ∧ R ) ∨ (P ∧ R ) ⇔ R using truth table. (8)
(b)Without using truth tables, show that Q ∨ (P ∧ ¬Q ) ∨ (¬P ∧ ¬Q ) is a tautology. (8)
2. (a) Prove that (P → Q ) ∧ (Q → R ) ⇒ (P → R ). (8)
(b)Obtain the DNF and CNF for (P → (Q ∧ R )) ∧ (¬P → (¬Q ∧ ¬R )) (8)

KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM

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6} and B={6. (C ∨ D ) → ¬H . (a) Determine whether the compound proposition ¬(q → r ) ∧ r ∧ ( p → q ) is tautology or contradiction (8) (b)Show that the premises A → (B → C ). P → ¬R. determine the truth value of ∀x ∈ S . S → ¬Q. ¬H → ( A ∧ ¬B ) and ( A ∧ ¬B ) → (R ∨ S ) (8) (b) Show that d can be derived from the premises (a → b ) ∧ (a → c ). Symbolize the following statement with and without using the set of positive integers as the universe of discourse. what are the truth values of the propositions Q(1. (a) Show that J ∧ S logically follows from the premises P → Q. (8) 8. “Give any positive integer. (8) UNIT – II PREDICATE CALCULUS PART-A 1. Obtain the principal conjunctive normal form of the formula (¬P → R ) ∧ (Q ↔ P ) . Let the Universe of discourse be E={5. Therefore I watched TV.6) .2) and Q(2. Give an example to show that (∃x )( A(x ) ∧ B( x )) need not be a conclusion form (∃x )A( x ) and (∃x )B( x ) . (d ∨ a) (8) 10.y):x+y<12. A ∧ D are inconsistent.y) denote the statement “ x= y +2 “. Q(x): x is in B and R(x. (8) 4. Q ∨ R. I failed in the examination. ¬S → P and ¬ R (8) (b)Show that the following implication by using indirect method (8) R → ¬Q. They arrived on time. Define the term Universal Quantifier and Existential quantifier. 4. then i will not study. Inverse and Contrapositive of a statement of the form.0). (b) Without using truth table 5. If they arrived on time. (a)Obtain PDNF and PCNF of P → (( P → Q ) ∧ ¬(¬P ∨ ¬Q )) (8) (b)Obtain the PDNF for (P ∧ Q ) ∨ (¬P ∧ Q ) ∨ (Q ∧ R ). (∀x )( p( x) → q( x) ) 3. (a) Show that S is valid inference from the premises P → ¬Q. then i will not pass in the examination. 6. R ∨ S .7}. Let Q(x.-1. (8) (b) Using conditional proof prove that ¬P ∨ Q.6. Test the validity of the above argument. (a) Show that R ∨ S is a valid conclusion from the premises C ∨ D.1. Q(x):x=2 and the universe is {1. P → Q ⇒ ¬P. 7. 9. KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 2 . (8) 9. Find the truth value of (x)(P(x)vQ(x)) where P(x):x=1. (8) (b)Test the validity of the following argument. there was no ball game”. Give Converse. Let A={5. R. 8. What are free and bound variables in predicate logic.2} 7. Therefore. (a) If there was a ball game. Let P(x):x is in A. R → S ⇒ P → S . | x | 2 ≤ 3 | x | −2. If i watch TV. there is a greater positive Integers”. 2. then traveling was not difficult. ¬(b ∧ c).0.7}. Find the truth value of ((∃x)(P( x) → (Q( x) ) → R(5. (16) (a) Using truth table. 5. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS 3.2}. (a) Find the principal conjunctive and principal disjunctive normal forms of the (8) formula S ⇔ (P → (Q ∧ R )) ∧ (¬P → (¬Q ∧ ¬R )) (b) Obtain the product of sums canonical form for (8) (P ∧ Q ∧ R ) ∨ (¬P ∧ Q ∧ R ) ∨ (¬P ∧ ¬Q ∧ ¬R ) 6. P ∨ ( J ∧ S ). then traveling was difficult. ¬Q ∨ R. D → (B ∧ ¬C ). If I study. If S = { -2.

(a) Use indirect method of proof to show that (8) (∀x )(P(x ) ∨ Q(x )) ⇒ (∀x )P(x ) ∨ (∃x )Q(x ) (b) Prove that (∃x )P( x ) → ( x )Q( x ) ⇒ (∀x )(P( x ) → Q( x )) (8) 7. 15. (a)Show that ( x ) A( x) → ( x) B( x) ⇒ ( x )( A( x) ∨ B( x)) (8) (b) Show that following implication (x )(P(x ) ∨ Q(x )). (8) 6. (a) Explain the two types of quantifiers and determine the truth table of each of (8) the following statement: (1) ∀x. (x )(R(x ) → ¬Q(x )) ⇒ (x )(R(x ) → ¬P(x )) (8) 3. (a) Show that ¬P (a. b) (8) (b) Verify the validity of the inference. x + 2 > x (3) ∃x.”x is the brother of the sister of y” 17. then he has worked harder to deserve success. (a) Use indirect method of proof to show that (∃x )( A( x ) ∧ B( x )) ⇒ (∃x )A( x ) ∧ (∃x )B( x ) (8) (b) Prove that (∃x )(P ( x ) ∧ Q ( x ) ) ⇒ (∃x )(P ( x ) ) ∧ (∃x)(Q ( x) ) (8) KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 3 . “Some people who trust others are rewarded” in symbolic form 13. Express the statement. 12. Write the following statement in the symbolic form “ every one who likes fun will enjoy each of these plays”. 18. Rewrite the following using quantifiers. (8) 5. Express the statement “ x is the father of the mother of y “ in symbolic form. If one person is more successful than another. 14. 19. 11. Write in Symbolic form the statement. y )) (8) 2. (a)Express the negations of the following statement using quantifiers and in statement form. Express the statement “ For every ‘x’ there exist a ‘y’ such that x 2 + y 2 ≥ 100 ”. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS 10. b) follows logically from ( x )( y )(P( x. Therefore. (∃x)( P( x) ∧ Q( x)) ⇒ (∃x )P( x) PART-B 1. 16. Write the statement. | x |= − x (2) ∀x. Symbolize the expression “ All the world lovers a lover” 20. (a) Prove that (∃x )P( x ) → ( x )Q( x) ⇒ ( x)( P( x ) → Q( x )) (10) (b) Show that (∃x )M (x ) follows logically from the premises ( x )(H ( x ) → M (x )) and (∃x )H ( x ) (6) 4. y ) → W ( x. Define a compound statement function. “ Some men are genius”. y ) ) and ¬W (a. John has not worked harder than Peter. x 4 = x (4) ∃x. Give the symbolic form of the statement “every book with a blue cover is a mathematics book”. Show that. (8) (b) Show that from (∃x )(F (x ) ∧ S (x )) → ( y )(M ( y ) → W ( y )) and (∃y )(M ( y ) ∧ ¬W ( y )) the conclusion (x )(F (x ) → ¬S (x )) follows. x − 2 = x (b) Find the scope of the quantifiers and the nature of occurrence of the variables in the formula (∀x )(P ( x ) → (∃y )R (x.” No one has done every problem in the exercise”. John is ‘not successful than Peter.“every one who likes fun will enjoy each of these plays” in symbolic form.

(∃y )P( y ) then (∃z )Q ( z ) (b) Prove that (x)(H(x) → A(x)) ⇒ (x)( (∃y )( H ( y ) ∧ N ( x.4. y )) (8) UNIT –III SET THEORY PART-A 1.3} } then Show that A.3} .2).2. Given an example of a relation which is symmetric. If A = {2. {2.2.4.3} } and C = { {1. 12. If A = { {1. 7.1. If A={1.36} and the relation ≤ is such that x ≤ y is x divides y. Anyone who is determined and intelligent will give satisfactory service. Partition A = {0.(3. 8. 13.(3. ≤). DISCRETE MATHEMATICS 8.B and C . (8) (b) Verify the validity of the following argument: Lions are dangerous animals.2)} are relations on the set A = {1.12. Give an example of a lattice which is modular but not a distributive.1).3)}.10. Clare is an intelligent lecturer.3). If a poset has a least element. 14.2}. Draw the Hasse diagram of D20 = {1.2). ⊆ ) .(2. (a) Is the following conclusion validly derivable from the premises given? (8) If (∀x )(P( x ) → Q( x )).3. 6.3)} and S = {(2. Which is not reflexive and not irreflexive? 5.(1. (1.4} and R = {(1.1). B = { {1}. b. (4) 9. Give an example of a relation. 4. Therefore there are dangerous animals.5}. where A3 = {a. y )) → (∃y )( A( y ) ∧ N ( x.5} with minsets generated by B1 = {0. y ∈ A ∧ ( xdividesy )} 15.4} and B2 = {1. Draw the Hasse-diagram of the set of partitions of 5.2.3). find the least element and greatest element for A. Obtain the Hasse diagram of (P ( A3 ). y : x ∈ A. (a) Is the follwing argument valid? All lecturers are determined.2. 9. How many elements of A x B? How many different relations are there from A to B? 3. Therefore Clare will give satisfactory service(use predicates) (12) (b) Use conditional proof to prove that ( x )(P( x ) → Q( x )) ⇒ ( x )P( x ) → ( x )Q( x ) . determine the matrix of the relation R.(4. 10. (8) 10. Draw the Hasse diagram of ( X . c}. 2.1).3. Suppose that the sets A and B have m and n elements respectively.24. (1.2. Define partially ordered set. 11. transitive but not reflexive on {a. A. List all partitions of A = {1.2.5.3.6.3} ⊆ X = {2.2. For any sets. 3 }. 17.B and C are mutually disjoint. verify whether R ο S = S ο R by finding the relation matrices of R ο S and S ο R . (3. KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 4 . b. There are lions. (a) Prove that (∃x )A( x ) → B ⇔ ( x )( A( x ) → B ).2). c} .20} 16. prove that AX ( B ∩ C ) = ( AXB ) ∩ ( AXC ). then prove it is unique.3}.3). where X is the set of positive divisors of 45 and the relation ≤ is such that ≤ {( x. (2. If R = {(1.

(a) If B is a Boolean Algebra. Show that R is an equivalence relation. (8) (b) In any Boolean algebra show that a = 0 ⇔ ab'+ a ' b = b.1)} are the relation on A= {1.4)(2. x > y}whereX = {1.2. (1.5}.1)(1.3. (8) (b) Let the relation R be define on the set of all real numbers by ‘if x. Show that the lattice b1 b2 b3 is not distributive.0 = 0. ≤ ). then for a ∈ B.4} find the relation matrix (8) (b)Let R = {(1. Also write the matrix of R and sketch its graph. (8) − 9.10} and a relation R on S where R= {( x. (8) (b) In a lattice (L.S0R. b ) / a − b = 1}determine the adjacency matrix of P 2 (6) 5.2. (2. (3.R0 (S0R).2). y ) / x.4)(2. prove that [x ] = [ y ] if only if xRy where [x ] and [ y ] denote equivalence classes containing x and y respectively.(a + b) = a + (a. Is the lattice of divisors of 32 a Boolean algebra? PART-B 1. (8) 2. (3. 0 19.3). xRy ⇔ x .(R0S) 0R.. prove that X ∨ (Y ∧ Z) ≤ ( X ∨ Y ) ∧ ( X ∨ Z ) (8) 8.{3.4).4.b) in a Boolean Algebra.2. x 2 KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 5 .3.4}.x1. (a) Let P = {{1.b)∈ R iff a2+b2 is even then prove that R is equivalence relation.3).1)(4.3.3)}is an equivalence relation.2)} and S= {(1.y are real numbers.S0S and R0R0R (8) 3.2)(3. Prove that a. (a) Given S= {1. (a)Simplify the Boolean expression ((x1+x2)+(x1+x3)).3)(3. (4) (b) If R is an equivalence relation on a set A.4)(4. Construct an equivalence relation R on S so that equivalence classes with respect to R are precisely the members of P. (8) 4. a. )} and S= {(4.1)(1.S0R. (3.2. (a) Prove that R={(1.2).4).1).3.2. y ∈ X . (4) (b) In a distributive lattice prove that a*b=a*c and a ⊕ b = a ⊕ c implies that b=c (8) (c) Show that a chain with three or more elements is not complemented (4) 7.R0R.2). (2.5} by P = {(a.2)(2..y is a rational numbers. )} Find R0S.4}obtain the relation matrices for R0S. (3.{5}} be a partition of the set S = { 1. for any three sets A. a + 1 = 1. 20. (a) Draw the graph of the relation R= {( x. (a) In a Lattice show that a ≤ b and c ≤ d implies a * c ≤ b * d . show that each element has at most one complement.B and C (i) A X (B U C) =(A X B) U (A X C) (ii) A U (B ∩ C) = (A U B) ∩ (A U C) (8) 6.3. (a) If R is the relation on the set of positive integers such that (a. (8) (b) Prove that.2. (1. (6) (b) Define the relation P on {1..2}. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS 1 18.4.4. (1.3. (a) If L is a distributive lattice with 0 and 1. y ) / x + y = 10} what are the properties of the relation R? (8) (b) Let R = {(1.3).

2} to B = {3. Is the permutation p =   even or odd?  2 4 5 7 6 3 1 20. Find h(x. 16.. Write the permutation (2. where f 1 ( x. 3. for every element x has unique complement − − x such that x+ x =1 and x. find the range of f. 15. y ) = x and g(x. prove that f is one-to-one. Show that x ∗ y = x − y is not a binary operation over the set of natural numbers. x =0 (8) (b) In any Boolean algebra show that a = b ⇔ ab' = a ' b = 0.4. Show that f ( x.y) = x+y.. y ). f 2 ( x. If f : A → B and g : B → C are mappings and g ο f : A → C is one-to-one(Injection). (8) 10..7. ( f −1 ) −1 = f ..-1. g be functions from N to N where N is the set of natural numbers so that f (n) = n + 1.0. Show that the functions f ( x) = x 3 and g ( x) = x 3 for x ∈ R. if f ( x) = x 2 − 2 and g ( x) = x + 4. Define the hashing function from the set of 8-digit account numbers 14739752 to the set {0. y ) = x 2 + y 2 . Determine whether usual multiplication on the set A = {1. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS (b) Establish De Morgan’s Laws in a Boolean Algebra.8}. 5. express f(x.4} 2.2.  0 a   12. 17.−1} is a binary operation. 2 14.6..5. Find all the mappings from A = {1. Examine whether matrix multiplication on the set M =   : a... Let f : R → R and g : R → R where R is the set of real numbers find f ο g and g ο f . 1 7. Define primitive recursive function. (8) UNIT – IV FUNCTIONS PART-A 1. (a) Show that in a Boolean algebra..y) in terms of x and y.6) as the product of transpositions. 6. Let f . Let A = {1.8. are inverse of one another.5. (OR) If a function g be the inverse of a function f then f is the of g . y ) = x y is primitive function. b ∈ R  is binary operation.2}. If A has m elements and B has n elements. Let h( x.. Determine f ο g and g ο f . how many functions are there from A to B.1. b ∈ R..1. 9. g (n) = 2n . If the function f is defined by f(x) = x2+1 on a set A = {-2. but that it is a binary operation on the set of integers.1. The inverse of the inverse of a function is the function itself i. If f(x. 10. Define Characteristic function of a set.e.. 4.100}.2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. b 0   ab 13.. y ) = g ( f 1 ( x.y+1) in terms of successor and projection functions. f 2 ( x.4..y) = xy2. y )) for all positive integers x and y.3. Is it commutative or associative? 11. What are the identity and inverse elements under ∗ defined by a ∗ b = ∀a. 18. 8. KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 6 .

If A and B are any two subsets of universal set U. Show that A ∩ (B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) by using characteristic function. (4) 6. 3 } to B = { 4. (8) b. a. (8) b. Also give an example to show that g ο f may be onto but both f and g need not be onto. g(x) = x-2. (8) 5.0) = A(x. If f and g are onto. 2 Prove that f is a bijective and find f-1. (8) 8. (8) KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 7 . f ο g . If f : [a. f(2)=1. (8) b. If A and B are any two subsets of a universal set U and ψ A and ψ B are the characteristic functions of A and B respectively. Let A. Show that A ∪ (B ∩ C ) = ( A ∪ B ) ∩ ( A ∪ C ) by using characteristic function. Let Z denote the set of positive integers and Z denote the set of integers.1] are closed intervals). a. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS PART-B 1. (8) 4.2). f(3)=3. (8) + b. If f(x) = x+2. f(15. (or)The composite of two one-to-one and onto functions is also a one-to-one and onto function.y+1) = A(x. if n is even 2 1− n = .B.C be any three nonempty sets.2. If R denotes the set of real numbers and f : R → R is given by f ( x) = x − 2 . n Let f : Z + → Z be defined by f (n) = .7). A(x+1. g ο g . (8) 3. f ο h ο g where R is the set of real numbers. Compute the value of A(2. find f3 and f-1. if a<b = f (a − b. a. h(x) = 3x for x ∈ R find g ο f . if n is odd. h ο g . f ο f . f(10. a. Let A = {1.3).y)). a.5 }. Let a and b be positive integers and suppose f is defined recursively as follows: f (a. y ) = x + y is primitive recursive. Prove that f is one-to-one and onto. (or)The composite of two bijections is also a bijection. Let f : R → R be defined by f ( x ) = 2 x − 3 . prove that g ο f : A → C is onto. Find all mappings from A = { 1 . If f is a function of A into itself defined by f(1)=2.Find f(2.A(x+1. (8)  − 2 x : ifx ≤ 0  x−a b. If : Z →N is defined by f(x) =   . b + 2) + a if a≥b . Let f : A → B and g : B → C be mappings.2. b ) = 5. f ο h. (8) 9. (8) 7.2). b] → [0. find which of them are one-to-one and which are onto. (8)  2 x − 1 : ifx > 0  2. Find a formula for f . (8) −1 b. Show that ψ A∪ B ( X ) = ψ A ( X ) + ψ B ( X ) − ψ A∩ B ( X ) for all X ∈R. Prove that the function g is equal to f only if g ο f = I x and f ο g = I y in the usual notation. a.1) and A(x+1. If f and g are bijective on a set A .y) is defined by A(0. Let f : X → Y and f : Y → X . b] and [0. Show that the function f ( x. a. h ο f . (4) -1 c.3}.y) = y+1.a. a. find f . then prove that f A ∩ B ( x) = f A ( x) f B ( x) for all x ∈R (8) b. prove that f ο g is also a bijection. prove that f is a a−b bijection and find it inverse (Here [a.1] is defined by f ( x ) = . Let a < b . The function A(x. (8) 3 -1 b.

prove that there is only one subgroup viz. Show that if every element in a group is its own inverse. 15. 17. 9.0. -i } with the operation multiplication. Let D(x) denote the number of divisors of x. If * is the binary operation on the set R of real numbers defined by a*b=a+b+2ab. Give an example of a semigroup which is not a monoid..*) is unique. i .*) is a Monoid assuming that * is associative. Verify whether (S. 3. 4. (4) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 c. (8)  1 2 3 4 5  1 2 3 4 5 10. prove that  3 2 1 4  2 3 4 1 ( g ο f ) −1 = f −1 ο g −1 . 7. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS b. 13. (8) KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 8 . -1 } in G = { 1 -1 . y=(0. 4 . Define sub semi-group with an example.*) is a commutative semigroup. a.3. 18. 2. among the right cosets of H in G.+ 5 ) is a cyclic group. y} . 2. Show that (R. .a. then the group must be abelian. If f =   and g =   are permutations. Let F = {2. Show that ( Z 5.8….define x * y = min{x.4. Define Group Code. When will a set of element form a monoid? 8. Give an example of a monoid which is not a group. What do you call a homomorphism of a semigroup into itself? 11. H. If f =   and h =   are permutations on the set  2 4 5 1 3  5 2 4 3 1 A = { 1. howmany errors can be detected and howmany errors can be corrected? 19.5 }find a permutation g on A such that f ο g = h ο f .0. 12.0. Prove that the only idempotent element of a group is its identity element.0) and z=(1. 20. Is F is closed under a) multiplication b) addition 10. 16. for x. Show that the inverse of an element in a group (G. Define semi group homomorphism.0. Define ring and given an example of an ring with zero-divisors. Is the converse true? 14. Find the all cosets of the sub group H = {1. y ∈ S .1. PART-B 1. Find the minimum distance between the code words x=(1.0). n ∈ N }. If H is a subgroup of the group G. Let p1 =   and p 2 =    7 3 2 1 4 5 6 6 3 2 1 5 4 7 −1 compute (i) p1 ο p 2 (ii) p1 (4) UNIT-V GROUPS PART-A 1. Show that D(x) is a primitive recursive function. 5. State Lagrange’s theorem for finite groups. If the minimum distance between two code words is 5. 6.1).} = {x: x= 2 n . If S denotes the set of positive integers ≤ 100.0. Define semigroup and monoid. (8) 1 2 3 4  1 2 3 4 b. Define normal subgroup of a group.

c.d) = (ab+bc. ⊕ ) is a commutative group. (iii). For any commutative monoid (M. (8) b.X) define by g(a) = 3a . Show that H = { [0]. (8) 2 5 b.b+d) where a. (8) 2. (8) KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 9 .+) to the system (T. (8) b.* be a group. a.+) is defined by f(a. a. Let A. If H is a subgroup of G such that x ∈ H for every x ∈ G prove that H is a normal subgroup of G. where S is the set all rational numbers under addition + and T is the set of non-zero real numbers under multiplication operation X.+ 12 ). a. a. Find also the minimum distance of this group code.*)→(Q. Also find the left Cosets of H in ( Z 12 . Show that the set N of natural numbers is a semigroup under the operation x*y = max{x. (8) 3. State and prove Lagrange’s theorem for finite group. (8) 6.bd) and if f:(S. (ii).b) of real numbers with the binary operation ⊕ defined by (a.[8] } is a subgroup of ( Z 12 .b. a.[4].+ 6 ). Find the minimum distance of the code. a. e(01) = 01110. φ ) is a sub group if and only if for pair of element a . (8)  1 1 0 1 0 0   9. (8) 2 7. Let H =  1 0 1 0 1 0  be a parity check matrix. Show that monoid homomorphism preserves the property of invertibility. the set of ordered pairs of positive integers with the operation * defined by a (a. Find all the non-trivial subgroups of ( Z 6 . a * b −1 ∈ S .d are real.The intersection of any two subgroups of a group G is again a subgroup of G. Find  0 1 1 0 0 1   (i).b) = .*) → ( H .b) * (c. ∆ ) be group homomorphism.+ 12 ). b ∈ S .* ) the set of idempotent element of M forms a sub monoid. a. Let H = { a / a ∈ G and a*b = b * a ∀b ∈ G }. If 100110 is the received word find the corresponding transmitted code word. (8) b.Then show that Ker(f) is a normal subgroup. If S = N X N. (8) b. Prove that a subset S( ≠. The Hamming code generated by H. If S is the set of all ordered pairs (a. Show that H is a normal subgroup. is a homomorphism but not an isomorphism. Let f : (G . show that f is a b semi-group homomorphism. Show that the mapping g from the algebraic system (S. (8) 4.b) ⊕ (c. Show that the (2.– Prove. (8) b.prove that (S. Prove that the intersection of two normal subgroups of a group G is also a normal subgroup. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS b.5) encoding function e: B → B defined by e(00) = 00000. Is it a monoid? (8) b. e(10) = 10101 and e(11) = 11011 is a group code. (8) b.d) = (a+c. (8) 5.y}. (8) 8. a.

If y=(0.1. find the Hamming code generated by H (in which the first three bits represent information portion and the next four bits are parity check bits).1. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS  0 1 1 1 0 0 0    1 0 1 0 1 0 0 10.1. If H =  1 0 1 0 0 1 0    1 1 0 0 0 0 1   is the parity check matrix.1.0) is the received word find the corresponding transmitted code word.1. (16) KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING – PUNALKULAM 10 .