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SMK(L) METHODIST, KL.

YEARLY SCHEME OF WORK - BIOLOGY UPPER SIX – 2009

Week Theme/Title Objectives/Learning Outcomes Activities Noble values & CCTS
1, 2 ENERGETICS
- Glucose phosphorylation, fructose diphosphate production Noble value:
5. Respiration (7 periods) - Splitting of 6C to 3C(phosphoglyceraldehyde and To draw the schematic To appreciate
5.1 Aerobiosis dihydrocyacetone phosphate diagram of glycolysis
5.1.1 Glycolysis - Conversion of phosphoglyceraldehyde to pyruvate and process CCTS :
production of ATP and NADH - evaluation
- Substrate level phosphorylation - making
connection
5.1.2 Krebs cycle/tricarbocylic acid cycle/ citric acid cycle - Formation of acetyl coenzymeA, formation of citrate, To describe the pathway of - classifying
reformation of oxaloacetate from citrate via -ketoglutarate Krebs cycle
and succinate, with emphasis on the formation of NADH,
FADH2,and GTP, and release of carbon dioxide
- Calculation of total ATP production

- Electron flow from NADH/FADH2 via flavoprotein,
5.1.3 Electron transport system coenzymeQ, and cytochrome to oxygen with the production
of ATP and water To describe the effects of
- Effects of inhibitors (cyanide and carbon monoxide) inhibitor in ETS

- Differences between plants and animals: ethanol production To give examples the uses
5.2 Anaerobiosis in plants and lactic acid production in animals of fermentation in industry
- Use of fermentation in industry with examples
3 C. GASEOUS EXCHANGE, TRANSPORT, HOMEOSTASIS

7. Gaseous exchange (4 periods)
7.1 Animals - Process and structures involved To draw a diagram of a Noble value:
7.1.1 Gaseous exchange in mammals - Haemoglobin lung and to describe the To appreciate the creation
- Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide transport of oxygen of God
- Partial pressure and Bohr effect
- Oxygen dissociation curves
To describe the different
7.1.2 Breathing cycle - Mechanism of breathing control volume and capacity of a CCTS:
- Chemoreceptor lung in a breathing cycle. - To differentiate
- Tidal volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory To draw the volume and - Making association or
reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume capacity of lung by using a connection
7.2 Plants graph. - comparing and
7.2.1 Stomata - Structure and functions contrasting
- Mechanism of stomatal opening and closing based on the To draw and to describe
starch-sugar hypothesis and K+ ions accumulation the
hypothesis starch-sugar hypothesis
and K+ ions accumulation
hypothesis
4 Chinese New Year Break (26-1-2009 to 30-1-2009)
5, 6 8. Transport (6 periods) NV :
8.1 Animals To appreciate
8.1.1 Cardiac cycle - Definition of systole and diastole Showing the animation of
- Changes in pressure & volume in aorta, left atrium and left heart beat CCTS:
ventricle Making association or
8.1.2 Control of heart beat - Sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes Explain the functions of connection
- Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves the nerves
- Description of heart beat
8.1.3 Cardiovascular diseases - Hypertension, arterioschlerosis, myocardial infarction Precaution to the heart
- Meaning, causes and prevention diseases
7, 8 9. Homeostasis (6 periods) NV:
9.1 Concept of homeostasis - definition and importance - To describe and - to appreciate the create of
- basis of control of biological systems to calculate the the God
- positive and negative feedback mechanisms pressure in
- emphasis on temperature regulation (endothermic and movement of
ectothermic) fluid between CCTS:
- emphasis on control of blood glucose level(role of insulin) blood - arranging and
and its relationship with diabetes mellitus capillaries and sequencing
- calculation of pressure in movement of fluid between blood tissues - evaluation
capillaries and tissues

9.2 Liver - structure and functions in mammals
- Cori cycle and ornithine cycle; emphasis on the entrance of - to draw the schematic
amino groups into the cycle and the production of urea diagram of Cori cycle
8 D. CONTROL AND COORDINATION NV:
The importance of the
10. Nervous system (6 periods) coordination that exist in
10.1 i. Generation, characteristics and transmission of - Organisation of nervous system in mammals To define the function of our body system in order to
impulse - Formation of resting and action potentials nerve system and to draw let the body function well.
- Characteristics of nerve impulse and definition of related terms the diagram of the 3 To realize the effects of
- Mechanism of transmission and spread of impulse along the axon different nerves drug to our body
ii. Synapses - Structure of synapse and role of neurotransmitters such as
acetylcholine and norepinephrine CCTS:
- Mechanism of impulse transmission across synpses - making association
- Comparison between mechanisms of impulse transmission across connection
synapse and along axon - identifying the effects
iii. Neuromuscular junctions - Structure of neuromuscular junction and sarcomere
- Roles of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ions, myofibril and T
tubule in muscle contraction
- Sliding filament hypothesis
- Mechanism of muscle contraction: roles of actin, myosin and
10.2 Autonomous nervous system in mammals troponin
- Organization of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous
10.3 Drug abuse systems and their relationship with the central nervous systems
- Mechanism of action of drug on nervous system and
neuromuscular junction
- Examples: cocaine and kurare
9, 10 Ujian Selaras T4, T5 dan T6A (2-3-2009 to 13-3-2009)
11 First Term – Mid Term Break (16-3-2009 to 23-3-2009)
12, 13 11. Hormone/chemical coordination ( 5 periods )

11.1 Humans
11.1.1 Hormonal action - Mechanism of hormone action via gene activation. Examples of To tabulate the information NV:
steroid hormones To collect information on To tolerancy of the
- Mechanism of non-steroid hormones via activation of cyclic specific examples of each hormones to the
AMP system (cascade effect) eg. Adrenaline case physiology of the cells
- Comparison between the two action mechanisms
11.1.2 Role of hormones in reproduction - Site of production and role of hormones in oestrus cycle
- Site of production and role of hormones during pregnancy
11.2 Plants - Role of hormones in plant growth and development CCTS:
11.2.1 Auxin - Growth of organs - identifying the main ideas
11.2.2 Gibberellin - Root and shoot induction - solving problems
11.2.3 Cytokinin - Apex and bud dominance
11.2.4 Abscisic acid (ABA) - Seed dormancy
11.2.5 Ethene - Flowering
- Defoliation
- Senescense
- Fruit ripening
- Stomatal mechanism
- Parthenocarpy
- Interaction between hormones, eg. Apex dominancy
11.3 Phytochromes and the effect of light on flowering - Def.
- Mechanism of phytochrome action
- Photoperiodism
- Role of phytochromes in photoperiodism and flowering
14, 15 E. IMMUNE SYSTEM

12 Immunity (4 periods)
12.1. Antibody, antigen, epitope, cell-mediated response, - Definition and description To collect information on NV:
humoral immune response specific examples of each To love our body and the
12.2. Lymphatic system - Organization of lymphatic system and formation of lymphatic case and how to prevent importance of our immune
fluid from AIDS system
12.3. development of immunity - Relationship between lymphatic system and immunity
- Roles of macrophages, T-cells and B-cells CCTS:
- Mechanism of cell-mediated response (T-cell) and humoral - identifying the
12.4. concept of self and non-self immune response (plasma cells) effects
- Foreign tissue/graft rejection by the body - making association
12.5. acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) - Application of concept in medicine (organ transplant) or connection
- Causes, causing agent (HIV), symptoms and prevention of AIDS
- Mechanism of HIV infection
15 F. REPRODUCTION, DEVELOPMENT, AND GROWTH

13. Reproduction (7 periods) NV:
To define and to describe. To identify and to draw
13.1 Sexual reproduction - Morphological characteristics To express appreciation to
13.1.1 Plants - Structure of sexual reproductive organ the taking care of our earth
i. Algae : Spirogyra - Life cycle with emphasis on sexual reproduction
ii. Bryophyta : Marchantia CCTS:
iii. Filicinophyta : Dryopteris - comparing and
iv. Coniferophyta : Pinus contrasting
v. Angiospermophyta : Caesalpinia - classifying, grouping
13.1.2 Fungi : Mucor To define and to describe. To identify and to draw and categorizing
- Morphological characteristics
- Structure of sexual reproductive organ
Life cycle with emphasis on sexual reproduction
16 13.1.3 Animals To define and to describe To identify and to draw
i. Ciliophora : Paramecium - Morphological characteristics
ii. Cnidaria : Hydra - Diversity of sexual reproductive systems and overall comparison
iii. Annelida : Pheretima - Mechanism of fertilization (internal and external)
iv. Arthropoda : Periplaneta - Oviparity, ovoviviparity and viviparity
v. Amphibia : Rana
vi. Reptilia : Naja
vii. Osteichtyes : Tilapia
viii. Aves : Columba
ix. Mammalia : Rattus

13.2 Asexual reproduction To define and give examples To collect information on
specific examples of each
13.2.1 Parthenogenesis - Aphis and Apis case
13.2.2 Pedogenesis - Amphioxus
13.2.3 Polyembriony - Fasciola
13.2.4 Sporulation - Dryopteris and Plasmodium
13.2.5 Budding - Hydra and Saccharomyces
13.2.6 Binary fision - Amoeba
13.2.7 Regeneration - Planaria
13.2.8 Vegetative Allium, Solanim, Yucca, Zingiber
17 14 Development (6 periods)

14.1. Animals - Brief description of major stages To collect information NV:
14.1.1 Embryology - Beginning after fertilization from cleavage to organogenesis To appreciate
(blastula and gastrula)
- Organ formation from ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm CCTS:
14.1.2 Human fetal development - Roles of placenta, chorion, amniotic fluid and allantois - arranging and sequencing
- Roles of progesterone and oestrogen
14.1.3 Parturition process in humans - Roles of progesterone, oestrogen, oxytocin and prolactin

14.2 Plants
14.2.1 Seed development - Development of seeds and fruits after fertilization To collect information
- Structure of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds
Seed germination Mobilization of nutrients after imbibition (role of giberrelin)
18 15 Growth (5 periods)
15.1 Measurement - Parameters and methods of measurement (suitabilities and To collect information on NV:
15.2 Types of growth curve problems) specific examples of each To be systematic
- Absolute growth curve case
- Absolute growth rate curve CCTS:
15.3 Growth pattern - Relative growth rate curve - Evaluation
- Limited growth (human) - Identifying and
- Unlimited growth (perennial plants/woody saka) giving the causes
- Allometric growth (human)
- Isometric growth (fish)
15.4 Ecdysis and metamorphosis - Intermittent growth (insect)
- Definition
- Role of hormones (neurosecretion, juvenile hormone and
15.5 Dormancy ecdysone)
15.5.1 Animals - Ecdysis and metamorphosis in insects
15.5.2 Plants - Concept, importance and examples
- Hibernation, aestivation and diapause
- Seed dormancy
- Factors affection seed dormancy and methods of overcoming
them
19, 20, Mid Year Examination (11-5-2009 to 28-5-2009)
21
22, 23 First Term Break (1-6-2009 to 14-6-2009)
24, 25 G. Genetics
16 Transmission genetics ( 10 periods)

16.1 Mendelian genetics To explain NV:
- definition of the terms gamete, gene, allele, dominant and To tabulate the information To express appreciation to
recessive alleles, homozygote, heterozygote, fenotype, genotype, To collect information on the scientist and the
filial generation, types of crosses (test cross, back corss, specific examples of each important of genetic to our
reciprocal cross, selfing), and pure breeding case better life.
- Mendel’s experiment on monohybrid and dihybrid crosses/
16.1.1 Monohybrid inheritance CCTS:
- Characteristics of pea plants used by Mendel - identifying facts
- Monohybrid cross and its results - identifying the
16.1.2 Dihybrid - Mendel’s first law and its’ relation to meiosis effects
- Calculation of genotypic and phenotypic ratios - predicting
- Dihybrid cross and its results consequences
16.2 Modification of Mendelian genetics - Mendel’s second law and its’ relation with meiosis
- Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios until F2
16.2.1 Codominance generation
- Crosses that result in ratios differing from the classic Mendelian
3:1 and 9:3:3:1 ratios
16.2.2 Incomplete dominance - Definition
- Example of inheritance : MN blood group in humans
- Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
16.2.3 Multiple alleles - Definition
- Example of inheritance : Antirrhinum (snapdragon) flower colour
- Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
16.2.4 Lethal genes - Definition
- Example of inheritance : human ABO blood group
- Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
16.2.5 Polygenes - Definition
- Example of inheritance : coat color in mice
16.2.6 Linked genes - Calculations of genotypic and phenotypic ratios
- Definition
- Example of inheritance : height in humans
- Definition of linked genes and sex-linked genes
- Effect of crossing-over on ratio of dihybrid crosses
- Parental and recombinant phenotypes
- Examples : Drosophila eyes color and haemophilia in humans
16.2.7 Epistasis - Calculations of genotypec and phenotypec ratios
- Pedigree analysis
16.3 Genetic mapping - Sex determination in humans
- Definition and examples

- Calculations of distance between two loci based on percentage of
crossing-over
- Examples of calculations for Drosophila
- Determining the relative position of a gene on a chromosome
based on percentage of crossing-over
26 17 Mutation (4 periods)

17.1 Classifivation - Spontaneous and induced To tabulate the information NV:
- Examples of mutagens To collect information on To love and take care of
17.2 Gene mutation - Mutation at DNA level specific examples of each our body to avoid the
17.2.1 Substitution - Definition case unnecessary mutation of
- Example : sickle-cell anaemia the cells
17.2.2 Insertion/addition - Definition
- Frameshift mutation CCTS:
17.2.3 Deletion - Definition - classifying, grouping
- Frameshift mutation and categorizing
- Ex: thalassaemia major - identifying the
17.2.4 Inversion - Definition effects

17.3 Chromosomal mutation - Chromosomal aberration
17.3.1 Change in chromosome number
- Definition of autosome and sex chromosome
i. Aneuploidy - Definition
- Non-disjunction during meiosis
- Abnormalities of autosome number
i. Monosomy
ii. Trisomy
- Abnormalities of sex chromosome number
i. Klinefelter syndrome
ii. Turner syndrome
ii. Euploidy/polyploidy - Definition of euploidy/polyploidy, autopolyploidy and
allopolyploidy
17.3.2 Change in chromosome structure - Examples in plants
i. Inversion
ii. Translocation - Definition
iii. Deletion - Definition
iv. Duplication/multiplication - Definition
- Definition
27 18 Population genetics (3 periods)
NV:
18.1 Concept of gene pool - Concept pf gene pool, allele and genotype frequencies in a To gather relevant To realize the important of
population information gene
18.2 Hardy-Weinberg law - Relationship between population genetics and evolution To calculate
- Genetic equilibrium and allele frequency CCTS:
- Requirements for genetic equilibrium - making associations
i. Large-sized population or connections
ii. Random mationg
iii. No mutation
iv. No migration
- Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
- Calculations of allele and genotype frequencies in a population
28 19 Modern genetics technology (8 periods)

19.1 Genetic engineering/recombinant DNA technology - Definition To collect information NV:
19.1.1 Restrection endonuclease/ restreiction enzymes - Definition, importance and nomenclature Discussion Thank God and the
- Restriction site : palindrome appreciation to the
19.1.2 Vectors - Def developed of science and
- Properties of cloning vectors technology
- Plasmid
- Phage λ CCTS:
19.1.3 Cloning - Def - identifying the effects or
- Steps in cloning processes consequence
i. Isolation of target DNA and vector DNA - predicting consequences
ii. Restriction of target DNA and vector DNA by
restriction endonuclease/ enzymes
iii. Insertion of target DNA into vector DNA by DNA
ligase
iv. Transformation/ transduction of recombinant DNA
into host cell
v. Amplification
19.2 Gene libraries and gene banks vi. Screening for transformants
vii. Ex: insulin production by E.coli
- Def
19.3 Use of recombinant DNA technology - Gene libraries : genomic and cDNA
- Construction of genomic and cDNA libraries
- Definition of transgenic organisms
- Bacteria
-
i. Insulin producers
ii. Oil composers
iii. Nitrogen fixation
- Transgenic plants
i. Plants resistant to berbicide
ii. Plants resistant to insect pests
- Transgenic animals
19.4 Other uses i. Producers of α-1-antitrypsin enzyme in milk
19.4.1 Genetic screening ii. Producers of tissue plasminogen activator in milk
19.4.2 Gene therapy iii. Producers of human growth hormone in milk
19.4.3 DNA fingerprinting - Def
- Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
19.5 Ethics of modern genetics - Restoration of adenosine deaminase enzyme in infants
- Use in forensic science in identification of individuals
- Identification of carriers of defective genes
- Advantages and disadvantages of recombinant DNA technology.
29 23. Variation and the theory of evolution
(10 periods)
23.1 Variation To define variation and to state its importance. NV:
23.1.1 Continuous and discontinuous variation To define these terms. To express appreciation
To differentiate between them and to state examples.
23.1.2 Source To gather relevant
i) Genetic To explain random assortment of homologous chromosomes during information CCTS:
meiosis, crossing-over, chromosome mutation, gene mutation, - evaluation
polygenes, and dominant and recessive genes/alleles. - making inferences
To study the factors and influences of this source.
ii) Environment To define and describe selection.
23.2 Selection To state its importance and to give examples.
To state the relationship between selection and variation.
To explain and differentiate the terms below :
-Stabilising selection To source for the relevant
23.2.1 Natural selection -Directional selection information
-Disruptive selection
-Sexual selection
-Polymorphism
To explain the breeding of farm animals and crop plants.
To explain controlled/selective breeding (inbreeding, outbreeding).
23.2.2 Artificial selection To explain the purpose of human and animal sperm banks.

30 23.3 Speciation To define and to describe.
To state its importance and to give examples.
23.3.1 Concept of species To state the problems in defining species. To tabulate the information To appreciate
23.3.2 Speciation process To explain the formation of new species through isolation, genetic drift, To collect information on
hybridization, and adaptive radiation. specific examples of each
case
31 23.4 Evolution To define and to describe.
To state its importance and to give examples.
23.4.1 Lamarck’s Theory To explain the theory and to give examples. To gather information on To appreciate
23.4.2 Darwin-Wallace’s Theory To explain the theory and to give examples. both of these theories
23.4.3 Evidence supporting the theory of evolution To explain the terms given :
- paleontology
- geographical distribution
- comparative anatomy
- comparative embryology
- biochemistry
- DNA homology
32, 33 Revision To reflect back on all the topics covered during the Lower Six class. To have a Q & A session
34 Second Term – Mid Term Break (22-8-2009 to 30-8-2009)
35, 36, STPM Trial Examination (1-9-2009 to 18-9-2009)
37
38 Cuti Hari Raya (20-9-2009 to 27-9-2009)
39 to Revision To reflect back on all the topics covered during the Lower and Upper To have a Q & A session
45 Six class.
46 Final Term Break (23-11-2009 to 4-1-2010)
SMK(L) METHODIST, KL.
YEARLY SCHEME OF WORK - BIOLOGY LOWER SIX – 2009

Week Theme/Title Objectives/Learning Outcomes Activities Noble values &
CCTS
18 A. THE BIOLOGY OF MOLECULES AND CELLS
To explain polarity,cohesiveness, density, surface tension, specific heat Noble values:
1. Basic chemistry of a cell (15 periods) capacity, and latent heat of vaporization. To appreciate
1.1 Physical and chemical properties and physiological role Discussion
1.1.1Water To differentiate between reducing and non-reducing sugar. CCTS:
Its important properties as a constituent and medium for life To explain aldehyde and ketone groups. - making
1.1.2 Carbohydrates To draw the structure of a triose (glyceraldehyde), a pentose ring (ribose associations or
Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides and deoxyribose), and a hexose ring (glucose), Compare and contrast connections
To explain the formation of a glycosidic bond. - to category
To draw the polymerisation process. Make conclusions

19 1.1.3Lipids
Triglycerides: fatty acids and glycerol To compare between saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Compare and contrast Noble values:
To explain the term ester and esterification process. Ascertain structures To appreciate
To explain the structure of lecithin and its importance in health. Discussion
Phospholipids To discuss steroid drug abuse. Make structural drawings CCTS:
- making
Steroids To differentiate between the types based on side chains. associations or
1.1.4Proteins To explain the peptide bond and polymerization process. connections
Amino acids To differentiate the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary Make comparisons - to category
structures. - identifying
To explain the bonding involved in the formation of proteins. To compare and contrast - predicting
Levels of structure To differentiate between fibrous and globular proteins. consequences
To state all the properties and to explain the factors causing denaturation. To compare and contrast
To draw the nucleotide structure.
Conjugated proteins To explain the phosphodiester bond in the formation of polynucleotide To make structural
Properties of proteins To identify the Watson and Crick’s model of DNA structure. drawings
To differentiate between the three types of RNA. To make comparisons
1.1.5 Nucleic acids To state the differences between DNA and RNA.
1.1.6 Other biomolecules: ions and vitamins To give examples and to state the importance of these substances. To draw tables
20 1.2 Movement of substances through membrane
1.2.1 Passive transport
Diffusion To define and to give examples. Give definitions Noble values:
Facilitated diffusion To explain the process. To appreciate
Osmosis and water potential To deduce the mechanism of action. Explain processes
1.2.2 Active transport To calculate the water potential. Make calculations CCTS:
1.2.3 Endocytosis (pinocytosis and phagocytosis) To define the mechanism and to give examples. - making
1.2.4 Exocytosis To explain the process and to give examples. associations or
To explain the process and to give examples. connections

21 1.3 Techniques of analysis To explain the uses of these methods in scientific analysis. Explain basic principles
1.3.1Chromatography only
1.3.2Electrophoresis Compare and contrast
1.3.3X-Ray diffraction
22, 23 First Term Break (1-6-2009 to 14-6-2009)

24 2. Structures of cells and organelles
(14 periods) To identify the differences between these two types of cells. To compare and contrast Noble values:
2.1 Prokaryotic cells To draw the structure of eukaryotic cells as seen under the electron To appreciate
2.2 Generalised eukaryotic cells microscope.
To differentiate between plant and animal cells. CCTS:
2.2.1 Plant cells To compare and contrast - making
2.2.2 Animal cells To study the structure and functions of membranes based on the Singer associations or
2.3 Cellular components model. To draw the model connections
2.3.1 Membrane, cell wall, and cytoplasm diagrammatically
25 2.3.2 Organelles To explain the structure, function and distribution of all the organelles. To draw the structure of all
the organelles listed below Noble values:
i) Nucleus: nucleolus, chromosomes, nucleoplasm, and nuclear To appreciate
membrane To write short notes on the
ii) Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum functions of all these CCTS:
iii) Mitochondria organelles - making
iv) Golgi apparatus To explain the process of lysosome action. associations or
v) Lysosomes connections
26 vi) Ribosomes To write short notes on the Noble values:
vii) Chloroplasts To explain the structure of chloroplasts of higher plants only functions of all these To appreciate
viii) Centrioles organelles
ix) Microtubules CCTS:
x) Microfilaments - making
xi) Vacuoles associations or
connections
27 2.4 Specialised cells To explain the structure, function and distribution of all these cells. To observe prepared slides Noble values:
2.4.1 Plant cells To define these cells. of these cells under the To appreciate the
i) Meristem To give detailed description of each type of cell in terms of structure, microscope create of the God
ii) Parenchyma function and distribution. To draw detailed diagram of
iii) Collenchyma To differentiate between simple and stratified types. each type of cell CCTS:
iv) Sclerenchyma To explain the formation of both endocrine and exocrine glands. - making
v) Xylem (tracheids and vessels) To explain and to draw the general structure of neurons (sensory, To observe prepared slides associations or
vi) Phloem (companion cells and sieve tubes) interneuron, and motor). of these cells under the connections
2.4.2 Animals cells To state the differences between muscle types. microscope
i) Epithelium : squamous, cuboidal, and columnar To explain the structure of striated muscles as seen under the electron To draw detailed diagram of
ii) Nerves microscope. each type of cell
iii) Muscles : smooth, striated, and cardiac To explain the structure and function of bone, hyaline cartilage, To connect the structure of
iv) Bone, cartilage, and blood erythrocytes, and leucocytes. these cells to their function

2.5 Analytical techniques To explain their basic principles only.
2.5.1 Ultracentrifugation To explain the use in the isolation of cellular components.
2.5.2 Microscopy: light and electron To explain the uses of phase-contrast, transmission and scanning electron To compare and contrast
microscopes. between the three
To give examples of their uses.
28 3. Control in cells (7 periods)
3.1 Enzymes To define the term enzyme. NV:
To state the properties of enzymes. - to appreciate
3.1.1 Catalysis and activation energy To explain the meaning of catalysis. - the importance
To explain the lowering of activation energy by enzymes in a reaction. of the
To explain the lock-and-key model. coordination
3.1.2 Mechanism of action and kinetics To explain affinity and Michaelis-Menten constant, and the Lineweaver- To draw the lock-and-key that exist in our
Burk plot. model body sys. in
To define cofactors. order to let the
To give examples of each type of cofactor. body function
3.1.3 Cofactors : metal ions, coenzymes, and prosthetic groups To compare the action of each type of cofactor. well
To define inhibitors.
3.1.4 Inhibitors : competitive and non-competitive To give examples of both type of inhibitors. To compare and contrast CCTS:
To compare the action of each type inhibitor. - making
3.1.5 Classification To define major types according to IUB system : hydrolases, lyases, To compare and contrast associations or
tranferases, isomerases, ligases/synthesases, and oxydoreductases. connections
To give examples of each reaction. To make comparisons of - classifying
To state the meaning of these terms. each method of action.
3.1.6 Technology : enzyme immobilization and biosensing To give examples of their uses.
29 Ujian Selaras T6B (20-7-2009 to 24-7-2009)
30 3.2 DNA and protein synthesis NV:
3.2.1 DNA as genetic material To explain the experiment of Avery and colleagues. To draw conclusion from - to appreciate
3.2.2 Gene concept, one-gene-one polypeptide hypothesis To explain the experiment of Beadle and Tatum. the results of these three - the importance
3.2.3 DNA replication To explain the experiment of Messelson and Stahl. experiments. of the
To explain the processes involved in DNA replication. coordination
3.2.4 Protein synthesis To define transcription. To make schematic that exist in our
To explain the processes of mRNA production. drawings of these entire body sys. in
To define translation. processes in order to have a order to let the
To explain the processes of polypeptide production. better understanding. body function
well
CCTS:
- making
associations or
connections
- classifying
31 B. ENERGETICS
4. Photosynthesis (9 periods)
4.1 Light reaction - Reaction and detailed description To describe and to draw a Noble values:
- Photoactivation of photosystem I and photosystem II schematic diagram of light To appreciate the
- Photolysis of water reaction create of the God
- Production and roles of NADPH and ATP
4.2 Dark reaction/ Calvin cycle in C3 and C4 plants - Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation To compare and contrast the
- Reaction and detailed description C3 and C4 plant CCTS:
- CO2 fixation to RuDP - making
- Production of PGAL until the formation of carbohydrates To describe the dark associations or
- Involvement in the formation of proteins and fatty acids reaction connections
- Anatomical and physiological differences between leaves of C 3 and - classifying
C4 plants
- Krantz’s anatomy
- Hatch-Slack pathway
- Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
- Example : cactus
4.3 Factors limiting the rate of photosynthesis - Wavelength and intensity of light, temperature, and carbon dioxide To analyse
concentration
- Compensation point
32 6. Nutrition (2 periods)

6.1 Autotroph - Concept with examples - describe the different Noble values:
6.1.1 Chemosynthesis - Refer to topic 4. Photosynthesis ways of nutrients To appreciate the
6.1.2 Photosynthesis - Brief description of photosynthesis in bacteria consumption. create of the God
- Classifying
6.2 Heterotroph - Concept with examples organisms according CCTS:
6.2.1 Holozoic to the method of - to classifying
6.2.2 Saprophytic nutrients - to evaluate
6.2.3 Parasitic consumption - to compare
33 H. TAXONOMY, BIODIVERSITY, AND THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
21. Taxonomy (3 periods) NV:
21.1 Purpose and importance of taxonomy To give a brief description of the purpose and importance of taxonomy. To explain the purpose of To appreciate the
To differentiate between artificial classification system and natural giving each organism a create of the God and
21.2 Classification system classification system. name. to realize the
To define taxonomic rank. importance of other
21.3 Taxonomic hierarchy To give examples of taxonomic hierarchy for plants and animals. species and man
21.4 Dichotomous keys To explain the methods of constructing dichotomous keys.
To explain the use of dichotomous keys for the purpose of identification of To do experiments where CCTS:
organisms. both plant and animals -classifying
21.5 Biological nomenclature To give examples of dichotomous keys. specimens are identified - grouping
To explain the binomial system and to give examples. and given a name. - categorizing
33 22. Biodiversity (16 periods) To give the definition of biodiversity.
22.1 Five kingdom systems To give the morphological characteristics and examples. To identify and to draw NV:
22.1.1 Kingdom Prokaryotae : To give the morphological characteristics at the phylum and class levels. To appreciate the
viruses and bacteria To identify and to draw create of the God and
22.1.2 Kingdom Protoctista : to realize the
i) Cholorophyta : one example of unicellular and one importance of other
example of filamentous species and man
ii) Phaeophyta : one example of fucoid
iii) Rhizopoda : Amoeba CCTS:
iv) Ciliophora : Paramecium -classifying
v) Zoomastigina : Euglena - grouping
- categorizing
34 Second Term – Mid Term Break (22-8-2009 to 30-8-2009)
35 22.1.3 Kingdom Fungi : Mucor To give the morphological characteristics at the kingdom level. To identify and to draw
To give the morphological characteristics at the phylum and class levels.
22.1.4 Kingdom Plantae : To identify and to draw NV:
i) Bryophyta : Marchantia To appreciate the
ii) Filicinophyta : Dryopteris create of the God and
iii) Coniferophyta : Pinus to realize the
iv) Angiospermophyta : Zea mays and Helianthus importance of other
22.1.5 Kingdom Animalia : To give the morphological characteristics at the phylum and class levels. To identify and to draw species and man
i) Porifera : Sycon
ii) Cnidaria : Obelia CCTS:
iii) Platyhelminthes : Taenia -classifying
iv) Nematoda : Ascaris - grouping
v) Annelida : Pheretima - categorizing
36 vi) Arthropoda : To give the morphological characteristics at the phylum and class levels. To identify and to draw
Insecta : Periplaneta
Arachnida : Lycosa NV:
Crustacea : Penaeus To appreciate the
Chilopoda : Lithobius create of the God and
Diplopoda : Lulus to realize the
Merostomata : Limulus To give the morphological characteristics at the phylum and class levels. importance of other
vii) Mollusca : Helix To identify and to draw species and man
viii) Echinodermata : Holothuria
ix) Chordata : CCTS:
Chondrichthyes : Carcharodon -classifying
Osteichthyes : Tilapia - grouping
Amphibia : Rana - categorizing
Reptilia : Naja
Aves : Columba
Mammalia : Ratus
37 22.2 Biodiversity in Malaysia To define biodiversity. To gather relevant NV:
22.2.1 Ecosystem diversity To explain different types of ecosystem found in Malaysia : tropical forest, information To love and to
mangrove swamp forest, and coastal. To have class room maintain the diversity
To compare the diversity of plant (flora) and animal (fauna) species and to presentation in Malaysia
22.2.2 Species diversity give examples of ferns and insects.
To compare genetic variation between population in humans, and plant and CCTS:
animal species. - making
22.2.3 Genetic diversity To explain the factors which threat the extinction of biodiversity such as association or
excessive and illegal logging, pollution of rivers and beaches, fish connection
22.3 Threat of extinction to biodiversity in Malaysia bombing, and the exploitation of mangrove in an unsustainable way. - evaluation
To explain the implications of the extinction of ecosystem, species, and
genetic diversities on human life and the environment.
To study and explain the steps taken in the conservation of biodiversity in
terms of ecosystem, species, and genetics.
Example : Taman Negara
22.4 Conservation of biodiversity Example : botanical garden, zoo, gene and germplasm banks
22.4.1 In situ conservation
22.4.2 Ex situ conservation
38 Cuti Hari Raya (20-9-2009 to 27-9-2009)
39, 40 Final Year Examination (28-9-2009 to 9-9-2009)

41 I. ECOLOGY
24. Ecosystem (6 periods)
24.1 Organisation of life To explain the concept, hierarchy, and interaction. NV:
24.1.1 Components of life : organisms, populations and To define and to give examples. To realize the
communities, ecosystems, biomes, and biospheres To explain why the emphasis on the dynamism of ecosystems. importance of
24.1.2 Niche and habitat To define and to give examples. ecosystem to human
To state the relationship between niche, habitat, and environment. To gather relevant
To explain the sulphur and phosphorus cycles. information CCTS:
24.2 Biogeochemical cycles To explain the first and second law of thermodynamics. - making connection
24.3 Energy To define and to give one example of this in an ecosystem : pond/forest.
To explain the efficiency of energy transfer by producers, consumers, and
24.3.1 Flow composers. To try and establish a
To give an example of this in an ecosystem : pond/forest. relationship between the
24.3.2 Transfer two
42 - 45 25. Quantitative ecology (12 periods)
25.1 Population ecology To explain the terms given : NV:
- Biotic potential - co-operation
- Natality - tolerate
- Mortality
- Migration
- Survivorship CCTS:
- r and K strategies - calculation
- Population growth - solving
- Factors limiting population size and distribution problems
- Liebig’s law
- Shelford’s law
25.2 Applied ecology To explain carrying capacity. To read up gather
To explain how the management and conservation of ecosystems are information on this matter
done. and its relevance to what is
To explain how sustainable development is done in forestry, agriculture, happening in our country.
and fishery.
46 Final Term Break (23-11-2009 to 4-1-2010)