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Ningjiang “Jay” Cheng, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Virginia

maintain, enhance, and extend. Information storage
1. Introduction and access are fragmented across these isolated
links, leading to slower decision making and less
A large airport typically has dozens of
efficient teamwork in an increasingly complex
automation systems that require automatic
airport environment. It also brings the risk that the
information interchange among them to ensure safe
common data that exist in various different
and efficient airport operations. However, those
applications may not be consistent. As competition
systems were often developed by different vendors
and the need to maximize profits and efficiencies
and were not designed to be interoperable, which
grow, airports have to find a better way to integrate
makes systems integration a very complicated
these “fragmented” systems. This paper describes a
matter. Ad hoc point-to-point integration often
framework that provides a better way to integrate
proves to be problematic. An integration framework
airport systems. This integration framework guides
is needed to avoid “spaghetti integration”. This
the system integration not only for existing
paper presents an integration framework for
applications, but also for the design and
defining the integration information requirements
procurement of a new airport’s automation systems.
and designing the systems integration architecture.

1.1 Background 1.2 The Integration Framework
There are two basic aspects of the systems
The management and operations of a
integration in a complex airport environment. One
successful modern airport has always been a
aspect is the approach for collecting and managing
complex exercise. Today, pressure from new airline
integration requirements. The other aspect is the
alliances and low cost operators, together with
conceptual integration system architecture used to
airport privatization and acquisition, is resulting in a
guide the physical system architecture design and
far more competitive environment between airports.
evolution. These two aspects are described in two
Operational efficiency needs to be taken to a more
models: an integration information model and an
advantageous cost base without compromising
integration system architecture model.
growth and quality. This requires increased
automation and integration of the airport systems, The integration information model describes
and a clearer, more consistent and timely view of the airport business integration requirements by
the total airport business. capturing integration information elements in terms
of standard notations such as Unified Modeling
Most airports have established point to point
Language (UML). Due to the complexity of a large
system interfaces. When the number of systems to
airport, an organization and a process need to be
be integrated increases, the number of interfaces
established to manage systems integration
becomes unmanageable. This tactical approach to
requirements systematically.
airport systems integration proves difficult to

Disclaimer: The contents of this material reflect the views of the author and The MITRE Corporation. Neither the Federal Aviation
Administration nor the Department of Transportation makes any warranty or guarantee, or promise, expressed or implied, concerning
the content or accuracy of the views expressed herein.

 2001 The MITRE Corporation. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED


This information model will also become the major source for the metadata The operations of a large airport are driven by of the AODB. parties. and becomes the basis to define the smoothly plan. producing more details as time goes on. which is executed by the essential to fully describe the information business unit that provides baggage-handling interchange requirements of an airport: services.1 General Description business units that execute the business functions. management of common airport operational data with high data quality and reliability. An integration information model is specification that helps prevent “spaghetti essential to describe information interchange integration” and ensures that the integration is requirements. An AODB provides a centralized detail by different users. the model could be mapped into an Together. It also describes the 2. business information. In the end. among which are integration hierarchy diagram and business process flow middleware and an Airport Operational Database diagram and could be viewed at different levels of (AODB). • Airport business functions/units • Airport business events In modern airports. During the maintenance phase of an integration The model is typically stored in a repository project. The integration information model consists of For example. A Computer Aided System 2. the majority of business area functions are computerized.2 Airport Business Functions/Business the definition and maintenance of these information Units elements with a defined process. Systems Integration Information Engineering (CASE) tool can be used to help Model maintain this repository. They also provide a integration Application Programming Interface base for integrators to define their approach to (API). Baggage Handling is an airport the following information elements that are business function. This model provides a framework for the systems integration This element describes the business area requirements management. There are usually 2 . procure and manage its airport specifications for the message types and the automation systems integration. Airport business units create information. This model consists of information maintainable and extensible. distribute This integration information model provides a information. The integration system architecture model • Event data objects provides a guideline for airport Information • Airport business processes Technology (IT) architecture planning and integration system design and development. these two models provide a high implementation design that follows the architecture level “what” and “how” for the airport authority to model. this framework governs the smooth that provides easy and secured access to interested evolution of integrated airport automation systems. This These information elements are captured in model identifies important system components for both text and diagrams such as business function the integration. using an automated baggage handling system. functions of the airport that need to cooperate with each other in some way to accomplish the overall airport operations mission. It then much greater extensibility. and also facilitates the maintenance of the integration information. An integration control board (ICB) is needed to manage 2. This team initially integration services and adds to the system with collects requirements and refines the list. provides views of different levels of detail. lifecycle. transform information. and take actions on received clear path for the integration requirements information. scalability and follows the model throughout the development evolveability. The The model is developed and maintained by the integration middleware provides systems integration requirements team. requirement analysis and architecture design. elements that describe the inter-operations.

3 Airport Event Data Objects An airport operation can be divided into the The event data object element describes the following three high-level business areas: Airside information transferred between business area Operations. When information systems are not integrated. These application systems produce and/or event. Baggage Handling. the 2. which When integrated. an arrival delay is a business triggered by flight delay event would involve a lot event that has impact on many other business area of business functions such as flight information functions. flight delay. The model their own internal business processes. participating systems are notified transforms the event and related data objects into automatically of an event of interest. data object is described in plain language and Cargo Handling. An airport can be increased. SCHEDULED DEPARTURE functions and what they should provide to other TIME and AIRPORT ID. Typically. The Flight Information Display. 2. Triggering information sharing on involved. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) operations of the airport. Ramp Handling. and the result new events or data objects. An event activates a business process. and overall responsiveness flight cancel and passenger check-in. and its a message. data Management. consume information about airport operations and resource allocations. and many applications also have originating business area functions.4 Airport Business Processes end-user has to gather the event result and pass it to the operators of other interested business units. When an event occurs. A data Operations. For example. For example. This event would likely originate from display. and Building further defined by its attributes. Those business area functions need to object FLIGHT SCHEDULE is further defined by be analyzed to define their integration requirements its attributes FLIGHT NUMBER. The analysis results would the data object that needs to be passed is described be documented into the integration information by its identification attributes and the attributes that model. These can be further decomposed into object is a real or conceptual entity that holds more specific business area functions. 2. The related events should be identified also. business event. the process For example. business area functions. The Air Traffic Control (ATC).3 Airport Business Events The data objects are typically transferred in A business event is an occurrence or situation messages and may be collected in the airport central that is considered important to the overall database. and what results should come out of this function. such as relevant information for a business operation. The processes described in the model are occurrence of business events can deliver typically airport-wide and are for integration only. manual operations and passenger events. business function is often a process step in an airport business process. and has impact on process diagram gives a clear picture of how the business area functions such as Flight Information affected airport business area functions inter- Display. which describes the event. SCHEDULED in terms of what they need from other business area ARRIVAL TIME. and operate to handle the occurrence of an airport Cargo Operations. get new values. Ramp Control. significant benefits to the airport: throughput and They are usually triggered by flight events or efficiency can be improved. result will impact other business area function(s). such as flight arrival. Baggage Handling. errors can be automation systems in each business area initiated. where and how the event is typically perform lower-level functions within a business area. Landside Operations and Terminal functions when business events occur. baggage handling and ramp control. 3 . The model thus of the event is available immediately to those identifies the stimulating events and data objects systems. the event is provides a standard for formatting the data object in generated in one business area function. Many processes involve more than Business events can be grouped based on their one application.

resources data among them. party (including airport business units. To avoid chaos in the evolution of such a domain experts. evolveability. an architecture model becomes important. Without such an The airport automation consists of its IT organization and process.1 Requirements of the Systems Integration Architecture • Set up and supervise working groups • Review and approve integration The systems integration architecture model information requirements. Systems Integration Architecture defined in this model. and interoperability. The The ICB and its working groups provide an integration information model serves this purpose. maintainability. These goals help reduce cost in system life cycle while • Provide a mechanism for each authorized increasing business operations efficiency. A pages. and systems integration integration contractor. If a major subsystem (such as • Provide a mechanism (such as a Baggage Handling System or Passenger Check-in integration forum) for all interested System) fails. This central organization also needs a formal process to approve the requirements Model specifications and changes. This becomes more of an issue in an 4 . extensibility. and to event. organizational assurance to prevent the “spaghetti by calling for a central organization to facilitate the integration” that may otherwise occur. and other daily tasks. and requirements. It manager and sometimes the project technical provides technical guidance for airport IT manager (or chief engineer) of the primary architecture planning. requirements collection and analysis and to maintain the integration information elements 3.1.1 Reliability easily access the integration information Reliability is a concern in all operational model elements at the desired level of systems. environment. When a process is triggered by a business concerns. communications between participating organizations flowing and coordinated. It is a system of The ICB usually consists of airport operations systems. it is hard to define infrastructure and a large number of individual integration requirements and even harder to information subsystems that share flight maintain these requirements. information requirement changes. repository maintenance. newsgroups. it has major impact on the operations stakeholders to raise their questions. and acceptance testing. scalability. It is very important for all testing. presented is designed to achieve a number of goals: • Review and approve integration reliability. but especially so in an airport detail. Each working group can be formed with subcontractors and other stakeholders to work on subsets of the 2. The functions of the ICB include the following: 3. Various participating airport business units to reach collaboration capabilities such as e-mail. contractors and airport authority) to 3. the airport IT chief and operations system. web consensus on their inter-operation requirements. the involved business systems get exchange opinions. design and development. and teleconferencing facilitate mechanism needs to be established to keep operations of these working groups. servers. of the airport. We call this information and other airport operations and organization the Integration Control Board (ICB). business area that is supported by one or more interface testing plan and procedures. integration automation system(s).5 Integration Control Board (ICB) integration information model and issues in other An airport business unit usually represents a project phases such as interface specification. notification and data of the event delivered by the integration software components that reside on the The working groups are responsible for database server or the integration application integration requirements analysis and specification.

g.integrated airport since so many different defined interfaces are maintained. as long as the 5 . the architecture driven software design will make the system easier not only needs to provide reliable central systems to adapt to business changes. Time and budget should not be the since the airport operation is basically a sequence of excuse for not updating documents. it should not stop the defined by the new IT infrastructure or simply be Passenger Check-in System.. The initial architecture of the system integration The use of Open Systems design principles. even better. it not only requires a highly reliable integrated system. As with system can be kept operational. only related to the IT infrastructure if it has a multi-tiered components of the layer need to be changed. only update the data objects needed. integration in the follow-on phases. there are many more components are affected.2 Maintainability business functions or just to improve the efficiency Maintainability refers to how easily an overall of existing business operations. only one module should be updated. tested. the old system components may be not interrupt others. If one vendor goes out of business or no architecture will help. longer provides maintenance service. it individual integrated subsystems. an event server Architecture that provides well-defined interfaces facilitates event-based messaging between different between each system object in the system hierarchy application systems.3 Evolveability approach provides for better extensibility. The upper layer following international standards. the existing event server might not be layer provide independent functional service to the able to provide satisfactory event services. Evolveability is defined as the ability of an 3. structure and component-based Open Systems 3. For example. For example.5 Scalability integrated system to adapt to continuous changes in Scalability refers to the ability to add more the business requirements and technologies. only those obsolete components need to be replaced with components from other vendors. Extensibility is defined as the ease of adding new functions to the system. and practiced. either to support new 3. in a new airport.1. For example. A systems or components to improve the system hierarchical component-based Open System performance. Thus. this concern applies both to there is a bug in the software of one subsystem. but also requires a contingency plan for 3. the central database and application servers). this.1. such as becomes very important to facilitate easy well-defined interfaces and well-structured design. A rule-driven or data- things that could go wrong.4 Extensibility manual operations be in place. When many more application accomplishes this goal. if a Flight wrapped or bridged to implement the interfaces Information Display fails. the project. To prevent system evolution much smoother. or added in the follow-on two phases of the project. (e. systems are added to the group originally The system components in each architecture integrated. A reliable system guarantees the success of Documentation is as important as having a airport business event publication and delivery good design. all distributed system architecture. If the sequence documents updated and accessible will make the stops.1. If there is technology advancement in the IT but also ensures that a failure in one subsystem does infrastructure.1. only eight integrated subsystems. no other system subsystems are interconnected. Then. Keeping events triggered one by another. if evolveability. A hierarchical improve the maintainability of systems. replaced. impact to the business operations and other For example. bottleneck could be easily resolved by adding more When there is a change in the business needs or event servers or a larger more powerful event server technology used in one layer. another 35 subsystems might be Ideally. this airport operation would stop. A requirement change subsystems might be integrated in the first phase of should only impact a minimum number of modules. and to the overall should be fixed quickly with minimum cost and system IT infrastructure used for integration itself. Use of application other integrated subsystems and components need servers and a component-based distributed not change.

The diagram shown in Figure 1 gateways were used to connect them. TCP/IP is the most frequently layers to Database Network Interface layer. Network Communications layer is hidden by Application systems access the network vendor's Database Network Interface layer. hence high efficiency of business operations. flexibility and increased cost. the AODB accesses directly each of the lower multiple recipients. Before of hierarchical layers. the network on each layer should be built on top of its next provides other communication protocols. a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) product Database Network Interface communicates with other systems with little or no customization. IP to access the services of the layers lower than the Multicast. Business Integration The IT infrastructure in an airport promotes this Services interoperability by providing necessary integration services to individual systems. lower layers down to the Network Communications flow control. and session/application protocols such as adjacent layer. The diagram shows that the FTP. Systems Integration Architecture: A integration information model and is vital to Hierarchical View achieve interoperability. stand- bottom to top. Above Although the general rule is that the software the universal connectivity IP layer.2 Integration System Architecture Hierarchy This layer provides end-to-end network Model connectivity. which in turn consist of the Internet Protocol (IP) allowed universal independent yet interoperable modules or software connectivity (routing). Data standardization becomes possible with Figure 1. Each specific middleware-layer services. Each layer provides services to its isolated from the rest of the network. Among layer. This model consists between any two devices on the network. many subsystems were components. One important characteristic of this A layered architecture is called for to satisfy layer is that it provides universal connectivity the six “-bility” requirements. With a built-in standard interface. so that vendors can have those integration interfaces built Middleware Framework in their products. Today. UDP. and efficient sending of data to layer. it becomes increasingly important for components in a system Subsystems AODB to freely exchange data.2. With collaboration Data Access among leading vendors and airports. but at reduced describes this hierarchical view. Such layer is described in the following sections from communication is often used by pre-existing. This is achieved by promoting and following international standards. Custom upper layers. alone subsystems that do not have automatic data exchange with other systems. The used standard protocol provided by this layer. there are cases in which some software needs these are transport protocols such as TCP. it is possible to Components standardize those integration services. Additionally. IP can easily provide universal connectivity at a low cost.1 Network Communications Layer 3.1. such as communications layer directly if they do not need Oracle's Net8 (formerly called SQL Net). 3.6 Interoperability To achieve a high level of automation. Network Communications The architecture should utilize as much as possible the centrally managed metadata that are originated from the integration information model. The transport protocols allow for such added Subsystems Layer accesses directly each of the capabilities as reliable end-to-end data transfer. 3. most subsystems will use this type of direct connectivity 6 .

Obviously. If the underlying protocols component-based development tool. There are vendor proprietary middleware upon to perform. • Message-Oriented Middleware (MOM): 3. change. the SQL statements and the results are returned to MOM capability can be used by publish- the client application via the database network and-subscribe services or for direct point- interface. client sender and receiver. operating systems and programming The Network Communications Layer shields languages.internally to communicate with other components • Database access middleware: software of the subsystem. but most middleware products are available are: 7 . In networked environments. to-point communication. Once received. Almost all vendors level protocols for all computing devices in the also provide database access APIs in airport. and it is based on the idea of a 3. The most popular ones are the details of physical connectivity and other lower ODBC and JDBC. Among the types of middleware standards also. Some also provide transaction computer networks (including backbone network) management and load balancing like TP in the airport are hiding behind this layer. There are a variety of middleware technology that is strongly supported middlewares available.2. continue to function. Distributed Call Interface (OCI). This is largely due to the by the vendor communities as an alternative to varied set of functions that such a layer is called DCOM.2. It shields the upper layer from any from DCE and still shares many features with it.2. while the application that runs on top of the applications require no modification and will component framework. The oriented towards Microsoft operating systems such database access components and integration as Windows NT. Common Object Request Broker components are largely built on top of this Architecture (CORBA) is an object-oriented middleware layer. For example. if the applications submit database requests to the server receiver program is not running when the using SQL statements through the database network message is sent. With a communications. the message will be interface layer. Monitor. the components. Database Network Interface Layer a message-passing service that allows for This layer supports the client/server database asynchronous communication between architecture. Distributed Component Object facilitates information exchange between Model (DCOM) is a more recent object-oriented application subsystems in a distributed network middleware technology that was originally derived environment. the database administrator makes some components can be assembled into an changes on the network configuration file.3 Middleware Framework Layer "distributed operating system" that allows This layer provides the common services applications to treat the network as a single required to support component-based software and computing resource. typically provided by application system uses functions of the middleware database vendors. Computing Environment (DCE) is the oldest of the three technologies. which in turn uses the Network the database from a variety of different Communications Layer for its communications. the server processes queued until the receiver starts running. the communication and C/C++. The services of There are three primary standards for the the Net8 are usually provided through the Oracle component framework middleware [1]. The database network interface shields the • Software component framework details of different supporting network middleware: software frameworks allow communication protocols. An example of the database network interface is Oracle’s Net8. that provide access to layer. When integration is needed. network concerns and acts as the “glue” that DCOM is provided by Microsoft and is specifically connects the different software components. The database server and components to run in an orderly manner client application developers do not have to be and to be ported to different platforms concerned with the supporting network and physical process structures.

central organizing “backbone” the business components. Often. one not only successfully reuses code.2.5 Business Integration Service Layer The AODB Layer provides two types of The business integration service layer provides services: the data service for airport operational and software components with APIs specially required historical data. logging services and transaction services operational database and a data warehouse. security services. data objects or other derived data elements based on reduced resource consumption and more efficient business requirements. A component in the architecture is a software but also implements business rules in a consistent module that performs a well-defined business way across airport systems. and can be replaced by management services for airport operational and another vendor’s components with the same historical data. They are supported directly by and helps the use of the data service. middleware framework. With the support of the for enterprise application portfolios [2]. there is no recognized mixed application software modules. the data access components and/or the middleware framework. warehouse belong to this layer. business components and 3. These data access components and tools to access and maintain the database. They became standard for these integration services yet. when a passenger checks in. Although there are industry standards for access functions have been extracted out of the most of the lower layers.4 Data Access Component Layer components. A usually map directly to the data model of the centrally managed database either physically or AODB. performance and reliability. It provides a central data repository external interfaces. it is desirable that they be at more than one physical location in the system.2. future. These architecture and other system architectures lies in components could be integrated through vendor- the business integration service layer that is provided API’s. The components that are called by business components typical products on the market that fall into this needing data from a database or files. Sometimes. deployed on application server(s) for greater The application builder would select and “glue” the scalability. implemented as integration middleware components As the component-based application and provides business integration services via development approach becomes mainstream. these system and business operations. By implementing these business rules in these reusable 3. components together to form a final system that The major difference between this integration could be used directly by the end users. Components of this layer also contain currently needed or will be needed in the near the overall business rules of the airport operations. Architecturally. This is very important function(s) or system function(s). That is. The with the benefit of shielding the details of the operational databases are typically used for on-line complex middleware APIs from each individual transaction processing and hold only the data that is applications. which shielding data access details from the developers of provide a valuable. 3. directory databases installed in an integrated airport: an either starting to or already have interfaces or business rules of the airport dictate that a certain “bridges” to CORBA and DCOM.6 AODB Layer data access components can be deployed anywhere This layer provides centralized data within the framework. these could be deployed on the same physical machine components are designed so that they can be reused together with AODB. components also implement complex integrity rules the airport central operational database and the data and security functions. the historical data for the operations and supports 8 .2. thereby layer are the integration broker suites. it correctly and efficiently. They provide high level services such There are typically at least two physical as event services. has well-defined interfaces and can thus be replaced with another component implementation that Although the integration service components maintains the same interfaces. number of operations be performed. and the metadata service that defines by the integration. data API's. They sometimes also include aggregated virtually provides the benefits of high data quality. and is replaceable to ensure that the integrated airport operates without any impact to other components. The data warehouse typically holds all the For example.

The metadata typically has information in a operational database are: number of different categories of airport data: • The quantity of data stored: only current • Dynamic/operational data that is updated and near future data are stored in the constantly such as the status of actual operational database while all historical flights for the day and the status of data are stored in the data warehouse airport systems • The level of reliability: since the • Schedule data. Building Management System. The subsystems are the intensive queries airport applications that support the day-to-day functions of the airport operations. such as future scheduled operational database is used by all flights integrated applications.decision making and analysis functions. An integrated system given attribute cannot be empty.2. the more important system management is to the smooth operations of the airport. architecture hierarchy. usually taking the In addition to specific subsystems that are form of access control lists of which integrated in an airport. Airport subsystems that may be stored in each attribute frequently correspond to business functions and • Physical constraints on the database such may include Flight Information Display Systems. the same flight information and airport resource For example. It is a challenge for big what kind of access (create. The metadata could also include what information will be shared between the integrated The system management function sits “on top” of all the other software and hardware. system management and users can have access to which table. With AODB providing central airport information dissemination • The tables that will be stored in the and quality control. data inconsistency across the database airport is minimized. Some subsystems and how that information might be differences between the data warehouse and shared. and characters that can be stored in a given Security Management System. monitoring 9 . among different channels. attribute • Security constraints. The more one table are found in another table complex and integrated the airport becomes. enterprises to successfully manage increasingly etc. such as a constraint that a business processes. whereas the data The subsystems layer is at the top of the warehouse has fewer. although they often use constraints on data stored in the central database. which may result in inconsistent other information: data between different systems. higher reliability (e.) a given user has to a given table complex distributed application systems that carry • Integrity and referential constraints on "mission critical" information and support core the database. such as stands/gates. the metadata includes. Each subsystem can even • The attributes (also called columns or resynchronize its local data with the AODB on fields) in each table and the type of data specified time intervals. it must have • Resource data. as the maximum amount of data that can Baggage Handling System.g. Gate Management be stored or the maximum number of System. or that management function is essential for keeping these the only legal values of one attribute in distributed systems working properly. such IATA aircraft types. more processing. update. and control functions are vital. by using a check-in counters and carousels redundant hot stand-by) than the data • Reference data. read. in a relational database management information. They can get that information from system (RDBMS). warehouse IATA airline codes and IATA airport • The usage pattern: the operational codes database has a lot of small transaction processing occurring continuously and 3. These systems The metadata defines the format and are independent systems.7 Subsystems Layer concurrently.

A formal notation. but it needs to be able to access system integration services via API's. procure and manage its airport Integration Services Layer. suffices to record the requirements information. Without a well. at the same level as other subsystems.23 depending on the schedule and budget. This symmetrical architecture increases system Together. the business information and communication systems. pp. It is a multi-layer model with subsystems and AODB on top. guidance on managing the integration requirements. Summary Acknowledgements Large-scale airport systems integration is a The author gratefully acknowledges Catherine very complex and difficult task. To understand and follow a good framework is the first and the most important step in approaching References large-scale systems integration. Ideally. When resources are limited. such as UML. its follow-on An-ping Hou and Gary Bisaga for their constructive maintenance could be unsupportable. inputs. Strategic Analysis Report. The integration architecture model provides guidance on designing the integration system architecture. 1 September 2000. Rhoades of the MITRE planned approach and a framework for guidance. R-11- There are different ways to implement this model 5113. Schulte. Inc. the system integration middleware that could be implemented management system could be treated just as another as integration components and provide business subsystem. 1997.. the interface requirements document. The integration information model provides Application Integration Middleware Market. Part designing the integration system architecture Number: CE-Z7970-93 respectively. They also integration services are configurable with an provide a base for integration contractors to define integration service management tool that could be their approach to requirements analysis and considered another subsystem in the architecture. [2] R. these two models provide a high flexibility. if Corporation for their constructive comments. middleware components below. and the database network interface and network communications on the bottom. sometimes called the airport business integration guide.their operations status and allowing for remote model from other system architectures lies in the control. In this layered architecture. includes two models that provide guidance on Middleware – The Essential Component for managing the integration requirements and Enterprise Client/Server Applications. Bolczak and Ronald G. The major difference of this architecture 10 . and the project itself does not fail. GartnerGroup. 4. an ideal implementation would establish a central automated repository for the collection and distribution of the integration requirements information. N. Altman. The integration objects in every layer. This framework [1] International Systems Group. service API's should be standardized and used by all the vendors to improve productivity and It is interesting to observe that the AODB sits interoperability. should be encouraged in the development of the integration model. The decision on how to manage the level “what” and “how” for the airport authority to source information is made in the Business smoothly plan. R. However. architecture design.