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Hydraulic machines III and EM machines

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

2.000 DC Permanent magnet electric motors

**Topics of today’s lecture:
**

� Project I schedule revisions

� Test

� Bernoulli’s equation

� Electric motors

� Review I x B

� Electric motor contest rules (optional contest)

� Class evaluations

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Project schedule updates

Approx

START WHAT DUE PTS

07 March Project mgmt spread sheet 14 March [ 20 ]

**12 March HMK 6: 1 page concept & equations 02 April [ 80 ]
**

+ SIMPLE 1 page explanation

**19 March Gear characteristics 02 April [ 10 ]
**

1 page explanation

19 March CAD files & DXF files 09 April (via zip disk) [ 90 ]

Σ:

Σ 200

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Streamlines

Streamline: Line which is everywhere tangent to a fluid particle’s velocity.

Stream Line

V

z g VA B

For a steady flow, stream lines do not move/change

A stream line is the path along which a fluid particle travels during steady flow.

**For one dimensional flow, we can assume that pressure (p) and velocity (v) have
**

the same value for all stream lines passing through a given cross section

v2 1

Bernoulli’s equation for steady flow, constant density: + ⋅ p ⋅ + g ⋅ z = Constant

2 ρ

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Bernoulli derivation

For two cross section (ends of control volume) located dx apart:

d(Something)

Something in Something out = Something in + dx

dx

dx

dv

v out= vin +

dx

dx

dA

A out= A in + dx

dx

Differntial changes with dx

dp

p out= pin + dx

dx

dz

z out= z in +

dx

dx

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Bernoulli derivation

**Stead flow momentum equation for Control Volume
**

From F = m a following a fluid mass dv

v v+ dx

mC in ⋅ v in + ΣFon CV = mC out ⋅ v out dx

dx

For a stead, there is no stored mass

mC in = mC out = mC

mC ⋅ v in + ΣFon CV = mC ⋅ v out ΣFon CV = mC ⋅ (v out - v in )

dv dv

v out = v in + dx ΣFon CV = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ v ⋅ dx

dx dx

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Bernoulli derivation

Pressure force:

x ]

)d

dA / dx

z

+ (

dx ] [ A

)

dA / dx )dx

p( dP / dx

(

p +

[

pA

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Bernoulli derivation

Gravity:

z

m⋅ g dz

m ⋅ g ⋅ = −Fx

dx

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Bernoulli derivation

**Summation of pressure and gravity forces:
**

~0

dA dA dp dz

ΣFon CV = p ⋅ A + p ⋅ dx - p ⋅ A - p ⋅ dx − A ⋅ dx − (terms ) ⋅ dx 2 − m ⋅ g ⋅

dx dx dx dx

dp dz

ΣFon CV = −A ⋅ dx − m ⋅ g ⋅ m = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ dx

dx dx

dp dz

ΣFon CV = −A ⋅ dx − ρ ⋅ A ⋅ g ⋅ ⋅ dx

dx dx

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Bernoulli derivation

Equating momentum flow and applied forces:

dp dz

ΣFon CV = −A ⋅ dx − ρ ⋅ A ⋅ g ⋅ ⋅ dx

dv

= ΣFon CV = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ v ⋅ dx

dx dx dx

dp dz dv

− A ⋅ dx − ρ ⋅ A ⋅ g ⋅ ⋅ dx = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ v ⋅ dx

dx dx dx

− A ⋅ (dp ) − ρ ⋅ A ⋅ g ⋅ (dz )⋅ = ρ ⋅ A ⋅ v ⋅ (dv )

**Exact differentials for constant ρ
**

dp v2 1

− − g ⋅ (dz )⋅ = v ⋅ (dv ) + ⋅ p + g ⋅ z = Constant

ρ 2 ρ

© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB

Bernoulli’s Equation: Assumptions

**Flow along streamline
**

� B.E. can only be used between points on the SAME streamline.

Inviscid flow:

� Loss due to viscous effects is negligible compared to the magnitudes of the other

terms in Bernoulli’s equation.

� Bernoulli’s equation can’t be used through regions where fluids mix:

Mixed jets & wakes (flow want to break up, swirl… resulting shear dissipates energy)

Pumps & motors

Other areas where the fluid is turbulent or mixing.

**Stream lines Mixing = Can’t Use Bernoulli’s Equation
**

You can not use Bernoulli’s Equation

through jets or turbulent areas

Mixed Jet

Stead state

� Velocity of the flow is not a function of time, BUT!!! it can be a function of position.

Incompressible

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Bernoulli’s Example – Pipe of variable diameter

**Given vA, find the pressure difference between A & B as a function of AA,
**

AB, and vA. Is this a rise or drop in pressure?

z g

A B C

� Assumptions (along streamline, inviscid, stead state, incompressible)

**Bernoulli’s equation between points A and B:
**

vA2 1 v B2 1

+ ⋅ pA ⋅ + g ⋅ zA = + ⋅ pB ⋅ + g ⋅ zB

2 ρ 2 ρ

Note : z B = z A

(p B − p A ) = ρ ⋅ (v A 2 − v B 2 )

vA2 1 v B2 1

+ ⋅ pA = + ⋅ pB

2 ρ 2 ρ 2

© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB

Bernoulli’s Example – Pipe of variable diameter

z g

A B C

ρ

(

(p B − p A ) = ⋅ v A 2 − v B 2

2

)

Volume flow rate equality:

QA = QB = QC so A A ⋅ v A = A B ⋅ v B = A C ⋅ v C

2

A

v B 2 = v A 2 ⋅ A

AB

2 2

(p B − p A ) = ρ ⋅ v A 2 − v A 2 ⋅ A A = ρ ⋅ v A 2 ⋅ 1 − A A

2 AB 2 A

B

2

AA A

>1 so 1− A < 1 so the pressure drops!

AB AB

© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB

DC PERMANENT

MAGNET MOTOR

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Vector cross product review

y

Vector cross products:

* * *

A×B = C

x

z

Mutual perpendicularity:

� � � B

C is mutually ⊥ to A and B

Magnitude: θA-B

* * *

C = A ⋅ B ⋅ sin (θ A-B ) A

C

When:

� A & B are PARALLEL, the magnitude of (A X B) is 0

θ A-B

� � �

( )

= 0 → C = A ⋅ B ⋅ sin 0o = 0

o

� A & B are PERPENDICULAR, the magnitude (A X B) is maximized

θ A-B

� � �

( ) � �

= 90 → C = A ⋅ B ⋅ sin 90 = A ⋅ B

o o

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Magnetic force on a conductor (wire)

**Force on a conductor carrying a current through a magnetic field:
**

� � �

Fm = I × B

Where:

�

Fm = Magnetic Force [N or lbf ]

� m

Iwire = Current Amps or C

s

� N ⋅s Weber

B= Magnetic flux density C ⋅ m or m 2

MAGNETIC FLUX DENSITY, B

y

**CONDUCTOR / WIRE CURRENT, Iwire x
**

z

MAGNETIC FORCE, Fm

© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB

Magnetic torque on a simple electric machine

**Force on a conductor carrying a current through a magnetic field:
**

For wire 3, θI-B always = 90o so sin(θ

θI-B) always = 1

Force on wires 1 (to left) and 2 (to right) do not act to make wire rotate

� � � � � � � �

FM = I × B FM = I ⋅ B ⋅sin (θ I −B ) = I ⋅ B

� � � � � � � � � �

T = r × F = r × (I × B ) T = r ⋅ I ⋅ B ⋅sin (θ R−F )

B

y y

θI-B θR-F

Iwire Fm z

x

z

3

Fm

1 2

Tm

SIDE VIEW OF MACHINE

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Magnetic torque as a function of position

B

y

y θR-F

Iwire

Fm z

x

z

Fm R

Battery Tm

SIDE VIEW

**Maximum Torque θR-F = 90o Torque Decreases as R & Fm Parallel so Torque = 0 Torque Reverses Direction as
**

sin(θR-F ) Decreases sin(θR-F ) is now negative. Note

θR-F θR-F is in opposite direction.

Fm θR-F

R Tm

R

Fm R

Fm

R

Tm

Fm θR-F

Tm = 0

Tm

Time 0 Time 1 Time 2 Time 3

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

What does the torque vs θ curve look like? [2 mins]

0o

y

θR-F

Fm

z

R

Tm 0

SIDE VIEW

45 15

30

Seconds

© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB

Torque on simple wire loop carrying current

D

+TMAX

T = 0

A

C

D A B C D

-TMAX

B

**Torque curve of simple loop
**

Side view of simple loop

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Keeping the machine in motion

**How to keep the machine moving
**

� Once the wire passes horizontal, Tm tries to stop the wire from rotating.

� To keep the wire rotating, we must either shut off the current or reverse the current.

� If we turn off the current, the wire will continue to rotate due to its inertia.

� If we reverse the current direction when the wire reaches horizontal, Tm will act to

keep the wire spinning

**If current continues in the same direction, Changing current direction will change the direction of Fm.
**

Tm tries to stop wire from spinning.

This in turn switches the direction of Tm. Tm will now act to

keep the wire spinning.

Tm

Fm Fm

R R

θR-F θR-F

Tm

At time 3 Without Current Switch At time 3 With Current Switch

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Torque on switched wire loop carrying current

D

+TMAX

T = 0

A C

D A B C D

-TMAX

B

**Torque curve of switched loop
**

Side view of switched loop

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

DC Permanent magnet electric motor build & contest

**In your kit you will find materials to build a simple electric motor
**

How it works:

� Motor current shuts off when torque becomes negative

� Rotor inertia carries rotor until current turn on

� Repeated cycle keeps the motor spinning.

**We will have a contest (in your lab sessions) to determine winner
**

� How do you maximize energy input?

� How do you minimize losses?

� Friction

� You may need to try various things

� Class record = 1800 RPM!

Prizes

� Fastest motor = $20 Cheesecake Factory gift certificate

� Record breaker = Keep Lego kit at end of class

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

Torque on switched wire loop carrying current

D

+TMAX

T = 0

A

C

D A B C D

-TMAX

B

**Torque curve of switched loop
**

Side view of switched loop

**© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB
**

DC Permanent magnet electric motor build & contest

Contest rules:

� The contest is OPTIONAL

� Motor may only contain the materials in your kit and a roll of life savers

� You may use the contents of your tool kits to help shape/make the motor

� You may not use any other tools/machines to make the motor

� Any wire coil must be wound around the battery or the roll of life savers

� You may obtain up to 3 ft of additional wire from a TA if you need it

� Your motor may only be powered by our power source (fresh D battery)

� We will test them in lab next week

© 2002 MIT PSDAM LAB

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