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Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11/e Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge Chapter 1 Introduction to Organizational Behavior After reading this chapter, you should be able to: 1 Define organizational behavior (OB). Explain the value to OB of systematic study. Identify the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB. Demonstrate why few absolutes apply to OB. Identify the challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts. Identify the three levels of analysis in OB. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education The Field of Organizational Behavior Se Organizational Behavior studies the influence that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations. Its chief goal is to apply that knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Focal Points of OB ee $f. — — Ee — EF — Et Et Jobs Work Absenteeism Employment turnover Productivity Human performance Management Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study ee 0 Intuition: your “gut feeling” explanation of behavior. 0 Systematic study improves ability to accurately predict behavior. a Assumes behavior is not random. o Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior. G These can be identified and modified to reflect individual differences. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Systematic Study Ee o Examines relationships. a Attempts to attribute causes and effects. a Bases conclusions on scientific evidence: © On data gathered under controlled conditions. o Data is measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Evidence-Based Management 8 oO Complements systematic study. O Bases decisions on the best available scientific evidence. oc Forces managers to become more scientific in their thinking. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field ee Micro: nfl Psychology Individual { Social Psychology ! . eA Sociology Groups & Organizations Se aizal Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Few Absolutes in OB Ne O Impossible to make simple and accurate Leer ilalel-Urn Independent Dependent generalizations Variable (Z) ener) pvc) Oo Human beings Eee In American Essien Understood as eee Complimenting and diverse a Sign Culture co OB concepts must reflect In Iranian or Understood as situational Australian Insulting - “Up conditions: Cultures Yours!” contingency variables Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Challenges and Opportunities for OB 0 Responding to Economic Pressures O Responding to Globalization oO Managing Workplace Diversity 3 Improving Customer Service o Improving People Skills © Stimulating Innovation and Change 0 Coping with “Temporariness” a Working in Networked Organizations a Helping Employees with Work-Life Conflicts 0 Improving Ethical Behavior Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Responding to Economic Pressures = a Effective management is especially important during tough economic times. 3 Employees look to their managers to provide security during the instability of a recession. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Responding to Globalization = a Increased foreign assignments O Differing needs and aspirations in workforce a Werking with people from different cultures oO Domestic motivational techniques and managerial styles may not work oO Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Managing Workforce Diversity SO Workforce diversity: organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Diversity Implications “Managers have to shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in ways that ensure employee retention and greater productivity while, at the same time, not discriminating.” Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Improving Customer Service & People Skills a The majority of t V7 employees in e t b> developed nations work in service jobs and they must know how to please their customers. NWYORK, wixicc Oo People skills are essential to succeed in today’s organizations. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Stimulating Innovation and Change Oo Flexibility © Quality Improvement oO Staying Competitive Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Temporariness a Skills need to be updated for Jobs are constantly changing workers to stay on target Workers need to be able to deal with change Employees need to be able to cope with flexibility, spontaneity and unpredictability Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Working in Networked Organizations Oo Managers must adapt their skills and communication styles to succeed in an online environment Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Helping Employees handle work-life conflict The line between work and non work has blurred and managers are increasingly dealing with conflicts that arise between work and life away from work. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Thinking Positive SS 0 Creating a positive work environment can be a competitive advantage 2 Positive Organizational Scholarship (Positive OB): Go Examines how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential. & Focus is on employee strengths, not their weaknesses. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Three Levels of OB Analysis Organization system level Group HATTA Individual level Chapters 14 - 16 Chapters 2-7 Plan of the Book Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Implications for Managers 5 OB helps with: Insights to improve people skills O Valuing of workforce diversity O Empowering people and creating a positive work environment O Dealing with change in the workplace 5 Coping in a world of temporariness 5 Creating an ethically healthy work environment Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Keep in Mind... a 3 OB’s goal is to understand and predict human behavior in organizations. a Fundamental consistencies underlie behavior. a It is more important than ever to learn OB concepts. 2 Both managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education Summary ni. 2. Defined Organizational Behavior (OB). Show the value to OB of systematic study. Identified the major behavioral science disciplines that contribute to OB. Demonstrated how few absolutes apply in OB. Identified the major challenges and opportunities managers have in applying OB concepts. Identified the three levels of analysis in OB. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student ination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permit- ted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their lasses. Allrecipients of this workare expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval ee or transmitted, in any form or by any teat lectronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright© 2012 Pearson Education