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OPTIMAL DESIGN

GUIDELINES FOR
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
OF MATERIAL RECOVERY
FACILITY IN A FAST-GROWING
URBAN SETTING
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................................. 3
FOREWORD & PREFACE ......................................................................................................................... 5
PREFACE ................................................................................................................................................. 6
LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................................................... 7
DEFINITION OF TERMS ............................................................................................................................ 8
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 10
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN THE PHILIPPINES ............................................................... 11
TRENDS & CURRENT SITUATION ........................................................................................................... 13
Analyses Of Solid Waste Management Policies And Issues ..................................................... 14
IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES ...................................................................................................................... 16
ROLES OF ARCHITECTS & BUILDING MANAGERS ............................................................................. 17
CHAPTER 2
ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (ESWM) ....................................................................... 18
Definition & COMPONENTS ................................................................................................................. 19
components Of ESWM ..................................................................................................................... 19
SIGNIFICANCE & BENEFITS OF ESWM ................................................................................................. 20
WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY ................................................................................................... 21
Source Reduction And Reuse ........................................................................................................ 21
Recycling ............................................................................................................................................ 22
Disposal ............................................................................................................................................... 23
Processes & Systems (Treatments, Waste Segregation) ................................................................ 24
Facilities (MRF, Junkshop, Landfill) ..................................................................................................... 24
CHAPTER 3
MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITY (MRF)................................................................................................ 25
What’s an MRF? .................................................................................................................................... 26
MRF Operations .................................................................................................................................... 27
MRF DESIGN GUIDELINES ..................................................................................................................... 30
DESIGN Considerations........................................................................................................................ 31
Site Conditions ................................................................................................................................... 31
Space Requirements........................................................................................................................ 31
Location.............................................................................................................................................. 32
Access................................................................................................................................................. 34
Ventilation .......................................................................................................................................... 34
Utilities.................................................................................................................................................. 34
Safety .................................................................................................................................................. 35
General Traffic ................................................................................................................................... 36
Spatial Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 37
STANDARDS (RA 9003, GREEN BUILDING CODE, LEED, BERDE) .................................................... 41
RA 9003 ............................................................................................................................................... 41
GREEN BUILDING CODE ................................................................................................................... 43
LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY ................................................................ 44
BERDE .................................................................................................................................................. 45
APPLICATIONS IN BUILDING ................................................................................................................ 46
APPLICATIONS IN COMMUNITY .......................................................................................................... 46
CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURE ............................................................................................................ 46
CHAPTER 4
WASTE RECEIVING FACILITY................................................................................................................ 47
WHAT ARE WASTE RECEIVING FACILITY? .......................................................................................... 48
LIST OF ACCREDITED AND DENR CERTIFIED FACILITIES ................................................................... 48
WASTE STREAM DOCUMENTATION .................................................................................................... 48
SUSTAINABLE WASTE TREATMENT ........................................................................................................ 48
CHAPTER 5
WASTE – TO – ENERGY ......................................................................................................................... 49
WHAT IS WASTE – TO – ENERGY? ........................................................................................................ 50
PURPOSE & PROCESS ........................................................................................................................... 51
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................................... 51
SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................................. 52
FOREWORD
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incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud
exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure
dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.
Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt
mollit anim id est laborum."
PREFACE
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incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud
exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure
dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur.
Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt
mollit anim id est laborum."
LIST OF ACRONYMS
3 Rs Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
3 Cs Confine, Compact, Cover
C&D Construction and Demolition
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ESWM Ecological Solid Waste Management
FSSI Foundation of Sustainable Society Incorporated
GHG Greenhouse Gas
ISWM Integrated Sustainable Waste Management
ISWMP Integrated Solid Waste Management Programme
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
LGA Local Government Authority
LGUs Local Government Units
MRF Material Recovery Facility
NGO Non-Governmental Organization
PHILGBC Philippine Green Building Code
SWAPP Solid Waste Management Association of the Philippines
SDGs Sustainable Development Goals
United Architects of the Philippines – Manila Corinthian
UAP - MCC
Chapter
VOC Volatile Organic Compound
WTE Waste-To-Energy
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Biodegradables organic materials which include food wastes and
paper that can be broken down by microorganisms
into simpler, more stable compounds such as carbon
dioxide and water. This property allows these
materials to be transformed into compost.

Collection Refers to the act of removing solid waste from the


source or from a commercial storage point.

Composting Refers to the controlled decomposition of organic


matter by microorganisms, mainly bacteria and
fungi, into a humus-like product.

Ecological Solid Waste refers to the systematic administration of a variety of

Management waste management practices to safely and


effectively handle solid waste generated by a
locality with the least harmful effects on human
health and the environment.

Generation Refers to the act or process of producing solid


wastes.

Material streams Incoming materials are typically collected co-


mingled.

Manual separation separation of recyclable or biodegradable


components of waste by hand sorting.
Materials Recovery a facility where recyclable municipal solid waste is

Facility processed and separated using manual and/or


mechanical methods. The recovered materials may
include paper, glass, plastics, and metals, which are
baled, temporarily stored, and eventually sold to
recycling or manufacturing firms. The remaining
residual wastes are then disposed of into a sanitary
landfill.
Recyclables materials that have served their original purpose but
still have useful physical or chemical properties that
can be reused or reprocessed as materials for new
products. Typical examples include paper, glass,
metals, cardboard, and plastic containers.

Residuals waste materials with no commercial value that are


left out after the segregation process in an MRF.
These include broken glass, textile, rubber, ceramics,
worn-out plastics, concrete fragments, and soil,
among others.

Source separation the segregation of biodegradable and recyclable


materials from the waste stream at the point of
generation before they are collected to facilitate
reuse, recycling, and composting.

Waste diversion process of diverting waste from a sanitary landfill or


disposal site through segregation and recovery of
recyclable materials, composting, and treatment.
The diverted amount is measured by weight, usually
in tons or kilograms.
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN THE PHILIPPINES
TRENDS & CURRENT SITUATION
IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
ROLES OF ARCHITECTS & BUILDING MANAGERS
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN THE PHILIPPINES

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the Global Goals,
are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all
people enjoy peace and prosperity.
In September 2015, the United Nations Member States adopted a new global plan of
action entitled, “Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable
Development.” The 2030 Agenda, its 17 Goals and 169 targets are a universal set of
goals and targets that aim to stimulate people-centered and planet-sensitive
change.

The 193 member states of the United Nations (UN) gathered to affirm commitments
towards ending all forms of poverty, fighting inequalities and increasing country’s
productive capacity, increasing social inclusion and curbing climate change and
protecting the environment while ensuring that no one is left behind over the next
fifteen years.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets are integrated and indivisible,
global in nature and universally applicable, and take into account different national
realities, capacities and levels of development and respecting national policies and
priorities. Each government are expected to take ownership and establish national
frameworks, set nationally-owned targets guided by the global level of ambition but
taking into account country-level circumstances for the achievement of the 17 goals.
Countries will also decide how these aspirational and global targets should be
incorporated in national planning processes, policies and strategies.

These 17 Goals build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals, while
including new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation,
sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities. The goals are
interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more
commonly associated with another.

The SDGs work in the spirit of partnership and pragmatism to make the right choices
now to improve life, in a sustainable way, for future generations. They provide clear
guidelines and targets for all countries to adopt in accordance with their own priorities
and the environmental challenges of the world at large. The SDGs are an inclusive
agenda. They tackle the root causes of poverty and unite us together to make a
positive change for both people and planet. “Supporting the 2030 Agenda is a top
priority for UNDP,” said UNDP Administrator Helen Clark. “The SDGs provide us with a
common plan and agenda to tackle some of the pressing challenges facing our
world such as poverty, climate change and conflict. UNDP has the experience and
expertise to drive progress and help support countries on the path to sustainable
development.”

In monitoring the SDGs and its corresponding targets, the UN Statistical Commission
established an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDG), which
developed the SDG global indicator framework consisting of 232 unique indicators.

In line with the Philippines' commitment in achieving the SDGs, the PSA Board issued
PSA Resolution No. 04 Series of 2016, Enjoining Government Agencies to Provide Data
Support to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this Resolution, all
concerned government agencies are enjoined to provide the necessary data
support to monitor the country's performance vis-à-vis the SDGs based on the
indicator framework that shall be determined by NEDA, PSA and other government
agencies. Further, the Resolution designated the PSA as the official repository of SDG
indicators in the Philippines.

One of the Sustainable Development Goals is the Goal 11: Make Cities and Human
Settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable which targets by 2030, reduce the
adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special
attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management.
TRENDS & CURRENT SITUATION

The global community recognized that Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an issue
that requires serious attention. The aggressive pursuit for economic growth, by
developing countries like the Philippines, has resulted in the manufacture, distribution
and use of products and generation of wastes that contributes to environmental
degradation and global climate change. Available data showed (what data?
Provide quantifiable numbers; include and cite reference as footnote) that the
Philippines is the 9th most among the countries at risk from climate change due to rise
of sea levels, intense storm surges and droughts. This is heavily manifested in the
frequent and intense flooding the country is experiencing from devastating typhoons
to which; many claim, are due to climate change. The Philippine National Statistics
Office (NSO) estimated the country’s population in 2012 to be around 97 million with
an annual growth rate of 1.87%. According to this figure, the Philippines is the 12th
largest country (or population?) in the world today. Along with the country’s
economic progress, the rise in population, based from the statistics, has also made
waste management a major/serious environmental challenge for the country. The
Philippine National Statistics Office (NSO) estimated the country’s population in 2012
to be around 97 million with an annual growth rate of 1.87%. According to this figure,
the Philippines is the 12th largest country in the world today.

On January 26,2001, the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (Republic
Act 9003) was approved and came into effect on February 16, 2001. The Ecological
Solid Waste Management Act of 2000 (Republic Act 9003) was approved in January
26, 2001 and came into effect on February 16, 2001. Ecological Solid Waste
Management (ESWM) as promulgated into law under the law refers to the “systematic
administration of activities which provide for segregation at source, segregated
transportation, storage, transfer, processing, treatment, and disposal of solid waste
and all other waste management activities which do not harm the
environment”(provide foot note reference). In the country, the local government units
(LGUs) hold the primary responsibility for the effective and efficient solid waste
management. Despite the law, however, poor the insufficieny on solid waste
management in the Philippines is still prevalent since due to the open and controlled
dumps are being used in the country.
This poses constitute greater threats on the country’s environment, and public safety
and health. Among the threats include:
a) alteration of physical and chemical properties of soil due to percolation of landfill
gases (CO2 and CH4) and leachates from unsanitary landfills and open dumps;
b) objectionable odor; and
c) soil and groundwater pollution.
d.) negligence leading to several health issues such as contamination and
proliferation of infest-related diseases.

ANALYSES OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICIES AND ISSUES

Waste generations by residents in the Philippines, especially in the urban areas, have
accelerated recently due to fast pace industrialization, urbanization and population
growth. Since incineration of solid waste is not allowed under Republic Act 9003 for
the safety of human health and protection of environment, land filling and the 3R’s
integrated waste management method (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) are the main
types of SWM in the country. The law also requires the mandatory segregation at
source of solid waste into containers labeled as: compostable, recyclable, non-
recyclable, or special use.

Collection of waste in the country is done by the Department of Public Service, city
administrator and engineering office or private haulers. Informal waste sector are also
involved in the waste collection and storage in the country. They are the itinerant
waste buyers, jumpers at collection trucks, garbage crew, and small and illegal
junkshops.

About 35,580 tons of garbage is generated every day in the Philippines.- cite
reference. On the average, each person in the country produces about 0.5 kg and
0.3 kg of garbage every day in the urban and rural areas, respectively. For Metro
Manila, it is estimated that 8,636 tons of garbage is generated per day, i.e., 0.7 kg per
person per day due to its more modernized lifestyle. The household is the major source
of waste in the Philippines at 74%. Moreover, of the total solid waste generated from
households, 95% can still be reused or recycled (43%), or turned into compost (52%).
Only 5% is made up of residuals (4%) and special/hazardous waste (1%) that are no
longer usable or biodegradable (JICA Waste Characterization Study, 1997). Use
proper citation footnote

Only 40-85% of the waste generated is collected nationwide, implying that 15-
60% is improperly disposed of or littered. The maximum collection rate of 85% is
recorded in Metro Manila. The uncollected garbage is, unfortunately, burned or
dumped anywhere onto open areas, called open dumps, adding to the now polluted
air shed and water body, and global warming in the country.

While recycling through the establishment of Municipal Recovery Facilities


(MRF), that includes waste transfer station, and composting and recycling facilities, is
mandated under RA 9003; most Local Government Units (LGUs) do not comply with
this. mandate . Even though As the law requires the establishment of an MRF in every
barangay or cluster of barangays, however, only about 21% or 8,843 barangays are
being serviced by MRFs in the country. In Metro Manila, though, compliance rate is
slightly higher at 56% which is more than the national average. The “ Study on
Recycling Industry Development in the Philippines (2006-2008)” by JICA and Bureau
of Industry-Board of Investment (BOI) showed that the limiting factors to the recovery
of recyclables materials are the concentration of recycling industries in selected
areas, i.e., high cost of transporting recyclable materials, and weakness of local
recycling industries due to high operating costs.

With regards to the disposal facilities, only about 4% or 56 local government


units are now using sanitary landfills (SLF) as seen in Table 1. (where is the table? should
be on the same page as this paragraph.)

The low compliance of LGUs to establish sanitary landfills were being attributed to the
high cost needed to close dumpsites, and limited financial and technical assistance
to implement the law. Hence, some LGUs are still using common sanitary landfills. Of
the 946 open and controlled dumps, 68 of these are being rehabilitated for closure.
Metro Manila LGUs are now using sanitary landfills. Sanitary landfills being used by
Metro Manila LGUs are: Navotas SLF, Rizal Provincial SLF and the Pilotage SLF. This
apparent use of unlined unsanitary landfills and open dumps places the Philippines in
a precarious condition, since such pitiful state implies a condition that permit the
mixture of precipitation with degradable organic matter from MSW to form leachate
percolation into the soil that may eventually contaminate surface and groundwater
in the country.

IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES

More than 17 years after the passage of RA 9003, enforcement and compliance with
the law remains a daunting task due to technical, political and financial limitations of
concerned agencies and LGUs. Majority of LGUs have yet to comply with the
provisions of RA 9003, particularly on the establishment of local SWM Boards,
submission of SWM Plans, establishment of MRFs, and closure of all open and
controlled dumpsites.
To strengthen compliance with RA 9003, LGUs should be capacitated particularly on
understanding the provisions of the Act and in formulating SWM Plans. They should be
assisted in designing innovative financing mechanisms to undertake SWM activities
instead of merely depending on subsidies from the national government. They should
also be given assistance on how to access facilities offered by government financing
institutions (GFIs) and in engaging the private sector in order to generate funds for
SWM activities. There must be a continuing education and public awareness building
to inculcate the right attitude among the people to actively participate in SWM
activities and practices. Hence, the integration of Ecological Solid Waste
Management (ESWM) in school curricula at all levels, which have been practiced in
other countries like Japan and Singapore, is highly recommended.
ROLES OF ARCHITECTS & BUILDING MANAGERS

Design is a progressive process of evaluation, synthesis, and refinements of design


ideas. A successful design relies on solid and well-organized concepts. Its value is
based on the efforts during the initial stages.

The analysis phase provides the framework for the design process. Building managers
are the most knowledgeable about the needs of building users. They are the overall
recycling coordinator. With their experience regarding ecological solid waste
management implementation issues, especially on multi-tenant buildings, they can
impart to the architect the needs and requirements of building users. The architect
and sustainability consultants can fine-tune his design if he consults the building
managers about their plan for solid waste management.

Total understanding of operational issues will enlighten an architect on the proper flow
and of design and building techniques and materials will facilitate the construction of
easy-to maintain and efficient ESWM facilities.

An ESWM friendly facility will encourage compliance from building occupants and
reduce wastes disposed of in landfills and incineration facilities. Increased recovering,
reusing, and recycling activitites will eliminate a substantial amount of disposal
requirements saving money on watse disposal costs. Sound design practices will
promote pollution reduction, safeguard building occupant’s health and improve
energy conservation. An efficient design provides an economical waste
management opportunity.

ESWM-friendly building can help provide a good living environment, promote health
and enhance productivity.
CHAPTER 2
ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE
MANAGEMENT (ESWM)
DEFINITION & COMPONENTS
SIGNIFICANCE & BENEFITS
WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY
WASTE PROFILING & SEGREGATION
ESWM PROCESSES & SYSTEMS
ESWM FACILITIES
DEFINITION & COMPONENTS

"Ecological Solid Waste Management" refers to the systematic administration of a


variety of waste management practices to safely and effectively handle solid waste
generated by a locality with the least harmful effects on human health and the
environment. -cite reference

The basic solid waste management system is made up of five components: waste
generation, storage, collection, processing and treatment, and disposal of solid waste
in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering,
conservation, aesthetic, and other environmental considerations. Its scope includes
all attendant administrative, financial, legal, planning and engineering functions.

COMPONENTS OF ESWM

(2) TEMPORARY
STORAGE (3) MIXED
WASTE
Unsanitary
picking at bins COLLECTION
and other waste (5) DISPOSAL
Unsanitary
(1) WASTE containers picking at bins to open dump
GENERATION at waste
collection
Residuals

Households RECOVERY OF
Markets RECYCLABLES AT
Commercial
(4) MRF,
SOURCE Composting
establishments
Offices and Reuse, sale to Plant, Treatment
institutions Facilities Unsanitary
Street sweepings UNCOLLECTED picking at
WASTE open dump

Litter, open
Junk shops

Sale to Big Junk Shops and


Recyclable Trading Centers
SIGNIFICANCE & BENEFITS OF ESWM

ESWM is the solution to the problem of increasing volume of wastes. Waste avoidance,
re-use and recycling will reduce the volume of wastes for final disposal. It will also
reduce pollution problems during final disposal as biodegradable wastes are
composted while toxic and hazardous wastes are brought to facilities which can
handle these safely. Recycling will reduce energy consumption and conserve our
natural resources. ESWM protects people’s health and the environment. With reduced
residual waste, scarce land space for final disposal can have longer service life. Local
governments will not need huge resources for collection and disposal and financial
savings can be utilized for other basic services.
WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY

EPA created the Solid Waste Management Hierarchy to provide guidance to local
governments on how and where they can most sustainably allocate their waste
management resources. The hierarchy presents the most common solid waste
management practices and technologies in priority order to maximize resource
efficiency and sustainability. Reducing the quantity of waste generated thru source
reduction and reuse is the most preferred method for managing waste, since it helps
to prevent waste in the first place. The remaining options involve the effective
management of waste materials, starting with recycling and composting, followed by
waste treatment with energy recovery. The least-preferred methods are disposal,
landfilling or incineration.
Communities will likely need to use a combination of the practices and technologies
shown in the Solid Waste Management Hierarchy. They can achieve the greatest
environmental and financial benefits by prioritizing their actions according to the
hierarchy.

SOURCE REDUCTION AND REUSE


Preventing food waste, unsolicited mail, beverage packaging, metals, and other
materials conserve more natural resources and reduce more GHG emissions than any
other MSW practice, by avoiding the production and resource extraction impact.
Minimizing food waste has the highest environmental impact savings due to avoided
upstream production emissions and the methane emissions generated when food
decomposes in a landfill (Gentil, 2011).
Source reduction appears at the top of the hierarchy because it avoids environmental
harms throughout material’s life cycle, from supply chain and use to recycling and
waste disposal. Source reduction encourages the use of innovative strategies, such as
prefabrication and designing to dimensional construction materials, thereby
minimizing material cutoffs and inefficiencies.
Reusing materials to make new products significantly reduces the energy
requirements for manufacturing and production. For example, reusing aluminum
sheets and glass jars requires only 5 percent and 65 percent, respectively, of the
energy needed to make these products from virgin materials (Morris, 2005). Source
reduction and reuse also avoid the costs and emissions associated with transporting
goods from manufacturer to market, and to waste disposal sites at the end of their
useful life.
Proper waste segregation can help in the reduction of waste at source and it
facilitates recycling.

RECYCLING
Recycling is the second-most-preferred solid waste management method and most
common way to divert waste from landfills. In conventional practice, most waste is
landfilled—an increasingly unsustainable solution. As defined by EPA, recycling
involves recovering and reprocessing usable materials that might otherwise become
waste and transforming them into other products. When a material is recycled, it can
be used in place of virgin resources in the manufacturing. Recycling therefore reduces
energy and GHG emissions across multiple phases of product life-cycles:
 Recycling avoids upstream GHG emissions from the extraction, harvesting, and
manufacturing stages of virgin resources.
 Recycling avoids downstream GHG emissions from waste disposal in landfills
and combustion facilities.
RECOVERING
Recovery of recyclable materials at the point of generation level is the most ideal.
Recyclable waste collected is of higher quality and it reduces waste to be collected
and transported.
Recovery of recyclable materials occurs at 4 stages:
1 Household level
2 During collection time
3 Materials recovery facilities
4 Residual waste disposal sites
Because secondary markets do not exist for every material, however, the next most
beneficial use of waste materials is conversion to energy. Many countries are lessening
the burden on landfills through a waste-to-energy solution. In countries such as
Sweden and Saudi Arabia, waste-to-energy facilities are far more common than
landfills. When strict air quality control measures are enforced, waste-to-energy can
be a viable alternative to extracting fossil fuels to produce energy.
In Sustainable practices, has instigated market transformation of building products by
creating a cycle of consumer demand and industry delivery of environmentally
preferable products. The Life-cycle assessment (LCA) provides a more comprehensive
picture of materials and products, enabling project teams to make more informed
decisions that will have greater overall benefit for the environmental, human health,
and communities, while encouraging manufacturers to improve their products
through innovation.
What is Life-Cycle Assessment? LCA is a “compilation and evaluation of the inputs and
outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its
life cycle.” The entire life cycle of a product (or building) is examined, the processes
and constituents identified, and their environmental effects assessed—both upstream,
from the point of manufacture or raw materials extraction, and downstream, including
transportation, use, maintenance, and end of life. This approach is sometimes called
“cradle to grave.” Going even further, “cradle to cradle” emphasizes recycling and
reuse at the end of life rather than disposal.

DISPOSAL
Waste disposal is needed to handle waste that cannot be recycled and can no
longer be reused. It continues to be a significant environmental burden on
communities and ecosystems. No matter how efficient our reduction, recovery,
recycling and treatment processes become, it is likely that there will always be some
portion of waste requiring disposal. However, there is a lot we can do to reduce this
portion by becoming aware of our individual contributions to the solid waste problem
and changing our habits to promote wise use and reuse of our valuable resources.
PROCESSES & SYSTEMS (TREATMENTS, WASTE SEGREGATION)

Research for details

FACILITIES (MRF, JUNKSHOP, LANDFILL)

Research for details


STORAGE
TRANSPORT
HANDLING/OTHERS
CHAPTER 3
MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITY
(MRF)
WHAT’S AN MRF?
MRF OPERATIONS
MRF DESIGN GUIDELINES
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
DESIGN STANDARDS
APPLICATIONS (Building & Communities)
CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURE
LIST OF CERTIFIED MRF (in the Philippines)
WHAT’S AN MRF?

Materials recovery facility (MRF), also known as materials reclamation facility or


materials recycling facility, solid-waste management plant that processes recyclable
materials to sell to manufacturers as raw materials for new products. MRFs are
generally classified as either “clean” or “dirty,” depending on whether the facility
handles materials that are mixed with other municipal waste. MRFs play an important
role in reducing the waste stream, the demand for raw materials, and pollution
associated with the manufacturing of new products.

A clean MRF takes in commingled recyclable materials that have been separated
from municipal solid waste, usually by individual citizens or businesses before curbside
trash collection. Although some clean facilities are single stream (i.e., all of the
recyclable materials are mixed together), many are dual stream, or source-
separated, which means that they receive one stream of mixed paper and one of
other materials such as glass, nonferrous metals, and plastics. The recyclables are
sorted and then prepared for market. Nonrecyclable or contaminated materials are
separated out, but they generally amount to less than 10 percent of the total stream
of waste taken in by a clean facility.
https://www.britannica.com/technology/materials-recovery-facility

“A Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) is where recyclable materials that are collected
from households are sorted into different types (e.g. plastics, cardboard, paper,
metal) using a mixture of manual and automated methods. When the materials have
been sorted they are sent to reprocessors and manufacturers where they are used to
create new products.

It is important to have a MRF to sort mixed materials and to ensure that we can remove
anything that is not recyclable. The process also helps to provide quality recyclables
that manufacturers need to make certain products and goods. If they could not rely
on the quality of the recyclables they would need to use more raw materials.”
https://www.veolia.co.uk/nottinghamshire/facilities-services/facilities-
services/materials-recovery-facility
MRF OPERATIONS

How a Materials Recovery Facility Works


MRFs can vary in some respects in terms of technology employed, however, a typical
process would include something such as the process described below.

MRFs have customer vehicle scales, and a yard that can accommodate a queue of
trucks. Incoming haulers arrive at the MRF and dump the commingled material onto
the tipping floor. A front-end loader or other bulk material handling equipment then
drops into a large steel bin at the start of the processing line. This bin is known as the
drum feeder. Inside of the drum feeder, a fast-moving drum meters out the
commingled material onto the conveyor at a steady rate, while also regulating the
density of the material on the conveyor so that it is not packed too tightly together.

From there, material goes to a pre-sort station, where workers standing along the
conveyor spot and remove any trash, plastic bags or other mistakenly placed material
and separate them for appropriate disposition. Large pieces of plastic or steel,
including pipes and other large items, can damage the system or expose workers to
risk of injury.

Larger pieces of cardboard are then removed from the mixed material stream,
pushed to the top by large sorting disks turning on axles, while heavier material stays
beneath. Smaller sets of the disk may then remove smaller pieces of paper. As
materials are separated, they are diverted to separate conveyors for accumulation
and baling.

Powerful magnets separate steel and tin containers, while an eddy current separator
is used to draw aluminum cans and other non-ferrous metals from the remaining co-
mingled material. Glass containers can be separated from plastic containers by a
density blower, then hammered into the crushed glass, known as cullet.

Remaining plastic containers may be sorted manually by workers on the conveyor


line, or increasingly, optical sorters are used to identify different materials and colors.
Air classification may be used to separate key plastics such as HDPE and PET.
Separated materials, other than glass cullet, are typically baled, with finished bales
weighing in the range of 1000 to 1500 pounds.
https://www.thebalancesmb.com/what-is-material-recovery-center-2877733

Reference of Flow Chart: Materials Recovery Facility Tool Kit by the Asian Development Bank

Provide explanation.
Materials Recovery Facility Operations MRF operations start with the registration,
inspection, and placement of mixed or segregated waste into the receiving area.
Bulky or unusual materials are removed for disposal or sale to recycling facilities, while
the rest of the waste is placed on a conveyor for semi-automated or fully automated
sorting or on sorting tables for manual sorting. For mixed waste, biodegradable
materials are separated from recyclables and collected for processing into compost
in another facility or loaded into trucks for disposal in a sanitary landfill. The separated
biodegradables must not be stored within the roofed section of the MRF and must be
transferred to a composting plant or disposal facility, preferably within the day.
Otherwise, these components can be temporarily placed in a paved section within
the MRF compound where they can be easily loaded into waste collection trucks. For
source-segregated waste, valuable recyclables, such as paper and carton, tin cans,
metals, plastics (polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene), and glass, are
separated either manually or mechanically. The recovered recyclables are weighed
and temporarily stored in designated bins. When sufficient quantities have been
accumulated, tin cans are compacted and baled; plastic bottles are pierced,
flattened, and baled; paper is stacked; and glass is broken, then bulked up. The
residual materials are temporarily stored and then disposed of in a sanitary landfill or
used as refuse-derived fuel for waste-to-energy plants, where practicable. Records of
the amount of incoming and outgoing waste must be kept for monitoring purposes
and for regular validation of the facility mass balance. Typical MRFs operate 8 hours
a day Mondays through Saturdays. Figure 5 illustrates the general flow in an MRF that
accepts either mixed or source-segregated waste.
https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/30220/materials-recovery-
facility-tool-kit.pdf
MRF DESIGN GUIDELINES

A typical MRF is sited within a warehouse-type building with concrete flooring and
enclosed by a perimeter fence for security. It should have the following components:
(i) receiving or tipping area, (ii) sorting/processing area, (iii) storage area for
recyclables, (iv) residuals storage area, (v) equipment area, (vi) space for an office,
and (vii) loading area for residuals and processed recyclables. It should also be
provided with the basic connections for water and electricity and adequate space
for the entry and exit of waste trucks. Provisions for washing and a septic tank must be
included. The warehouse design will minimize the placement of columns that could
interfere with the efficient movement of materials and equipment, and facilitate the
installation of higher ceilings.

Manually operated MRFs with capacities of less than 2 tpd usually have roofed floor
areas of at least 50 square meters (m2), which contain only the receiving, processing,
and storage areas. Semi-automated to fully mechanized facilities would require areas
ranging from 150 m2 to 1,500 m2, excluding parking and buffer zones. The Material
Recovery Facility Handbook of the Recycling Marketing Cooperative of Tennessee
(2003) suggests a building area not exceeding 1,400 m2 for MRFs that process less than
10 tons of recyclable waste per day and about 1,800 m2 of floor area for facilities that
will handle waste not exceeding 100 tpd. The basic equipment, even for a manual
operation, would include sorting tables, weighing scales, a baler, and payloader.
Semi-automated MRFs make use of a conveyor system that could be aided by a
loader to facilitate sorting (Table 6). Automated facilities utilize the combination of
screens, magnetic separators, air classifiers, and conveyor systems with options for
more than one processing line. The choice of equipment will depend on the target
capacity and the nature and composition of incoming waste.
DESIGN PHASE
I. ANALYSIS PHASE
A SAMPLE OUTLINE LIST OF WHAT IS NORMALLY INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS PHASE
1. PHYSICAL FACTORS
2. ECONOMIC FACTORS
3. SOCIAL FACTORS
4. ORGANIZATIONAL/OPERATIONAL FACTORS
II. PROGRAM AND SCHEMATIC DESIGN PHASE
III. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE
SITE GEOGRAPHY
SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS AND REQUIREMENTS
ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS
SALIENT FEATURES OF MRF – SECTIONAL DIAGRAM
SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS AND CLEARANCES – SECTIONAL DIAGRAM
USER’S FLOW ANALYSIS
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS – SECTIONAL DIAGRAM
TRAFFIC FLOW
SAMPLE FLOOR PLAN – MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY

During the Analysis Phase, space requirements are roughly allocated within the site
Functional relationships are tentatively established.

The amount required space per function should be analyzed based on existing data
on amount of waste generated, activities, and number of users.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

SITE CONDITIONS
SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Nature of Waste Generators
The nature of waste generators should be considered when planning MRFs.
Residential areas discard newspaper, mixed paper, plastics, clothing, food
packaging, cans and bottles, food scraps, and yard trimmings. Commercial and
institutional establishments dispose of cardboard, offi ce paper and mixed paper,
newspaper, packaging materials, and food waste. Schools and offi ces produce
predominantly paper waste. Industrial facilities produce more packaging materials
than most waste generators. Hotel and restaurants generate a large amount of plastic
bottles and tin cans.
Urban areas tend to generate more paper and plastic materials than rural areas. Low-
to medium-income residential areas segregate more recyclable materials than high-
income residences.
MRF Minimum Daily Storage Space Requirements, based from The Philippine Green
Building Code, June 2015

LOCATION
Research for details
Location-Materials: The facility should be located in close proximity to population
centers and the collection sources. It minimizes transportation distances to and from
the collection sources. This leads to less time spent servicing routes, a reduction in
vehicle fuel consumption in getting materials from generation sources to the
processing facility, and less wear and tear on collection vehicles. This concept is
particularly valid when the same entity that owns the facility provides for collection
services but is also valid for merchant facilities that want to attract the business of
others providing the collection service. However, some larger facilities can receive
materials from long distances away via transfer trailers.

Location-Roads: The facility or site for a proposed facility should be located near
major highways or other transportation arterials, and provide for easy access/egress
to the facility. Location on major transportation routes and easy access/egress to the
site will add to convenience and efficient delivery of materials to the site as well as
shipment of process materials to market. Additional benefits may include less road
weight and vehicle restrictions, and easier access for emergency vehicles in case of
fire, police, or health emergencies.

Codes: The site and/or building should meet local zoning requirements and fit in with
surrounding land uses. It lessens time and cost involved in obtaining local permits
and approvals.

Site acreage should be large enough to accommodate the physical structure,


outside storage space for materials and/or equipment, sufficient space for safe and
orderly vehicle movement (including vehicles delivering materials, tractor-trailers
moving materials to markets, and employee/visitor parking), potential expansion
area, and buffer areas (either natural or manmade) to adjacent properties.
Sufficient space for all the activities occurring at an MRF is crucial. A site that is too
small will add to safety concerns, inefficient processing and movement activities,
potential environmental and aesthetic concerns with neighbors, and limited space
for processing and storage Limited processing space will impact not only the
quantities of materials processed but also the adaptability of the facility. Insufficient
storage
space will limit how long finished product can be stored before marketing and could
lead to product quality issues and diminished revenues.

Rail: If available, consider a site with rail access. Rail access will give added flexibility
for receiving materials for processing from more distant sources and also provides
added marketing flexibility. Both of these considerations (increasing materials input
and product output) could provide operational economies of scale and increased
revenues that would improve the overall operation. The economic benefits of rail
access and loading mechanisms need to be carefully evaluated.

This and following tables edited and adapted from: ―Materials Recovery Facilities
Operational Assessment Final Report and Optimization
Guide”, Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance, St. Paul, MN, August, 2003.
ACCESS
Research for details
Controlled Access: If the site does not have restricted access from neighboring
properties or frontage roads, security fencing or other barriers should be placed
around the property perimeter. Controlling access to the site is important for both
operational and liability issues.

VENTILATION
Research for details
Provide an environmentally comfortable and safe working environment. This includes:
• Space that is heated in the winter, cooled in the summer, and has good air
exchange (ventilation).
• Anti-fatigue mats to reduce the physical discomfort of standing in one place for long
periods of time.
• Sufficient lighting to reduce eyestrain.
• Gloves, safety glasses, hearing protection, steel-toed boots, and, if applicable,
hardhats and facemasks.
UTILITIES
Research for details
Utilities: If not already present, the site should have close access to utilities (water,
sewer, power, phone). If utilities are already on-site determining the adequacy and
potential upgrades to those utilities.

Scales: Consider installing a vehicle scale to weigh both incoming delivery vehicles
and outgoing shipments. As with rail access, a site with a vehicle scale already in
place or adding a vehicle scale to the development of a
facility will add to the initial upfront cost. Most
contracts with suppliers and markets require weight bases accounting and scales are
thus required, not optional. On-site scales have the ability to accurately track input of
materials, recovered materials, residue, quantities of final product marketed, and
individual truck/customer accounts.

Docks: Consider installing dock levelers on loading docks.


Levelers provide quicker and safer mating of docks to trucks and ease the movement
of materials and vehicles into and out of the trailers.
Process Design: Design the MRFs receiving, sorting, processing, and storage functions
to meet anticipated throughputs and market specifications (quality and delivery).
Layout the process flows to minimize handling of materials. A processing and
equipment layout that follows a logical sequence, flows in a straight line, and limits
the backtracking and repeated handling of materials, will minimize the inefficient use
of resources and energy.

Systems Approach: Take a systems approach when designing the processing systems
of MRF. This requires an understanding about how the materials will be collected and
what the desired end products will be. For example, if materials are compacted at
the source or during collection, then design the MRF to handle this type of material.

Collision Protection: Incorporate collision protection into building for doorjambs, walls,
and supports, and equipment.

SAFETY
Research for details
Worker Protection: Incorporate ergonomic principles (people/equipment interface)
and health and safety considerations into the design.

HEALTH AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS


Every MRF location has a duty to provide a safe place of work as well as safety to the
general public that may visit that location. Standards have been established for safety
through the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) as well as local state or federal requirements. This
section addresses the primary elements of safety within a MRF. MRF operations contain
many potential hazards that must be identified and properly addressed. Each year
many serious and fatal injuries occur within MRF operations. Developing a formalized
safety process will benefit each MRF operator by
establishing greater compliance with OSHA requirements and the reduction of risk
within the facility. The different components of this section will outline important safety
information that each MRF should implement. Each component outlined should be
addressed with the consideration of potential language and communication issues.
MRF locations typically have employee populations that include more than one
language. Safety is such an important topic that communicating in the language of
the employee population must be accomplished. Because each MRF location is
unique, the operator must evaluate their own operations and determine how the
related OSHA or other standards will apply to those specific operations. The
information contained in this section is designed to provide reference to the more
common safety issues and does not attempt to address all safety and health related
issues.

Developing a Safety Process:


A safety process is a series of programs and activities that comprise a total health and
safety management program. A safety process is the most effective means to
manage OSHA requirements and prevent losses. The following is a brief outline of
safety process elements for an MRF operation. Successful management of safety
issues will require activity in each of these primary categories.
1. Written Health and Safety Programs
a. Written policies specific to the hazards associated with the MRF facility
2. Safety Training
a. Documented safety training addressing key exposure issues at the MRF facility
b. New Employee Safety Orientation
3. Accident Prevention Activities
a. Safety Committees
b. Self-Inspections
c. Hiring Practices
d. Employee Communication
e. Job Hazard Analysis
f. Stretch & Flex Programs
4. Health Management Activities
a. Air quality evaluation and monitoring

GENERAL TRAFFIC
Research for details
On-site Traffic: On-site roadway system should minimize the number of traffic
intersections and merges. To the extent possible keep personal vehicle traffic, material
delivery traffic, and tractor-trailer traffic separate. It efficiently moves traffic on and
off site and will add to safety of site personnel, customers, and visitors.
SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS
Research for details
Process Space: Provide sufficient space for all operations including pre-processing
materials storage and post-processing product storage. If there are seasonal
variations in the amounts of incoming materials delivered to the facility receiving,
storage, sorting and processing functions should be designed for the peak
volume periods. Find out how much space may be available at supplier locations in
the event that the MRF must temporarily back up materials during scheduled or
unscheduled downtime.

Conveyers: Avoid using excessive numbers of conveyors and keep conveyor runs
straight, avoiding angled transitions. Choose heavy-duty conveyors with
adequate width and durable synthetic belts. Sorting conveyors with sides should have
rounded belly’s rests for worker comfort. Winged tail pulleys prevent accumulation of
material between belt and pulley, allowing for better tracking.

Flexible Design: Design flexibility into the facility layout that can quickly adapt to
changes in incoming material amounts, material quality, or market specifications.

Process Elevation: When it can be done safety and with minimal product damage
take advantage of gravity and free fall to move materials (i.e., tipping floors at higher
grades than infeed hoppers, falls of a few feet from transfer conveyors to sorting
conveyors or bins/roll-off containers).

Process control: Incorporate variable speed equipment

Energy Use: Incorporate energy conservation principles into the design, layout and
equipment specifications for the MRF. This includes building and site considerations
such as building orientation on site as well as procuring high-quality, energy efficient
equipment.
This and following tables edited and adapted from: ―Materials Recovery Facilities
Operational Assessment Final Report and Optimization
Guide”, Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance, St. Paul, MN, August, 2003.
Schematic Plan 1 (Not to Scale)

Flow:

Drop-off Waste > Inspection > Distribution > To Dry, Wet, or Landfill (Dispose)

Dry > To Sale or Landfill > Pick Up

Wet > To Composting > To Landscaping Fertilizer

> To Landfill > Pick Up

Landfill > Dispose


Schematic Plan 2 (Not to Scale)

Flow:

Drop-off Waste > Inspection > Distribution > To Dry, Wet, or Landfill (Dispose)

Dry > To Sale or Landfill > Pick Up

Wet > To Composting > To Landscaping Fertilizer

> To Landfill > Pick Up

Landfill > Dispose


Schematic Plan 3 (Not to Scale)

Flow:

Drop-off Waste > Inspection > Distribution > To Dry, Wet, or Landfill (Dispose)

Dry > To Sale or Landfill > Pick Up

Wet > To Composting > To Landscaping Fertilizer

> To Landfill > Pick Up

Landfill > Dispose


STANDARDS (RA 9003, GREEN BUILDING CODE, LEED, BERDE)

RA 9003
(Chapter 3, Article 1: Section 20) Establishing Mandatory Solid Waste Diversion –

All LGUs shall divert at least 25% of all solid waste from waste disposal facilities through re-use, recycling,
and composting activities and other resource recovery activities: Provided, That the waste diversion
goals shall be increased every three (3) years thereafter: Provided, further, That nothing in this Section
prohibits a local government unit from implementing re-use, recycling, and composting activities
designed to exceed the goal.

(Chapter 2, Article 1: Section 21) Mandatory Segregation of Solid Wastes –

Segregation of wastes shall primarily be conducted at the source, to include household, institutional,
industrial, commercial and agricultural sources.

(Chapter 3, Article 2: Section 22) Requirements for the Segregation and Storage of Solid Waste –

The following shall be the minimum standards and requirements for segregation and storage of solid
waste pending collection:

a) There shall be a separate container for each type of waste from all sources: Provided,
That in the case of bulky waste, it will suffice that the same be collected and placed in
a separate and designated area; and
b) The solid waste container depending on its use shall be properly marked or identified
for on-site collection as "compostable", "non-recyclable", "recyclable" or "special
waste", or any other classification as may be determined by the Commission.
(Chapter 3, Article 3: Section 24) Requirements for the Transport of Solid Waste –

The use of separate collection schedules and/or separate trucks or haulers shall be required for specific
types of wastes. Otherwise, vehicles used for the collection and transport of solid wastes shall have the
appropriate compartments to facilitate efficient storing of sorted wastes while in transit.

Vehicles shall be designed to consider road size, condition and capacity to ensure the safe and efficient
collection and transport of solid wastes. The waste compartment shall have a cover to ensure the
containment of solid wastes while in transit. For the purpose of identification, vehicles shall bear the
body number, the name, and telephone number of the contractor/agency collecting solid waste.

(Chapter 3, Article 4: Section 30) Prohibitation on the Use of Non-Environmentally Acceptable Packaging –

No person owning, operating or conducting a commercial establishment in the country shall sell or
convey at retail or possess with the intent to sell or convey at retail any products that are placed,
wrapped or packaged in on packaging which is not environmentally acceptable packaging.

(Chapter 3, Article 4: Section 32) Establishment of LGU Materials Recovery Facility –

There shall be established a Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) in every barangay or cluster of barangays.
The facility shall be established in a barangay-owned or leased land or any suitable open space to be
determined by the barangay through its Sanggunian. For this purpose, the barangay or cluster of
barangays shall allocate a certain parcel of land for the MRF. The determination of site and actual
establishment of the facility shall likewise be subject to the guidelines and criteria set pursuant to this
Act. The MRF shall receive mixed waste for final sorting, segregation, composting, and recycling. The
resulting residual wastes shall be transferred to a long-term storage or disposal facility or sanitary landfill.

(Chapter 3, Article 4: Section 33) Guidelines for Establishment of Materials Recovery Facility –
Materials recovery facilities shall be designed to receive, sort, process, and store compostable and
recyclable material efficiently and in an environmentally sound manner. The facility shall address the
following considerations:

a) The building and/or land layout and equipment must be designed to accommodate
efficient and safe materials processing, movement, and storage; and
b) The building must be designed to allow efficient and safe external access and to
accommodate internal flow.
(Chapter 3, Article 6: Section 43) Guidelines for Identification of Common Solid Waste Management Problems –

Guidelines for the identification of those areas which have common solid waste management problems
and are appropriate units for clustered solid waste management services. The guidelines shall be based
on the following:

a) the size and location of areas which should be included;


b) the volume of solid waste which would be generated;
c) the available means of coordinating local government planning between and among
the LGUs and for the integration of such with the national plan; and
d) possible lifespan of the disposal facilities.
(Chapter 6, Section 48) Prohibited Acts –

 Undertaking activities or operating, collecting or transporting equipment in violation


of sanitation operation and other requirements or permits set forth in or established
pursuant to this Act;
 The open burning of solid waste;
 Causing or permitting the collection of non-segregated or unsorted waste;
 Open dumping, burying of biodegradable or non-biodegradable materials in flood-
prone areas;
 The mixing of source-separated recyclable material with other solid waste in any
vehicle, box, container or receptacle used in solid waste collection or disposal;
 Site preparation, construction, expansion or operation of waste management facilities
without an Environmental Compliance Certificate required pursuant to Presidential
Decree No. 1586 and this Act and not conforming with the land use plan of the LGU;
 The construction of any establishment within two hundred (200) meters from open
dumps or controlled dumps or sanitary landfills; and
 The construction or operation of landfills or any waste disposal facility on any aquifer,
groundwater reservoir or watershed area and or any portions thereof;
(Chapter 7, Section 52) Citizen Suits–

Any citizen may file an appropriate civil, criminal or administrative action against public officers or
officers that fail to comply with the provisions of the Act.

Section 21. Mandatory Segregation of Solid Wastes


The Act stipulates that segregation of wastes shall primarily be conducted at the
source, to include household, institutional, industrial, commercial and agricultural
sources.
Solid Wate Categories
Section 33. Guidelines for Establishment of Materials Recovery Facility. - Materials
recovery facilities shall be designed to receive, sort, process, and store compostable
and recyclable material efficiently and in an environmentally sound manner. The
facility shall address the following considerations:
1 The building and/or land layout and equipment must be designed to
accommodate efficient and safe materials processing, movement, and storage;
and
2 The building must be designed to allow efficient and safe external access and to
accommodate internal flow.

PHILIPPINE GREEN BUILDING CODE


Section 13. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
Efficient waste management requires the adoption of efficient waste management
practices and use of eco-friendly materials.
13.1 Material Recovery Facility (MRF)
a. General
MRF shall be provided for the collection and segregation of solid waste
materials
b. Applicability
This measure applies to all building occupancies as indicated in Table 1.
c. Requirements
i. Buildings shall be provided with a minimum area for MRF as specified in
Table 15.
ii. MRF shall be fully enclosed and easily accessible from within the building
and from the outside for easy collection of waste.
iii. Solid waste containers shall be provided for at least four (4) types of wastes:
- compostable (biodegradable)
- non-recyclable (to be disposed off in the landfill)
- recyclable (paper, cardboard, plastic, metal, wood, etc.)
- special waste
iv. For hospitals, isolated bins for hazardous wastes shall be provided to avoid
contamination.
d. Exceptions
There are n o exceptions to this provision.
Philippine Green Building Code MRF Guidelines

LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY


Solid waste management as per LEED
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) , an initiative by the U.S. Green Building
Council, is a worldwide green building rating system that provides a framework to create
healthy, highly efficient, and cost-saving buildings. E-waste is considered a subset of solid
waste management, which is one of the metrics for determining the environmental
sustainability of a property or building — and one of the major reasons why GreenCitizen is
interested in this initiative.

It’s possible to earn two points from proper ongoing solid waste management if the building
hits the performance measures for both durable goods and ongoing consumable waste (see
below for how these are defined). This involves maintaining a waste reduction and recycling
program that reuses, recycles, or composts the following:
At least 50% of ongoing consumables (by weight or volume)
At least 75% of the durable goods waste (by weight, volume, or replacement value)
Additionally, safely dispose of all discarded batteries and mercury-containing lamps.
Required to provide clearly labeled battery collection bins in high-visibility areas. Identify a
qualified, licensed recycler that will recycle the batteries in accordance with state and federal
requirements.
100% of mercury-containing lamps to be safely disposed. Establish procedures for handling
broken lamps, and have a designated space for storing used lamps before they’re collected
for recycling.
It is also possible to earn one extra point for exemplary performance by achieving a higher
performance score. This would require a 75% of ongoing consumables performance and a
100% durable goods performance.
BERDE
Solid waste management as per BERDE
Waste Management
WS-01 Waste Characterization Survey
Purpose and Intent

This credit aims to:


Support decision making in improving the waste management of the project by
conducting a waste characterization survey;
Evaluate and monitor the solid waste production and reduction of the project; and
Conduct waste characterization survey as basis for policies and procedure for waste
management.

Requirements
Requirements for this credit are the following:
Establish policies and procedures for the conduct of waste characterization survey,
which should include:
Methodology for the survey, which must include information on:
 Waste sources,
 Types of waste generated,
 Amount of waste generated in kilograms per square meter per person
(kg/m2/person),
 Project user profile,
 Average waste generated in kilograms per square meter per person
(kg/m2/person), and
Recommendations to improve waste management, which should include:
 Waste generation reduction,
 Waste segregation and sorting, and
 Waste disposal, re-use, and recycling;
 Periodic conduct of waste characterization surveys,
 Communicating survey to the project team, external contractors, service
providers, and users of the project, and
 Recording the conduct and outcome of the waste characterization surveys;
 Conduct an initial waste characterization survey before implementing BERDE;
 Conduct a waste characterization survey after implementing BERDE;
 Conduct a final assessment on the effectivity of the policies and procedures.

http://docs.berdeonline.org/userguide/v2.0.0/berde-op/#waste-management

APPLICATIONS IN BUILDING

Research significance and construction of MRF.

APPLICATIONS IN COMMUNITY

Research significance of MRF in community.

CONSTRUCTION EXPENDITURE

Research the environment department’s Environmental Management Bureau (EMB)


plans to put up more waste recycling facilities for Metro Manila's over 1,700
barangays.ost estimates of MRF construction only.
CHAPTER 4
WASTE RECEIVING FACILITY
WHAT ARE WASTE RECEIVING FACILITY?
LIST OF ACCREDITED AND DENR CERTIFIED FACILITIES
WASTE STREAM DOCUMENTATION
SUSTAINABLE WASTE TREATMENT
WHAT ARE WASTE RECEIVING FACILITY?

LIST OF ACCREDITED AND DENR CERTIFIED FACILITIES

WASTE STREAM DOCUMENTATION

SUSTAINABLE WASTE TREATMENT


CHAPTER 5
WASTE – TO – ENERGY
WHAT IS WASTE – TO – ENERGY?
PURPOSE & PROCESS
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
WHAT IS WASTE – TO – ENERGY?

WASTE-TO-ENERGY COMBUSTION Waste-to-Energy combustion is a proven mixed


waste handling technology across the developed world. Comparatively it is less
successful in countries like the US when compared to Europe and Japan. This is due to
different reasons, the most prevalent one being cheaper landfilling in the US due to
larger land availability. But in the case of New York, New York pays just $60 per ton as
a tipping fee for MSW that is thermally treated at a WTE plant in Newark, NJ, while
paying over $100 per ton of several million tons of trash it generates that are hauled
to remote landfills in South Carolina, Ohio, and elsewhere (56). The probability of WTE
becoming economically cheaper than landfilling in India is low due to loosely
implemented regulations. However, with an increasing middle class, increase in public
health awareness and generation of mixed waste (due to lack of source separation),
WTE will become an important part of integrated solid waste management in India.
Due to the lack of source separation all MSW generated and collected is mixed waste.
Page | 99 WTE is the only technological solution which could recover the maximum
energy and materials from mixed waste. WTE boilers are specifically designed to be
flexible with feed in order to be able to handle highly heterogeneous mixed solid
wastes. WTE is recognized as a renewable energy technology by the Government of
India (GOI). Australia, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands and the US are some more
countries which recognize WTE as a renewable energy technology (15). Due to the
dominance of organic waste in MSW, it is considered as a bio-fuel which can be
replenished by agriculture. In India, urban MSW contains as much as 60% organic
fraction and 10% paper. Therefore, potentially, 70% of energy from WTE plants is
renewable energy. The activity in the WTE sector has increased considerably within
only one year since author’s first research visit in January, 2010. A WTE plant is under
construction at Okhla, New Delhi; two RDF-WTE plants are under construction at
Bibinagar (Hyderabad) and Karimnagar; and a WTE plant is being planned for Pimpri.
Apart from these new projects, there are already two RDFWTE plants in India, one in
Hyderabad and the other in Vijayawada (See Section 5.4.3.1.1). They employ similar
technology and design parameters. They use refused derived fuel mixed with agro
wastes as feed into traveling grate, stoker fired boilers to generate 6.6 MW power.
Only two WTE plants and two RDF-WTE plants were built in India until now. The latest
one among them has finished construction on the Okhla landfill site, New Delhi and is
about to start operations. The first WTE incinerator in India was installed at Timarpur,
Delhi in 1985. It was designed to produce 3.75 MW of electricity, based on imported
technology at the cost of $ 9.1 million (INR 410 million) (53). It failed to operate on a
daily basis and was on a trial run until 1990 when it was closed (57). The two RDF-WTE
plants built at Hyderabad and Vijayawada are not working either (See Section
5.4.3.1). The track record of WTE in India is acting as its biggest obstacle for further
development. Past failures can act as lessons to forth coming WTE projects but will not
be valid arguments against new facilities. This is because the reasons identified for
past failures are a) improper design to handle Indian wastes and b) inadequate solid
waste collection systems. Improper design includes mismatch of the quality of
incoming refuse with the plant design calorific value (57), high percentage of inerts
and having to handle refuse manually (58). The failures are due to bad planning, lack
of inter-institutional cooperation, and lose implementation of contracts and laws. The
WTE boiler installed in Hyderabad ran successfully and produced more power than
designed capacity (6.6 MW) until its condenser stopped working due to air and water
leakages. Also, since the first WTE in India in 1985, India has undergone two decades
of unprecedented economic growth which changed the lifestyles, which in turn
changed the nature of waste and Page | 100 increased its quantity. The change in
nature of MSW resulted in higher percentage of recyclables and increase in calorific
value of wastes; improvement in collection of MSW decreased the fraction of inerts
that end up in the MSW stream. During the same time, WTE industry has also
undergone a revolution in pollution control worldwide (59).

PURPOSE & PROCESS

Research for details

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Research for details


SUMMARY
"Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut
labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco
laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in
voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat
non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum."
Study and review of IRR of RA 9184

Consistencies, timeliness,

Cost process

*Forms

Other works without cost is pro bono

Construction schedule, pert cpm

*TOR

Related Interests