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Storage tank (Inductor or


Pipe with
friction (R ckt)

Pump (emf

Active current – water that circulates in the pipe

Reactive current – water that stores in the tank

Resistance of load – friction of the pipe

Voltage – force produced by pump

Storage tank – L or C

When the water flows in only one direction ( DC), water raises into the tank. (energy is stored in L or
C). This water returns to pump only at the end.

When the water flows in alternating direction, for say clock wise direction, the water in the tank
raises (energy stored), level drops ( returns energy to the source ).

Now for the anti clock wise direction, again the water level raises and drops.

The storage of water causes a phase difference between the driving force of the pump (emf) and the
water flow in the pipe(current).

When the pump forces water (current), some water raises into the storage tank. Pump has to deliver
extra force to raise water into the tank. ( Voltage drop due to the reactive component current)