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Origin

Tuna (genus Thunnus), also called tunny is a highly migratory marine species. It can travel from
one diverse region to the other around the globe, throughout its life time. Thunnus are related to
mackerels1 and are placed with them in the family Scombridae. Tuna and tuna-like species have
been known as a main product of fisheries since long before. The primary market of tunas is often
divided in to tropical tunas—skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis, bigeye (Thunnus obesus), and
yellowfin tuna (T. albacares)—temperature tunas—Pacific bluefin tuna (T. orientalis), southern
bluefin tuna (T. maccoyii), and albacore (T. alalunga). Additionally, many other types of tuna live
in the neritic zone or the shallow part of the seas over the continental shelf [e.g. black skipjack
tuna (Euthynnus lineatus) and long tail tuna (T. tonggol)]. Some tuna-like species that are found
in sport or recreational fisheries include butterfly kingfish (Gasterochisma melampus), billfishes
(Istiophoridae), and king mackerels (Scomberomorus cavalla). They swarm in oceans from one
diverse region to another. (Majjkowski, 2007).

Characteristics

About 15 species that inhabit in the Ocean; comprise this genera.

These fish are located in a higher position in the food chain, mainly because of their large size.

These fish also have excellent swimming skills, being one of the most consumed species in the
world’s gastronomy. In spite of having many properties, which bring many benefits for humans
health; their disproportionate fishing could mean their extinction as species.

Tunas are characterized, by carrying out intense physical activities; so they need to eat in the
best way to recover the energy lost when swimming. Therefore, their alimentation is based on
some species of fish, crustaceans and some mollusks. It is also important to know that they
consume large amounts of food, which equal in most cases to a quarter of their own weigh per
day.

In addition, and because of their swimming skills, they have a big advantage to follow and hunt
their preys without much effort; they just need to apply a bit of speed. For this reason the tuna
fishs feed on whatever prey available in the surface where they inhabit, since they are skilled
predators of smaller species.

Anatomy

In general terms to talk about the anatomy of the tuna fish, we must take into account that its body
has a fusiform aspect and is usually consistent. Its texture keeps it firm and strong. In turn, these
fish have two dorsal fins, which are very separate. In the case of the first fin, it is supported by
spines, and the second one by soft strips.

On the other hand, its body is oval and completely covered by small scales. Its back has tonalities
in dark blue, and its belly is light silvery in color. In the same way, Its fins have different tones of
gray. The tunas fish lack of spots; which is another distinctive feature that gives them the ability
to camouflage with the aquatic environment, since their tonalities resemble the colors of the
depths of the ocean.

Tunas are vigorous, elongated and sleek fishes. Their bodies are round and tapers to a lean tail
base and a tail shaped like a crescent. They are generally dark from above and often silvery with
an iridescent shine below. They have a noticeable keel on either the side of the tail base, a row
of small finlets behind dorsal and anal fins, and a corselet of enlarged scales in the shoulder
region. (Nelson, 1994)

Regarding their size, it ranges from 3 up to 5 meters depending on the species; and their weigh
reaches 400 kilograms, even 900 kilograms in some cases.

Reproduction

It is known that these fish reach sexual maturity when they are between four or five years old,
depending on the species. In turn, at this age they can measure between one to one and a half
meter, reaching a weigh which ranges between 16 to 27 kilograms.

The reproduction process begins, when the female expels its small eggs in the open sea; this
action is known as spawning. These species set a specific place to carry out the spawning, this
means that if they keep swimming, they will return to the initial place for getting reproduced.

The female is able to expel about 6 million eggs in a single spawning, this depends on the size
of the species. Due to their big size , they have the capability to create huge amounts of eggs
inside their bodies. Now, once the eggs are in the water, they will only be fertilized when the
male expels his sperm to the sea in order to fertilize them. As a result, small larvae emerge from
these eggs in the next 24 hours.

Now, the main characteristic of these small eggs is that they only measure a millimeter in
diameter. Moreover, they are also covered by a kind of oil, whose function is to help them float
in the water while they are fertilized. From the moment they are born until they reach adulthood,
tunas can grow up to a billion times more than its initial size.

It is also important to note, that only a couple of larvae of the millions that have been
produced, reach a state of adulthood. This is because they are so small, thus they are prone
to be devoured by much larger predators at sea, even by others tuna fishs.

So, usually these larvae face big threats that not all surpass, resulting in only two individuals in
average, capable of overcoming this fate and avoid being eaten by larger animals.

The main internationally traded forms of tuna are raw material for canning (fresh, frozen, and
frozen precooked loins), tuna for direct consumption (fresh/chilled and frozen), and canned tuna
(solid pack, chunks, flakes, and grated). Demands for tuna have gradually changed over time,
beginning with the birth and growth of the tuna canning industry. Any species and any size of tuna
fishes can be used to produce canned tuna. When cold storage systems were introduced, the
tuna market expanded to include sashimi, which is raw flesh fish that is a traditional delicacy in
Japan (and now also in other countries). Sashimi requires select species and large-sized tunas
(such as bigeye and bluefin tunas). For this reason, high-quality tuna is classified as sashimi-
grade tuna (FAO 2010a).

Tuna wastes or by-products are commonly viewed as low-value resources with negligible market
value. However, the recognition of limited biological resources and increasing environmental
pollution has emphasized the need for better utilization of by-products from fisheries. Thus,
efficient recovery and use of such by-products is very important to reduce environmental problems
and to maximize economic benefits. Fisheries by-products are perishable due to their high protein
and fat contents. Most fisheries by-products, including those of tuna, currently are used to produce
fish oil, fishmeal, fertilizer, pet food, and fish silage (Kim and Mendis 2006). However, most of
these recycled products are of low economic value. Another use of these by-products needs to
be developed to achieve better utilization of this highquality protein source and to increase their
economic value.
Recent studies have identified a number of bioactive compounds from fish muscle protein,
collagen, gelatin, oil, bone, and internal organs that remain after processing (Kim and Mendis
2006). These by-products are very important bio-resources that might be utilized for applications
in food, health-care products, and pharmaceuticals or as specialty feeds for fish and other
animals. A promising alternative use of these by-products is as functional food ingredients. Fish
protein hydrolysate (FPH), which is obtained through hydrolysis of tuna waste, can be used as an
ingredient in food industries to provide functional properties such as whipping, gelling, and
texturing properties. Much information has been published about tuna waste utilization and FPH
in scientific publications, but these reports are scattered. This review is intended to summarize
the existing knowledge about FPH, highlight some pertinent information related to the tuna fishing
industry, and provide a new outlook on the production and applications of FPH.

Geographical Distribution

The vertical distribution of most species of tuna is influenced by the thermal and oxygen structures
of the water column (FAO 2010b). Small-sized tuna species and juveniles of species that attain
large sizes tend to live near the surface, whereas adults of large species inhabit deeper waters.
The use of deep longlines showed that bigeye tuna can be found at depths as great as 300 m.
Albacore are also caught using fish aggregation devices (FADs) at depths to about 200 m.
Acoustic telemetry has shown that billfishes are found near the sea surface during the day, but
they frequently descend to greater depths at night (FAO 2010b). Most tuna and tuna-like species
are highly mobile and in many instances undertake extensive migrations. Skipjack tuna is a
pelagic species that can be found in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate waters. It migrates
extensively between the central Pacific and the coastal waters of both the Eastern Pacific and
Japan.

Moreover, it can be found from Massachusetts to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the
Caribbean in the Atlantic. Southern bluefin tuna, which live only in the southern hemisphere,
migrate from spawning areas around Australia to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In
South Australia, southern bluefin tuna are captured in the wild between December and March and
then are farmed for 6 to 9 mo in an open-water environment (Cleanseas 2010; FAO 2010c; NOAA
2010). The Atlantic bluefin tuna, also known as northern bluefin tuna, is a subtropical pelagic fish.
It is distributed mainly in Western Atlantic areas such as Canada, the Gulf of Mexico, and the
Caribbean Sea to Venezuela and Brazil.
In addition, it is found around the Lofoten Islands off Norway to Canary Island, the Mediterranean,
and the southern part of the Black Sea. In the Pacific Ocean, northern bluefin tuna migrate
between the near-shore waters of Canada, Mexico, and the United States and Japanese waters.
In contrast, albacore is a highly migratory cosmopolitan fish that can be found in tropical and
temperate waters of all oceans and the Mediterranean Sea (except at the sea surface between
10oN and 10oS). Although yellowfin and bigeye tuna undertake migrations of several thousand
miles, these migrations are not as extensive as those of the other principal market species. Many
of the secondary market species also appear to be less migratory than the principal market
species. However, some species of billfish migrate several thousand miles (FAO 2010c; Froese
and Pauly 2010a, 2010b). The principal market tunas are distributed in the Atlantic Ocean (North,
South, Western, Eastern, and Mediterranean Sea), Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean (North, South,
Eastern,Western, and Central), and Southern Ocean. Each ocean has its own particular species,
such as the Pacific bluefin tuna, which is usually found in the Pacific Ocean, and the southern
bluefin tuna in the Southern Ocean. However, bigeye tuna, albacore, yellowfin tuna, and skipjack
tuna can be caught in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans.

Common Name Scientific Name Area(s) of Occurence


Skipjack Katsuwonus pelamis Worldwide
Yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores Worldwide
Bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus Worldwide
Albacore tuna Thunnus alalunga Worldwide
Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus Atlantic Ocean
Pacific bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis Pacific Ocean
Southern bluefin tuna Thunnus maccoyii Southern parts of Atlantic,
Indian, and Pacific Ocean
Longtail tuna
Blackfin tuna
Kawakawa
Black skipjack
Little tunny
Bullet tuna
Frigate tuna
Slender tuna
Ocean

Longtail tuna Thunnus tonggol Indian Ocean, western

Pacific Ocean

Blackfin tuna Thunnus atlanticus Western Atlantic Ocean

Kawakawa Euthynnus affinis Indian, western and

central Pacific Oceans

Black skipjack Euthynnus lineatus Eastern Pacific Ocean

Little tunny Euthynnus alleteratus Atlantic Ocean

Bullet tuna Auxis rochei Worldwide

Frigate tuna Auxis thazard Indian and Pacific Oceans

Slender tuna Allothunnus fallai Southern Ocean

Existing Products: Utilization of tuna waste by-products

In the world today, a huge amount of food is dumped as commercial and domestic waste.
Although there is a need to decrease the waste in the world, the quantity of waste produced
continues to increase annually. Thus, in recent years, interest has grown in investigating
possiblemeans of making more effective use of underutilized resources and industrial wastes,
including tuna waste.

Tuna dark muscle as a source of pet food. Pet food products that are tuna based account for
about 5% of canned pet food in most major markets. Blood meat (dark tuna muscle) accounts for
about 12% of raw tuna butchered for canning and is the main ingredient of tuna-based pet food.
A major use of blood meat from tuna is to give flavor to pet feed. This dark meat, which lies next
to the backbone, is trimmed from tuna before it is canned for human consumption. Gourmet pet
feed, which is essentially human-grade tuna, is produced in limited quantities from whole tuna
loins. Canned pet feed tuna is processed the same way as other tuna, and dozens of formulas
exist, including being packed in water or jelly with vitamin and mineral premixes, vegetable oils,
antioxidants, coloring agents, and sometimes pulverized tuna frames to boost calcium content.
There may be opportunities for the Canadian albacore tuna industry to sell dark meat to pet food
manufacturers for niche markets (BCTFA 2001).

Tuna oil.

Tuna oil is becoming an important by-product of the tuna processing industry. Unused parts of
tuna that are processed for the tuna canning industry are used to make refined oil, which has little
odor and light yellow color. Usually only the head, meat, and bones, but not the viscera, are used
in tuna oil production. Tuna livers are not processed into oil. Crude tuna oil is produced from tuna
waste by steam followed by purification. This 1st-stage oil is a darker color than that of the finished
product. Oil separation equipment at canneries is used to extract water, solids, and metal ions as
quickly as possible. The product is then shipped to a refinery to undergo a 4-step process that
involves neutralization, bleaching, and winterizing to remove crystallized fats, followed by a
deodorizing process to remove odor-causing contaminants. The oil then is either shipped in bulk
or packaged and sent to end users, including the pharmaceutical industry and other
manufacturers. Tuna oil is a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially EPA
(eicosapentaenoic acid, C22:5n3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, C22:6n3), which are omega-
3 fatty acids.

The oil contains approximately 5.7% EPA and 18.8% to 25.5% DHA (Chantachum and others
2000; Wongsakul and others 2003). PUFAs play an essential role in human health and nutrition,
as they can reduce the risk of coronary disease, prevent certain cancers, and improve immune
function. A convenient method for delivery of omega-3 fatty acids is the use of oil-in-water
emulsions (Shen and others 2007). However, long-chain PUFAs in tuna oils are highly
unsaturated and therefore are highly susceptible to oxidation.

Lipid oxidation in tuna oils can be reduced by adding antioxidant to the oil or by encapsulation of
the oil (Klinkesorn and others 2005, 2006). Use of encapsulation technologies to retard the
oxidation of tuna oils has been reported and has drawn considerable attention in the food industry.
Generally, fish oil—including tuna oil—contains a complex mixture of fatty acids with varying chain
lengths and degrees of unsaturation. Overconsumption of fish oils to obtain omega-3 PUFAs may
increase the intake of cholesterol and other saturated fatty acids by consumers (Shahidi and
Wanasundara 1998). Concentration or enrichment of omega-3 PUFAs in tuna oil could help to
avoid this problem (Klinkesorn and others 2004). Some studies indicate that PUFA concentrates
that are devoid of more saturated fatty acids are better for human consumption than fish oils
themselves, as they allow the daily intake of total lipid to be kept as low as possible. Tuna collagen
and gelatin. Collagen and gelatin are different forms of the same macromolecule. Collagen, which
is one of the most abundant animal-derived proteins, is the precursor of gelatin (gelatin is the
partially hydrolyzed form of collagen). Collagen and gelatin are widely and diversely used in food,
medicine, cosmetics, and cell cultures, and the consumption of collagen and gelatin has increased
with the development of new industrial applications (Karim and Bhat 2009). Collagen and gelatin
used in commercial products are mainly obtained from cows and pigs, but mammalian diseases
(such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and foot/mouth disease) present safety problems
because of the risk of transferring the disease to humans. In addition, certain religions prohibit
the use of cow and pig products. In contrast, the risk of transferring pathogens is low in fish
collagen and gelatin, and these products do not contradict Islamic food laws and Hindu/Buddhist
religious sensitivities.

Fish skin, bone, and fins can be used as sources of collagen and gelatin. Although they are
dumped as waste, their yield of collagen is very high (about 36% to 54%) (Nagai and Suzuki
2000b). Collagen accounts for about 30% of the total protein of most organisms (Woo and others
2008). Nagai and Suzuki (2000a) reported that the collagen contents of the fish skin waste of
Japanese sea bass, chub mackerel, and bullhead shark were 51.4%, 49.8%, and 50.1% (dry
basis), respectively. The yields of collagen in fish bone also were very high: skipjack tuna (53.6%),
Japanese sea bass (42.3%), ayu (40.7%), yellow sea bream (40.1%), and horse mackerel
(43.5%) (on the basis of lyophilized dry weight). Production of fish gelatin is not a new
phenomenon, as it has been produced since 1960 by acid extraction. To date, most of it has been
used for industrial applications (Norland 1990). Detailed extraction procedures and
characterization of the properties of fish gelatin were described by Grossman and Bergman
(1992) in a U. S. patent. According to Karim and Bhat (2009), many researchers have studied
extracts from the skin and bones of various cold-water (for example, cod, hake, Alaska pollock,
and salmon) and warm-water (tuna, catfish, tilapia, Nile perch, shark, and megrim) fish. In order
to be applied in the food and pharmaceutical industries, fish gelatinmust possess the following
characteristics.

First, a large quantity of by-product and its economical collection are essential for continuous
production in industry. Second, gelatin from fish by-products must have rheological properties
(such as gel strength, gelling, and melting points) that are comparable to those of mammalian
gelatin.
Traditionally, gelatin made from marine species was thought to have inferior physicochemical
properties compared to mammalian gelatin, and this was especially true for gelatin made from
cold-water fish species (Leuenberger 1991; Gudmudsson and Hafsteinsson 1997; Haug and
others 2004). However, recent studies showed that certain fish gelatins might have similar quality
characteristics as those of mammalian gelatin and that the quality depends on the species from
which the gelatin was extracted and the processing conditions used (Choi and Regenstein 2000;
Cho and others 2005; Zhou and others 2006; Yang and others 2007). For example, Cho and
others (2005) reported that the gel strength of yellowfin tuna skin gelatin (426 Bloom) was higher
than that of bovine and porcine gelatins (216 Bloom and 295 Bloom, respectively), whereas the
gelling and melting points were lower. The tuna skin gelatin also had dynamic viscoelastic
properties that were similar to those of mammalian gelatins. Moreover, the collagen extracted
from yellowfin tuna dorsal skins had good solubility and viscosity qualities (Woo and others 2008).
As for

thermal characteristic, Rahman and others (2008) reported that a disadvantage of tuna gelatin
was that it showed lower glass transition compared to mammalian gelatin when equilibrated at
the same constant relative humidity. The variation in gelatin characteristics has been shown to be
correlated with the proportion of proline and hydroxyproline in the original collagen. Alem´an and
others (2011) reported that total amount of imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) of tuna gelatin
is 184 residue/1000 residues.

This is considerably lower than mammalian gelatin that contains 221 residue/1000 residues (Haug
and others 2004).

Different enzymes used in hydrolysis result in varying degrees of hydrolysis. Tuna gelatin after 3
h of enzymatic digestion with pepsin caused a higher degree of hydrolysis compared with
alcalase. Otherwise, squid gelatin showed a higher degree of hydrolysis when digested with
alcalase rather than pepsin (Alem´an and others 2011).

Broad Spectrum Products

Wearables

Accessories
Current Practices, issues & concerns

A. Current Practices

material background

existing products

a….

Industry process

Raw Material and Leather Processing

Raw material for leather production is usually obtained from the cow, buffalo, goat and sheep
(Ghafoor et al, 2014). Tanning Process consist of Preparatory stage (Soaking, Liming, De-
fleshing, De liming, Bating, Pickling). After prpeparatory phase Tanning stage gets start and there
are different types of tannings that are usually applied including (Vegetable tanning, Aldehyde
tanning, Synthetic tanning and Chrome tanning). Tanning stage is followed by Post tanning
operations like Slamming, Splitting, Skiving, Neutralizing, Dyeing, Greasing, Drying and Finishing.
Finally the leather surface is coated with dyes to remove scars or damages (Kesarwani et al,
2015).

A tuna skin leather manufactured by a process comprising: soaking a tuna skin in water, thereby
restoring protein tissue of the original raw skin state and removing impurities and salt contents on
the surface of the tuna skin to inhibit the activity of viruses; liming the tuna skin after soaking the
tuna skin in water by depositing the tuna skin in a solution of calcium hydroxide, thereby
eliminating the scales of the tuna skin, a water-soluble protein and a greasy matter between the
tuna skin's outer layer and fibers and swelling the fiber structure of the tuna skin; deliming the
tuna skin with a deliming agent, thereby neutralizing and removing the lime which has infiltrated
into the tuna skin and returning the swollen state into the original state; bating the tuna skin after
deliming, by hydrolyzing the unnecessary protein layer of the tuna skin with a protease enzyme,
thereby loosening the fiber structure to improve the flexibility and elongation rate and acquiring
leather having beautiful grains; pickling the tuna skin after bating, by depositing the tuna skin in
an acid solution; tanning the tuna skin after pickling, to transform the tuna skin into leather having
the property of mineral leather, thereby imparting thermal resistance, corrosion resistance, anti-
perishability and flexibility to the tuna skin; dyeing the tuna skin after tanning, with one or more
dyes and one or more fatliquoring agents, thereby imparting basic color tones and flexibility to the
tuna skin; drying the tuna skin after dyeing, thereby eliminating water contents from the tuna skin;
splitting the tuna skin after drying to create a moiré pattern unique to the tuna skin; and finishing
the tuna skin after splitting, thereby completing the tuna skin.

Issues and concerns

Although leather industry plays very important role in economy of the country but at the same
time it also have adverse effect on the environment. Tanning process produces a quite significant
byproducts and wastes either in solid, liquid and gaseous forms which contributes pollution by
chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solid (TDS), chlorides, sulphates and heavy
metals (Sundar et al, 2011; Sumita et al, 2015). Exposure to these harmful chemicals in tannery
workers causes a variety of complications including respiratory tract and eyes irritation, and a
variety of cancers such as lung, buccal, pancreatic and bladder cancer. Chromium III is a major
tanning agent used in the leather industry has an adverse and hazardous effect on environment
as well as on living organisms (Song et al, 2000).

Environmental Impact of Mis-management

The accumulation of excess fishing capacity threatens the worldwide tuna fisheries. Some tuna
varieties such as bigeye and bluefin tuna are already susceptible which has drastically affected
tuna population in the northwest Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic. They are illegally netted and
captured even before they reproduce and places inside a fish farm—which is not their natural
habitat—enclosed and being fattened for harvest.

Furthermore, the journal “Natural Climate Change” suggests that killing ocean predators such as
tuna and sharks is intensifying the speed of climate change. This leads to a trophic cascade as
the loss of so many top predators in the marine food chain allows the growth of the stingrays,
crabs, starfish, and sea turtles population. These marine herbivores are precipitously eating their
way through the Earth’s sea grass beds, digging up the ocean floor. This may lead to the
deterioration of the world’s most important system for cycling and storing carbon.

Solid wastes

During leather processing, only 150 kg out of 1000kg of raw hide converted into finished leather
while 850 kg generated as solid wastes in different forms.

Characterization and Environmental Impacts of Solid Wastes


There are different pollutants are present in these solid wastes such as nitrogen, sodium chloride,
dichloromethane, sulphides, calcium, ferric, cadmium and chromium (Ozgunay et al, 2007).

Impacts on Worker

A research carried out in General Santos City, known as the Tuna Capital of the Philippines,
revealed that the rank as the second in the world for tuna fishing and fifth in canned production.
Due in part to overfishing, profits and yields have been declining over the past years. This resulted
to a downturn in linked parts of the supply chains such as processing and canning. Despite the
fishing sector dominating the economy of General Santos City, the descending trend have put
pressure on tuna sector workers, giving little attention to the paid labor conditions, even less to
the particular indicators of forced labor.

In tanneries, the workers do their jobs without wearing of nose masks, inhale H2S. H2S is
colorless gas having rotten egg smell. If level of H2S is greater than 900ppm for a minute, it
causes coma. Various complications such as olfactory fatigue, respiratory tract irritation and
kerato- conjunctivitis are due to moderate exposure to H2S (50-100 mg/l) while olfactory paralysis,
pulmonary edema, severe lung and eye irritation exposure to high level (250- 500mg/l). NH3 and
its oxides are alkaline and corrosive in nature cause the irritation and injury of skin, eyes and
respiratory tract. Gaseous Cl2 is toxic and cause the respiratory complications. The excess
inhaling concentration of Cl2 causes the loss of consciousness loss. The long term exposure to
leather dusts, lead, NO2, SO2, H2S in tannery worker cause high rate of morbidity and mortality
(Gnanasekaran et al, 2010; Abul Hashem et al, 2015).

Worker’s Health

The exposure rate of tannery workers to carcinogenic compounds including chromium salt,
arsenic, benzene, formaldehyde, ethanol, toluene and acetene solvents is increased. Chromium
chemicals are major compounds used in tanning process in the form of Baychrome and
Cr(OH)SO4. In tanneries, Cr present in sulphate, inorganic and in protein bound form called
leather dust (Bonasi et al, 1990; Seniori et al, 1990; Montanaro et al, 1997). Exposure to these
compounds resulting in a variety of cancers i.e. lung, bladder, kidney, pancreatic, oral cavity and
nasal cancers, soft tissue sarcoma and skin with dermatitis, ulcer and respiratory illness.

IV. Desired Products


a leatherizing tecniques

b. leatherized sheet

c. Proposed design product

bag

accessories

Conclusion

Tuna is a very important commodity in the world fisheries industry. It is produced in high quantities
and is widely distributed throughout the world.Most of the tuna industries, both those canning tuna
and those producing sashimi, use only the white meat, resulting in an abundance of by-products
or wastes. These byproducts have a high nutritional value, and they are especially high in protein
content. Researchers have developed these by-products into fish meal, fish oil, pet food, gelatin,
digestive enzyme extracts, and FPH. FPH traditionally was produced by enzymatic autolysis (fish
silage and fish sauce). Nowadays, researchers tend to use commercial enzymes that are
extracted from microbes to catalyze hydrolysis due to their ability to improve nutritional value and
physicochemical and functional properties of FPH. FPH peptides have been shown to be
antioxidants and have antihypertensive, anticancer, and antianemia activities. FPH also have
been successfully utilized as a component of microbial growth media. Therefore, FPH made from
tuna waste can be widely developed and used in various products.

solve this situation…