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Why Indonesia has so many earthquakes

With Indonesia, the question is not whether an earthquake will occur but when.

The Southeast Asian archipelago nation is reeling after yet another powerful earthquake struck Friday,
followed by a tsunami, leaving hundreds of people dead and hundreds injured. The walls of water
engulfed towns, swept away buildings and tossed cars like toys.

Indonesia is prone to earthquakes because it's on the Ring of Fire, an arc of volcanoes and fault lines in
the basin of the Pacific Ocean. The area shaped like a shoe spans 40,000 kilometers (25,000 miles) and is
where a majority of the world's earthquakes occur.

One of the most seismically active zones on the planet, it stretches from Japan and Indonesia on one side
of the Pacific all the way across to California and South America on the other.

"Plate tectonics and the Ring of Fire are the main reasons why Indonesia has so many earthquakes and
volcanic eruptions," CNN meteorologist Allison Chinchar said. "The earth below them is constantly
changing and constantly moving."
What is the Ring of Fire?
What is the Ring of Fire?

The Ring of Fire was formed as oceanic plates slid under continental plates.

Volcanoes along the Ring of Fire are formed when one plate is shoved under another into the mantle -- a
solid body of rock between the Earth's crust and the molten iron core -- through a process called
subduction.

Large earthquakes -- which risk triggering tsunamis -- also occur in subduction zones.

In recent months, the Indonesian archipelago has been hammered by earthquakes, a deadly reminder of
the islands' dangerous location.

Residents were still recovering from a 6.4 magnitude earthquake that struck the popular tourist island of
Lombok in July when a 6.9 temblor was reported in August.
The July quake killed about 15 people, while more than 400 people died in the wake of the August 5
tremor, officials said. The latter was also felt in neighboring Bali, another popular tourist spot.

The main earthquakes are followed by dozens of aftershocks that continue for days.

CNN's Emiko Jozuka contributed to this report.

Questions:
1. Why Indonesia has so many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions?
2. What is the Ring of Fire?
3. Where is the place of biggest earthquake in the World?
4. In which zone the earthquake that caused the tsunami occurred?
5. The extent to which the most seismically active zone stretches?
CNN) Dengan Indonesia, pertanyaannya bukan apakah gempa akan terjadi
tetapi kapan.

Negara kepulauan Asia Tenggara terguncang setelah gempa bumi dahsyat melanda Jumat, diikuti
oleh tsunami, meninggalkan ratusan orang tewas dan ratusan lainnya terluka. Dinding-dinding air
menelan kota-kota, menyapu bangunan-bangunan dan melemparkan mobil-mobil seperti mainan.

Indonesia rentan terhadap gempa bumi karena berada di Ring of Fire, busur gunung berapi dan
garis patahan di cekungan Samudera Pasifik. Area tersebut berbentuk seperti sepatu yang membentang
40.000 kilometer (25.000 mil) dan merupakan tempat terjadinya gempa bumi terbesar di dunia. Salah satu
zona yang paling aktif secara seismik di planet ini, membentang dari Jepang dan Indonesia di satu sisi
Pasifik sepanjang jalan. menyeberang ke California dan Amerika Selatan di sisi lain.

"Lempeng tektonik dan Cincin Api adalah alasan utama mengapa Indonesia memiliki begitu
banyak gempa bumi dan letusan gunung berapi," kata ahli meteorologi CNN Allison Chinchar. "Bumi di
bawah mereka terus berubah dan terus bergerak."

Apa itu Cincin Api?

Apa itu Cincin Api?

Cincin Api terbentuk saat lempeng samudera meluncur di bawah lempeng benua.

Gunung api di sepanjang Cincin Api terbentuk ketika satu lempeng didorong di bawah yang lain ke dalam
mantel - tubuh padat batuan antara kerak Bumi dan inti besi cair - melalui proses yang disebut subduksi.

Gempa besar - yang berisiko memicu tsunami - juga terjadi di zona subduksi.

Dalam beberapa bulan terakhir, kepulauan Indonesia telah dipalu oleh gempa bumi, pengingat
mematikan lokasi pulau-pulau yang berbahaya.

Penduduk masih belum pulih dari gempa berkekuatan 6,4 yang melanda pulau wisata populer
Lombok pada bulan Juli ketika 6,9 gempa dilaporkan terjadi pada bulan Agustus.

Gempa Juli menewaskan sekitar 15 orang, sementara lebih dari 400 orang tewas akibat gempa 5
Agustus, kata para pejabat. Yang terakhir ini juga terasa di negara tetangga Bali, tempat wisata populer
lainnya.

Gempa bumi utama diikuti oleh lusinan gempa susulan yang berlanjut selama berhari-hari.
CNN Emiko Jozuka berkontribusi dalam laporan ini.