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Chapter Objectives

 Determine stresses developed in a member’s cross


section when axial load, torsion, bending and shear
occur simultaneously.

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REVIEW OF STRESS ANALYSES

• Normal force P leads to:


P
uniform normal stress,  
A

• Torsional moment T leads to:


T
shear  stress distribution,   (for circular shaft)
J

• Bending moment M leads to:


My
longitudinal stress distribution,    (for straight beam)
I

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REVIEW OF STRESS ANALYSES (cont)

• Shear force V leads to:


VQ
shear  stress distributi on,  
It

• Resultant stresses by superposition:


Once the normal and shear stress components for each
loading have been calculated, use the principal of
superposition to determine the resultant normal and shear
stress components.

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EXAMPLE 1
The member shown in Fig. 8–5a has a rectangular cross
section. Determine the state of stress that the loading produces
at point C.

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• The resultant internal loadings at the section consist of a normal force, a
shear force, and a bending moment.

• Solving, N  16.45 kN, V  21.93 kN, M  32.89 kN

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• The uniform normal-stress distribution acting over the cross section is
produced by the normal force.
P 16.45 103
• At Point C,  c  
 
 1.32 MPa
A 0.050.25

• In Fig. 8–5e, the shear stress is zero.

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• Point C is located at y = c = 0.125m from the neutral axis, so the normal
stress at C, Fig. 8–5f, is

c  

Mc 32.89 103 0.125 
 63.16 MPa
I 1

2 0.050.25
3

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• The shear stress is zero.

• Adding the normal stresses determined above gives a compressive


stress at C having a value of

Mc
c   1.32  63.16  64.5 MPa
I

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EXAMPLE 2
A force of 15 kN is applied to the edge of the member shown in
Fig. 8–3a. Neglect the weight of the member and determine the
state of stress at points B and C.

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
• For equilibrium at the section there must be an axial force of 15 000 N
acting through the centroid and a bending moment of 750 000 N•mm
about the centroidal or principal axis.

P 15000
   3.75 MPa
A 10040

• The maximum stress is

Mc 7500050
 max    11.25 MPa
I 1
401003
12

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
• Elements of material at B and C are subjected only to normal or uniaxial
stress.
 B  7.5 MPa (tension) (Ans)
 C  15 MPa (compression) (Ans)

• The location of the line of zero stress can be determined by proportional


triangles
7.5 15

x 100  x 
x  33.3 mm

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EXAMPLE 3
The rectangular block of negligible weight in Fig. 8–6a is
subjected to a vertical force of 40 kN, which is applied to its
corner. Determine the largest normal stress acting on a section
through ABCD.

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EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
Solutions
• For uniform normal-stress distribution the stress is
P 40
   125 kPa
A 0.80.4

• For 8 kN, the maximum stress is

M x cx 80.2
 max    375 kPa
Ix 
12 0.80.4 
1 3

• For 16 kN, the maximum stress is

M y cx 160.4
 max    375 kPa
Iy 
12 0.4 0.8
1 3

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EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
Solutions
• By inspection the normal stress at point C is the largest since each
loading creates a compressive stress there

 c  125  375  375  875 kPa (Ans)

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EXAMPLE 4
The solid rod shown in Fig. 8–8a has a radius of 7.5mm. If it is
subjected to the force of 500 N, determine the state of stress
at point A.

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Internal Loadings. The rod is sectioned through point A. Using
the free-body diagram of segment AB, Fig. 8-8b, the resultant
internal loadings are determined from the equations of
equilibrium. Verify these results. In order to better “visualize”
the stress distributions due to these loadings, we can consider
the equal but opposite resultants acting on segment AC, Fig.
8-8c.

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Stress Components
Normal Force. The normal-stress distribution is shown in Fig.
8-8d. For point A, we have
P 500 N
( A ) y    2.83MPa
A  (7.5mm) 2

Bending Moment. For the moment, c=7.5mm, so the normal


stress due to bending at point A, Fig. 8-8e, is

Mc 70000 N .mm(7.5mm)
( A ) y    211.3MPa
I [ 1  (7.5mm) ]
4
4

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Superposition. When the above results are superimposed, it is
seen that an element of material at A is subjected to the
normal stress
( A ) y  2.83  211.3  214.1MPa

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EXAMPLE 5
The solid rod shown in Fig. 8–9a has a radius of 7.5mm. If it is
subjected to the force of 800 N, determine the state of stress
at point A.

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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Internal Loadings. The rod is sectioned through point A. Using
the free-body diagram of segment AB, Fig. 8-9b, the resultant
internal loadings are determined from the six equations of
equilibrium. Verify these results. The equal but opposite
resultants are shown on segment AC, Fig. 8-9c.

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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Stress Components
Shear Force. The shear-stress distribution is shown in Fig. 8-
9d. For point A, Q is determined from the shaded semi-
circular area. We have
4(7.5mm)  1 2
Q  y ' A'   2  (0.75mm)   281.25mm 3

3
so that
VQ 800 N (281.25mm3 )
( yz ) A    6.04MPa
It [  (7.5mm) ]2(7.5mm)
1 4
4

Bending Moment. Since point A lies on the neutral axis, Fig.


8-9e, the normal stress is
A  0
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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Stress Components
Torque. At point A, ρA=c=7.5mm, Fig. 8-9f. Thus the shear
stress is
Tc 112000 N .mm(7.5mm)
( yz ) A    169.0MPa
J [ 1  (7.5mm) ]
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Superposition. Hence the element of material at A is
subjected only to a shear stress component, where
( yz ) A  6.04  169.0  175.0MPa

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Maximum Shear Stress For A Beam With
Rectangular Cross Section

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Maximum Shear Stress For A Beam
With Circular Cross Section

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Maximum Shear Stress For A Beam With
Hollow Circular Cross Section

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