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# Chapter Objectives

##  Determine stresses developed in a member’s cross

section when axial load, torsion, bending and shear
occur simultaneously.

REVIEW OF STRESS ANALYSES

## • Normal force P leads to:

P
uniform normal stress,  
A

## • Torsional moment T leads to:

T
shear  stress distribution,   (for circular shaft)
J

## • Bending moment M leads to:

My
longitudinal stress distribution,    (for straight beam)
I

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REVIEW OF STRESS ANALYSES (cont)

## • Shear force V leads to:

VQ
shear  stress distributi on,  
It

## • Resultant stresses by superposition:

Once the normal and shear stress components for each
superposition to determine the resultant normal and shear
stress components.

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EXAMPLE 1
The member shown in Fig. 8–5a has a rectangular cross
at point C.

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• The resultant internal loadings at the section consist of a normal force, a
shear force, and a bending moment.

## • Solving, N  16.45 kN, V  21.93 kN, M  32.89 kN

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• The uniform normal-stress distribution acting over the cross section is
produced by the normal force.
P 16.45 103
• At Point C,  c  
 
 1.32 MPa
A 0.050.25

## • In Fig. 8–5e, the shear stress is zero.

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• Point C is located at y = c = 0.125m from the neutral axis, so the normal
stress at C, Fig. 8–5f, is

c  

Mc 32.89 103 0.125 
 63.16 MPa
I 1

2 0.050.25
3

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EXAMPLE 1 (cont)
Solutions
• The shear stress is zero.

## • Adding the normal stresses determined above gives a compressive

stress at C having a value of

Mc
c   1.32  63.16  64.5 MPa
I

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EXAMPLE 2
A force of 15 kN is applied to the edge of the member shown in
Fig. 8–3a. Neglect the weight of the member and determine the
state of stress at points B and C.

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
• For equilibrium at the section there must be an axial force of 15 000 N
acting through the centroid and a bending moment of 750 000 N•mm
about the centroidal or principal axis.

P 15000
   3.75 MPa
A 10040

## • The maximum stress is

Mc 7500050
 max    11.25 MPa
I 1
401003
12

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EXAMPLE 2 (cont)
Solutions
• Elements of material at B and C are subjected only to normal or uniaxial
stress.
 B  7.5 MPa (tension) (Ans)
 C  15 MPa (compression) (Ans)

## • The location of the line of zero stress can be determined by proportional

triangles
7.5 15

x 100  x 
x  33.3 mm

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EXAMPLE 3
The rectangular block of negligible weight in Fig. 8–6a is
subjected to a vertical force of 40 kN, which is applied to its
corner. Determine the largest normal stress acting on a section
through ABCD.

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EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
Solutions
• For uniform normal-stress distribution the stress is
P 40
   125 kPa
A 0.80.4

## • For 8 kN, the maximum stress is

M x cx 80.2
 max    375 kPa
Ix 
12 0.80.4 
1 3

• For 16 kN, the maximum stress is

M y cx 160.4
 max    375 kPa
Iy 
12 0.4 0.8
1 3

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EXAMPLE 3 (cont)
Solutions
• By inspection the normal stress at point C is the largest since each

##  c  125  375  375  875 kPa (Ans)

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EXAMPLE 4
The solid rod shown in Fig. 8–8a has a radius of 7.5mm. If it is
subjected to the force of 500 N, determine the state of stress
at point A.

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
the free-body diagram of segment AB, Fig. 8-8b, the resultant
equilibrium. Verify these results. In order to better “visualize”
the equal but opposite resultants acting on segment AC, Fig.
8-8c.

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Stress Components
Normal Force. The normal-stress distribution is shown in Fig.
8-8d. For point A, we have
P 500 N
( A ) y    2.83MPa
A  (7.5mm) 2

## Bending Moment. For the moment, c=7.5mm, so the normal

stress due to bending at point A, Fig. 8-8e, is

Mc 70000 N .mm(7.5mm)
( A ) y    211.3MPa
I [ 1  (7.5mm) ]
4
4

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EXAMPLE 4 (cont)
Superposition. When the above results are superimposed, it is
seen that an element of material at A is subjected to the
normal stress
( A ) y  2.83  211.3  214.1MPa

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EXAMPLE 5
The solid rod shown in Fig. 8–9a has a radius of 7.5mm. If it is
subjected to the force of 800 N, determine the state of stress
at point A.

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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
the free-body diagram of segment AB, Fig. 8-9b, the resultant
equilibrium. Verify these results. The equal but opposite
resultants are shown on segment AC, Fig. 8-9c.

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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Stress Components
Shear Force. The shear-stress distribution is shown in Fig. 8-
9d. For point A, Q is determined from the shaded semi-
circular area. We have
4(7.5mm)  1 2
Q  y ' A'   2  (0.75mm)   281.25mm 3

3
so that
VQ 800 N (281.25mm3 )
( yz ) A    6.04MPa
It [  (7.5mm) ]2(7.5mm)
1 4
4

## Bending Moment. Since point A lies on the neutral axis, Fig.

8-9e, the normal stress is
A  0
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EXAMPLE 5 (cont)
Stress Components
Torque. At point A, ρA=c=7.5mm, Fig. 8-9f. Thus the shear
stress is
Tc 112000 N .mm(7.5mm)
( yz ) A    169.0MPa
J [ 1  (7.5mm) ]
4
2
Superposition. Hence the element of material at A is
subjected only to a shear stress component, where
( yz ) A  6.04  169.0  175.0MPa

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