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# Enhancing

## Problem Solving &

Quantitative
Aptitude

4-Sep-19

Data Interpretation: Tables, Bar, Pie, Line Charts and other innovative set of Problems
Mukesh Vyas
4-Sep-19

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Types of Problems

Data Interpretation

## Tabular Presentation Bar Chart Pie Chart Other innovative

data representations

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Tabular Presentation

## Problem Solving Tips:

 No Instruction to be missed.
 If there are more than 1 tables, try to identify the relationship
between the data.
 Ex: One table is about Sales ﬁgures and another may talk as Sales
as % of Production.
 Ensure units are consistent in various tables / graphs / charts.
 Ensure whether answer has to be provided as absolute value /
Percentage

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Practice Problem-1
Study the following table and answer the questions based on it.
Expenditures of a Company (in Lakh Rupees) per Annum Over the given Years

Q-1: What is the average amount of interest per year which the
Item of Expenditure company had to pay during this period?:
Year (A)Rs. 32.43 lakhs (B)Rs. 33.72 lakhs
(C) Rs. 34.18 lakhs          (D) Rs. 36.66 lakhs
Fuel and Interest on
Salary Transport Bonus Loans Taxes Q-2: The total amount of bonus paid by the company during the
given period is approximately what percent of the total amount
of salary paid during this period?
1998 288 98 3.00 23.4 83 (A)0.1% (B)0.5% (C) 1 % (D) 1.25 %

## Q-3: Total expenditure on all these items in 1998 was

approximately what percent of the total expenditure in 2002?
1999 342 112 2.52 32.5 108 (A)62 % (B)66 % (C) 69% (D) 71 %

2000 324 101 3.84 41.6 74 Q-4: The total expenditure of the company over these items
during the year 2000 is?
(A)Rs.544.44 lakhs (B)Rs. 501.11 lakhs
(C) Rs. 446.46 lakhs          (D) Rs. 478.87 lakhs
2001 336 133 3.68 36.4 88
Q-5: The ratio between the total expenditure on Taxes for all the
years and the total expenditure on Fuel and Transport for all the
years respectively is approximately?
2002 420 142 3.96 49.4 98
(A)4:7 (B) 10:13 (C) 15:18 (D)5:8

Answers: 1: D, 2: C 3: C, 4: A, 5: B

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Practice Problem-2
The following table gives the sales of batteries manufactured by a company over the years. Study the table chart
and answer the questions based on it.

## Q-1: What was the approximate percentage increase in the

Type Of Batteries(In thousand's) sales of 55AH batteries in 1998 compared to that in 1992 ?
(A)31 (B)33 (C) 34      (D)36
Year 4AH 7AH 32AH 35AH 55AH Total
1992 75 144 114 102 108 543
Q-2:In the case of which battery, there was a continuous
1993 90 126 102 84 126 528 decrease in sales from 1992 to 1997 ?
1994 96 114 75 105 135 525 (A)35 AH (B)4 AH (C) 32 AH (D) 7 AH

## 1995 105 90 150 90 75 510

Q-3: What is the difference in the number of 35AH batteries
1996 90 75 135 75 90 465 sold in 1993 and 1997 ?
(A)39000 (B)40000 (C) 43000 (D) 49000
1997 105 60 165 45 120 495
1998 115 85 160 100 145 605 Q-4: The total sales of all the seven years is the maximum for
which battery ?
(A)35 AH (B)4 AH (C) 7 AH (D) 32 AH

Answers: 1: C, 2: D 3: A, 4: D

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Bar Charts

## A base line is created and positive values (such as proﬁt,

surplus), etc., are represented by hers above the base line Stacked bars are used to represent the break-up of some
while negative deviations (loss or deﬁcit) are represented by continuous variable. Figure above will make it clear.
bars below the base line as shown in the ﬁgure above.

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Practice Problem-1
Q-1: In how many of the given years was the exports at least 10%
more than the imports?
(A) 0        (B) 1             (C) 2          (D) 3           (E) 4

Q-2: What was the average exports for the given period (in ‘000
crores)?
(A) 145        (B) 132        (C) 126        (D) 119        (E) 138

Q-3: From 1995 to 1999, in which year was the percentage growth
In exports, when compared to the previous year, the highest?
(A) 1995        (B) 1996        (C) 1997        (D) 1998        (E) 1999

## 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

Q-4: What is the simple average annual growth rate in the imports
from I994 to 1999?
(A) 15        (B) 18        (C) 115        (D) 21        (E) 23

Q-5: Among the years in which the imports as well as exports exceed those in the previous years, In how many
years was the percentage increase in imports less than the percentage increase in exports?
(A) 0          (B) 1          (C) 2          (D) 3          (E) 4

www.wae.co.in Answers: 1: C, 2: B, 3: A, 4: E, 5: A
Practice Problem-2
Q-1: The foreign exchange reserves in 1997-98 was how many
times that in 1994-95
(A) 1.5       (B) 2          (C) 3.5         (D) 2.6

## Q-2: What was the percentage increase in the foreign exchange

reserves in 1997-98 over 1993-94 ?
(A) 80       (B) 90        (C) 100        (D) 110

## Q-3: For which year, the percent increase of foreign exchange

reserves over the previous year is the highest ?
(A) 1994-95(B) 1995-96   (C) 1998-99  (D) 1992-93

## Q-4: The foreign exchange reserves in 1996-97 were approximately

what percent of the average foreign exchange reserves over the
period under review ?
(A) 80        (B) 100     (C) 125        (D)130

Q-5: The ratio of the number of years, in which the foreign exchange reserves are above the average reserves, to
those in which the reserves are below the average is:
(A) 3:5          (B) 2:3          (C) 4:7        (D) 3:7

## www.wae.co.in Answers: 1:A, 2:C, 3: D, 4: C, 5: A

Practice Problem-Line graph
The following line graph gives the ratio of the amounts of imports by a company to the amount of
exports from that company over the period from 1995 to 2001.

Q-1: If the imports in 1998 was Rs. 250 crores and the
total exports in the years 1998 and 1999 together was Rs.
500 crores, then the imports in 1999 was ?
A. Rs. 250 crores
B. Rs. 300 crores
C. Rs. 357 crores
D. Rs. 420 crores

## Q-2:The imports were minimum proportionate to the

exports of the company in the year ?
A. 1995
B. 1996
C. 1997
D. 2000

## Q-3:What was the percentage increase in imports from

1997 to 1998 ?
Q-5:In how many of the given years were the exports more A. 72
than the imports ? B. 56
A. 1 C. 28
C. 3
Q-4:If the imports of the company in 1996 was Rs. 272
D. 4
crores, the exports from the company in
1996 was ?
Answers: 1: D, 2: C, 3: D, 4: B, 5: D A. Rs. 370 crores
B. Rs. 320 crores
C. Rs. 280 crores
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Practice Problem-2-
Line graph
Study the following line graph and answer the questions based on it.

## Q-1: What is the difference between the two companies in

the given years ?
A. 16000
B. 26000
C. 28000
D. 30000

## Q-2: What is the difference between the numbers of

vehicles manufactured by Company Y in 2000 and 2001 ?
A. 21000
B. 22000
C. 23000
D. 24000

## Q-3: What is the average number of vehicles

manufactured by Company X over the given period ?
A. 119133
B. 119233
Q-5:  The production of Company Y in 2000 was C. 119333
approximately what percent of the production of D. 119433
Company X in same year ?
A. 163%
B. 164% Q-4: In which of the following years, the difference between
C. 165% the productions of Companies X and Y was the maximum
D. 166% among the given years ?
A. 1997
B. 1999
Answers: 1: B, 2: A, 3: C, 4: D, 5: B
C. 2002
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Pie Charts

## A single pie diagram can represent only one

continuous variable. Hence, in terms of
versatility of data representation, pie charts are Key Concepts
less versatile than either of bar charts, x-y graphs
or tables. However, their utility is in the fact that 100 % = 360 degrees
the representation of data is cleaner and it gives 10 % = 36 degrees
an immediate idea of the relative distribution of
the continuous variable amongst different 50 % = 180 degrees
sectors

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Problem Set-1
Q-1: If for a certain quantity of books, the publisher has to pay Rs. 30,600
as printing cost, then what will be amount of royalty to be paid for these
books?
(A) Rs.19,450  (B)Rs.21,200 (C) Rs. 22, 950 (D) Rs. 26,150

## Q-2: What is the central angle of the sector corresponding to the

expenditure incurred on Royalty in degrees
(A) 15   (B) 24  (C) 54 (D) 48

Q-3: The price of the book is marked 20% above the C.P. If the marked
price of the book is Rs. 180, then what is the cost of the paper used in a
single copy of the book in Rupees?
(A) 36   (B) 37.5  (C) 42 (D) 44.25

Q-4: If 5500 copies are published and the transportation cost on them
amounts to Rs. 82500, then what should be the selling price of the book
in Rupees so that the publisher can earn a proﬁt of 25%
(A) 187.5  (B) 191.5  (C) 175 (D) 180

Q-5: Royalty on the book is less than the printing cost by (A) 5%  (B)
33 1/5 % (C) 20% (D) 25%

Answers: 1: C, 2: C, 3: B, 4: A, 5: D

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Problem Set-2
Q-1: What percentage of candidates passes in the Exam from institute T
out of the total number of candidates enrolled from the same institute ?
(A) 75  (B)80 (C) 84 (D) 90

## Q-2: What is the ratio of candidates passed to the candidates enrolled in

the institute P ?
(A) 4:11  (B) 5:11  (C) 6:11 (D) 7:11

## Q-3: What is the percentage of candidates passed to the candidates

enrolled for the institutes Q and R together?
(A) 76   (B) 80  (C) 82 (D) 86

## Q-4: Which institute has the highest percentage of candidates passed to

the candidates enrolled ?
(A) V  (B) T  (C) Q (D) R

## Q-5: The number of candidates passed from institutes S and P together

exceeds the number of candidates enrolled from institutes T and R
together by:
(A)359  (B) 379 (C) 389 (D) 399

Answers: 1: A, 2: C, 3: B, 4: D, 5:D
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1. What was the difference between the number of students in
university-1 in the year 2010 and the number of students in
university-2 in the year 2012?
(1)Zero (2)5,000 (3)15,000 (4)1,0000 (5) 1,000

## 2.  What is the sum of number of students in university-1 in the

year 2007 and the number of students in university-2 in the year
2011 together?
(1)50,000 (2)55000 (3) 45000 (4) 57000
(5) 40000

## 3. If 25% of the students in university-2 in the year 2010 were

females, what was the number of male students in the
university-2 in the same year?
(1) 11250 (2) 12350 (3) 12500 (4) 11500 (5) 11750

## 4. What was the percent increase in the number of students in

University-1 in the year 2011 as compared to the previous year?
(1)135 (2)15 (3)115 (4)25 (5) 35

## 5. In which year was the difference between the number of

students in university-1 and the number of students in
Answers: 1: (1), 2: (5), 3: (1), 4 (4), 5 (5) univeisity-2 highest?
(1)2008 (2)2009 (3) 2010 (4) 2011 (5) 2012

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Data Sufﬁciency
Directions This data sufﬁciency problem consists of a question and two statements, labeled
(1) and (2), in which certain data are given. You have to decide whether the data given in the
statements are sufﬁcient for answering the question. Using the data given in the statements,
plus your knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the number of days in
July or the meaning of the word counterclockwise), you must indicate whether:

A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufﬁcient, but statement (2) alone is not sufﬁcient to answer the

B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufﬁcient, but statement (1) alone is not sufﬁcient to answer the

C. BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufﬁcient to answer the question asked,

## D. EACH statement ALONE is sufﬁcient to answer the question asked.

E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufﬁcient to answer the question asked, and
additional data speciﬁc to the problem are needed.

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Basic tricks

## 1. Determining Sufﬁciency Does Not Require Solving

2. Be very familiar with the answer choices.
3. Write down what you absolutely need in order to ﬁnd certain
quantities
4. Don’t look at the statements together.
5. Important information is often buried in the prompt.
6. Know when it’s actually necessary to solve single-variable
equations.
7. Know when it’s necessary to solve a system of equations.

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Master tips

## Tip #1: memorize the answer choices.

Case One: Statement #1 is sufﬁcient on its own, Statement #2 is incomprehensible
Eliminate: B, C, E

## Case Two: Statement #1 is not sufﬁcient on its own, Statement #2 is incomprehensible

Eliminate: A, D
Only possible answers: B, C, E

## Case Three: Statement #1 is incomprehensible, Statement #2 is sufﬁcient on its own

Eliminate: A, C, E

## Case Four: Statement #1 is incomprehensible, Statement #2 is not sufﬁcient on its own

Eliminate: B, D
Only possible answers: A, C, E

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Practice-Set-1
1: How many ewes (female sheep) in a ﬂock of 50 sheep are black?
1. There are 10 rams (male sheep) in the ﬂock.
2. Forty percent of the animals are black.

2: Is the length of a side of equilateral triangle E less than the length of a side of square F?
1. The perimeter of E and the perimeter of F are equal.
2. The ratio of the height of triangle E to the diagonal of square F is 2√3 : 3√2.

## 3: If a and b are both positive, what percent of b is a?

1. a = 3/11
2. b/a = 20

4: A wheel of radius 2 meters is turning at a constant speed. How many revolutions does it make in
time T?
1. T = 20 minutes.
2. The speed at which a point on the circumference of the wheel is moving is 3 meters per minute

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Practice-Set-1 contd…..
5: Are the integers x, y and z consecutive?
1. The arithmetic mean (average) of x, y and z is y.
2. y-x = z-y

6: Is x > 0 ?
1. -2x < 0
2. x³ > 0

7: A certain straight corridor has four doors, A, B, C and D (in that order) leading off from the same
side. How far apart are doors B and C?
1. The distance between doors B and D is 10 meters.
2. The distance between A and C is 12 meters

## 8: Given that x and y are real numbers, what is the value of x + y ?

1. (x² – y²) / (x-y) = 7
2. (x + y)² = 49

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Practice-Set-1 contd…..
9: Two socks are to be picked at random from a drawer containing only black and white socks.
What is the probability that both are white?
1. The probability of the ﬁrst sock being black is 1/3.
2. There are 24 white socks in the drawer
10: A bucket was placed under a dripping tap which was dripping at a uniform rate. At what time
was the bucket full?
1. The bucket was put in place at 2pm.
2. The bucket was half full at 6pm and three-quarters full at 8pm on the same day

## Answers: 1: E, 2: D, 3: B, 4: C, 5: E, 6:D, 7: E, 8: A, 9: C, 10: B

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