You are on page 1of 5

AGENDA ITEM: 650-645 Roof-to-Shell Requirements for Steel Self-Supporting Roofs

DATE: September 24, 2007

CONTACT: Randy Kissell, TGB Partnership


PH: 919-644-8250 FX: 919-644-8252, email: randy.kissell@tgbpartnership.com

PURPOSE: To improve the roof-to-shell requirements for steel self-supporting cones (5.10.5) and self-
supporting domes (5.10.6).

SOURCE: Committee member request

REVISION: 0

RATIONALE:

General
5.10.5, Self-Supporting Cone Roofs, and 5.10.6, Self-Supporting Dome and Umbrella Roofs, each
include two requirements for the roof under gravity loads:

1) Roof thickness requirement to prevent compression buckling of the roof;


2) Roof-to-shell joint area requirement to prevent tension failure of this joint.

The roof-to-shell joint requirements in 650 include a safety factor and an assumed yield and ultimate
strength for the steel in this joint. The standard could be improved by making the requirement more
transparent by explicitly showing the allowable stress in the equation for area of the joint.

Roof–to-Shell Joint Requirement for Self-Supporting Roofs


The roof-to-shell joint area required to resist the thrust from gravity loads on a self-supporting roof is
based on the following. For:

design pressure on roof = p


tank diameter = D
yield strength of steel in the shell-to-roof joint = F y
ultimate strength of steel in the shell-to-roof joint = Fu
roof slope to horizontal = θ
tension allowable stress in shell-to-roof joint = Fa
safety factor for steel in tension = Ω
required area of the shell-to-roof joint = A
vertical distributed load on the top of the shell = v
radial distributed load on the top of the shell = r

650-645 Design Requirements for Self-Supporting Roofs 9/24/07 1


T
r
θ

T v
r cos θ D

Elevation View at Top of Shell Plan View at Top of Shell

For vertical equilibrium:

r sin θ = v ; rearranging: r = v/sin θ (1)

The vertical load is

pD 2 / 4 pD
v=  (2)
D 4

Substituting equation (2) into equation (1):

pD
r= (3)
4 sin 

For horizontal equilibrium

Drcos θ = 2T (4)

Substituting equation (3) into equation (4):

pD 2 cos 
2T =
4 sin 

The tension force is

T = AFa (5)

Substituting equation (5) into equation (4):

650-645 Design Requirements for Self-Supporting Roofs 9/24/07 2


2AFa = (pD2cos θ)/(4 sin θ) = (pD2)/(4 tan θ)

Solving for A

pD 2
A= (6)
8 Fa tan 

Comparing this to API 650 5.10.5.2:

( p / 45) D 2
A= (7)
3000 sin 

For small slopes θ, sin θ ≈ tan θ, so

p/(8Fa) = (p/45)/3000

Solving for Fa, the allowable stress used in API 650 for the shell-to-roof joint:

Fa = 45(3000)/8 = 16,875 lb/in2

Comparing this to API 650 5.10.6.2:

( p / 45) Drr
A= (8)
1500

sin θ = (D/2)/rr

For small slopes θ, sin θ ≈ tan θ, so equation (6) can be written as

2
pD 2 pD rr pD rr
A= = 
8 Fa tan  8 Fa D / 2 4 Fa

Setting this equal to equation (8)

( p / 45) Drr pD rr
=
1500 4 Fa

4Fa = 1500 (45)

Solving for Fa, the allowable stress used in API 650 for the shell-to-roof joint:

Fa = 45(1500)/4 = 16,875 lb/in2

650-645 Design Requirements for Self-Supporting Roofs 9/24/07 3


This allowable stress is rather conservative. From the 2005 AISC Specification for Structural Steel
Buildings, the allowable tensile stress is

Fa = lesser of (Fy / Ωy , Fu / Ωu)

Ωy = 1.67; Ωu = 2.00

For A36 steel, Fa = 36,000 lb/in2/1.67 = 21,600 lb/in2

BALLOT: In this ballot, the equations have been made dimensionless in accordance with the metrication
practice ballot previously passed, so only one equation is needed rather than two wherever an equation is
given.

Current (11th edition) Replace with:


5.10.5.2 The participating area at the roof-to-shell 5.10.5.2 Roof-to-Shell Joint The participating
junction shall be determined using Figure F-2 and area at the roof-to-shell joint determined using
shall equal or exceed the following: Figure F-2 and the nominal material thickness less
any corrosion allowance shall equal or exceed:
In SI units:
pD 2
D2  T  8 Fa tan 
 
0.432 sin   2.2 
where
where p = greater of load combinations (e)(1) and (e)(2)
D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (m) of Appendix R
T = greater of load combinations (e)(1) and (e)(2) D = nominal diameter of the tank
of Appendix R (kPa) θ = angle of cone elements to the horizontal
θ = angle of cone elements to the horizontal (deg) Fa = the least allowable tensile stress for the
materials in the roof-to-shell joint determined in
accordance with 5.10.3.1.
The area calculated from this expression is based
on the nominal material thickness less any
corrosion allowance.

In US Customary units:

D2 T 
 
3000 sin   45 

where
D = nominal diameter of the tank shell (ft)

650-645 Design Requirements for Self-Supporting Roofs 9/24/07 4


T = greater of load combinations (e)(1) and (e)(2)
of Appendix R (lb/ft2)
θ = angle of cone elements to the horizontal (deg)

The area calculated from this expression is based


on the nominal material thickness less any
corrosion allowance.
5.10.6.2 The participating area, in mm2, at the 5.10.6.2 Roof-to-Shell Joint The participating
roof-to-shell junction shall be determined using area at the roof-to-shell joint determined using
Figure F-2 and shall equal or exceed the following: Figure F-2 and the nominal material thickness less
any corrosion allowance shall equal or exceed:
Drr  T  pD 2
 
0.216  2.2  8 Fa tan 
The area calculated from this expression is based
where
on the nominal material thickness less any
corrosion allowance. p = greater of load combinations (e)(1) and (e)(2)
of Appendix R
The participating area, in in.2, at the roof-to-shell D = nominal diameter of the tank
junction shall be determined using Figure F-2 and θ = angle of the dome to the horizontal at the shell
shall equal or exceed the following:
Fa = the least allowable tensile stress for the
materials in the roof-to-shell joint determined in
Drr  T  accordance with 5.10.3.1.
 
1500  45 
The area calculated from this expression is based
on the nominal material thickness less any
corrosion allowance.

650-645 Design Requirements for Self-Supporting Roofs 9/24/07 5