You are on page 1of 11

CREATED BY

:

DIAN EKA KHORIK L. (093654008)

NURUL HIDAYATI (093654009)

SEPTIANA INDRI H. (093654017)

SESTU WILUJENG N. (093654021)

AYU IDA NURFADILLA (093654022)

EDUCATION PROGRAME OF
SCIENCE
2009
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

1

Many photosynthetic organisms have adaptations that concentrate or store carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis occurs in plants and algae. Although photosynthesis can occur in different ways in different species. especially sugars. In plants and algae photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water. The rest of the energy is used to remove electrons from a substance such as water.From Wikipedia.000 ton of carbon into biomass per year. As well as maintaining the normal level of oxygen in the atmosphere. In all. releasing oxygen as a waste product. using the energy from sunlight. Some of the light energy gathered by chlorophylls is stored in the form of adenosine tri phosphate (ATP).000. For example. 2 . the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls. Photosynthetic organisms are called photoautotrops. The amount of energy trapped by photosynthesis is immense. Photosynthesis is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds. These electrons are then used in the reactions that turn carbon dioxide into organic compounds. since it allows them to create their own food. This helps reduce a wasteful process called photorespiration that can consume part of the sugar produced during photosynthesis. approximately 100 terawatts: which is about six times larger than the power consumption of human civilization. In plants and algae this is done by a sequence of reactions called the Calvin cycle. As well as energy. or indirectly as the ultimate source of the energy in their food. photosynthesis is also the source of the carbon in all the organic compounds within organisms' bodies. Photosynthesis is vital for life on Earth. photosynthetic organisms convert around 100. In plants. the free encyclopedia Formula for the type of photosynthesis that occurs in plants. nearly all life either depends on it directly as a source of energy. these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts. some features are always the same.000.

the two processes take place through a different sequence of chemical reactions and in different cellular compartments. Plants absorb light primarily using the pigment chlorophyll. so photosynthesis needs to supply both a source of energy to drive this process. The tylakoids are flattened disks. which are the site of photosynthesis. but various other pigments are present as pycocianin. including the pigments that absorb light energy. The site of photosynthesis is the tylakoid membrane. In plants and algae. In general outline. not all organisms that use light as a source of energy carry out photosynthesis. rather than carbon dioxide. water. as a source of carbon. Overview of cycle between authotroph and heterothrop . photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular respiration. since photo heterothrope use organic compounds.The stroma contains stacks (grana) of tylakoids. Carbon fixation is a redoc reaction. This is called oxygenic photosynthesis. Algae also use chlorophyll. Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation. which is a reduction reaction. a phospolipid outer membrane. pycoeritrin in red algae (rhodopites) and fucoxantolin brown algae and diatoms resulting in a wide variety of colors. photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts. Photosynthesis is the main means by which plants and algae produce organic compounds and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water Photosynthetic organisms are photoautotroph which means that they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide using energy from light. and also the electrons needed to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrate. 3 . bounded by a membrane with a lumen or tylakoid space within it. which form the photo systems. and release chemical energy. which contains integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes. and an inter membrane space between them. where glucose and other compounds are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide. plants also use pigments such as carotenes and xanthophylls. The chloroplast is bounded by a membrane. A typical plant cell contains about 10 to 100 chloroplasts. However. However. In plants and algae photosynthesis releases oxygen. Within the membrane is an aqueous fluid called the stroma. which is the reason that most plants have a green color. carotenes. The membrane is composed of a phospolipid inner membrane. and xanthophylls in green algae. Besides chlorophyll.

These pigments are embedded in plants and algae in special antenna- proteins. Is chlorophyll only as pigment which is work in Photosynthesis?Why? 10.. What subject that contains in tylakoid membrane? ACID RAIN Acid rain is rain or any other form of (1). What the relation between oxygen and carbondioxide in Photosynthesis? 7.... and carbon which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. strikes. that is unusually acidic. The cells in the interior tissues of a leaf.. There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis and several corollary factors. 4 .. called the mesopyll. Where is light reaction happend? 8....e. most of the energy is captured in the leaves.... can contain between 450.into the atmosphere by phenomena of (5)...... nitrogen. Where is Photosynthesis take place? 5.. The three main are: • Light irradiance and wavelength • Carbon dioxide concentration • Temperature.. QUESTION 1...000 and 800. The surface of the leaf is uniformly coated with a water-resistant waxy cuticle that protects the leaf from excessive evaporation of water and decreases the absorption of ultraviolet or blue light to reduce heating. of compounds of sulfur. Acid rain is mostly caused by (2).... Although all cells in the green parts of a plant have chloroplasts. It has harmful effects on plants. What is Photosynthesis? 2.. aquatic animals... In such proteins all the pigments are ordered to work well together. it can also be caused naturally by the splitting of nitrogen compounds by the energy produced by (3).. When the Photosynthesis begins? 4.. or the release of (4). Such a protein is also called a light-harvesting complex... i. What is product from the Photosynthesis? 3. elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). The transparent epidermis layer allows light to pass through to the palisade mesopyll cells where most of the photosynthesis takes place... and infrastructure.000 chloroplasts for every square millimeter of leaf. However. What are different between product of light reaction and calvin cycle? 9.. What will happen if Photosynthetic organisms have adaptations that concentrate or store carbon dioxide? 6.

.... exspecially one used to defend a building Photosynthesis : the process by which green plants carbondioxide and water into food using energy from sunlight 5 . has a (7). snow.6 in distilled water). H2O (l) + CO2 (g) → H2CO3 (aq) Carbonic acid then can (9).... because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form (8). but unpolluted rain also contains other chemicals.. a weak acid (pH 5.. in water forming low concentrations of (10)..... Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic........... A more accurate term is “acid deposition”. Acid rain" is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain.. water. with part that work together. which contains no carbon dioxide.. sleet.. “Clean” or unpolluted rain has a slightly acidic pH of about 5.of 7.2. dew) and dry (acidifying particles and gases) acidic components.. a system composed of part which are dependent on each other Oxidized : to combine or cause something to combine with oxygen Palisade mesopyll : a strong fence made of pointed wouden stakes or iron poler. and those with a pH greater than 7 are bases. fog and cloudwater.... and carbonate ions: 2 H2O (l) + H2CO3 (aq) CO32− (aq) + 2 H3O+ (aq) Ionize Use thevolcano hydronium word toeruptions fill the blank!!! lightning Distilled carbonic acid precipitation neutral pH emissions sulfur dioxide GLOSARY Chlorophyl : the green subtance in plant that absorbs light from the sun to help them grow Evaporation : the process to change or make something change into steam and disappear Fixation : an abnormal interest in our feelinnng about something Organic compounds : of found in or formedby living thing Organism : a living being exspecially a vry small one... (6)...

Wavelenght=Panjang gelombang jarak antara dua puncak yang berurutan atau dua dasar yang berurutan. Tahap pengikatan CO2 oleh senyawa yang beratom 5 karbon. Respiration=Pernafasan Reaksi oksidasi senyawa organik untuk menghasilkan energi yang digunakan untuk aktivitas sel dalam bentuk ATP atau senyawa berenergi tinggi lainnya. light or electromagnetic wave TRANSLATE IN INDONESIA Chlorophyll = Klorofil  pigmen penyusun kloroplas berwarna hijau yang tersebar pada daun Evaporation = Penguapan proses perubahan atau pembentukan air menjadi gas (uap air) Fixation = Fiksasi salah satu tahapan siklus calvin yang terjadi di stroma. Photosynthesis = Fotosintesis proses pembentukan zat makanan (senyawa organik) dari senyawa anorganik dengan energi yang berasal dari cahaya matahari.Respiration : the action of breathing Wavelength : the distance between two coressponding points in found. ribulosa difosfat (RDP) dan dikatalis oleh enzim RUBP karboksilase (rubisco) Organic Compounds = Komponen organic senyawa kompleks yang ditemukan atau dimiliki oleh setiap makhluk hidup Organism = Organisme kumpulan dari beberapa sistem organ yang bekerja bersama.sama dalam tubuh Oxidized = Mengoksidasi pengikatan iksigen oleh suatu zat Palisade mesopyll = Jaringan palisade jaringan pagar tiang yang terletak tepat di bawah epidermis atas & banyak mengandung kloroplas untuk fotosintesis. 6 .

00 last night? Pattern II It use yo state activity which was happening when another activity happened in the past. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE Past continuous tense use to state an activity which was happening at certain time in past or activity which was happening when another activity happened in the past.) S + was/were not + Ving + certain time (?) Was/were + S + Ving + certain time ? Example: (+) Iwas reading biology book at 19.00 last night (.) We were not studiying chemistry when leli read novel (?) Were we studiying chemistry when leli read novel? (+) The ice was melting while I was overlying (. (+) S + was/were + Ving + certain time (.00 last night (?) Was I reading biology book at 19.) Iwas not reading biology book at 19.) The ice was not melting while I was overlying (?) Was the ice melting while I was overlying 7 . Pattern I It use to state an activity which was happening at certain time in past. (+) S + was/were + Ving when S + V2 While S + was/were + Ving (.) S + was/were not + Ving when S + V2 While S + was/were + Ving (?) Was/were + S + Ving when S + V2 While S + was/were + Ving Example: (+) We were studiying chemistry when leli read novel (.

7. 4. The sciencetist was deciding new planet while the sciencetist was expend pluto from galaxy. The society was process cow’s waste for biogas while they was difficult finding kerosene. 2. New atom model was appearing when sciencetist find proton. 9. H1N1 was appearing when we not yet success annihilated H5N1. The teacher was explain about cell membrane while Antonio was asking about photosynthesis. Robert Hooke was arrange new teory about cell when other sciencetist examine about cell. 10. Goldstein was finding proton at 1886. H5N1 was spread in society when the sciencetist examined it. 6.Correct the sentences bellow! 1. and neutron. 8 . electron. The sciencetist was finding new tecnology for use solar energy while the fosil oil was becoming thin. 5. 3. The sciencetist was finding medicine delayed HIV virus since August last year. 8.

FROM READING TEXT PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1. This helps reduce a wasteful process called photorespiration that can consume part of the sugar produced during photosynthesis. 5. ANSWER QUESTION A. Photosynthesis takes place in organelles called chloroplasts. Carbondioxide from human respiration can used to substrat of photosynthesis which is prodece oxygen 9 . using the energy from sunlight. 2. The product from photosynthesis are sugar and oxygen. 4. 6. The process begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls. 3. Photosynthesis is a process that converts carbon dioxide into organic compounds. especially sugars.

Carbonic acid 9. and xanthophylls in green algae. FROM TEXT ACID RAIN (BLANK QUESTION) 1. Because various other pigments are present as pycocianin. Sulfur dioxide 5. Ionize 10. which contains integral and peripheral membrane protein complexes. Lighthing 4. The light reaction happen in the grana (tylakoid) 8. FROM GRAMMAR 1. Neural Ph 8. Goldstein was finding proton at 1886 10 . including the pigments that absorb light energy.it isn’t. 9. which form the photo systems. Precipitation 2. No. Destilled 7. 10. The light reaction produce NADPH + ATP and take place in grana(tylakoid). Emissions 3. pycoeritrin in red algae (rhodopites) and fucoxantolin brown algae and diatoms resulting in a wide variety of colors. Vulcano eruptions 6. while calvin cycle produce NADP+ + ATP and take place in stroma. The site of photosynthesis is the tylakoid membrane. carotenes. Hydronium C. 7. B.

New atom model was appearing when sciencetist found proton. The sciencetist was finding medicine delayed HIV virus since August last year 6. The society was processing cow’s waste for biogas while they was difficult finding fosil oil 7. and neutron 3. The sciencetist was finding new tecnology for use solar energy while the fosil fuel was becoming thin 11 . H5N1 was spreading in society when the sciencetist examined it 4. electron.2. The sciencetist was deciding new planet while the sciencetist was expending pluto from galaxy 8. H1N1 was appearing when we not yet success annihilated H5N1 9. Robert Hooke was arranging new teory about cell when other sciencetist examined about cell 10. The teacher was explaining about cell membrane while Antonio was asking about photosyntesis 5.