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ainforests are called “the lungs of the world” because we breathe oxygen with our lungs, and the dense growth of trees there make the much- needed oxygen. Rainforests can be divided into four layers. The forest floor is the ground level. It is very dark down there because very little sunlight gets past all the leaves in the trees above. When dead leaves and animals are on the ground, they are broken down into organic matter by the heat and the many small insects. The understorey starts from the ground to about 20 metres. It is made up of the trunks of taller trees, plants, and smaller trees. It is still quite dark at this level, so the trees grow slowly. Some of these trees grow tall and pointed at the top to reach the sunlight. Other plants, like vines, cling onto the trees and get a free ride towards the sunlight. The canopy layer is made up of the limbs and leaves of trees. This is a very thick layer: 20 to 50 m off the ground. Insects, birds, reptiles, and monkeys live in this layer. This layer of leaves and branches catch the sunlight and also most of the rain. ‘The top layer is called the emergent layer. The top of the tallest trees can stretch more than 50 m high. These trees are old and big but there are not too many of them. These trees have huge leafy heads that stretch wide because they have more room to grow. ENGLISH A. Name the layers of the rainforest, from the bottom (1) to the top (4). Then match the activities with the layers by plat writing the letters in the boxes. } a my, we * f As “ oo, RON Vines cling onto trees to reach the sunlight. Huge leafy heads of trees stretch wide. Dead leaves are broken down into organic matter. eoee Insects, birds, reptiles, and monkeys live here. B. Answer these questions. 1, Why are rainforests called “the lungs of the world”? 2. What breaks down the dead leaves and animals on the ground of the rainforest? 3. Why are some trees in the understorey pointed at the top? 235 25 236 Writing Paragraphs co Q A paragraph is a group of sentences that expresses a common idea. Itis made up of a topic sentence and body sentences. A topic sentence introduces the main idea. Usually, itis the first sentence in a paragraph. It tells us what to expect in the rest of the paragraph. rm es For each paragraph, check the appropriate <3 topic sentence. +~ 9 4 y ~ é Rainforests clean and recycle water. The i) 4 wT rainforest plants remove carbon fb \Xy diaxide from theatmosphereand ae \ { give out much of the Earth’s ton, ( | oxygen. Rainforests affect the fic (ot 0 I i We fom SW greenhouse effect, which traps heat inside the atmosphere. Rainforests are important to the Earth’s ecology. Rainforest plants generate rnuch of our oxygen. The whole restaurant was decorated like a real rainforest. There were monkeys swinging in the trees. A crocodile kept opening and closing its mouth and an elephant kept curling up its trunk. There was a big aquarium filled with colourful fish. We could also hear the sounds of different animals, such as birds, gorillas, and elephants. | felt as if | were in a rainforest. Dad took us to a special restaurant for lunch. ENGLISH pe D. Write a topic sentence for each of the following paragraphs. 1. Topic sentence: You can find wax figures of famous people in the museum - Elvis Presley, John Lennon, John F. Kennedy, and Pierre Elliot Trudeau, to name a few. These figures were carved in detail. You may find your favourite movie stars standing beside you. So, be prepared. 2. Topic sentence: | woke up early and put on my “out in the sun” T-shirt. Mom had already finished packing our food and drinks. Dad loaded everything into the trunk and off we went. It took us almost an hour to get to the beach. 3. Topic sentence: He went into the forest alone after his wife passed away. His children had tried to convince him to come home time and again but he refused to leave. Mr. Sanderson has not had his hair cut since he left ‘i home 20 years ago. He finally dla came out on their 30th wedding anniversary.