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Engineering Drawing for Civil

Lecture Notes by:
Dr. Mohammad Ashraf (
Office: CE: B109

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and

Technology, Peshawar

Course Outlines
 Drawing Instruments and their Uses
 Lines, Lettering and Dimensioning
 Geometrical Construction
 Engineering Curves, Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola
 Projection of points, Lines, Plans and Solids
 Sectional Views of Solids
 Isometric Views
 Building Drawings

Course Books
 Engineering Drawing by N. D. Bhatt
 Essential of Drafting by James D. Bethune
 Programmed Technical Drawing by Cooper and Mullin
 A first Year Engineering Drawing by A. C. Parkinson

What is Technical Drawing?

 Drawing is the universal language of graphics, having its
rules of grammar (ANSI, ISO), to communicate information
about the shape, size and features of a physical object

Course Objectives
 After taking this course the student shall be able:
z Not only to express his ideas and design findings on drawing paper in
the universal language of drafting
z But also to understand drawings developed by another persons

Drawing Instruments
 Drawing board
 Drawing papers/sheets
 Tee square and Set squares
 Protractor
 Compass and divider
 Divider
 Scales
 French curves
 Pencil, Eraser, Pen/pointer

Drawing Board
 Available in different sizes depending on the size of drawing
 Usually made from well seasoned wood with fairly smooth
 At least one edge is straight called working edge.
 Sizes of the board according to BS 308 are:
z Quarter Imperial : (16 x 12 in)
z Half Imperial : (23 x 16 in)
z Imperial : (32 x 23 in)
z Double Elephant : (42 x 32 in)
z Antiquarian : (54 x 32 in)

Drawing Papers/Sheets

A0 E
(840 x 1188) (34″ x 44″)
A1 D
(594 x 840) (22″ x 34″)
A2 C
(420 x 594) (17″ x 22″)
A3 B
(297 x 420) (11″ x 17″)
A4 (210 x A
297) (8.5″ x 11″)

Tee square
 Made with two parts; stock and blade, joined (rigidly) together
at right angle
 The stock is made to slide along the working edge of board
and the blade moves on board.
 The working edge of T-square is used to draw horizontal lines
and acts as a guide for set squares
 Shall never be used to draw vertical lines directly
 The working edge shall be checked for straightness

Set Squares
 Triangular in shape and made usually with
 Available in pair; 45o set square and 30-60o
set square
 Used to draw lines at 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o
 The may be combined to draw angles a 15o,
75o and 105o
 They are also used to draw parallel lines
 Shall be checked for accuracy of 90o

 Available in semi-circle shape
 Used to draw and measures angles
 To divide a circle

Compass and Divider

 Compass
z Used to draw circles and arcs of circles
z The needle side is kept about 1.0 mm longer than the lead
z The compass should kept slightly inclined in the direction
of rotation
z It is desirable to used slightly softer lead in compass than
the pencils used to draw straight lines
 Divider
z Used to divide curves or straight lines into desired number
of equal parts
z To transfer dimension from one part of drawing to other
z To set-off given distances from scale to the drawing

French Curves
 Used to draw curves which cannot be drawn
with compass
 Available in various shapes

 Good quality pencils should be used to draw lines of uniform shade and
 Available in various grades like (from soft to hard) 6B, 5B, 4B, 3B, 2B,
B, HB, F, H, 2H, 3H, to 9H
 Softer pencils are used for sketching than those for line work
 Chisel-point is used to geometry and machine drawings and Conical-point
is used for hand sketching and lettering
 Beginning of drawing should be made with H or 2H pencils used very
 Fair work may be done with harder pencils, e.g. 3H or harder
 H and HB are used for letting an dimensioning
 HB and softer pencils are used for freehand sketching

 The scale is a measuring device used to
transfer the true or relative dimensions of an
object to the drawing
 Two types of scales
z Plain scales
z Diagonal scales