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BHA & DRILL STRING FUNDAMENTALS

STUDENT MANUAL
Revised 06-2008

Special thanks to:


Kenny Amend – Director of Training
Sarah Wakefield – Instructional Designer
Katrina Pigusch – Technical Writer
Beverlyn Bankes – Graphics Designer

©2008 Smith International, Inc.


COURSE
BHA & DRILL STRING
FUNDAMENTALS
Course At the end of this course, you should be able to:
Objective
o Basic Knowledge
o The rig and its basic components
o Introduction to the drill string and its components
o Types of wells
o Deviation and controlling deviation
o BHAs
o BHA Specifics
o Drill Pipe Overview
o Drill Pipe Connection Science
o Failure Mechanisms
o Includes an inspection section
o Drill String Design
o Step by Step instruction on the math involved with
creating a drill string

Suggested N/A
Pre-requisites

Course Topics
Basic Knowledge
BHA Specifics
Drill Pipe Overview
Connection Science
Failure Mechanisms
Drill String Design
Following Along

When you see this on the screen:


The number in
the PowerPoint
presentation is
the page number
for your student
manual.

You should see this in your manual:


Acronyms From This Book

API American Petroleum Institute

BHA Bottom Hole Assembly

BSR Bending Strength Ratio

DC Drill Collar

DEI Diamond Enhanced Insert

DLS Dog Leg Severity

DP Drill Pipe

DS Dual Shoulder

ERD Extended Reach Development

EMI Electromagnetic Induction

FH Full Hole

HWDP Hevi-Wate Drill Pipe

IBS Integral Blade Stabilizer

ID Inside Diameter

IF Internal Flush

MD Measured Depth

MT Magnetic Particle Inspection

NC Numbered Connection

OD Outside Diameter
PT Liquid Penetrant

RFO Reed Full Opening

ROP Rate of Penetration

SS Single Shoulder

SSC Sulfide Stress Cracking

TVD True Vertical Depth

UT Ultrasonic Inspection

VDS Vertical Drilling System

VT Visual Inspection

WFJ Wilson Flush Joint

WOB Weight on Bit


Course Overview

Introduction The Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) course is divided into four modules.
The first module focuses on BHA basics. There are six chapters in this
manual.

Basic Chapter one contains basic knowledge explaining what a rig is and its major
Knowledge components. Also covered is an introduction to the drill string and
components. Following the drill string and component introduction we will
transition into actual well drilling. A variety of well types will be addressed.
We will discuss well site challenges including deviation causes, formation
types, doglegs and keyseats. These challenges can be controlled by specific
BHA components and assemblies.

BHA Specifics Chapter two covers detailed information on the BHA components
introduced in the chapter one. A drill collar has multiple benefits, including
adding weight to the BHA. There are a variety pipe types in the BHA, called
Hevi-Wate pipe (referred to as transition pipe because it transitions from the
BHA to the top of the drill string). The stabilizer, a BHA component, is
available in many varieties depending on the application. Reamers are
available in multiple configurations. The rotary substitute is used to connect
BHA components. By the end of this chapter you will have a thorough
familiarity with these terms.

Drill Pipe Chapter three explores the anatomy of a drill pipe, covering the production
Overview process. To ensure the drill pipe is manufactured defect free, there are
several pre and post production inspections. Drill pipe specifications are
designed to meet multiple conditions including support strength,
overcoming downhole variations and combating pressures. Also discussed
is drill pipe identification. Finally, we will talk about how drill pipe from a
job site undergoes a thorough inspection process to ensure optimum quality
before it is sent to the next job.
Drill Pipe Chapter four discusses threaded connections on the end of every drill string
Connection component. Depending on the component, the threaded connection may be
Science the least or most probable part to fail. Downhole components will bend,
either slightly or drastically. The connection’s bending strength can create
severe problems during the drilling process. The chapter ends with an
exercise using tool joint identifiers (devices which measure threaded
connections).

Failure There are multiple causes for a drill string failure. This chapter explores
Mechanisms failure types, as well as their causes and avoidance. Tension (stretch of the
drill string), torsion (twisting), fatigue (cycles of stress), buckling,
burst/collapse, and corrosion are common drill string component failures.
Drill string component failures may be reduced using methods discussed in
class.

Drill String The final chapter introduces basic mathematic equations to calculate drill
Design string design. Each equation builds on the next equation, in order for you to
learn a complete method for calculating the drill string.
Basic Knowledge
CHAPTER 1
BASIC KNOWLEDGE

Module At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


Objective o Identify and explain basic knowledge about drill string
components, causes of deviation, poor wellbore quality issues, as
well as features of various BHAs
o Understand basic well drilling
o Identify basic drill string components used to drill a well
o Identify basic wellbore types
o Identify deviation causes and the components used to
control deviation
o Explain wellbore quality challenges and the affect on cost
and prolonged wellbore creation
o Identify various BHAs and the conditions where they are
most useful

Topics
Exercise: Makin’ Hole
Introduction to Drill String Components
Types of Wellbores
Causes of Deviation
Wellbore Quality
BHA Components used to Control Deviation
Exercise: Deviation, Quality and Components
Bottom Hole Assemblies
BHA Drilling Techniques: Pendulum
BHA Drilling Techniques: Packed Hole
BHA Drilling Techniques: Angle Building
Vertical Drilling System
Exercise: BHA Configurations

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 1
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 2
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Exercise: Makin’ Hole

While watching the video, answer the following questions.

1. What are the four systems available on all rigs?

2. What equipment turns the pipe?

3. In what ways can a top drive reduce drill time?

4. What components are included in the hoisting system?

5. What is the purpose of mud during the drilling process?

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Introduction to Drill String Components

BHA Overview A drill string design includes several components. Drill strings are unique.
The BHA can include the drill bit, drill collars, stabilizers, reamers, and
Hevi-Wate drill pipe. The remainder of a drill string is drill pipe. A
correctly designed drill string can:

o Produce a high quality hole


o Maximize performance of components
o Minimize drilling and production problems
Drill String
Designs

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Drill Bit At the bottom of all BHAs is a drill
bit. The bit design will vary BHA
depending on the formation. Its
primary function is creating the hole by digging
into the earth. The correct bit will provide a good
rate of penetration (ROP), last a reasonable
number of hours, and drill holes the same size as
the bit.

There are essentially two types of bits. The first is


the Roller
Roller Cone Bit Cone Bit
(left). This bit
gets its name because the bit teeth roll
over the bottom of the hole. Most
Roller Cone Bits have three cones,
although they may have four or two
cones. The Roller Cone Bit is
sometimes referred to as the “jetted
bit” because its high pressure jets
spray mud.

The Fixed-Head Bit (right) doesn’t PDC Drill Bits


have moving parts like the Roller
Cone Bit. It penetrates a formation by the weight and rotation of the drill
string. The cutters are made from natural, synthetic or hybrid diamonds.

Stabilizer Stabilizers are included in multiple places in a drill string,


usually before and after one or more drill collars. Depending BHA
on the stabilizer type its function can vary. A stabilizer can
help maintain hole direction when used throughout the BHA design. A
stabilizer will help increase the stiffness of a BHA when used with larger or
smaller OD drill collars.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Reamer A reamer has several drill string purposes including
smoothing the wall of the wellbore, maintains hole gauge BHA
and helps stabilize the bit. Reamers are generally required
during hard rock formation drilling. The reamer is placed directly above the
bit to prolong the bit life and prevent sticking.

Drill Collar The Drill Collar is located just above the drill bit to put
weight on the bit (WOB). The WOB will affect the rate of BHA
penetration. The Drill Collar performs additional functions
including preventing the drill string from buckling, bit
support and stabilization, and maintaining a vertical or straight hole.

Jars A Jar frees stuck drill stem components during drilling or


workover operations. The driller controls the impact force of BHA
“jarring” both up and down. It can be placed almost
anywhere in the BHA for optimal performance.

Hevi-Wate Drill Hevi-Wate drill pipe is typically located above the drill
Pipe collars, and technically it is part of the BHA. Sometimes BHA
referred to as transition pipe, it provides a graduated change
in stiffness between the limber drill pipe above and the BHA below. The
graduated change in stiffness reduces the likelihood of drill pipe fatigue
failures. Hevi-Wate drill pipe has thicker walls than standard drill pipe,
causing it to weigh twice as much. Hevi-Wate has a center upset which
reduces the pipe wear and aids in preventing critical buckling.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Drill Pipe Drill Pipe is located at the very top of the drill string. It
makes up the distance between the Kelly and the remainder Drill
of the drill string downhole. The drill pipe turns the drill
string and provides a conduit for the drilling mud.
String

The drill string components are described in detail later this chapter. Our
current focus is each component’s basic function in the drill string.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Types of Wellbores

Introduction Some wells are not drilled vertically. The production zone may be
intersected in multiple ways depending on specific well factors. This
section introduces wellbores and what circumstances require a specific
wellbore.

Vertical The most basic wellbore is the Vertical Wellbore, although they are rarely
Wellbores vertical. It is almost impossible to drill a perfectly vertical wellbore, so there
will be changes in direction. The degree of change is generally limited to 3º
for every 100 feet drilled.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Horizontal A Horizontal Wellbore is a
Wellbores directional wellbore where
the leg that deviates from
vertical is close to a 90º
angle. The Horizontal
Wellbore is used when the
production zone is
relatively narrow or has a
low porosity and is at a
very shallow angle, or to
penetrate the production
zone further and increase
the exposure to the zone.

Directional A Directional Wellbore is intentionally drilled away from vertical. The


Wellbore Directional Wellbore is drilled for a variety of reasons including a
production zone that is below a surface structure (example: city or a lake). A
Directional Wellbore may be drilled to intersect multiple production zones
or one production zone many times.

Do not confuse a Directional Wellbore with a Deviated Well. A Deviated


Well is an unplanned change in direction. There are tools and equipment
used to correct a Deviated Well.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Extended Reach An Extended Reach Development (ERD) well is a type of horizontal
Development wellbore. To be an ERD the horizontal portion of the well must be more
(ERD) than twice the measured length of the vertical portion of the well. This well
type is especially beneficial in offshore production where another
production zone can be reached without an additional rig.

MD vs. TVD The terms measured depth (MD) and true vertical depth (TVD) are used to
determine the exact position of an area downhole. The MD is the depth
along the wellbore path; this is a known measurement because the driller
knows what components have gone downhole. The TVD is the distance
from a point in the well to the surface of the earth not following the
wellbore path

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Causes of Deviation

Introduction Unplanned wellbore deviations are among the many problems that may
occur during drilling. The origin of deviation is not precisely known.
Experience suggests that formation factors are a primary cause of deviation.
A formation factor is anything related to the ground being drilled including
fracturing, faulting, drillability, and non-uniformity.

Formation Geologists study formations. Petroleum Geologists are specifically


Factors concerned with finding hydrocarbons (oil). Hydrocarbons tend to be trapped
in certain areas depending on formation changes, such as faulting.
Accessing the hydrocarbons in a complex formation can present drilling
challenges.

Fracturing
A fracture is a stress point in the earth’s
crust. The fracture is caused by movement
of the earth’s crust, which exerts
tremendous pressure on the formations.

Fractured Rock

Faulting
A fault is the shifting of a fractured
formation due to gravity. A normal
or gravity fault occurs when the
overhanging side slides downward.
If the fault is characterized as a
reverse or thrust fault, there was an
upward movement of the
overhanging side. Describing a
fault’s degree of shifting is called a
formation dip. The dip is the degree
Fault of inclination (from horizontal) of
the layers.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Laminate Formations
A laminate formation is one where there are
many different narrow layers of materials or
rock type. Typically when a laminate
formation is drilled the alternating layers of
material can cause the bit to deflect from its
normal course. The bit will tend to deviate in
the direction where there is the least amount
of resistance.

Non-Uniformity Laminate Formation


The term uniformity suggests consistency.
Calling a formation non-uniform suggests there is a lack of consistency.
Drilling a hole with non-uniform properties presents a challenge because the
formation could include alternating hard and soft layers, laminate, and
faulting. Non-uniform properties in a drilling formation will result in a
crooked hole.

Deviation is expected while drilling. There are preventative measures to


control deviation. Deviation type and control are discussed in the next two
sections.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Wellbore Quality

Introduction Wellbore deviation may present a big drilling problem. Formation factors
can create excess issues to arise while cementing or casing a hole.
Fortunately, there are some simple well drilling techniques that facilitate the
quality of a wellbore.

Doglegs When holes do not remain “vertical” a dogleg or Dogleg Severity (DLS) can
form. A dogleg is a hole angle change and/or direction of more than 3° per
100 feet. All wellbores have
deviations, but they should be
gradual and controlled. A dogleg
is formed by abrupt or sharp
angle changes (due to drastic
change in WOB), and sudden or
significant change in formation.

Doglegs may cause the borehole


to be off course and can cause
physical problems to drilling
components. Dogleg and Key Seat Comparison

Stuck and/or Damaged Casing


Running casing through a dogleg can be a very serious problem. If casing
becomes stuck in the dogleg before reaching the productive zone, it is
necessary to drill out the shoe and set a smaller size pipe. Even if casing is
run to the bottom successfully, it can be damaged, thereby preventing the
running of production equipment.

Cementing
A dogleg will force casing tightly against the wall of the wellbore,
preventing a good cement job. The cement cannot circulate between the
wall of the wellbore and the casing at the point of contact.

Casing Wear
Drill pipe, rotating against casing in the dogleg or dragging through it while
tripping, can damage or wear a hole in the casing. It can cause the
acceleration of cyclic stresses, resulting in drill pipe fatigue.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Key Seats The chance of a key seat is increased by an existing dogleg. A key seat is an
irregularity the size of the drill pipe tube. It forms because of the pipe
rotation in or through a sharp bend in the hole. It usually occurs during the
soft formation penetration. It is caused by a combination of rotational and
tensional forces exerted by the drill stem on the wellbore. A dogleg will
increase the likelihood of key seats.

Key Seat
Lateral Force
Dip Angle Unlike doglegs and keyseats, the dip angle is a
natural deviation tendency. A BHA wants to
drill perpendicular to the angle of the formation
planes. In formations with dip angles 45º to 60º
or less, the bit tends to drill “up-dip.” The
natural tendency of a BHA is to drill
perpendicular to the angle of the formation.

Dip Angle
Offset Ledges An Offset Ledge is formed within a wellbore when an unstabilized bit drills
into alternating hard and soft formations. The softer formations tend to
“wash out” above and below the hard formations. This action creates a
ledge intruding into the wellbore creating a natural “whipstock effect”
sending the bit another direction. The best way to prevent offset ledges is to
use a packed hole assembly during drilling.

Offset Ledges
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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Techniques for a Wellbore quality issues cannot be solved completely, but can be reduced.
Quality Wellbore Two solutions to help maintain a vertical or planned deviation wellbore are
maintaining Weight on Bit (WOB) and Hole Clearance.

Weight on Bit (WOB)


WOB is the force that makes a hole. Depending on the type of formation
being drilled, an increase or decrease of WOB is necessary for the most
effective penetration. If too much pressure is applied to the BHA, there is a
higher tendency for the drill string to bend or buckle near the bit. Bending
or buckling initiates a deflection causing an increase in deviation.

As the well is drilled, an increased rate of penetration (ROP) is the goal.


Drilling faster than the cuttings can be circulated out of the hole and
formation hardness can reduce success. An increase of WOB is required to
penetrate a harder formation; however the increase can also cause the bit to
deflect. The deflection could possibly result in a dogleg or an abrupt change
in wellbore direction. Correctly designing the BHA to offset its tendency to
buckle will allow us to drill a better wellbore.

Hole Clearance
The drill collar size is directly related to the size of the drill bit selected.
Using a small drill collar will result in excessive room in the annulus (space
between drill collar and wall of the hole) allowing the bit to move. The
moving bit will create a crooked hole. If the drill collar too big for the bit,
there won’t be adequate room in the annulus for the mud to circulate which
may create a wellbore washout.

Downhole problems are usually solvable. Often the BHA components need
to be changed, moved, or added. Additional changes to control deviation are
discussed in the next section.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
BHA Components Used to Control Deviation

Introduction Sometimes it’s necessary to do more to a drill string to control deviation


than add WOB or ensure the proper size drill collar. The following
components are used in a drill string to control deviation.

Drill Collars

The Drill Collar helps with vertical holes. A drill collar is heavier and
stiffer than drill pipe and provides more weight close to the bit. There are
multiple drill collars types available. When differential sticking occurs, a
Spiral Drill Collar is useful.

A Square Drill Collar can maintain WOB and provide an annulus area. The
corners of a Square Drill Collar are coated with tungsten carbide to prevent
excessive wear. Its design makes it stiffer than a regular drill collar. A
Square Drill Collar will not completely prevent an angle from building up,
but it will prevent a rapid change in hole angle, thus reducing the doglegs.

Stabilizers

A stabilizer is added to the drill string in more difficult to drill formations,


called Crooked Hole Country (regions where crooked holes are prevalent).
The addition of the stabilizer above the drill bit will offer more support to
the bit as well as increasing the bit life. A stabilizer can also provide
stabilization to the drill collars. In areas where crooked hole tendencies are
more severe, a stabilizer provides more wall contact. A stabilizer by design
reduces the probability of differential sticking, but can increase the chances
of other downhole sticking issues.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Roller Reamers

A reamer works as a stabilizer, but is more expensive to run. A benefit of


choosing a reamer over a standard stabilizer is that there is some torque
reduction. As mentioned above a reamer will help prevent wear on joints
further up the drill string. Roller reamers can be a good alternative to a
stabilizer in medium and hard formations even though wall contact is
minimal. They are easy to rotate and behave differently than a stabilizer.

Hevi-Wate Drill
Pipe

Instead of using drill collars for WOB, another option is Hevi-Wate drill
pipe. Hevi-Wate is not as heavy as a drill collar, but provides stability with
less wall contact. Less wall contact means less friction in the hole and less
probability the drill stem will climb the side of the wall. Hevi-Wate drill
pipe also utilizes a unique center upset or wear pad to reduce wear on the
tube, resulting in less hole drag because of limited wall contact.

Hevi-Wate can also be used in place of drill collars in the BHA to increase
the length while maintaining the weight. As a general rule, two joints of
Hevi-Wate drill pipe equal the weight of one drill collar.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Exercise: Deviation, Quality and Components

Part A. Answer the following questions.

1. Why is drilling a straight hole with a quality wellbore important?

2. Keyseats are usually associated with what?

3. In the space to the right, draw the side


view of a keyseat.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
4. In the space to the right, draw a wellbore
that has passed through a laminate
formation with offset ledges.

5. In the space to the right, draw a wellbore


that has passed through a faulted
formation. Include a drawing of the
formation.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Part B. Describe how each of the following components helps to alleviate wellbore quality
issues.

1. Drill Collars:

2. Stabilizers:

3. Roller Reamers:

4. Hevi-Wate Drill Pipe:

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Bottom Hole Assemblies

Introduction Several factors should be considered when designing a BHA: hole diameter,
hole type (vertical or horizontal), and formation type. The most important
factor is stiffness. A BHA must be adjusted depending on the formations
being drilled. The BHAs covered in the remainder of this chapter are design
combinations that will drill through most formations.

Typical Types of
BHAs

Tapered Drill Strings


The most common type of drill string is tapered. The term tapered drill
string is commonly used to describe the use of two different sizes, weights,
or strengths of drill pipe. Tapering a drill string is commonly found in larger
wellbores where a larger OD drill collar is required. In this drill string the
stiffest components will usually be at the bottom, providing stabilization for
the bit. A reduction in the diameter of drill collars must be no more than two
inches. Also, a reduction in diameter should only occur after three joints of
the same size have been placed in the drill string. The images above show
how tapering the drill string occurs, with the heaviest and stiffest sections in
the lowest part of the string and a gradual transition to the lighter and more
flexible components. An abrupt change would be a stress riser and increase
the probability of failure due to cyclic stress.

" A reduction in the diameter of drill collars must be no more than two inches.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Point of The point of tangency should be considered when designing a drill string.
Tangency The point of tangecy is the place in the drill string where the BHA makes
contact with the wellbore causing the drill string to change direction. The
component that creates the point of tangency is sometimes a stabilizer and
sometimes a drill collar or other BHA component. It’s important that the
point of tangency stays in the BHA because the components are more
durable and are more likely to withstand the stress.

Calculating the point of tangency is a complex process beyond the scope of


this class. Some of the calculations in the Drill String Design chapter of this
book are designed to keep the point of tangency in the BHA.

Vertical Wells are drilled to be vertical, directional, or horizontal. This section


Wellbore highlights the various BHAs that create a vertical wellbore (where
mentioned), as opposed to a directional or horizontal wellbore. Directional
or horizontal wellbores are beyond the scope of this class.

A vertical wellbore is never truly vertical, but will generally look like the
image below on the left. The image on the right illustrates how the well
deviates from vertical due to the formation changes and hardness.

The next page displays all the BHAs covered in this chapter. The best use
for each BHA will be explained.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Slick Pendulum Fulcrum Pendulum Mild Crooked Hole Country

Medium Crooked Hole Severe Crooked Hole Angle Building


Country Country

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
BHA Drilling Techniques: Pendulum

Overview The Pendulum is just one type of BHA used to achieve a specific drilling
goal. The Pendulum Effect is the tendency of the drill string to hang in a
vertical position due to the force of gravity pulling on the weight of an
unsupported length of drill collar.

The portion of the drill string identified as the pendulum is between the drill
bit and where the drill collar (or stabilizer) rests at the lowest point against
the side of the hole, also known as the point of tangency. Pendulum force
works against formation resistance to return the drill string to vertical.

Factors Before designing a Pendulum BHA there are external


Effecting the factors to take into consideration.
Pendulum
Stiffness of the drill collar
The stiffness of a drill collar is proportional to the OD of
the drill collar. In a drill collar the stiffness increases to
the fourth power (OD4) of the OD and weight increases
to the second power (OD2) of the OD.

Inclination of the hole


In a drilling operation where a pendulum BHA is pulled
away from vertical, the more force is working to then
return it to vertical. Thus, the greater the hole angle, the
greater the pendulum force is exerted to restore the drill
string to vertical.

Weight on bit
The drill collar is the BHA component that provides the
weight on bit (WOB). When designing a pendulum
BHA, take this into consideration because the more
WOB, the higher the tendency for the drill string to
deviate from vertical. There is also a higher tendency for
the drill collars to buckle as more weight is applied and
the pendulum length reduced.

Formation characteristics
Pendulum BHA Formations are the primary cause of wellbore deviation.
As formation types alternate, the drillability changes
causing the drill string to drift.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Slick Pendulum We will focus on two main pendulum types, the Slick
Assembly Pendulum and the Fulcrum Pendulum. The Slick Pendulum
Assembly relies on the drill collar (instead of a stabilizer) to
create the point of tangency. This type of BHA consists of a
drill bit and drill collars.

In order to straighten a hole the WOB needs to be reduced


and the rotation speed increased. Reducing the WOB causes
the bending characteristics of the drill stem to change. This is
not always the best practice since reducing the WOB reducing
the ROP. In addition, there is an increase in doglegs. A
gradual reduction in the WOB usually returns the wellbore to
vertical without sharp bends.

There is a lack of control when using a Slick Pendulum


Assembly because the point of tangency is dependant on the
angle of the hole. Ideally, the point of tangency should be 60
feet above the bit. Slick
Pendulum
This BHA is rarely used, but is best for extremely soft BHA
formations or mild crooked hole country.

Fulcrum The Fulcrum Pendulum relies on a stabilizer to create the


Pendulum point of tangency. Including a stabilizer in the drill string
Assembly allows more control of the point of tangency, thus control of
crooked hole problems. The stabilizer works by centering the
drill collar away from the walls of the wellbore wall. Placing
the stabilizer too high will cause the drill collar to sag
lowering the point of tangency. A stabilizer placed too low
will reduce the pendulum effect. This type of BHA consists
of the drill bit, drill collars and one stabilizer. In some cases,
two stabilizers can be used.

Fulcrum Pendulum Assemblies are rarely used because a


more predictable behavior results from using two or more
stabilizers. This BHA works best when attempting to remain
within a known inclination range.

Fulcrum
Pendulum
BHA

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Pendulum As the BHA passes through the various formations, it may deviate more
Assembly than normal. The Pendulum Assembly is often used for correction runs. If
Downhole the wellbore path is deviating in the wrong direction a Pendulum Assembly
uses the force of gravity to bring the hole back to vertical or closer to the
planned wellbore path. At the beginning of the drilling process the
Pendulum Assembly will require reduced weight on bit to return to a
vertical position. The natural tendency of the bit is to stay directly below the
drill string due to the pendulum motion.

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Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
BHA Drilling Techniques: Packed Hole

Overview The Packed Hole Assembly is a type of BHA. Depending on the severity of
the sub-surface formations a Packed Hole Assembly can be mild, medium,
or severe. The term Packed Hole is used because the drill collars or
stabilizers in the lower part of the BHA are almost the same size as the bit.
The Packed Hole Assemblies prevent doglegs and key seats and allows
higher bit weights, improving penetration rates and increasing bit life

Packed Hole Mild


Assemblies Mild Crooked Hole Country requires a lightly packed BHA
to drill. The Packed Hole Assembly for mild crooked hole
country is considered minimal for straight hole drilling and
bit stabilization. Three points of stabilization are used, one
in each zone. A vibration dampener, if included, should be
placed above the second stabilizer instead of a short drill
collar. If crooked hole tendencies are mild, the vibration
dampener may be run in place of the short drill collar
between the first two stabilizers downhole.

Medium
A Packed Hole Assembly for medium
crooked hole country is similar to the
mild, but requires two stabilizers above
the drill bit. This increases bit stabilization
and adds stiffness to limit angle changes
caused by lateral forces. The pony collar is
placed after the stabilizers above the bit.
Mild Packed There are a minimum of four stabilizers in
Hole the entire BHA.

Medium
Packed Hole

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 27
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Severe
In Severe Crooked Hole Country, three stabilizers are run
in near the bit, providing stiffness and wall contact area. In
the example to the left the component directly above the
bit is a reamer, which acts as a stabilizer. In hole sizes ≤8
¾”, a large diameter, pony collar is often included between
the last and second to last stabilizer, this will increase
stiffness and reduce deflection of the total assembly.

For each of BHA, hole size dictates the length of the pony
collar (short collar) that should be run above the first
stabilizer. For the most updated numbers, refer to your
SMITH Drilling Handbook.

Pony Collar
Hole Size (in) Length (ft)
17 1/2 & larger 15-20
12 1/4 - 17 1/2 10-15
8 1/2 - 12 1/4 8-12
6 - 8 1/2 6-8
6 & smaller 4-6
Severe
Packed Hole

Packed Hole The Packed Hole Assembly will


Assembly maintain a course more effectively
Downhole than other BHAs. The image to the
right shows a target area below the
rig. Using a BHA and adjusting the
WOB will keep the string on a
vertical course as it penetrates
various formations.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 28
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
BHA Drilling Techniques: Angle Building

Angle Building The final assembly is the Angle Building Assembly. Unlike the
Assembly designs of the previous BHAs Angle Building Assembly is
specifically designed to increase the deviation of a hole to
horizontal. A single stabilizer is located near the bit. An
additional stabilizer is sometimes added further up the drill
string. The angle building BHA is very sensitive to a change in
WOB.

There are additional variations to these BHAs. These are the


most common and practical for the purpsose of this training
course. As technology advances, the number of tools that can go
downhole will increase adding to the number of effective
BHAs.

Angle
Building

Angle Building
Assembly The image to the right shows a
Downhole vertical wellbore, with an off
center target area. The natural
tendency of the well is to remain
vertical, but the target area is not
directly below the rig. The well
needs to deviate slightly to reach
the target area. This is
accomplished by using the
Angle Building Assembly.
When the direction to the target
area has been achieved, a
Packed Hole Assembly is used
to maintain the direction.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 29
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Vertical Drilling System

Overview The SMITH SERVICES Vertical Drilling System (VDS) is an effective and
cost efficient way of maintaining a vertical wellbore path. It combines the
Packed Hole Assembly with a downhole motor. The design has several key
components that make it effective.

Vertical Drilling
System Design Even Rubber Thickness
Power Section (Mud Motor)
Rotating Near Bit
DEI Integral Stabilizer/Reamer
Blade Stabilizer

DEI Transmission Housing


DEI Bearing Housing

The VDS works similarly to a Packed Hole Assembly. Unlike other


assemblies, the VDS uses a rotating near bit combined with a
reamer/stabilizer providing additional support which helps in deviation
control. This system has a longer life and improved drilling performance
due to the power section. The power section can be used in high temperature
environments and is compatible with all drilling fluids.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 30
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Exercise: BHA Configurations

Part A. Look at the BHA on the left and answer the questions on the right.
Identify the BHA configuration on the
1.
left.

Why is this BHA identified the way it


2.
is?

What types of formations work best


3.
with this configuration?

How does WOB affect the BHA in


4.
this configuration?

When would you run this type of


5.
BHA?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 31
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Part B. Look at the BHA on the left and answer the questions on the right.
Identify the BHA configuration on the
6.
left.

How is this BHA different from the


7.
slick pendulum assembly?

Where is the point of tangency created


8.
in this BHA?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 32
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Part C. Look at the BHA on the left and answer the questions on the right.
Identify the BHA configuration on the
9.
left.

Label the zones on this BHA. You can


10. refer to the Drilling Assembly
Handbook if you have any questions.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 33
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Part D. Look at the BHA on the left and answer the questions on the right.
Identify the BHA configuration on the
11.
left.

12. Circle the Pony Collar in the graphic.

What is the benefit of using a DEI


13.
Double Combo Tool in this BHA?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 34
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Part E. Look at the BHA on the left and answer the questions on the right.
Identify the BHA configuration on the
14.
left.

What length of pony collar is required


15.
for a 10 5/8” hole?

List the benefits of the using the


16. reamer in place of the stabilizer above
the bit in this BHA.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 35
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
Part E. Look at the BHA on the left and answer the questions on the right.
Identify the BHA configuration on the
17.
left.

When would you use this type of


18.
BHA?

How is this BHA different than a


19.
Pendulum BHA?

How is this BHA different than a


20.
packed hole BHA?

How many inches can you usually


21.
safely reduce taped drill collars?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 36
Chapter 1 – Basic Knowledge
BHA Specifics
CHAPTER 2
BHA SPECIFICS

Module At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


Objective o Explain in detail the BHA components including their function and
placement in the drill string
o Explain BSR and neutral point and how they affect the drill
string and BHA

Topics
Exercise: BHA Component Functions
Stabilizers
Reamers
Drill Collars
Jars
Hevi-Wate Drill Pipe (Transition Pipe)
Rotary Substitutes
Bending Strength Ratio (BSR)
Neutral Point

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 1
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 2
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Exercise: BHA Component Functions

Previously you were introduced to the BHA basic components. This chapter offers more
detail about the BHA components.

Part. A. Read about the additional tools in the chapter. Prepare a question and answer for
each tool and write it below. Following the class presentation on that tool, select someone
from your group to quiz the presenting group with the prepared questions.

Stabilizers Question:

Answer:

Reamers Question:

Answer:

Drill Collars Question:

Answer:

Jars Question:

Answer:

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 3
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Hevi-Wate Question:
Drill Pipe
Answer:

Rotary Subs Question:

Answer:

Part B. You will design a presentation for a specific tool. In the presentation emphasize
tool purpose, features, tool application and optimum use. Be prepared to answer follow-up
questions from the group. Use the space below to take notes.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 4
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Stabilizers

Introduction There are many components that can be included in the BHA and drill
string. This chapter explores the basic components and their functions.

The first is a stabilizer. Stabilizers are tools in the BHA to help maintain
hole direction. They usually have at least three blades, straight or spiraled
out from the body of the stabilizer. These blades may be welded on or
machined into the tool body. These tools can be run in the BHA or in some
cases in the drill pipe section of the string.

Types of There are two basic stabilizers types available depending on the application.
Stabilizers Non-rotating Sleeve Stabilizers work best in hard formations such as lime
and dolomite. Rotating blade Stabilizers have straight or spiral blades which
can be short or long. Rotating Blade Stabilizers come in five distinct types:

Integral Blade Stabilizers (IBS)


An extremely durable drilling tool forged from one piece of
steel. The IBS is used in very hard formations because pieces
or parts of the stabilizer can’t detach.

Welded-Blade Stabilizers
This is a low-cost alternative to the IBS. The blades are welded
onto a forged mandrel body. This type of stabilizer is most
frequently used in soft and medium formations.

Shrunk-On Sleeve Stabilizer


This is an integral stabilizer composed of two pieces – a body
IBS
and a sleeve. During assembly of the stabilizer, the sleeve is
heated to expand the bore and then cooled to contract around
the body. When the blades are worn out, the sleeve is removed with a
cutting torch and a new sleeve is installed.

Replaceable-Blade Stabilizer
This stabilizer is most frequently used near the bit when maintaining hole
gauge is important in hard or abrasive formations. The body of the stabilizer
is machined to hold replaceable blades held in place by bolts. The blades
can be easily changed on the rig floor.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 5
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Sleeve Stabilizer
Sleeve stabilizers provide an economical method of
providing stabilization services in a remote area. They can be
used in all but the hardest formations. A single mandrel can
be fitted with replaceable screw-on sleeve blades. Blade
changes can be done on the rig floor.

Hardfacing Tungsten Hardfacing Sleeve


Sleeve Carbide Stabilizer

Features and Stabilizers offer different features and components depending on downhole
Components conditions, including formation type and temperature. Stabilizers can have a
diamond enhanced blade, various hardfacing options, or tungsten carbide
inserts.

SMITH Specific SMITH offers four types of stabilizers: Diamond Enhanced Insert (DEI),
Stabilizers Double Diamond Combo Tool, Ezy-Change Type II Rig-Replaceable
Sleeve-Type and an IBS. Each type of stabilizer offers different variations
that will suit almost any downhole need.

DEI Stabilizer The DEI Stabilizer is purpose-built for BHA stabilization in hard or
abrasive formations.

The DEI Stabilizer works best in packed hole assemblies, pendulum


assemblies and directional assemblies. It maintains hole gauge, extends
stabilizer life and improves the BHA performance.

Double Diamond The Double Diamond Combo Tool features two sets of three blade spiraled
Combo Tool ribs designed to reduce damage to the hole wall and ensure maximum fluid
circulation. It is an effective bottom hole stabilizer where severe crooked
hole tendencies are encountered (deviation control). It places two points of
stabilization where it is needed most – directly above the bit.

The Double Diamond Combo Tool works best as a near bit component in all
packed hole BHAs. It can be used in a variety of environments including
air, foam and mud. Hole gauge, increased wall contact, improved
penetration and enhanced tool performance are benefits of the Double
Diamond Combo Tool.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 6
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Ezy-Change The Ezy-Change Type II Rig-Replaceable Sleeve-Type Stabilizer is
Type II Rig- designed around a rugged, one-piece mandrel constructed of high-strength
Replaceable alloy steel with ample tong space for handling and extra length for re-
Sleeve-Type cutting connections. It controls well bore deviation, reduces risk of stickage
Stabilizer and reduces vibrations in the BHA.

This stabilizer offers a good value for the customer. Depending on the size
of the mandrel there are three or four blade options available. The design
provides a maximum annular flow area. The blades offer various hardfacing
options depending on the downhole environment.

The Ezy-Change Type II Rig-Replaceable Sleeve-Type Stabilizer is ideal


for use in a variety of applications. It is best used in mild to medium packed
hole assemblies and pendulum assemblies. The interchangeable sleeves are
perfect for remote and space constrained locations.

IBS The IBS is manufactured from high-strength alloy steel as a single piece
tool. It is available in bottom hole and string designs, providing flexibility
to run it anywhere in the BHA. The unitized construction features three
spiraled ribs designed to minimize downhole torque, reduce damage to the
hole wall and ensure maximum fluid circulation.

This type of stabilizer offers integral blades, is available in “open” and “full
wrap” designs and different wear surfaces. These options make the IBS
ideal for packed hole assembles, pendulum assemblies (the most effective
configuration is to run two stabilizers separated by one drill collar) and
situations where the formation is soft and sticky to formations that are hard
and abrasive.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 7
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Reamers

Introduction Reamers are generally used in drilling hard formations since it is the only
tool that can effectively maintain hole gauge in very hard rock. When used,
they are placed directly above the bit. It opens the hole to full gauge. The
reamer reduces torque, smoothes the wellbore, and maintains the gauge. It
will also prolong the life of the bit and prevent differential sticking
problems.

Types of Reamers are 3-point or 6-point depending on the number of


Reamers rollers or cutters they require. A 3-point reamer has three
cutters and is sometimes referred to as a Near Bit Reamer; it
runs directly above the bit. A 6-point reamer has six cutters
and is used in extreme conditions when more wall contact is
required; it is run up the string and provides both
stabilization and reaming capabilities.

Components
A reamer’s cutters come in several types depending on
formation hardness. There is a Hardfaced Sharp Tooth
Cutter for soft formations, a Hardfaced Flat Tooth Cutter for
medium-hard formations, and a tungsten carbide insert
cutter for hard formations.

The cutters are mounted either vertically or at a slant on the


reamer. Vertical cutters give a true roller action while
reaming. The slanted cutters provide a scraping and gouging
action as well as preventing string vibrations by eliminating
the flat plane that occurs between two vertical rollers.

Borrox AP
3-point

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 8
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
SMITH Specific There are four models of reamers SMITH offers: Borrox Sealed Bearing
Reamers Reamer (AP, 85), Model 60 and 62 Reamer, DEI Reamer and a DOG Sub.

Borrox AP A Borrox AP Sealed Bearing Reamer is a drill string component with fully
Sealed Bearing customizable hole gauge maintenance and torque reduction characteristics.
Reamer It works by providing reaming ahead of stabilization. It maintains well bore
gauge diameter by working through abrasive formations and on long runs.
It also provides deviation control and support by maintaining wall contact.

Three different reamer cutters are available for this model reamer to tailor it
for specific applications.

KSX Cutter

o Ideally suited for medium to hard reaming applications


o Selected for combined torque reduction and reaming
requirements
o Included in BHA to engage the well bore and suppress
lateral/torsional vibrations

RSX Cutter

o Ideally suited for soft to medium reaming applications


o Effective when torque reduction is the primary concern
o Stabilizer alternative

DEX Cutter

o Inclusion of diamond enhanced inserts in cutting structure

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 9
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
The Borrox AP Sealed Bearing Reamer can be easily assembled on the rig
floor. Depending on its application the location of this reamer may change.
In severe packed hole assemblies this reamer should be directly above the
bit. In mild packed hole assemblies the Borrox AP works best as the first
zone of stabilization.

" Reamers are not always an effective stabilizer and should be followed by
full gauge stabilization.

The Borrox 85 Sealed Bearing Reamer has a track record of outstanding


Borrox 85
Sealed Bearing performance in severe reaming conditions, and comes in both three-point
Reamer and six-point models. It maintains wellbore gauge diameter by working
through abrasive formations and on long runs. It also provides deviation
control and support by maintaining wall contact.

There are many reasons a customer should choose to use the Borrox 85
Sealed Bearing Reamer. They include:

o Sealed and lubricated bearings provide maximum cutter life


o Cutter design and insert placement enable reaming capabilities
that exceed nominal hole size
o The high-strength tungsten carbide inserts maintain full gauge
hole
o Complete serviceability at the rig site using standard hand tools
Reduces vibration during drilling operations and downhole
torque

The Borrox 85 Sealed Bearing Reamer works best in abrasive formations


and extended run drilling.

Model 60 and 62 The Model 60 and 62 Rotary Reamers utilize a simple-non-sealed bearing
Rotary Reamers design making them cost-effective for many applications. They reduce
down hole torque with cutter rolling action as well as reducing vibration
during drilling operations.

These reamers work well in high-temperature conditions and abrasive


formations. The Model 60 is ideal for high rotary speed applications due to
its large bearing area and open circulation.

These models have a “Type Q” cutter which achieves maximum reaming


action in medium to hard formations where crushing action against the
formation is preferred. Hardfaced, carburized steel teeth ground to gauge
provide a wear-resistant reaming structure. “Knobby” cutters use tungsten
carbide inserts to fracture the rock, and are recommended for use in hard
formations.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 10
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
DEI Reamer The DEI Reamer delivers effective hole reaming across a broad range of
applications. Its advanced integral body design incorporates tough, state-of-
the-art synthetic diamond enhanced inserts that shear the hole wall,
providing a quality, full gauge wellbore. It maintains wellbore gauge
diameter by working through abrasive formations and on long runs. It also
provides deviation control and support by maintaining wall contact.

In severe downhole conditions, especially hot hole, this reamer is the best
selection. The DEI Reamer also reams dogleg and keyseats as well as doing
bi-directional reaming.

Benefits of using a DEI Reamer include:

o Synthetic diamond enhanced inserts provide a durable cutting


structure capable of maintaining full gauge hole in soft to
medium-hard formation
o Spiral body design facilitates high circulation rates and the
efficient transport of cuttings past the tool
o Tapered body profile enables reaming capability both downward
and upward
o No moving parts to wear or fail downhole

DOG Sub The DOG Sub delivers at-the-bit reaming performance. The cutting
structure utilizes synthetic diamond enhanced inserts designed specifically
for continuous reaming. It is placed directly above the bit. It maintains hole
size once the drill bit begins to lose its gauge. The DOG Sub also provides
the adequate reaming and contact behind the bit wiping out the ledges as
drilling progresses.

In directional wells where maintaining hole gauge is expected to be a


problem and where doglegs require a reaming run through the build section
the DOG sub is the best choice. In a packed hole assembly, the DOG Sub
provides near-bit reaming; it also shortens the distance from the bit to the
first point of stabilization, which improves BHA and drilling performance.

The DOG Sub provides excellent value for the customer because of the
synthetic diamond inserts, which provide a durable cutting structure capable
of maintaining full gauge hole in soft to medium-hard formations. It also
has no moving parts that can fail.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 11
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Drill Collars

Introduction The drill collar is usually located


right above the drill bit in the
drill string. The primary function
of the drill collar is to put weight
on the drill bit. The WOB will
affect the rate of penetration. It
also performs additional
functions including preventing
the drill string from buckling,
supporting and stabilizing the
bit, and keeping the hole vertical.
Drill collars are not invincible though, and do bend in the hole.

Drill collars are available in a variety of sizes in standard or spiral design.


The outside diameter (OD) can range from 2” to 14” and can weigh as much
as 350 lbs/ft. Larger drill collars are stiffer and help control well deviation
along with providing a stronger connection. Using a larger drill collar is not
always an advantage since they are more difficult to fish.

Slick Drill Collars have a smooth and consistent outside diameter (OD). A
benefit of the Slick Drill Collar is it weighs approximately 4% more than
the Spiral Drill Collar. Spiral Drill Collars have grooves cut around the
body of the tube. The grooves typically start about 18-24 inches from the
box (internal end) end and stop no closer than 12 inches from the pin end
(external end). Spirals must be of sufficient depth to provide maximum
standoff when differential sticking becomes a problem. Spiral Drill Collars
help prevent or minimize differential sticking because the grooves provide a
space for the mud to flow and enter the low-pressure formation.
Another type of drill collar is the Square Drill Collar. They provide more
stiffness and WOB, increasing the rate of penetration. The square shape
with rounded corners makes this drill collar stiffer and offers more wall
support. Square Drill Collars are less effective in soft formations.

Finally, a Pony Collar is a short version of a standard drill collar. It is


commonly used to space out stabilizers and/or reamers to optimize their
effect.

" A reduction in the diameter of drill collars must be no more than two inches.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 12
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Drill Collar Drill collars are chosen for each drill string depending on length, inside
Measurements diameter (ID) and OD. Drill collars can weigh as little as a few thousand
pounds or as much as 11,000+ pounds and are about 30 feet long. The ID
and OD influence the drill collar weight.

Whenever possible, the drill collar size used in a BHA should be


maximized. Drill collars increase in weight by the square of any increase in
diameter, but they increase in stiffness by the fourth power of that increase
in diameter. This means, that with only a slight increase in diameter, drill
collar weight will increase and stiffness will be much greater.

Strengths/ New drill collars will be stronger than those rated premium, used, or class 2.
Material Yield Depending on the dimensions of the drill collar the minimum yield and
tensile strength will vary. The chart below shows the different psi for two
ranges of drill collar sizes.

Drill Collar OD Minimum Yield Minimum Tensile


Ranges (in) Strength (psi) Strength (psi)
3 1/8 – 6 7/8 110,000 140,000
7 - 10 100,000 135,000
Manufacturing Drill collars are required to meet minimum specifications during
Procedure manufacturing and retooling. During manufacturing API Spec 7 connection
specifications are followed. These specifications identify how trepanning
(boring out the hole) the connections should meet distance and size
requirements for uniformity.

Another manufacturing procedure is Hardbanding (applying an additional


wear resistant material). It is the most effective way to retard the OD wear
occurring on a drill collar under normal open-hole drilling conditions.
Hardbanding can be applied in different ways depending on the application.

When using drill collars in a


BHA, keep the number run in
succession to a minimum. The

"
Number of Collars
more drill collars run together
vs
without a stabilizer or reamer, the Trouble
more probable a drill string
failure will occur.
0 3 6 9 12
Number of Drill Collars

SMITH Specific SMITH offers a variety of drill collars based on size in standard or spiral
Drill Collars models. They are manufactured to meet API Spec 7 standards and can be
special ordered to meet a customer’s specific needs.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 13
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Jars

Introduction A jar frees stuck drill stem components during drilling or workover
operations. This is done by “jarring” both up and down with an impact force
controllable by the driller. It can be placed almost anywhere in the BHA for
optimal performance.

Types of Jars
There are three jars types: mechanical, hydraulic, and hydro-mechanical.
Jars are designed to deliver an impact to a stuck downhole component. The
impact should free the component.

Mechanical jars work best in vertical wells or directional wells with less
than a 30º hole angle.

Hydraulic jars work best in vertical and directional wells with elevated
torque and drag; they can also be used in horizontal and extended reach
wells.

Jars are sometimes run with a tool called an accelerator. The accelerator will
enhance the impact of the jar.

SMITH Specific Jar


The Hydra-Jar is the only jar offered by SMITH.

Jar Placement
Proper placement of the jar in the BHA is a critical design component.
SMITH’s Jar-Pact software should be used before the components are sent
out to a rig. This information is covered in detail in the Impact Technology
class.

" Never run jars in the neutral point or as a change over component.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 14
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Hydra-Jar The Hydra-Jar works with a companion accelerator to free struck drill stem
components during drilling or fishing operations. It works by jarring
upwards or by jarring up and down with an impact force controllable by the
driller.

It is available in the Advanced Performance (AP) model or the Thru-Tubing


(TT) model. Each model has a companion accelerator which intensifies the
effect created by the jar.

The Hydra-Jar is rated to work in temperatures up to 500ºF with circulation


rated at 10,000 psi. It also features a Safety-Lok which prevents the jar from
accidentally firing. When making the jar up into the drill string a safety
clamp allows it to be handled like drill point, which reduces trip time. Other
features of the Hydra-Jar include:
o A unique metering process that compensates for the decrease in
detent cylinder oil viscosity as the jar is fired repeatedly,
ensuring consistent impact
o The jarring direction, duration and impact are controlled from
the rig floor
o The jar can be run in compression or tension, providing
optimized placement in the drill string

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 15
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Hevi-Wate Drill Pipe (Transition Pipe)

Introduction Transition pipe is used between the BHA and drill pipe, separating the drill
stem. It is usually referred to as Hevi-Wate and is available in standard and
spiral designs.

The standard design of Hevi-Wate drill pipe has thicker walls than standard
drill pipe, causing it to weight nearly twice as much. Yet Hevi-Wate drill
pipe is more flexible than drill collars. Hevi-Wate can be run in the place of
drill collars if the drilling rig hook load becomes excessive. The weight of
one drill collar is equivalent to the weight of two Hevi-Wate drill pipes
(when they are the same size—ID, OD, and joint size).

Spiral-Wate drill pipe shares the same characteristics of Hevi-Wate drill


pipe, but has grooves to prevent differential sticking.

Transition Pipe Hevi-Wate drill pipe (HWDP) is normally 30 ½’ long and is available in a
Measurements 3 ½” to 6 5/8” OD. A joint of Hevi-Wate can weigh as little 700 pounds to
as much at 2,000+ pounds.

Unlike drill collars, Spiral-Wate drill pipe weighs more than its standard
version by 7-10%.

Hevi-Wate drill pipe should not be used as bit weight in vertical holes larger
than those listed in the table below.

" Hevi-Wate Size


Max. Hole Size
In.
In.

7
4
8 1/8

9 1/16
5
10 1/16

11
6 5/8
13 ½

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 16
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Transitioning When the BHA is complete, the transition pipe needs to be made up into the
drill string. Larger OD wellbores require larger OD drill collars. In this case
a tapered BHA is necessary. When transitioning from one size to the next,
the change should not exceed a 2” reduction. Drill collars should be run in
multiples of three until the required size is reached.

Acceptable OD limits for transitioning from drill collars to Hevi-Wate drill


pipe:
Hevi-Wate Size Max. Drill Collar Size

" Inches


4
Inches
5¾x2¼
6½x2¼
7 ½ x 2 13/16
5 8 ¼ x 2 13/16
5½ 9 x 2 13/16
6 5/8 10 ½ x 3

Strengths/ The Hevi-Wate drill pipe and Spiral-Wate drill pipe serve specific
Material Yield functions. Depending on the type of hole being drilling, horizontal or
vertical, one or the other is preferable. Spiral-Wate is generally preferred
over Hevi-Wate when differential sticking is possible, except in horizontal
holes. Spiral-Wate tends to drill a low side key seat in a horizontal hole.
Spiral-Wate has no center wear pad and bends over a larger area.

Manufacturing Hevi-Wate drill pipe has a center wear pad (donut) and longer than standard
Procedure tool joints. Hevi-Wate drill pipe is hardbanded, meaning that metal and
small pieces of tungsten carbide are welded onto the tool joints and on the
donut. Hardbanding can be tungsten (most common) or chrome based. The
hardbanding is normally applied ‘proud’ while the chrome is in-laid or flush
(recessed). Hardbanding helps to prolong pipe life by reducing wear to tool
joints and middle wear pads. Longer tool life will result in additional profits
over the tool life.

Tungsten based hardbanding provides standoff for the large tool joints as
the chrome based is more of a sacrificial wear element. Chrome or alloy
based hardbanding is considered to be casing friendly and is more
commonly found on Spiral-Wate drill pipe.

The API Boreback box stress relief feature is standard for the box
connection on 4" Hevi-Wate drill pipe and larger, helping to extend the
service life of the connection.

SMITH Specific The Hevi-Wate drill pipe manufactured by SMITH is manufactured per API
Hevi-Wate Spec 7 standards and is available in standard or spiral. Special orders can be
manufactured to meet the customer’s needs.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 17
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Rotary Substitutes

Introduction Rotary substitutes (or subs) are threaded adapters for connecting tools with
incompatible threads. They are threaded on both ends, made of steel and are
used to connect various parts of the drill string together. These components
are used in drill strings, but are not necessarily a happy addition. Including a
rotary sub in a drill string will generally increase the likely of a failure.

Types of There are multiple rotary subs types depending on what needs to be
Substitutes connected together.

Bit Subs
A bit sub connects pin-up BHA
components to the drill stem. The bit
subs are rotary double box subs
(internal threads).

Crossover Sub
A crossover sub has a box end
(internal threads) and a pin end
(outer threads). This sub connects
drill string components with
incompatible threads. They can be a
single OD, or a dual OD to fit the
connecting pipe.

Dual OD Subs
Dual OD Subs are used when
connecting a larger OD drill string
component to a smaller OD drill
string component. A dual OD sub
will maintain a balanced connection
concerning is bending strength ratio
(BSR). Reducing the OD of the sub
on one end then the connection will
provide superior service.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 18
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Top Drive Subs
A top drive sub is used to connect a top drive system to the drill string is a
double pin (outer threads) sub. These subs are typically shorter in length and
have a reduced OD to provide proper spacing. They are compatible with the
top drive on the drilling rig.

Sizing Rotary subs are available in lengths from 6 1/2” to 24 1/8” (and longer when
required), shoulder to shoulder. When measuring shoulder to shoulder that
is the length from the box end of the sub to the pin shoulder end before the
threading starts. The connection sizes available range from 2 7/8” to 7 5/8”.

SMITH Specific Customers needing any type of sub will be able to get it from SMITH. Subs
Subs are available in different configurations for a variety of uses depending on
the customer’s need.

Rotary Subs A rotary sub serves two primary duties. First, to cross over from one
connection size to another. Second, as a disposable component; It will
extend the life of a more expensive drill string member.

Bit Subs A bit sub serves as a type of cross over to connect the bit and the remainder
of the drill string.

Lift Sub A lift sub enables the safe, efficient handling of straight OD tubulars by
using the drill pipe elevators.

Top Drive Sub The top drive sub serves as the sacrificial element between the drillstring
and the top drive, reducing repair and maintenance costs.

We have reviewed BHA and transition pipe components of the drill string.
The next chapter will discuss drill pipe.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 19
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Bending Strength Ratio (BSR)

Introduction The BSR applies only to the BHA and in some cases Hevi-Wate drill pipe.
Due to the strength of BHA components, the connection tends to be the
weakest part. In the case of Hevi-Wate drill pipe the tool joints are longer.
Longer tool joints can be weak at the connection when exposed to difficult
downhole conditions.

Bending When a pipe joint is torqued and


Strength Ratio downhole, a non-vertical wellbore will
(BSR) cause the pipe to bend. Pipe joint is
kemplated because it can bend at the
connection. Kemplating reduces galling
and enhances joint compound retention.

The BSR is a number descriptive of the


relative capacity of the pin and box to 40%
resist bending fatigue failures. A
balanced connection results in the tool
Pin
joint when the box is 2 ½ times wider
than the same area on the pin. 100%

Bending Strength Ratio Charts are Box


included in the “Drilling Assembly BSR
Handbook” from pages 79-95. The
handbook is included with this manual.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 20
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Neutral Point

Introduction Now that you understand a little more about the BHA, it’s important to
understand how the neutral point and the BHA are connected. The neutral
point is a drill string position where neither tension or compression forces
are in effect; below the neutral point there is compression and above the
neutral point there is tension. The position of the neutral point is the place in
the BHA where WOB is met in pounds per foot; for example, if the WOB is
5,000 pounds, the neutral point would be located 5,000 pounds up the drill
string from the bit.

Keeping the The main reason to keep the neutral point in the BHA is due to the strength
Neutral Point in of the BHA components. The neutral point should be located where there is
the BHA a drill collar since it is the strongest component in a drill string. As the
neutral point moves toward the top of the BHA there is a higher failure
possibility. If the neutral point reaches the drill pipe, there will be a big
problem. The drill pipe has much thinner wall and if it is rotating while in
compression it will fatigue quickly and fail.

Calculating the Drill collars and HWDP provide the necessary WOB required for drilling.
Safety Factor The BHA design will affect how the safety factor is calculated. The range
for the safety factor is from 115% to 125% of the required WOB. In special
cases a drill stem may use only drill collars (and not HWDP) to provide
WOB, the safety factor used should be 150%. Including the safety factor
keeps the neutral point in the BHA, which prevents buckling.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 21
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Buckling When applying WOB,
there is an equal and
opposite compressive load
on the drill string. The
load will cause even the
stiffest known drill collars
or drill pipe to bend. In
drill pipe, the flexibility
will allow it to buckle
quiet easily (left, image
on the right). If the load is
Keep WOB Less Than What is Needed to Buckle It large enough, the bending
will reach a point of
instability and buckle. In most cases, we need to keep the WOB less than
the load required to buckle the drill string.

Buckling in The type of hole being drilled, vertical or non-vertical, affects the weight
Vertical and which will buckle the drill string. A paper published by Arthur Lubinski in
Non-Vertical 1950, “A study of the Buckling of Rotary Drill Strings,” was the first to
Holes correctly model many aspects of the mechanics of drilling strings. The
results were for perfectly vertical holes.

We know that a flaw in his theory is no hole is perfectly vertical. In1982,


the duo of Paslay and Dawson published, “Drill Pipe Buckling in Inclined
Holes.” This article essentially confirmed that a safety factor should be
included in WOB calculations to ensure buckling does not occur.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 22
Chapter 2– BHA Specifics
Drill Pipe Overview
CHAPTER 3
DRILL PIPE OVERVIEW

Module At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


Objective o Explain the basics of drill pipe including the drill pipe
manufacturing process, grade and class, as well as how to identify
drill pipe
o Explain the drill pipe manufacturing process
o Explain how drill pipe grade and class are determined
o Identify drill pipe pin base markings or the slot and
groove system

Topics
Exercise: Question Trade
Drill Pipe Anatomy
Drill Pipe Manufacturing Process
Exercise: Drill Pipe Manufacturing Process
Drill Pipe Specifications
Drill Pipe Identification
Slot and Groove Method of Drill Pipe Identification
Drill Pipe Weight Code Identification
Exercise: Drill Pipe Identification

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 1
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 2
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Exercise: Question Trade

During this Drill Pipe lecture, write a minimum of three questions below (don’t include the
answers). Following the lecture, exchange your paper with a classmate and answer each
others questions.

1.

2.

3.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 3
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
This page intentionally left blank.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 4
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Drill Pipe Anatomy

Introduction The drill pipe is the remainder of the drill string, beyond the BHA. Drill
pipe is a seamless tube of forged steel or extruded aluminum that serves as a
conduit for the drilling fluid. It is located at the top of the drill string (above
the transition pipe) and transmits the rotation of the rig’s rotary or top drive
down the drill string.

Box Tool Joint Upset Tube Pin Tool Joint

Drill Pipe Upset A drill pipe is prepared for the welding on the tool joint by forging an upset
at the end of the pipe. An upset is a change in the ID and/or OD of a pipe.
An upset is created by super heating the tube ends and applying great force
to compress the ends creating a thicker wall. The upset area is thick enough
to provide a solid foundation to join the tool joint to the drill pipe tube.

Upset Types Drill pipe has three types of upsets:


o An internal upset has a reduced ID or bore. An external view of the
pipe shows no thickened areas. It best represents a slimhole pipe.
o An external upset has an increased OD and a slightly reduced ID.
Smaller sizes of drill pipe typically have external upsets.
o An internal and external upset combines both, seen in larger sizes.

Internal and
External Upsets

Area of Focus

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 5
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Drill Pipe Manufacturing Process

Manufacturing Drill pipe is manufactured in two stages: tool joints and tube manufacturing.
Process First, the tool joints are forged into blanks (they have no specific qualities
such as threading) and are
inspected. The tool joints are
bored and austenitized.
Austenitizing is the process of
heating to form austenite (a
corrosion preventing carbon). The
heating and even cooling process
occurs in a controlled environment
so the microstructure and
properties are uniform. To ensure
continued quality, laboratory
Near Ready Tool Joints/Molten Salt testing verifies compliance with
mechanical property requirements.
Next, the tool joints are tempered,
inspected, and threaded. Superior
results are produced during the
threading process due to the machined
upset forgings. In order to ensure the
superior results the blanks for tool
joints must meet basic compliance
standards and traceability. API
standards dictate the design standards.
Finally, a five step phosphate coating
is applied and the joints are inspected
Phosphating Vat
again. Hardbanding can be applied to
specific areas of the joint to
reduce wear.

Tooling Threads

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 6
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
The drill pipe begins as a “green tube” (drill pipe
that has not been heat treated or processed). SMITH
has specific standards for their green tubes.
Chemical and dimensional standards must be met.
This helps SMITH maintain their high quality
standards, such as tubes being manufactured to
meet a 95% minimum wall standard.

Long Internal Run-Out

First, the tube is gas fired so the upset can be


created, then the tube is deburred and faced. Just
like the joints, the tube is austenitized. Unlike
the tool joints, the tube is quenched with water
and tempered in a furnace. Quenching cools the
pipe by running it through a device that sprays
water 360º cooling the pipe evenly. Even
Quenching quenching enables a martinsite microstructure to
form.

Drill pipe subjected to stressful conditions will need to meet or exceed the API standards. Texas
Steel Conversion (TSC) has developed an upsetting practice that produces an extra long internal
runout; this aids in fatigue resistance.

Following tube inspection, it is


straightened and inspected for
any imperfections. The cross
section of the pipe and the joint
must be concentric (similar).
Concentricity will ensure a good

Concentricity

weld when the two pieces are joined together.


The tool joint is added to the pipe by a process
called inertia welding. Inertia welding is a
process where one piece is connected to a
flywheel and the other is stationary. The
flywheel is rotated to a predetermined speed and
pressed against the stationary piece. Kinetic
energy turns to heat and joins the two pieces
together. SMITH uses the most up-to-date
equipment available for this process. Inertia Welding

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 7
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
When the two pieces have been welded together several steps are taken to ensure the weld
quality. First, the upset is saddle gauged. The saddle gauging ensures a concentric OD between
the tool joint and tube.
Next the weld flash is removed and the weld area is machined
to a smooth finish.

Machining removes the


weld flash and other
potential stress risers.
The welded area is
heated and quenched.
This heat treatment
Weld Flash performs the same
function as it did in the
beginning of the process, providing a uniform consistent
steel microstructure. Various specifications require
different heat treatment cycles. The weld is quenched and Post Weld Quench
checked for hardness. A temper cycle ensures complete
tempering of the heat affected zone, becoming
tougher and more resilient.

Finally, the welded area is finished and inspected.


The finishing will remove surface marks and
provide the right OD specifications. The entire
upset is
inspected.
The
Machined Welds inspection
process
includes:

o Visual
o Brinell Hardness
o Ultrasonic
o Wet Magnetic Particle Inspection
o Concentricty Ultrasonic Inspection
o Dimensional

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 8
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Exercise: Drill Pipe Manufacturing Process

The next two pages contain a visual flow of how drill pipe is manufactured. Some of the
steps have a blank box below them; enter in the name of the process of that step from the
list.
Austenitizing
with integrated
Oil Quench

Upsetting the
Pipe

Forge Tool
Joint Blanks

Tempering
Furnace

Full Length
Pipe Inspection

External
Quench

Tool Joint &


Tube Joined
with Inertia
Weld

Phosphate
Coating or
Kemplating

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 9
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 10
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Drill Pipe Specifications

Drill Pipe Size There are many sizes of drill pipe available. Drill pipe is manufactured to
meet customer specifications. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has
approved sizing measurements. API drill pipe is furnished in eight sizes:
2-⅜", 2-⅞", 3-½", 4", 4-½", 5", 5-½", and 6-⅝". These sizes are the outer
diameter (OD) in a non-upset section.

Drill pipe that doesn’t meet these specifications has usually been
manufactured for a specific job. Generally, drill pipe that doesn’t conform
to API standards exceed the API specifications.

Drill Pipe
Anatomy 1 joint of drill pipe is made up of
three components

Drill pipe tube


Green tube Tool Joints
Ends are upset 120,000 MYS
Heat treated to Pin tool joint = 35° taper
specific strength
Box tool joint = 18° taper
Tool joints welded
on
Upset area
Thickness required to weld
tool joints onto to tube

Drill Pipe Weight Drill pipe weight is calculated as part of the hookload capability on the
derrick. The derrick supports the weight of the components downhole. If the
weight exceeds the approved hookload capacity there can be problems. In
turn, each component in the drill string supports the weight of the drill string
below it. The components at the top of the drill string need to support more
weight than those in the BHA.

Drill pipe weight varies depending on its form. The drill pipe weights are:
plain end weight, approximate weight, and nominal weight (most frequent).

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 11
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Plain End Weight
Plain end weight is the weight per foot of a non-upset, non-threaded and
non-tool jointed piece of pipe.

Approximate Weight
This is the average weight per foot of a joint of complete drill pipe
assembly. It includes the tube, the upsets and both tool joints.

Nominal Weight
Drill pipe is purchased and referred to by its nominal weight. The nominal
weight refers to the wall thickness of the pipe, not the drill pipe’s actual
weight. Nominal weight is a classification system. It is how most drill pipe
is referred to because remembering the weight would be too difficult.

Example of weight variance:

Nominal Plain End Approximate


Size Wall
Weight Weight Weight
inches inches
lb/ft lb/ft lb/ft
4-1/2 .337 16.60 14.98 17.98

Drill Pipe Length Drill pipe is available in three length ranges. This variance is due to derrick
heights. The most common range for drill pipe length is Range 2, between
27-30 feet. It is available from 18 feet (Range 1) to 45 feet (Range 3).

Drill Pipe Grade The specification for drill pipe grade means the pipe must meet the standard
at which force will damage the pipe. The higher-grade steel pipes have
higher strengths, allowing them to withstand greater forces.

Drill pipe grade is indicative of the yield strength in thousands of pounds


per square inch. Yield is the maximum pull a joint of pipe can withstand
without receiving permanent damage. For each grade of drill pipe, API has
established a range of minimum yield strengths. For example, grade E pipe
must fall within its established range of 75,000 psi and 105,000 psi.

Drill pipe is also graded by the heat treatment method used in the pipe
manufacturing (which also determines the pipe’s strength considerations). If
the yield strength of a material sample falls within the range assigned to
more than one grade, then its grade will be based on the heat treatment
method used. For example, E pipe is normalized and X, G, S, and V pipe are
quenched and tempered.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 12
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Yield Strength
Common
Minimum Maximum
Grades
psi MPa psi MPa
E-75 75,000 517 105,000 724
X-95 95,000 655 125,000 862
G-105 105,000 724 135,000 931
S-135 135,000 931 165,000 1138

The above chart indicates minimum yield providing the basis for maximum
pull (hookload) calculations. The red box shows manufacturer’s the high
end parameter to maintain strength and hardness characteristics.

This will be covered in more detail in the next chapter.

Drill Pipe Drill pipe strength is determined by the heat treatment method used in pipe
Strengthening manufacturing. Each of the processes explains how the pipe is strengthened.
Process o Austenitizing—exposing the tubing to extremely high temperatures
o Normalizing—heating and cooling the tube in ambient temperatures
o Quenching—rapidly cooling the metal
o Tempering—exposing the metal to slow baked heat and controlling
the raising and lowering of the temperature

Drill Pipe Class Drill pipe class determination is affected by several factors; the most
important is the amount of remaining wall. A reduction in the wall thickness
reduces the mechanical strength of the pipe. The remaining wall thickness
for each class is shown as a percentage
of nominal wall thickness.

The four usable classes of pipe are


separated by the remaining wall limits,
with premium being the most widely
specified class:
o New — 87.5% nominal wall
o Premium — 80 % nominal wall
o Class 2 — 70% nominal wall
o Class 3 — less than 70%
nominal wall

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 13
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Drill Pipe Identification

API When identifying a drill pipe The American Petroleum Institute (API) has
addressed a commonality among manufacturers. Drill spring identification
is located on a steal stamp on the pin thread base or a single groove and
milled slot.

Pin Base A set of five characters (letters and numbers) appear at the pin base of the
Markings drill pipe. Each set identifies specific information about the pipe.

o The first set identifies the tool joint manufacturer


o Next the month the joint was welded appears in numerical format
o Then the year the joint was welded
o Next the pipe manufacturer’s symbol
o Finally the drill pipe grade is identified with a letter (E, X, G, S)

Pin Base Image

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 14
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Current Slot and As of December 2004, the current system for identifying drill pipe is with a
Groove single groove and milled slot. Each grade of drill pipe follows an
identification system. There is standard weight and extra weight drill pipe
which is identified by the markings as well.

The first type of drill pipe is Grade E. Standard Weight Grade E drill pipe
has no markings. If it is extra weight drill pipe there will be a milled slot
with an “E” in the pipe grade code area and pipe weight code number listed.

Grade E Drill Pipe Grade E Extra Weight


The remainder of the drill pipe has a single groove and a milled slot. The
milled slot and groove changes locations on the joint to identify standard
weight or extra weight drill pipe. Standard weight has the groove to the right
of the milled slot; the milled slot will show the code and weight. The extra
weight will have a groove to the left of the milled slot.

Standard Weight Drill Pipe Extra Weight Drill Pipe

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 15
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Previous Slot Previously a multi-groove identification system was used. The multi-
and Groove groove system identified drill pipe on sight. API specifications required a
specific number of grooves in the joint to identify the weight and grade of
the drill pipe. These grooves were required on all pipe except Grade E-75
which was flush (just like the current slot and groove system).

Grade E Standard Weight Grade E Heavy Weight


Grade X drill pipe at first may appear to be similar to the current slot and
groove method. Notice the milled slot is located immediately next to the
groove. The current slot and groove system has a space between the two
identifiers.

Grade X Standard Weight Grade X Heavy Weight

Standard weight Grade G drill pipe has two grooves that identify it. If the
drill pipe is heavy weight then the milled slot will be between the grooves.

Grade G Standard Weight Grade G Extra Weight

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 16
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Finally, standard weight Grade S drill pipe has three grooves. If the drill
pipe is heavy weight the milled slot will appear between two of the grooves.

Grade S Standard Weight Grade S Extra Weight


The milled slot on all heavy weight drill pipe will show the pipe weight
code and the grade code, assuming it hasn’t worn off during the drilling
process.

The change in the Slot and Groove System was necessary because it caused
damage to the rotating head seals during the tripping out process by the
multiple grooves.

Drill pipe is the longest portion of the drill string. It supports extreme
amounts of weight. Inspection and drill pipe safety for all components of the
drill string is necessary to ensure a successful drilling operation. Using
properly rated and classed drill pipe will aid in a successful operation.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 17
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Slot and Groove Method of Drill Pipe Identification

Standard Weight Drill Pipe


Extra Weight Drill Pipe

Drill Pipe Grade Code


Standard Grade High Strength
Grades
GRADE SYMBOL GRADE SYMBOL
X-95 X
E-75 E G-105 G
S-135 S
V-150 V

Grade E Extra Weight

Use the chart on the following page to identify drill pipe.

Note A: Standard weight Grade E drill pipe designated by an asterisk (*) in the drill pipe weight
code will have no groove or milled slot for identification. Grade E heavy weight dill pipe will
have a milled slot only, in the center of the tong space.

Note B: Groove radius approximately 3/8 inch. Groove and milled slot to be ¼ in. deep on 5 ¼
inch OD and larger tool joints, 3/16 inch deep on 5 inch OD and smaller tool joints.

Note C: Stencil the grade code symbol and weight code number corresponding to grade and
weight of pipe in milled slot of pin. Stencil with ¼ in. high characters so marking may be read
with drill pipe hanging in elevators.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 18
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Drill Pipe Weight Code Identification

OD Size (inches) Wall Thickness Nominal Weight Weight Code


(inches) (lbs/ft) Number
.190 4.85 1
2⅜
.280 6.65* 2
.217 6.85 1
2⅞
.362 10.40* 2
.254 9.50 1
3½ .365 13.30* 2
.449 15.50 3
.262 11.85 1
4 .330 14.00* 2
.380 15.70 3
.271 13.75 1
.337 16.60* 2
.430 20.00 3

.500 22.82 4
.550 24.66 5
.575 25.50 6
.296 16.25 1
5 .362 19.50* 2
.500 25.60 3
.304 19.20 1
5½ .361 21.90* 2
.415 24.70 3
.330 25.20* 2
6⅝
.362 27.70 3

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 19
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Exercise: Drill Pipe Identification

Answer the following drill pipe questions. Use pages 19-20 as a resource.
1. Identify the following components.

A B C D

A.
B.
C.
D.

2. The following drill pipe has a 4"OD and has the stencil S 3.

A. What does the S designate?

B. What does the groove placement designate?

C. What is the nominal weight of this drill pipe?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 20
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Answer the following drill pipe questions. Use pages 19-20 as a resource.
3. The following drill pipe has the stencil G 2.

A. What does the G designate?

B. What does the 2 designate?

C. How is the 2 determined?

4. The following tube has a 5" OD, X-95 grade, 25.6#. Write in the code that should be
stenciled on the milled slot.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 21
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Answer the following drill pipe questions. Use pages 19-20 as a resource.
5. The following has a 3 1/2" OD, S-135 grade, 13.3#. Write in the code stenciled in
the milled slot.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 22
Chapter 3 – Drill Pipe Overview
Connection Science
CHAPTER 4
CONNECTION SCIENCE

Module At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


Objective o Identify and explain the basics of threaded connections
o Explain the three connection types and their identifying
characteristics
o Explain how make up torque and BSR affect a connection
o Perform the steps required to identify a connection

Topics
Threaded Connections
Connection Science
Identifying Threaded Connections
Threaded Connection Charts
Measuring the Connection
Activity: Thread Identification

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 1
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 2
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Threaded Connections

Introduction In the last chapter the drill pipe manufacturing process was discussed. The
threaded connections were briefly mentioned, because connection science
requires more than a paragraph to cover.

Threaded connections are referred to by the brand name of the thread type
(API Regular), the designated connection number (NC38), and the nominal
size of the connection (3½" FH). It is important to be familiar with these
connections so tools are connected properly.

Connection There are three primary types of connections used in the US drilling
Types industry: API, dual shoulder, and wedge thread.

API Connection
API is the most common type of connection. The shoulder is located
externally at the top of the box and the base of the pin. The benefits of an
API connection include: free spinning, easy stab up, common use, and ease
of recut/repair.

API Connection

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 3
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Dual Shoulder
A dual shoulder connection has one sealing point, the external shoulder. The
internal shoulder is a torque stop.
Some dual shoulder connections are interchangeable with API connections,
yet they lose the added torque capability. The benefits of a dual shoulder
connection include: free spinning, easy stab up, and increased torque
capability.

Dual Shoulder

Wedge Thread
The wedge thread is a unique proprietary
connection created by Hydril Company, LP. It
is the strongest connection on the market;
attributed to interlocking threads that act as
seals. The image to the right shows there is no
shoulder seal.

The wedge thread has increased torque


capability.

The wedge thread can only be cut by CNC


machine. It is not interchangeable with any
other connections.

Wedge Thread

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 4
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Connection
Features & Connection Names Free Easy Easy to Increased
Benefits Type Spinning StabUp Repair & Torque
Recut Capabilities
API REG, FH,
IF, NC
R R R 
Dual Shouldered DSTJ, GP
HT, SSDS,
R R R R
Tuff-Torq
High
Performance
GP XT, GP
XTM
R R  R
(Proprietary)
High
Performance
Wedge
Thread
   R
(Proprietary) (WT)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nominal Size The nominal size of a threaded connection is identified by the approximate
size of the connection OD. Sizes such as 2⅜", 2⅞", 3½" 4", 4 ½", 5",
5½", 6⅝", 7⅝", or 8⅝" are examples of the available nominal sized
connections. While the nominal size provides a sense of how large the
connection is, it does not correspond to any actual dimension on the threads.
It is a method used to identify the thread size not a dimensional
measurement.

Thread Forms Manufacturers can vary. Each company has its preferred thread type. Each
thread type has an ideal application. For example, a rounded threaded is
better for shallow wells and a lighter hook load, while a wedged thread is
ideal for higher pressure wells and a heavier hook load.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 5
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Dual Shoulder When designing a connection using a dual shoulder component (DS), it can
and Single be connected to a liked-size single shoulder (SS) component. DSTJ is a DS
Shoulder connection used with an API SS connection. The torque advantages are lost
Connections when interchanging connections, but a crossover sub is not required when
connecting like sized components.

The images below represent what the connection looks like when mixing
and matching connection types.

The strength or weakness of a connection is dependant on its location in the


drill string. The components in the BHA tend to be weaker in the
connection. Drill pipe, on the other hand, is more flexible due to a smaller
cross sectional area. Connection strength will vary in drill pipe depending
on several factors including the grade and thread type. For example, 2⅞"
AOH drill pipe E-95 is weaker in the tube, while S-135 with the same
thread type shows more weakness in the connection.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 6
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Connection Science

Introduction The connection may be the strongest or the weakest part of a drill string.
The joints used in a drill string play a large part in determining the strength
of the connection. In addition to the joints the torque, fatigue, and bending
strength ratio (BSR) affect the strength of a connection.

An important part of any


connection is the shoulder.
The shoulder is the flat area
where the pin and the box
meet when it’s joined
together. In some connection
types this is the only seal.
Some connections have two
shoulders, and the second
Shoulder is the Seal seal is in the box.

In the box, the critical zone is just


short of the end of the pin at the
root of the last engaged thread.
This zone is not supported by the
mating pin threads and is the In Pin
weakest section in the box. The In Box
critical zone of the pin is about
0.75 inches from the shoulder, at
the thread root.

Pin and Box Weakness Areas

Torque The connection is made up by torque. Torque is the amount of pressure used
to tighten “twist” the joints together. Applying the proper amount of torque
provides a good connection, but over-torquing can cause fatigue and
eventually failure.

The thread types and dimensions are critical in torque, since they require
different psi to make up. Equipment used in the BHA will be connected
using rotary-shouldered connections, or the API connection. The remainder
of the drill string could be connected using the other connections discussed
at the beginning of this chapter.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 7
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Improving Drill collar connections are
Fatigue Life kemplated to protect them from
the elements after machining to
help prevent galling (surface
damage on threads caused by
localized friction welding of high
spots) upon initial makeup.
Thread roots are cold-rolled on
all API and H-90 connections
except 2⅜" sizes, 2⅞" Regular
and Slim-Line H-90. Cold rolling
compresses the fibers in the thread root making this area of the connections
more resistant to fatigue failure. Pressed-steel thread protectors are supplied
for all drill collars equipped with standard connections.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 8
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Identifying Threaded Connections

Introduction Connection threads and tool joints types were discussed at the beginning of
the chapter, followed by the science of connection make-up and weakness
identification.

How is a tool joint identified? We will explore the steps. First we will use
logic, if that doesn’t work then it’s time to measure.

Use Logic Threads can be identified using simple logic. First, consider what type of
tool will be made up in the drill string. Ask the questions:
“What will this tool connect to?”
“How will it be used?”

Example: if you are trying to identifying the threads on a Box x Box


substitute, you might use the following thought process:
o Box x Box subs are usually run above drill bits
o Drill bits always have an API regular pin connection
o At least one of the connections on the substitute is likely to be API
regular

Which End is To assemble a drill string you must know how the connections fit together.
Up? It’s known that bits and near bit accessories are run pin up. Every other
component in a conventional drill string is run box up.

Interchanging Some thread types are interchangeable. The contour and dimensions of the
Connections connections are similar enough to be made up together without risking
damage to the threads. Some threads are manufactured to match threads
already available but are called something else.

API Connections API connections are available in regular (REG), full-hole (FH), and
numbered connections (NC). The API numbered connections are
interchangeable with the now obsolete API internal flush (IF) connections.
The table below shows the interchangeable thread.

NC IF X-Hole Full Hole


NC26 2⅜
NC31 2⅞
NC38 3½
NC40 4"
NC46 4" 4½
NC50 4½ 5"

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 9
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Dual Shoulder Dual shoulder connections are sold by a variety of manufacturers. Grant
Connection Prideco, Omsco, NKK, and SMITH all produce dual shouldered
connections that meet customer requirements.

Bevel Diameter Certain amounts of torque are required to seal the face contact between the
box and pin. The greater the square inches on the surface of the face, the
greater the amount of torque needed for that connection. Alternately, the
smaller the square inches on the surface of the face, the smaller the amount
of torque needed for that connection. The diameter of the bevel provides a
specific surface area on the face that allows for the correct amount of torque
to seal the connection.

The bevel diameter changes as the OD changes on the BHA components.


Drill pipe bevel diameter stays the same as the tool joint wears down.

Visual Thread
Identification

XTM

XT

SSDS & GPDS

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 10
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Threaded Connection Charts

Introduction The following charts provide size information for the most popular
connections available in each brand. Use the chart below as a guide for the
areas being measured. These measurements are approximate only.

AOH Connection
SIZE A B C D E F G H
2 3/8 2⅜ 3 1/16 2¾ 2.468 2 13/16 2½ 2 4
2 7/8 2⅞ 3⅞ 3 9/64 2.802 3 3/16 3 2 5/32 4

FH Connections
SIZE A B C D E F G H
2⅞ 3½ 4¼ 3.625 2.750 3 11/16 3⅞ 2⅛ 5
3½ 3⅝ 4⅞ 3.994 3.088 4 3/64 4⅜ 2 7/16 5
4 4⅜ 5⅜ 4.280 3.551 4 11/32 4⅝ 2 13/16 4
4½ 3⅞ 6 4.792 3.823 4⅞ 4⅛ 3 5/32 5
5½ 4⅞ 7½ 5.825 5.012 5 29/32 5⅛ 4 4
6⅝ 4⅞ 8⅝ 6.753 5.940 6 27/32 5⅛ 5 4

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 11
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
H-90 Connections
SIZE A B C D E F G H
3½ 3⅞ 5⅜ 4.125 3.479 4 3/16 4⅛ 2¼ 3½
4 4⅛ 5⅞ 4.500 3.813 4 9/16 4⅜ 2⅝ 3½
4½ 4⅜ 6⅜ 4.834 4.105 4 57/64 4⅝ 2¾ 3½
5 4⅝ 6¾ 5.104 4.334 5 11/64 4⅞ 2½ 3½
5½ 4⅝ 7¼ 5.375 4.604 5 7/16 5⅜ 3 3½
6⅝ 4⅞ 8⅛ 6.000 5.188 6 1/16 5⅝ 3¼ 3½
7⅝ 6 9½ 7.389 5.889 7 29/32 6¼ 3½

XH Connections
SIZE A B C D E F G H
2 7/8 3⅞ 4¼ 3.327 2.681 3 23/64 4⅛ 1⅞ 4
3½ 3⅜ 4¾ 3.812 2.250 3⅞ 3⅝ 2 7/16 4
4½ 4⅜ 6¼ 4.834 4.105 4 29/32 4⅝ 3¼ 4
5 4⅜ 6½ 5.250 4.521 5 5/16 4⅝ 3¾ 4

PAC Connections
SIZE A B C D E F G H
2 3/8 2¼ 2⅞ 2.365 2.084 2 13/16 2½ 1¼ 4
2 7/8 2¼ 3⅛ 2.531 2.250 2 19/32 2½ 1½ 4

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 12
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
IF Connections (Obsolete)
SIZE A B C D E F G H
2 3/8 2⅞ 3⅝ 2.876 2.397 2 15/16 3⅜ 1¾ 4
2 7/8 3⅜ 4¼ 3.391 2.879 3 39/32 3⅞ 2⅛ 4
3½ 3⅞ 4¾ 4.016 3.370 4 5/64 4⅛ 2 11/16 4
4 4⅜ 6¼ 4.834 4.105 4 29/32 4⅝ 3¼ 4
4½ 4⅜ 6⅜ 5.250 4.521 5 5/16 4⅝ 3¾ 4
5½ 4⅞ 7⅜ 6.397 5.585 6 29/64 5⅛ 4 13/16 4
6 5/8 4⅞ 8½ 7.459 6.646 7 33/64 5⅝ 5 29/32 4

REG Connections
SIZE A B C D E F G H
2⅜ 3 3⅛ 2.515 1.875 2 11/16 3⅛ 1 5
2⅞ 3½ 3⅞ 2.890 2.125 3 1/16 3⅝ 1¼ 5
3½ 3¾ 4½ 3.390 2.562 3 9/16 3⅞ 1½ 5
4½ 4¼ 5¾ 4.515 3.562 4 11/16 4⅜ 2¼ 5
5½ 4¾ 7 5.410 4.333 5 37/64 4⅞ 2¾ 4
6⅝ 5 7¾ 5.882 5.159 6 1/16 5⅛ 3½ 4
7⅝ 5¼ 9 6.890 5.688 7 3/32 5⅜ 4 4
8⅝ 5 3/8 10 7.840 6.608 8 3/64 5½ 4¾ 4

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 13
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
NC Connections
NC # A B C D E F G H
23 3 3⅛ 2.437 2.063 2⅝ 3⅛ 1¼ 4
26 3 3½ 2.750 2.376 2 15/16 3⅛ 1½ 4
31 3½ 4⅛ 3.266 2.808 3 29/64 3⅝ 2 4
35 3¾ 4¾ 3.625 3.114 3 13/16 3⅞ 2 4
38 4 4¾ 3.891 3.349 4 5/64 4⅛ 2¼ 4
40 4½ 5¼ 4.156 3.530 4 11/32 4⅝ 2 13/16 4
44 4½ 5¾ 4.499 3.875 4 11/16 4⅝ 2 13/16 4
46 4½ 6¼ 4.709 4.084 4 29/32 4⅝ 2 13/16 4
50 4½ 6¾ 5.135 4.500 5 5/16 4⅝ 2 13/16 4
56 5 8 5.703 4.626 5 15/16 5⅛ 2 13/16 4
61 5½ 9 6.266 5.063 6½ 5⅝ 2 13/16 4
70 6 9¾ 7.141 5.813 7⅜ 6⅛ 3 4
77 6½ 11 7.828 6.376 8 1/16 6⅝ 3 4

Interchangeable Threads

NC26 = 2 ⅜ IF
NC31 = 2 ⅞ IF
NC38 = 3 ½ IF
NC40 = 4" FH
NC46 = 4" IF or 4 ½ XH
NC50 = 4 ½ IF or 5” XH

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 14
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Measuring the Connection

Introduction If using logic doesn’t identify a connection, then it’s time for a joint
identifier. A Tool Joint Identifier is also used to measure dimensions for
interchanging connections.

If using a Tool Joint Identifier doesn’t identify a connection, then measure


the OD of a connection. The Tool Joint Identifier or a data sheet with
connection dimensions will help determine the thread type and nominal size
of the connection.

Tool Joint The simplest way to measure threads per inch on the
Identifier connection is using a Tool Joint Identifier,
sometimes called an “idiot stick”. This tool identifies
the most common threads. When a tool joint is
identified, confirm the measurement with a proper
gauge.

The first step in identifying a connection is to


measure the threads per inch. Common thread types
are on the front of the ruler, where SMITH
SERVICES is printed. They are:

o 3 ½ threads per inch


o 4 threads per inch
o 5 threads per inch

The reverse side of the Tool Joint Identifier


Tool Joint Identifier distinguishes which side is used for measuring the
pin, and which side is used to measure the box.

The number of threads per inch


will help limit the type of
connection. All PAC, IF, X-
Hole, and NC have four threads
per inch. H-90 connections have
3½ threads per inch. The
remainder, Full Hole, and
Regular, can be 4 or 5 threads Measuring the Pin
per inch depending upon size.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 15
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Measuring the In addition to identifying the connection threads, OD requires measurement.
OD of a Pin There are two methods, one for the pin end and the other for the box end.
Connection
Pin End Measurement
For the pin end, use a caliper to
measure the connection OD at
the cylindrical base of the pin. If
the pin has a relief groove,
about ½ inch of unthreaded
connection at the base of the
pin, then use a straight edge to
measure the connection OD
accurately.
Measuring with a Caliper Line up one prong of the caliper
with the pin mark on the thread
identifier and let the other caliper prong fall where it will along the marked
lengthy of the identifier. The markings closest to where the prong falls that
match the measured threads per inch will help identify the thread type and
nominal size.

Tighten the caliper while it has


the measurement obtained from
the pin end. Line it up in the
notch on the pin side of the tool
joint identifier.

Pin Relief Groove Measurement

The caliper measurement will not


always fall directly on one of the pre-
marked hash marks on the thread
identifier, sometimes exactly between
two. You may still have to explore
more measurements, such as pin length
Lining up with Tool Joint Identifier and/or tool ID. The thread identifier
should be used only as a guideline to
help the user determine the correct thread.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 16
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Measuring the ID Measuring the box connection
of a Box requires fewer steps and is
Connection much easier. Just use the thread
identifier to measure between
the inside edges of the mouth
of the box. The markings on
the identifier will identify the
connection.

Measuring the Box End


Verification When measuring is complete, verify the measurements are correct using the
proper gauge to double check. There are two gauges types used to verify
measurements. The first is a Stone Ground Gauge, which is tool joint with
perfect measurements. These gauges are extremely expensive and must be
housed in an air conditioned environment to maintain their integrity. Stone
ground gauges are required for all API shops.

The other gauge type is a Po’ Boy thread gauge. This is created from an
existing connection where the size is known. To verify the size of an
questionable connection the Po’ Boy is threaded onto the questionable
connection to see if it fits.

Hard to Identify If the threads are still difficult to identify the problem could be a couple of
things. First, the connection could be measured as either a 4 ½ API Regular
or full hole. It’s also possible the connection is not listed on the tool joint
identifier, or it’s a specialty cut connection.

Follow a measurement chart and take measurements of other parts of the


connection which may identify it. See the dimension chart included in this
chapter for measurements.

NC Connections Some of the connections are easily interchanged. The following list shows
the connections that work with NC connections.
NC 26 2 ⅜IF
NC 31 2 ⅞IF
NC 38 3 ½ IF
NC 40 4" FH
NC 46 4 ½ X-hole or 4” IF
NC 50 5" X-Hole or 4 ½ IF

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 17
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Recap When there is a questions about thread type, use the following methods to
aid in identification:

1 Use logic when looking at the


threads
2 Measure the connection with the
tool joint identifier
3 Use the caliper to measure the pin
base
4 Use the tool joint identifier to
measure the box end
5 Verify the results
6 Double check with connection
drawing
7 Make sure to double check all
connections before sending
components out to a job

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 18
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Activity: Thread Identification

Part A
Look at the pictures below. Follow the directions for each.

In the image above circle all the shoulders.

The list below shows parts of a connection you should


be familiar with. Circle and label these parts in the
diagram on the left.

1. Shoulder Seal

2. Bevel

3. Critical Pin Area

4. Critical Box Area

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 19
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Part B
Using the charts on pages 10-14, identify the nominal OD of the following measurements.

1. 4 ½" REG 2. 2 ⅞" PAC

3. 3 ½" IF 4. NC 31

5. NC 50 6. 4 ½" XH

7. 6 ⅝ REG 8. NC 46

9. NC 26 10. 2 ⅞" REG

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 20
Chapter 4 – Connection Science
Failure Mechanisms
CHAPTER 5
FAILURE MECHANISMS

Module At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


Objective o Identify and explain common failure mechanisms, ways to reduce
failures and common ways to identify drill string
o Explain what fatigue is
o Explain how tension affects the drill string
o Explain how torsion affects the drill string
o Explain how buckling affects the drill string
o Explain how corrosion affects the drill string
o Explain how burst/collapse affects the drill string
o Identify the ways to reduce drill string failure
o Explain the inspection methods used to identify flaws

Topics
Exercise: Drill String Failure
Failure Mechanisms
Fatigue
Tension
Torsion
Buckling
Corrosion
Burst/Collapse
Poor Handling Practices
Reducing Drill String Failure
Inspection Methods
Drill Pipe Damage
Exercise: Drill Pipe Damage

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 1
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 2
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Exercise: Drill String Failure

Read the following pages on failure mechanisms, fatigue, tension, torsion, buckling,
corrosion, burst/collapse, poor handling practices, and reducing drill string failure. Your
group will be assigned one or more of these concepts. You will have to design a poster that
describes each concept assigned in detail. You must include at least one visual. Your group
will be judged based on the quality and explanation of your poster. Your poster should be
detailed enough to be self explanatory, but be prepared to explain it. Use the space below to
take notes.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 3
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Failure Mechanisms

Overview Drill string failure is the most serious and most costly problem of a drill
string. Failure occurs for any number of reasons. Solving drill string failure
issues quickly saves time and money. A proactive approach to drill string
design will help avoid failure issues. This chapter discusses how drill string
failures occur and what inspections are performed to help alleviate the
number of failures.

Nature of Failures vary depending on the location in the drill string. The BHA is
Failures comprised of the drill bit, very thick drill collars, and the transition pipe.
The remainder of the drill string consists of drill pipe. In the BHA a failure
is more likely to occur in the connection because of the component stiffness.
Transition pipe, Hevi-Wate drill pipe or Spiral-Wate drill pipe is more
flexible than drill collars and more durable than drill pipe and by design it
can endure compressive stresses such as buckling. Finally, at the top of the
drill string is the drill pipe. Drill pipe tube tends to be weaker than the
connection, making the failure more apt to occur in the tube.

Drill pipe is exposed to two forces during a drilling operation. The first is
tension; tension is the weight of the load the drill string holds. Every
component in a drill string must support the weight of every component
below it. The other force a drill pipe is constantly exposed to torsion; torsion
is the rotation of the pipe downhole.

Limited data is available concerning the location of drill pipe failures, the
type of failures, or their probable cause. The following list of failures was
compiled from vast experience. Most failures occur:

o When rotating or picking the pipe off bottom immediately after


drilling rather than pulling on stuck pipe
o Within four feet of the tool joint on either end of the pipe
o When there is severe pitting on the inside of the pipe, the pitting
usually began from the inside
o From slip marks or other surface damage, such a gouges, welding
arc spots, stenciled numbers, etc.
o As a result of pulling on stuck pipe

Drill strings failures are caused by forms of fatigue, tension, torsion,


burst/collapse, or corrosion.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 4
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Fatigue Drill pipe fatigue is the most common
cause of failure. Drill pipe fatigue is
progressive, cumulative damage that
occurs when the pipe is subjected to
cycles of stress (tension, compression,
and torsion) that exceeds the tensile
strength of the material. Visible cracks
are formed from submicroscopic
Washout Due to Fatigue cracks.

Tension Tension failure occurs when the load applied to the drill string is beyond the
operating capacity of the weakest member of the string; usually near the top
of the hole. Tension (or tensile) capacities are calculated based on the
minimum yield strength of the steel and the cross-sectional area of the
affected string member.

Torsion Torsional failure is a yielding


of the drill stem component
due to applying excessive
torsional loads (twisting)
resulting in a swelled box. A
connection will hold the
amount of torque applied
until an equal or greater
opposite force is applied to
the connection. The danger
occurs because the Overtorqued Connection
connection will take any
additional torque. Make up torque should be 60% of the torsional yield for
the tool joint connection.

Torsional failure first appears as stretched pins or swelled boxes, depending


on which is the weaker part of the connection.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 5
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Corrosion Corrosion is the alteration and degradation of material caused by its
environment. Corrosion is a contributor to drill string failure. The primary
corrosive agents are dissolved gasses (oxygen, CO2, H2S), dissolved salts,
and acids.

In Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) environ-


ments the BHA is mainly affected.
As the chemical attacks the pipe it
changes forms (chemically altered)
and is no longer dangerous to the
remainder of the drill string. The
result is a high probability of a
failure in a BHA connection.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a common


Excessive Pitting element emitted by vegetation
during photosynthesis. But, if it is
combined with high salinity (salty) water, it causes corrosion on the pipe.
Visually this appears as pitting on the pipe.

Burst/Collapse Drill pipe collapse occurs when the pressure in the wellbore is higher than
the pressure in the pipe by an amount that exceeds the collapse capacity of
the pipe. When the fluid levels inside and outside the drill pipe are equal,
and the density of the mud is constant then there will be no pressure to
collapse.

Drill pipe burst is the exact opposite where the internal pressure exceeds the
external pressure.

Neither of these occurrences is common in drill pipe, and impossible in a


drill collar.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 6
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Fatigue

Overview Drill pipe fatigue is the most common cause failure. Drill pipe fatigue is
progressive, cumulative damage that occurs when the pipe is subjected to
stress cycles (tension and compression) that exceed the tensile strength of
the material. Drill pipe fatigue failures are often due to gradual progressive
growth of minor irregularities into major cracks.

Fatigue Limit The fatigue limit is estimated to be one-third to one-half of the minimum
tensile strength of the pipe. Theoretically, the pipe will never fail if stress
doesn’t exceed the fatigue limit.

Fatigue Failure Metal tubes in the drill string


subjected to cyclic combinations of
stress will fail due to the growth of
small irregularities to large cracks
and stress even after the tube is no
longer exposed to a high level of
stress. This failure through
progressive growth of small
irregularities at low stress levels is a
high-cycle, low-stress fatigue
failure. Commonly, the area around
the fracture shows concentric
semicircular marks that illustrate
periodic growth of the crack, which
are sometimes called beach marks.
The beach marks are more common
in connection fatigue.
Various Factors Affect Fatigue

Early studies examined the effect of combined bending and tensile stresses
in drill pipe. This showed that when a length of pipe is in a gradually
changing hole angle, the tool joints are pulled tangent to the wall of the
hole, and the pipe between the tool joints is pulled straight, creating severe
bending of the pipe adjacent to the tool joints. The amount of bending stress
is relative to the rate of change of the hole angle and to the amount of
tension in the pipe.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 7
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Drill Pipe vs. Each component is affect differently by bending change. Drill pipe tends to
Drill Collars be more affected by bending that occurs in the upset runout area. The area
least affected is the tool
joint.

Drill collars are the


complete opposite. High
bending stress areas are at
the connection and low
bending stress is in the
middle of the pipe.

Fatigue Break
Combined Bending pipe causes each fiber to be stressed alternately in tension and
Stresses compression. Adding high-tensile pull to the pipe causes the stress to vary
from maximum tension to compression. Including a secondary stress on the
pipe reduces the ability of the pipe to withstand cyclic stress. Since drill
pipe is always operated in tension, the fatigue life of the pipe is reduced to
some degree by the amount of tension in the pipe. Where drill pipe is highly
stressed in bending, as in a dogleg, the amount of tensile stress becomes
critical.

Combined A plot of tension


Stresses of in the pipe vs.
Tension and rate of change of
Bending hole angle, is
demonstrated for
Grade E-75 drill
pipe. There is a
tensile load of
200,000 pounds
in the pipe, a
rate of change of
hole angle
greater than 2¾º
per 100' will
stress the pipe
above the endurance limit, while with a 50,000 pound tensile load in the
pipe, 7º per 100' could be tolerated without exceeding the endurance limit.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 8
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Tension

Overview Drill pipe tension exists when a very heavy load is being supported by the
top of the drill string. The steel is elastic in nature, meaning that it has the
capability to stretch and then return to its original shape after the weight is
released. There are limits to the elasticity though. Drill pipe can only stretch
so much before the drill pipe is stretched beyond its limits. Understanding
the elasticity of the drill pipe and its limits are covered in this section.

Elasticity Steel drill pipe that is made


up in a drill string is
expected to stretch to some
degree. This is due to each
component in a drill string
supporting the weight of the
components below it. The
components at the top of the
drill string are supporting
very heavy loads and will
stretch like a rubber band,
Elastic Deformation returning to its original size
and shape after the load is
removed; this type of stretching is called elastic deformation.

Elastic Limit If too much weight was added


to the drill pipe in the above
image the pipe would not
return to its original size.
There is a limit to the amount
of weight that can be added
without consequence. If too
much weight is added to the
drill pipe, it will not return to
its original length when the
weight is removed. The drill
pipe will be permanently
Elastic Limit
deformed. The limit of weight
that can be added before the drill pipe will be permanently deformed is the
elastic limit.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 9
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
In the image to the left:

o The top pipe represents point


A, with no damage to the pipe
after stretching
o The second pipe shows the
stretch from points B to C
o The third image represents the
fracture point indicated on the
Yield Point chart above

Keeping the drill pipe within acceptable limits is the only way to ensure its
performance and longevity.

Maximum During oil well drilling, the concern is how much pull is available on a
Allowable Hook string of drill pipe. The yield strength and the tensile strength of the pipe
Load then become very important. It is always desirable to keep the tensile stress
in the pipe below the material’s yield point. This is referred to as the tensile
yield strength or maximum allowable hook load for the pipe.

Effect of Tensile In drill pipe steel, an increase in yield strengths is obtained without a
Strength on relative increase in ultimate strength. The chart below shows the minimum
Endurance Limit yield strength (point B on the previous page) and the minimum tensile
strength (point C on the previous page).

Ratio of
Min. Yield Min. Tensile
Grade Min. Yield to
Strength psi Strength psi
Min. Tensile
D-55 55,000 95,000 58%
E-75 75,000 100,000 75%
S-135 135,000 147,000 91%

Keep in mind the information provided in this section is based on


destructive testing. The primary focus in the field is to monitor and work
within API standards.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 10
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Tensile Test Laboratory tests have determined the limits of stress and strain that can be
exerted on drill pipe. A sample of one drill pipe is tested to ensure it meets
basic API requirements. The sample is exposed to the minimum yield
strength indicated
by the grade
(point A). Point A
is a representation
of the normal
operating limits of
the drill pipe.
Additional pull is
placed on the
sample to reach
point B. Once the
sample is exposed Weight Limits of Drill Pipe
to Point B it will
be permanently elongated. The sample is then exposed to more stress and
strain until it reaches point C. The longer the arc is from point B to point C,
the stronger the sample. At point C, the sample is necking down and will
eventually fracture.

Yield Strength
Common
Minimum Maximum
Grades
(A) psi MPa (B) psi MPa
E-75 75,000 517 105,000 724
X-95 95,000 655 125,000 862
G-105 105,000 724 135,000 931
S-135 135,000 931 165,000 1138

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 11
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Torsion

Overview Torsion applies to the drill string in two ways. First in the connections when
they are made up (also called make-up torque) then in the entire drill string
while it is rotating. The problems that can occur will be discussed in this
chapter.

Connection When a joint is added or removed


Torque from the drill string, torque is
applied to tighten or loosen the tool
joint. The torque is measured in
pounds. Applying too much torque
while making up a tool joint will
damage and weaken the connection.
Make-up torque is applied using a
top drive or large wrenches called
tongs. Torque is applied using rig
Controlling the Torque
equipment to apply force by pulling

on one tong while the other is tied


off at a fixed point. The length of
the tong is multiplied by the
pound of pull to provide a ft/lb.
value.

If a tool joint is not tightened


enough there will not be a seal in
the connection. A leak will occur
Torque Monitoring Equipment and a washout will happen in
these cases.

Drill String One of the drill pipe functions is to rotate the bit and BHA. Rotation causes
Torsion a torsional stress on the drill string. Common downhole conditions
including wall friction and stabilizer hang-up will increase the torque
required to rotate the tube. If the torque becomes too great, the tube may
fail. The drilling torque should never exceed make-up torque.

Similar to tension there is a yield point with torsion. The torsional yield
strength of drill pipe is the resistance of the tube to fail by a twisting torque
or force.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 12
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Combined Usually when a drill string is downhole it is subjected to more than one
Torsion and force. The drill string is not only turning downhole, but each component is
Tension supporting the weight of the components below it. When a joint of drill pipe
is subjected to a combined load of torque and tension, such as normal
drilling operations, it is more likely to torsionally fail.

The chart below illustrates the effect of tension and torsion on 4 ½", 16.60
lb/ft, grade E-75 drill pipe. As the wall of the drill pipe is worn away and
the joints decrease in class, its ability to work with extreme levels of tension
and torsion decrease.

Tension and Torsion based on Class

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 13
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Corrosion

Overview Corrosion is the alteration and degradation of material caused by its


environment. Corrosion is a common cause and contributor to drill string
failure. The primary corrosive agents are dissolved gasses (oxygen, CO2,
H2S), dissolved salts, and acids.

Sulfide Stress Sulfide stress cracking


Cracking (SSC) is a frequent cause of
drill string failure, which
occurs when drilling H2S
environments. Atomic
hydrogen, the smallest of
atoms, penetrates the steel
changing the chemistry of
the steel of the drill pipe.

Normally, hydrogen atoms


quickly combine to form
Possible SSC molecular hydrogen, which
is too large to be absorbed
by the metal and bubbles off as gas. In the presence of sulfide, the hydrogen
remains in the atomic form for a longer time. This longer span allows a
greater probability of absorption by the pipe. After absorption, the hydrogen
accumulates in the area of maximum stress, and when a critical
concentration is reached, a small crack forms. Then hydrogen accumulates
at the top of the crack and the crack grows. The process continues until the
remaining metal cannot sustain the applied load and a sudden brittle fracture
occurs.

To offset the effects of the H2S environments an oil based mud can be used
for circulation. If the H2S scavengers achieve a proper pH prior to attacking
to the pipe, the effects will be neutralized before causing damage.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 14
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Pitting CO2 environments are also
considered corrosive. When CO2
mixes with water, carbonic acid is
formed. The carbonic acid forms
scale in the water and can attach to
the pipe surface, trapping moisture
next to the pipe wall. Pitting can
occur should this scale be left
untreated. This problem is referred
to as under-deposit corrosion. Drill Pipe Pitting
Additives to the circulation
medium can help prevent this from occurring.

Proactive Lowering minimum yield materials will allow work to continue despite the
Approach corrosive environment. Grades E-75 and X-95 are recommended when H2S
gas is present. Some manufacturers have developed higher strength drill
pipe that has shown resistance to failure in corrosive environments, called
controlled yield drill pipe.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 15
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Burst/Collapse

Overview Drill pipe collapse occurs when the pressure in the wellbore is higher than
the pressure in the pipe by an amount that exceeds the collapse capacity of
the pipe. When fluid levels inside and outside the drill pipe are equal, and
the mud density is constant there will be no differential pressure to collapse.

Drill pipe burst is the exact opposite where the internal pressure exceeds the
external pressure.

Yield Strength The yield strength


Collapse collapse refers to the
pressure that generates
minimum yield stress on
the inside wall of a heavy
wall tubes. The yield
strength collapse pressure
is not a true collapse
pressure, but is used
because it is thought to be
unsafe to use a pressure
Drill Pipe Collapse greater than that, which
causes yielding.

Collapse The drill pipe may be subjected to an external pressure higher than the
Pressure in Drill internal pressure. This condition can occur during drill stem testing and may
String Design result in collapse of the drill pipe. Differential pressure is required to
produce the collapse.

Drill Pipe Burst Drill pipe burst is the result


of excessive internal
pressure. A burst pipe may be
the most common occurrence
where excessive internal
pressures are experienced.

Drill Pipe Burst

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 16
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Poor Handling Practices

Notches and Notches and cuts in the drill pipe metal will increase the fatigue amount,
Cuts speeding the breakdown of metal. If the notch or pit is within 20 inches of
the tool joint, where maximum bending takes place, it can form an early
fatigue crack.

All dents and scratches can eventually cause drill pipe failure:
o Slip marks, cuts, and scratches
o Corrosion grooves caused by rubber protectors
o Electric arc burns
o Downhole notching caused by formation and junk cuts
o Dynamic loading of pipe in slips

Bent Pipe Bent or crooked pipe is always a potential failure because the stress cycle is
magnified at the bend. Bent pipe should never be used while actively
drilling or rotating. If pipe is returned from a job bent, then it needs to be
straightened before it is sent out again.

Bent pipe is caused by:


o A crooked kelly can cause bending in the first joint of pipe
below the rotary table
o A mast or derrick that is not plumb causes the crown block to be
off-center; the off-center block throws bending stresses into the
kelly and the drill string
o Drilling with compressive loads in the drill pipe section of the
drill string
o Drilling through severe doglegs or around ledges
o Intentionally for fishing purposes

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 17
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Reducing Drill String Failure

Better Drill string failures can be prevented by working within the published
Operational capacities for the drill string material. Operating at stress levels below the
Practices fatigue limit can theoretically eliminate drill pipe fatigue. Unfortunately,
laboratory conditions cannot replicate all the conditions encountered while
drilling and greater stress will occur on a drill string in the field.

Better Materials Tough material, as measured by its impact resistance, retards the formation
and growth of fatigue cracks. Tough material is also less likely to fail
catastrophically than brittle (not tough) material operating under identical
conditions. Toughness is primarily determined by metallurgical chemistry,
cleanliness, and heat treatment.

Better Reducing the corrosiveness of drilling systems will result in fewer failures.
Environment This includes:
o Using softer drill string components that can absorb more hydrogen
without becoming brittle, such as E-75 or X-95
o Using H2S scavengers
o Using oil-based mud
o Elevating mud PH which reduces acidity

Better Design Drill string design and thread selection are the first steps in lowering
operating stress levels and reducing drill pipe fatigue. Even though
improvements in design will not eliminate drill pipe fatigue, they will slow
down the fatigue process and they can also prevent other types of failure
such as tension or torsion failures. Moreover, it is important to design the
string so the area of the string subjected to the most stress (comprehensive
drilling loads) is the strongest area of the string.

Better Consistent inspection prevents drill pipe failures by detecting fatigue cracks
Inspection and other indicators of failure before they reach the point that failure occurs.
Consistent inspections and standardized handling practices will reduce the
number and severity of notches and cuts that are placed on the pipe through
poor handling practices.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 18
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Inspection Methods

Introduction There are many problems that can arise while drilling. One way to prevent
possible issues is to conduct regular BHA and drill pipe inspections. There
are many different inspection methods to detect stress risers and fatigue in
drill string components.

o Visual Inspection (VT)


o Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT)
o Electromagnetic Induction (EMI)
o Ultrasonic Inspection (UT)
o Liquid Penetrant (PT) for non-mag components

Inspection Preparing a tubular item for


Preparation inspection requires that it be
clean of dope, dirt, paint, and
rust. An inspection of the threads
requires cleaning with a brush
and solvent. The OD of the tube
will undergo a buffing to help
identify any cracks.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 19
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Visual A visual inspection (VT) is the
Inspection (VT) most common non-destructive
method of on-site drill pipe and
BHA inspection. Adequate
lighting, a well trained eye, and
in some cases a camera are
required to perform a VT. The
inspector visually examines the
tool for defects and
connections for common key
issues. For example, the
presence of dark areas on the
shoulder or excessive galling
of a component connection is
indicative of under-torquing;
this indicates the presence of
future problems if not
addressed by the drilling
contractor. This is a viable
stand-alone inspection method,
but is generally conducted in
conjunction with more critical An External and Internal Visual Inspection
methods of nondestructive
testing.

The following is a list of the specific items inspected during a VT: OD, ID,
length, shoulder condition, benchmark, thread profile and depth, bevel
diameter and eccentricity.

Box Swell Bent Pipe

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 20
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Magnetic Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT) is the act of inducing a magnetic field
Particle into ferromagnetic drill pipe/BHA components to detect any inherent or
Inspection (MT) service related defects in the metal. There are three basic methods of
magnetic particle inspection dependant on the sensitivity requirements:

Visual Wet: A magnetic field is


applied and visually identifiable
particles are applied contrasting to the
surface of the tool to be inspected.

Visual Dry: A yoke is used to induce


an active magnetic field on the surface
of the tool to be inspected while the
inspector simultaneously applies a
small amount of dry fine grain iron
Visual Dry-Internal Component oxide powder.
Particle Crack

The image to the right shows the


inspector holding a small flame
to the inside of a tube. He is
looking for unusual and
concentric formation of powder
that will identify a crack. It is
used specifically on upsets,
Kellys, and the slip area on drill
pipe.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 21
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Fluorescent Wet: This method
can be used with an active
magnetic field or a strong
residual magnetic field. A
magnetic force is applied to the
test piece and a fluorescent
suspension of solvent or water-
based iron oxide particles are
applied to the test piece. A
black-light is used to ascertain
the presence of any dis-
Fluorescent Wet Inspection continuities or inherent
Shows Cracks Under a Blacklight
irregularities in the metal.

MT works because the


magnetic field spreads out
when it encounters the small
gap created by the crack. This is
because the air cannot support
as much magnetic field per
volume as the magnet can
handle. The particles are
attracted to the small magnetic
leakage fields from
discontinuities (flaws).
Damage Caused by Slips

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 22
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Pin Connection

Field Indicator

Full Length Body

Ultraviolet Meter
Centrifuge

Ultraviolet Light
DC Coil

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 23
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Electromagnetic MFL inspection systems are based on the same principles as magnetic
Induction particle inspection. The primary difference between MFL and magnetic
(EMI/MFL) particle inspection is the use of sensors. MFL sensors, developed in the
1920's and 30's, measure the magnetic field around a defect. Sensors allow a
quantitative measurement, rather than the more qualitative information
provided by particles.
Sensors between the
magnet pole pieces
measure the flux
leakage field. The
purpose of sensor
systems is to convert
the flux leakage field
into a signal that can
be stored and
analyzed. The sensor
system consists of the
Setting Up Buggy sensors themselves,
the mounting system
used to support the sensors, wear plates between the sensors and the pipe,
and cabling between the sensors and other electronic components.

The two types of sensors


commonly used in MFL
tools are induction coils
and Hall elements (field
sensor). Coils measure
the rate of change of a
magnetic field, while
Hall elements measure
the actual magnetic field
Buggy Around Tube
strength.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 24
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Ultrasonic Ultrasonic inspection can be
Inspection (UT) performed on the entire tube of
drill pipe, on the upsets area,
the rotary shouldered
connections, or on all three. A
magnetic particle inspection is
generally used to confirm the
finding of UT, where
applicable.

In ultrasonic testing, high-


Testing Equipment
frequency sound waves are
transmitted into a material to
detect imperfections or to locate changes in material properties. The most
commonly used ultrasonic testing technique is pulse echo, where sound is
introduced into a test object
and reflections (echoes) from
internal imperfections or the
part's geometrical surfaces are
returned to a receiver. Below is
an example of shear wave weld
inspection. Notice the
indication extending to the
upper limits of the screen. This
indication is produced by
sound reflected from a defect
within the weld.

Shear Wave Weld Inspection

Transducer and Wedge

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 25
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Liquid Penetrant Liquid Penetrant Inspection detects
(PT) surface defects and cracks in non-
ferromagnetic metals. This
method can be applied to non-
magnetic components of the BHA
and various internal components of
downhole tools used in drilling
applications.

Red Bleedout

Red Dye

Developer

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 26
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
There are three types of PT that can be used: Fluorescent, Non-Fluorescent-
Visual, and Dual-Sensitivity. These types are distinguished by the light
source used to inspect the test specimen. Each type can be further broken
down to a particular method—Water Washable, Post Emulsified, and
Solvent Removable, which identifies how the penetrant is removed.

Step Cleaning
Developer
1
application
Penetrant
Step Step application
5 2
DPI

Excess Step Step Penetrant


penetrant removal 4 3 Dwell

After the test object has been


cleaned, it is coated with a
solution containing a visible
or fluorescent dye. The dye is
left on the test object for an
predetermined amount of time
before removal. It is removed
Penetrant is Applied from the surface of the object,
but remains in surface
breaking defects. A developer
is applied to draw the
penetrant out of the defects.
With fluorescent dyes,
ultraviolet light is used to
make the “bleedout” fluoresce
brightly, allowing imper-
fections to be readily
seen. With visible dyes, vivid
Excess Penetrant is Removed color contrasts between the
penetrant and developer make
"bleedout" easy to see. The
red indications above
represent a number of defects
in this component.

Developer is Applied
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 27
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Inspection An inspected component needs to
Identification be identified as acceptable or
unacceptable. Some flaws can be
repaired while others render the
pipe unusable. Damaged and
unusable drill pipe is marked with
bright paint. Damaged
components require
documentation, which should be
Damaged Shoulder thoroughly completed to
minimize confusion in the future.
Even the most thorough inspection may not find all the flaws of a drill pipe.
As previously mentioned, most drill string failures are due to fatigue.
Unfortunately, fatigue flaws are progressive and cannot be detected until
they reach the surface of the component. Visually a fatigue flaw appears as
a crack in the form of a single line on the drill pipe surface.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 28
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Drill Pipe Damage

Damage Typical Location Probable Causes


o Slip Area
o Surface notching
o Areas where pipe has been
Washout o Cyclic stressing
stressed due to transition
o Fatigue cracking
from pipe to collars
o Slip Area o Surface notching
o Washout o Cyclic stressing
Twist Off
o Areas where pipe has been o Fatigue cracking
stressed o Over torque
o Slip Area
o Pipe run in compression o Surface notching
Fatigue o Pipe used in horizontal o Cyclic stressing
Cracking drilling o Corrosion
o Areas where pipe has been o Cuts hydrogen embrittlement
stressed
o Chlorides
o Oxygen
Corrosion o Acid
Anywhere on pipe
Pitting o Co2
o H2s
o Galvanic action
o Pipe turning in slips
o Not using back-up tongs
Slip Cuts Slip Area o Defective slips
o Defective bowl
o Improper slip handling
o Defective slip component
o Improper lip handling
o Excessive make-up or break out
Slip Area torque
Slip Area
Mash/Crush o Bending pipe in slips
o Using slips to stop downward
movement of pipe
o Improper size slip inserts
o Stuck pipe
o Pull past minimum yield
o Slip Area o Excessive hook load
Necking
o Near Upsets o Worn master bushing
o Stopping travel of pipe with rotary
slips

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 29
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Damage Typical Location Probable Causes
o Above pin o Stuck pipe
String Shot o Below box that has been o Integral explosion (string shot) for
backed off back off
o Abrasive formations
o Crooked pipe
o Deviated hole
Near center of tube body, spreading
OD Wear o High rotary speeds
towards ends
o Harmonics
o Doglegs
o Horizontal drilling
o High velocity abrasion
o Sharp sand
ID Wear Near upset areas
o Drilling fluid turbulence
o Corrosion
o Bending in slips (setting tool joint
too high above slips)
o Improper tong line geometry
o Not using back-up tongs
o Poor transport handling
o Dropping pipe on racks
o Critical harmonics rotary speed
o Slip Area o Picking up pipe with winch line in
Crooked Pipe
o Center third of pipe body center
o Improper drill collar weight
o Harmonics
o Bent for fishing operation
o Deviated hole
o Horizontal drilling
o Pipe run in compression
o Dropped pipe
o Tongs placed on pipe body
o Worn tool joints
Tong Cuts Near pin and box end upsets o Short tong space on tool joints
o Improper tong jaws
o Poor handling
o Excessive spinning
Chain Cuts Just above pin end upsets
o Chain slip
o Corrosion
o Erosion
Approximately 3’ above pin end tool
Rubber Cuts o Casing protector
joint
o Poor mud drain
o Cleaning at protector end
Hammer o Tapping pipe to check fluid level
Tube body near tool joints
Dents on trip out of hole

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 30
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Damage Typical Location Probable Causes
o Damaged or leaking shoulder
(face) seals
o Incorrect make-up torque
o Galled threads producing
excessive shoulder stand-off
o Shoulder fins rolled between seals
Washout/Dry o High spots on shoulder (false
o Shoulders
or Muddy make-up torque)
o Threads
Connections o Excessive shoulder removal by
refacing
o Stretched pin threads
o Dirty threads and shoulders
o Miss-stabbing connection
o Improper jacking of stands in set-
back area
o Incorrect lubrication on shoulders
Shoulder o Incorrect make-up torque
Shoulder Area
Gall o Shoulder fins rolled between seals
o High spots on shoulder
Shoulder o Mating tools with different ODs
Shoulder Area
Fins o Handling damage
o Miss-stabbing connections
Shoulder o Handling damage
Shoulder Area
Damage o Spinning chain between shoulders
o Improper pipe jacking
o Handling without thread protectors
o Cross threading
Galled o Worn threads
Threaded Area
Threads o Improper thread compound
o Dirty connection
o Defective kelly saver sub
o Improper make-up torque
o Additional down-hole make-up
Pin Break torque
Threaded Area
(Cut) o Improper thread compound
producing excessive make-up
stress
o Pin wobble failure due to improper
make-up torque
Pin Break o Shoulder fins
(Flat Threaded Area o False torque
Fracture) o Fatigue cracking at last engaged
thread root 5/8: from shoulder
o Galled threads

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 31
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Damage Typical Location Probable Causes
o Improper make-up torque
o Additional down-hole make-up
Pin Stretch Threaded Area
torque
o Improper thread lubricant
o Crooked pipe
o High rotary speeds
o Abrasive formation
o Doglegs
OD wear Box and Pin OD
o Deviated hole
o Horizontal drilling
o Rotation of pipe in compression
o Harmonics
o Improper make-up torque
o Additional down-hole make-up
Box Bell Shoulder Area torque
o Thin tool joints
o Improper thread compound
o Rapid heating and cooling due to
friction between tool joint and
formation, casing, whipstock, etc.
Heat Check Box and Pin OD o High rotary speeds with rapid
cooling
o Use of top drive while rotating out
of the hole

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 32
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Exercise: Drill Pipe Damage

Using the Drill Pipe Damage Chart from the previous section and the information discussed
at the beginning of the chapter to name the defect and probable cause.
1.

2.

3.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 33
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Using the Drill Pipe Damage Chart from the previous section and the information discussed
at the beginning of the chapter to name the defect and probable cause.
4.

5.

6.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 34
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Using the Drill Pipe Damage Chart from the previous section and the information discussed
at the beginning of the chapter to name the defect and probable cause.
7.

8.

9.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 35
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Answer the following questions based on information from the Inspection Methods section.

1. What inspection processes are performed on drill pipe?

2. Briefly explain ultrasonic inspection and where it is used.

3. Explain liquid penetrant inspection methods and name two components that require this
inspection method.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 36
Chapter 5 – Failure Mechanisms
Drill String Design
CHAPTER 6
DRILL STRING DESIGN

Module At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


Objective o Complete the calculations required to design a drill string
o Identify the information the customer needs to provide in
order to design a drill string
o Complete the calculations to determine the number of drill
collars needed in the BHA
o Complete the calculations to determine the amount of drill
pipe needed in the drill string
o Perform the calculations to verify the previous calculations
were correct
o Identify troubleshooting methods for common drill string
problems

Topics
Well Information
BHA Information
Drill Pipe Information
Verification
Troubleshooting
Exercise: Drill String Design

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 1
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 2
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Drill String Design

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 3
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Well Information

Overview

There several processes used to design a drill string. Customer input will
alter the process; changes in the method result from hole complexity, angle,
and geometry. The chapter discusses the recommended order to follow for
vertical wells. This section will cover well information including: gathering
customer information, determining hole configuration, and fishing
contingencies.

The remainder of the sections will cover how BHA information is


calculated: total weight of drill collars and BHA, and total length of the drill
collars. Next, the drill pipe information is collected. Then the verification
process is covered, including overpull, maximum drill pipe length, and
comparing the results to well data. Finally, troubleshooting methods,
including reconfiguring the BHA and substituting different grades, weights,
or size of drill pipe and recalculation.

Gather The customer provides information to design a drill string, including the
Customer total depth of the well, the hole size, and the number of drill collars or the
Information weight on bit (WOB). Occasionally, the customer will request what they
need to drill the well. For example, they want a certain number of drill
collars sent to the site or the WOB should be a certain amount.

Determine Hole The information the customer provides will help determine the size of the
Configuration equipment to be run downhole. This equipment includes the bit, drill collars,
and drill pipe. The customer may provide the bit themselves, or will
determine the type necessary. The remainder of the BHA components are
determined by hole size compatibility and availability.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 4
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Example A customer requests a drill string design. They need the depth of the well to
be 5,000 ft, and the plan is to drill out 7" 32# casing with their own bit. The
information to find the correct sizes is found on a chart called Hole
Configuration, located on page 5 in the appendix.

What bit size is needed to drill through 7" 32# casing? ________

Fishing for The equipment must be able to fit in the hole, it is important
Equipment to match up the hole configuration with the right equipment
so in the event of an unforeseen fishing job, the equipment
can be easily removed from the well.

Items stuck in the well are removed with a component


called an overshot. An overshot is a tool with a specially
designed barrel and internal gripping teeth that can be
slipped over the end of tubing or drill pipe lost downhole.

Well bore or bit size is the determining factor in choosing


the correct size overshot. Fishing experts recommend the
largest OD overshot be used in most circumstances. The OD
of the choice overshot should be as large as possible, yet
will not exceed casing drift diameter. Hole conditions must
also be taken into consideration.

Overshot

" Never put a tool into the customer’s well that cannot be fished out of the
well with an overshot, preferably a full strength model.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 5
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Example The Hole Configuration Chart, on page 5 in the Appendix, will help
determine the correct overshot size. The chart shows the universal Bowen
component numbers.

Use the information from the previous example to answer the following
questions.

What is the OD of the overshot needed for this job? ________

What is the maximum OD of a component that can be fished? ________

Recap The customer information gathered has identified the correct bit size, drill
collar and pipe. These components all fit the well, and if necessary, they can
be fished out.

In the next section, the BHA information and calculations will be covered.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 6
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
BHA Information

Introduction This part of the process requires


calculating information about the
BHA. The weight and length of the
BHA is needed for future
calculations and verifications. Keep
the entire drill string in mind when
choosing your BHA components.
These decisions will affect future
drill string requirements and
modifications.

The BHA weight will help verify


that the drill string will work within
its specified parameters. Knowing
the length of the BHA will help
calculate the amount of drill pipe
needed and the length of the entire
drill string. To find the weight of the
BHA, we need to know the weight
of a single drill collar.

Drill Collars Drill collars make up the majority of the BHA. Depending on the size drill
collar used, the weight will vary. To find the weight per foot of a drill collar,
first find out the OD and ID of the drill collar. The OD of the drill collar
usually matches the maximum catch of the overshot. The ID of the drill
collar varies. To see all the available IDs, check the Drill Collar Weight Per
Foot chart, on page 6 in the Appendix.

"
If a larger ID is used, the connection in the pin is weakened. A smaller ID
results in a stiffer pin where a failure is more likely to occur. It is best to
pick an ID that is closer to nominal.

In addition, the larger ID would result in a lighter weight, while a smaller ID


results in a heavier weight. Using either extreme can result in a BHA that is
too long or too short, using the average is better.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 7
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Example Based on the information provided previously in this chapter and above,
answer the following questions.

What OD of drill collar that should be used? ________

What is the ID of drill collar that should be used? ________

What is the weight per foot of the ideal drill collar? ________

"
Length of a Drill
Be aware that the drill collar connections will need to match the available
Hevi-Wate or drill pipe connection.

As a general rule, all drill collars are approximately 30 feet long. While this
Collar length can vary, we will assume all drill collars are this length unless
otherwise noted.

Length of BHA The weight of the BHA is calculated by multiplying the number of drill
collars by the length of each drill collar.

# of Drill Collars x Length of Drill Collars = BHA Length

This calculation will help in calculating the weight of the entire BHA.

Example What is the length of the BHA if the customer requests nine drill collars?

Enter the numbers and solve the equation:

________ X ________ = ________

Weight of the The weight of the BHA needs to be calculated. The information we have
BHA collected and calculated will help find this number.

BHA Length x Drill Collar Weight Per Foot = Weight of BHA

Example Using the length of the BHA just calculated determine the weight of the
BHA based on the use of the drill collar weight per foot from the top of this
page.

________ X ________ = ________

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 8
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
"
The previous calculation provides the weight of the BHA in the air. Once
downhole the weight of the BHA will be partially supported by the
circulating mud. Different weight mud will alter the buoyancy factor which
could cause the BHA to have more or less WOB.

Alternate If the customer provides the WOB instead of the stating the number of drill
Calculation: collars needed then you need to calculate the required BHA weight. When
Required BHA performing this calculation, like many others, a margin of safety needs to be
Weight included. In this case it’s to keep the neutral point in the BHA. The safety
margin can be anything over 100%. Typically the safety margin will be
between 115% and 125%. For the purpose of working through the equations
in this chapter the safety margin is 120%.

WOB x 120%=Required BHA Weight

Example If the customer provides WOB information of 10,000 pounds what would
BHA weight need to be?

Enter the numbers and solve the equation:

________ X ________ = ________

"
The last equation used 120% as a safety margin. The neutral point should
remain in the BHA by using this as part of the equation. We want the
neutral point to remain in the BHA because drill collars are stronger than
the remainder of the drill string.

Length of the The length of the BHA can now be calculated using the Required BHA
BHA Weight calculations just completed. The length of the BHA can be found by
dividing the BHA weight by the weight per foot of the drill collar used.

Req.BHA Weight
= BHA Length
DC Weight Per Foot

Example Use the calculations completed previously in this section. The required
BHA weight number from above should be used. For the purpose of this
example, use 50 pounds as the drill collar weight per foot.

Enter the numbers and solve the equation for BHA length:
= _________

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 9
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
"
Drill collars are typically run in stands of three or multiples of three. When
the first equation is complete, it needs to be recalculated for accuracy,
keeping in mind the multiples of three.

The equation just calculated provided a BHA length of __________. Divide


the number by 30 for the number of drill collars.

How many drill collars are needed? ________

Take that number and round up to the next number divisible by three.

We now have 9 drill collars in the BHA. Now multiply the number of drill
collars by the length of each drill collar for the total length of the BHA.

9 X ________ = ________

Multiply the length of the BHA by the pound per feet of the BHA to get the
BHA weight.

________ X 50 = ________

Recalculating It may not be necessary to recalculate the equation. An equation does not
have to be recalculated if the BHA length divided by 30 is divisible by three
or is not a whole number and is rounded up to a number divisible by three.

In order to make things more efficient on most rigs, drill pipe and drill
collars are run in stands—which, in most cases, is three joints.

Recap The last two sections covered information on how to find the weight of a
single drill collar by measuring the OD and finding the nominal ID for the
weight per foot of a drill collar. Then, the total weight of the drill collars
and the BHA were calculated. Next, WOB with a safety factor was
calculated, which helped to find the length of the BHA. Finally, the
equations completed were recalculated for verification.

The next section will cover the drill pipe including the size, length, grade
and weight.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 10
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Drill Pipe Information

Introduction The BHA is only one portion


of the drill string. The
remainder of the drill string is
composed of drill pipe.
Previously the customer
provided us with information
including the depth of the
well. In the last section the
BHA length was calculated. Now, the remainder of the drill string length
will be calculated.

Length of Drill To determine the length of drill pipe needed, subtract the BHA length from
Pipe Needed the total depth of the well.

Target Depth – BHA Length = Length of DP Needed

Example Calculate the length of drill pipe needed by using the BHA length from the
last section. Since the initial number was not divisible by three, be sure to
use 270 feet from the recalculation. The customer has told us their target
depth is 5,000 feet. How much drill pipe is needed?

________ – ________ = ________

Length of a As a general rule, all drill pipe is Range 2 (approximately 31 feet long).
Single Drill Pipe While this length can vary, for the purposes of this section, assume all drill
pipe is this length unless otherwise noted.

Number of Drill Just like calculating the BHA, determining how many joints of drill pipe are
Pipe Needed required can be accomplished since the length of drill pipe needed has been
established. Divide the length of DP required by the length of each joint to
find out the total number of joints needed.

Length Required
=Number of Joints Needed
Joint Length

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 11
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Example Calculate the amount of drill pipe needed based on the previous calculation
and length of a single drill pipe.
= ________

Round this up to a whole number ________.

Weight per Foot The weight per foot of a drill pipe can be found on the Drill Pipe Weight
of Drill Pipe chart in the appendix. Drill pipe weight can vary. The chart requires the OD
and ID of the drill pipe.

Example
Grade E-75 drill pipe has a 3 ½" connection. The API Drill Pipe Data Sheet,
on page 3 of the Appendix, shows a nominal weight per foot of ________.

Recap This section reviewed the drill pipe portion of the drill string. The total
length of the drill pipe section was calculated as well as the number of joints
of drill pipe needed for the drill string to reach the required depth. Finally,
the nominal weight per foot of the drill pipe can be found in a chart in the
appendix.

The next section covers how to verify the drill string design will work.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 12
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Verification

Introduction The customer needs to be


assured the drill string
design will reach the
target depth and be strong
enough to withstand the
weight required. The
longest allowable length
of the drill string needs
to be longer than the
target depth.

Included in the drill pipe


length calculations are
maximum pull and
overpull.

Maximum Pull The maximum pull calculates the weakest point in the string which is also
the greatest amount of weight a joint of drill pipe can take; drill pipe is the
weakest member of any drill string because it has less surface area than a
drill collar.

It is important to know the maximum pull when removing (dragging) the


drill string from the hole. Each pipe is responsible for withstanding the
weight of everything below it. Depending on the grade of drill pipe
(Premium or Class 2) this number will change. The grade used on a job is
dependant on what is available and what is currently on the rig.

Maximum pull is usually referred to as tensile strength (tension) and can be


found on the API Drill Pipe Data Sheet in the Appendix.

Example What is the maximum pull of Class 2 G-105 drill pipe with a 3 ½"
connection and has a nominal weight of 13.30? ________

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 13
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Overpull Overpull is sometimes known as the safety factor. It is the excess tensile
capacity above the normal working capacity for contingencies such as hole
drag and stuck pipe.

The selection of the proper overpull is of critical importance. Failure to


provide an adequate safety factor can result in loss or damage to the drill
pipe, while an overly conservative choice will result in an unnecessarily
heavy and more expensive drill string. The actual calculation of overpull is
beyond the scope of this class.

Overpull is an amount determined by the company man or is atypical to


specific area. In crooked hole country 100,000 is commonly used. In less
severe drilling areas 50,000 to 75,000 is common.

" The maximum drill pipe length is calculated for justification of drill pipe
length. The drill pipe chosen for use in a drill string is based on the OD and
what is available. It is necessary to find out what is available before doing
this calculation.

Maximum Drill This calculation will help determine if the drill string will work within the
Pipe Length customer’s well parameters. To calculate the maximum drill pipe length
subtract the BHA weight from the maximum pull, then subtract the margin
of overpull from that number. Divide the final number by the weight per
foot of the drill pipe.

MaxPull-BHA Weight-Overpull
=Max DP Length
DP Weight Per Foot

Example If the company states to use an overpull of 75,000, the BHA weight is
13,500 pounds and the maximum pull from the last example is used what is
the maximum drill pipe length?

− −
= _________
Compare the answer calculated here to page 11 in this chapter. Is the
number larger or smaller? What does this tell you?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 14
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Compare When the calculation is complete compare the number to the length of drill
Results to Well pipe needed. The value calculated for the maximum drill pipe length must
Data be larger than the value calculated for the length of the drill pipe determined
previously. If this is true the design of the drill string was successful. If this
is not true, it is time do to some troubleshooting.

For example, if the maximum drill pipe length calculated is 20,000 feet and
the calculated length of drill pipe needed is 10,000 the maximum amount of
weight (as determined by length) the string can hold is acceptable within the
depth of the well. Now it can be determined that the drill pipe(and
consequently, the drill string) is likely to be strong enough all the way to the
target depth. The equipment chosen would be an acceptable choice in this
situation.

Recap This section covered the maximum pull and overpull associated with
performing the calculations for verification. Using these figures we
calculated the maximum drill pipe length.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 15
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Troubleshooting

Introduction When the verification of drill pipe doesn’t provide sufficient strength it is
necessary to troubleshoot. There are many troubleshooting techniques;
strictly speaking there isn’t a particular method to begin with. There are
proven methods that may help make a minor change instead of changing the
entire drill string. The two methods recommended for novices are to
reconfigure the BHA or substitute different drill pipe.

Quick Fixes Drill String Length


If the drill string doesn’t provide enough length
but has enough weight, substitute Hevi-Wate drill
pipe for the drill collars. This will help when the
drill string is not long enough, but allows the
WOB to remain the same.

BHA Weight
If the drill string reaches the required depth but is
too heavy, recalculate the BHA accounting for
bouyancy. Throughout this chapter the BHA
weights calculated have assumed the BHA weight
in the air. In reality the string will be downhole
and in fluid which lessens the effect of the weight
of the compoenents—this is called buoyancy. The
Change the BHA Length buoyancy of a drill string is affected by the mud
weight. A chart located in the Appendix shows the
buoyancy factor as it is related to the mud weight.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 16
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
"
Make Change
Buoyancy is the weight of the drill string while it is being supported by the
mud downhole.

If these quick fixes don’t provide a solution, it’s time to recalculate the drill
pipe grade, weight, or size. There may be other types of drill pipe available.
For example, if a stronger string is necessary, then increase to a stronger
grade of drill pipe. Then there is more weight and available maximum pull.

Advanced If the drill string is not strong enough to support the BHA and drill pipe to
Troubleshooting the target depth, it may be necessary to use multiple grades, weights, and/or
classes of pipe. This could be due to a depleted or sporadic inventory or
target depth.

It’s important to calculate the strength of a multi-types (grade, weight, class,


etc.) of pipe to ensure it works within the customers requirements. To
optimize the performance of a drill string with two different types of pipe,
first subtract the maximum pull of the weaker pipe from the maximum pull
of the stronger pipe. Then, divide that number by the average weight of the
stronger pipe. This will provide the minimum length of the stronger pipe,
which will be run above the weaker pipe.

MP#1-MP#2
= Minimum Length of Stronger Pipe
Avg. Wt. of MP#1

In the next step, subtract the BHA length from the target depth, then
subtract the answer from the first step. This will provide the length of the
weaker pipe needed.

Target Depth - BHA Length - Min. Length of MP#1 = Required MP#2

Once both of the numbers have been calcuated, compare them. If the
required amount of weaker drill pipe (MP#2) is less than the previously
calculated maximum drill pipe length, the drill string will provide the
optimum drill string performance.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 17
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Exercise: Drill String Design

Well information has been provided for three locations. Answer the questions for each well
following the steps covered in this chapter. Verify your answers.
1.
Target Depth 10,000 feet
Hole Size 6 ¼"
Drill Collars Twenty-One 4 ¾" OD x 2" ID
Drill Pipe 3 ½" 13.30 G-105 Premium
Overpull 100,000 pounds

What bit size is needed?

What is the OD of the overshot needed for this job?

What is the weight per foot of the drill collar?

What is the BHA length?

What is the BHA weight?

What is the length of drill pipe needed?

Calculate the maximum drill pipe length.

Will this drill string work within the parameters provided?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 18
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Use this area to work the problem

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 19
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
2.
Target Depth 17,000 feet
Hole Size 6 ½"
Drill Collars 4 ¾" OD x 2" ID 50#/ft
Overpull 100,000 pounds
WOB 24,000 pounds

What bit size is needed?

What is the OD of the overshot needed for this job?

What connections are typically found on the described


drill collar?

What is the size, grade, weight, and connection size


needed for the drill pipe string?

What weight does the target BHA need to be to provide


sufficient WOB?

What is the length of the BHA that provides sufficient


WOB?

How many drill collars are required?

What is the adjusted weight of the BHA, rounded up?

What is the length of drill pipe needed?

What size, grade, and weight of drill pipe have you


chosen?

Calculate the maximum drill pipe length for your string


design.

Will the drill string work within the parameters


provided?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 20
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Use this area to work the problem

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 21
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
3.
Target Depth 12,000 feet
Hole Size 6 ½"
Drill Collars 4 ¾" OD x 2" 50#/ft
Hevi-Wate
Drill Pipe 3 ½" 13.30 G-105 Premium 3 ½
IF
Mud Weight
Overpull 100,000 pounds
WOB 24,000 pounds

What bit size is needed?

What is the OD of the overshot needed for this job?

What is the maximum OD of a component that can be


fished?

Calculate the target BHA weight.

What is the BHA length?

What is the actual BHA weight?

What is the length of drill pipe needed?

What is the maximum pull of the drill pipe used in this


exercise?

Will the drill string work within the parameters provided?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 22
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Use this area to work the problem

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 23
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
4.
Target Depth 17,000 feet
Hole Size 7 ⅞"
Drill Collars 6 ¼" OD x 2 ¾" ID 84#/ft
Overpull 75,000 pounds
WOB 30,000 pounds

What bit size is needed?

What is the OD of the overshot needed for this job?

What is the maximum catch?

What is the adjusted BHA weight and length?

What is the length of drill pipe needed?

Identify the best choice for drill pipe by size, weight, grade
and class.

What is the maximum pull of the drill pipe used in this


exercise?

Calculate the maximum pipe length.

Will the drill string work within the parameters provided?

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 24
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Use this area to work the problem

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 25
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
EXTRA CREDIT:

Target Depth 22,000 feet


Hole Size 6 ⅛"
Overpull 100,000 pounds
WOB 25,000 pounds

What bit size is needed?

What is the OD of the overshot needed for this job?

What is the maximum catch?

What is the adjusted BHA weight and length?

What is the length of drill pipe needed?

Identify the best choice for drill pipe by size, weight,


grade and class.

What is the maximum pull of the drill pipe used in this


design?

Calculate the maximum pipe length.

Will the drill string work within the parameters


provided?

List the items in your proposed string.

Hint: Try to use a split string using two weights and sizes of drill pipe.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 26
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Use this area to work the problem

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 27
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Use this area to work the problem

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 27
Chapter 6 – Drill String Design
Appendix
CHAPTER 7
APPENDIX

Topics
API Drill Pipe Data Sheet
Hole Configuration
Drill Collar Weight per Foot
Hevi-Wate Drill Pipe
Buoyancy Factor

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 1
Chapter 7– Appendix
©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 2
Chapter 7– Appendix
API Drill Pipe Data Sheet

Approx. Min. Typical


Nominal Nominal Premium Class 2
Weight Grade Yield Connection
Size Weight Max Pull Max Pull
lb/ft Strength Size

2 ⅞" 10.40 OH
10.59 E-75 75,000 166,535 143,557
11.09 X-95 95,000 210,945 181,839
11.09 G-105 105,000 233,149 200,980
11.55 S-135 135,000 299,764 258,403

3 ½" 13.30 NC38(IF)


13.93 E-75 75,000 212,150 183,398
14.62 X-95 95,000 268,723 232,304
14.71 G-105 105,000 297,010 256,757
14.92 S-135 135,000 381,870 330,116

3 ½" 15.50 NC38(IF)


16.54 E-75 75,000 250,620 215,967
16.82 X-95 95,000 317,452 273,558
17.03 G-105 105,000 350,868 302,354
17.57 S-135 135,000 451,115 388,741

4" 14.00 NC40(FH)


15.04 E-75 75,000 224,182 194,363
15.34 X-95 95,000 283,963 246,193
15.91 G-105 105,000 313,854 272,108
16.19 S-135 135,000 403,527 349,853

4 ½" 16.60 NC46(XH)


18.37 E-75 75,000 260,165 225,771
18.79 X-95 95,000 329,542 285,977
18.79 G-105 105,000 364,231 316,080
19.00 S-135 135,000 468,297 406,388

4 ½" 20.00 NC46(XH)


22.09 E-75 75,000 322,916 279,502
22.67 X-95 95,000 409,026 354,035
22.86 G-105 105,000 452,082 391,302
23.03 S-135 135,000 581,248 503,103

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 3
Chapter 7– Appendix
5" 19.50 NC50(XH)
20.85 E-75 75,000 311,535 270,432
21.45 X-95 95,000 394,612 342,548
21.93 G-105 105,000 436,150 378,605
22.61 S-135 135,000 560,764 486,778

5" 25.60 NC50(XH)


26.85 E-75 75,000 414,690 358,731
27.87 X-95 95,000 525,274 454,392
28.32 G-105 105,000 580,566 502,223
29.43 S-135 135,000 746,443 645,715

Information is from API RP7G Table 8 and Table 26. This is a guideline only, actual API
documents should be referred to for actual dimensions.

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 4
Chapter 7– Appendix
Hole Configuration

Drill Collars
API Casing Size Drill Pipe Recommended in
Overshot Recommended for Fishing Recommended in
& WT Bit Size Casing
Cased/Open Hole
in lbs OD Max Catch No. Grapple Type Min OD Max OD DP Size TJ OD
9.5/11.6 3 7/8 3 3/4 3 1/16 37585 37590 SH 2 7/8 3 1/16 2 7/8 PAC 3 1/8
4 1/2 13.5 3 3/4 3 3/4 3 1/16 37585 37590 SH 2 7/8 3 1/16 2 7/8 PAC 3 1/8
15.1 3 5/8 3 3/8 2 1/2 C4623 B5091 SH 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/8 WFJ 2 1/2
11.50-15 4 1/4 4 1/8 3 1/8 8220 1741 FS 3 3 1/8 2 7/8 PAC 3 1/8
5 18 4 1/8 3 7/8 3 1/8 C1835 B1837 SH 3 3 1/8 2 7/8 PAC 3 1/8
29.3-24.2 4- 3 7/8 3 3/4 3 1/6 37585 37590 SH 2 7/8 3 1/16 2 7/8 PAC 3 1/8
13-17 4 3/4 4 11/16 3- 2 1/32 9109 6662 FS 3 1/4 3 1/2 2 7/8 RFO 3 7/8
13-17 4 3/4 4 11/16 3- 2 1/32 9109 6662 FS 3 1/4 3 1/2 2 3/8 IF 3 1/2
20 4 5/8 4 9/16 3- 2 1/32 C5151 B4339 SH 3 1/4 3 1/2 2 7/8 PAC 3 1/8
5 1/2
20 4 5/8 4 9/16 3- 2 1/32 C5151 B4339 SH 3 1/4 3 1/2 2 7/8 RFO 3 7/8
23-26 4 1/2 4 3/8 3 3/8 9635 4195 FS 3 3 1/4 2 3/8 IF 3 3/8
23-26 4 1/2 4 3/8 3 3/8 9635 4195 FS 3 3 1/4 2 7/8 PAC 3 1/8
32 5 3/8 5 1/8 4 1/4 4716 4674 SH 3 1/2 4 1/8 2 7/8 RFO 3 7/8
6 5/8 32 5 3/8 5 1/8 4 1/4 4716 4674 SH 3 1/2 4 1/8 2 7/8 IF 4 1/8
32 5 3/8 5 1/8 4 1/4 4716 4674 SH 3 1/2 4 1/8 4 1/8
17-23-26 5 3/8 5 3/4 4 3/4 8975 6112 FS 4 4/7 4 3/4 3 1/2 IF 4 3/4
17-23-26 6 1/4- 6 1/8 5 7/8 5 C5171 B4369 SH 4 9/16 5 3 1/2 IF 4 3/4- 4 7/8
7 29-32 6 5 3/4 4 3/4 8975 6112 FS 4 9/16 4 3/4 3 1/2 IF 4 3/4
35 5 7/8 5 3/4 4 3/4 8975 6112 FS 4 1/4 4 1/2 3 1/2 IF 4 3/4
38 5 3/4 5 9/16 4 1/4 5896 165 FS 4 1/8 4 1/4 2 7/8 IF 4 1/8
20-33.7 6 3/4- 6 5/8 6 3/8 5 1/4 6655 4498 SH 4 9/16 5 1/4 3 1/2 IF 4 3/4- 4/78
7 5/8 20-33.7 6 3/4- 6 5/8 6 3/8 5 1/4 6655 4498 SH 4 9/16 5 1/4 4 FH 5 1/4
39 6 1/2- 6 3/8 5 7/8 5 C5171 B4369 SH 4 9/16 5 3 1/2 IF 4 3/4- 4 7/8
24-40 7 7/8- 7 5/8 7 3/8 6 1/4 9692 9687 SH 6 6 1/4 4 1/2 XH 6 1/4
8 5/8
44-49 7 1/2- 7 3/8 7 1/8 6 C5196 B5201 SH 5 1/2 6 4 FH 5 1/4
29.3-36 8 3/4 8 1/8 7 9217 9222 FS 6 7 4 1/2 XH, 5 XH 6 1/2- 6 5/8
40-43.5 8 5/8 8 1/8 7 9217 9222 FS 6 7 4 1/2 XH, 5 XH 6 1/2- 6 5/8
9 5/8
47 8 1/2 8 1/8 7 9217 9222 FS 6 7 4 1/2 XH, 5 XH 6 1/2- 6 5/8
53.5 8 3/8 8 1/8 7 9217 9222 FS 6 7 4 1/2 XH, 5 XH 6 1/2- 6 5/8

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 5
Chapter 7– Appendix
Drill Collar Weight per Foot

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 6
Chapter 7– Appendix
Hevi-Wate Drill Pipe

Tool Joint Approx. Weight


Mechanical [Including Tube
Makeup
Nominal Properties & Joints(lb)]
Connection OD ID Torque
Size Tensile Torsional
Size (in.) (in.) (in.) (ft/lb)
Yield Yield Wt/ft Wt/Jt
(lb) (ft/lb)
NC 38
3 ½" 4¾ 2⅜ 675,045 17,575 23.4 721 10,000
(3 ½ IF)
NC 40 2
4" 5¼ 711,475 23,525 29.9 920 13,300
(4 FH) 11/16
NC 46
4 ½" 6¼ 2⅞ 1,024,500 38,800 41.1 1,265 21,800
(4 IF)
NC 50
5" 6⅝ 3 1/16 1,266,000 51,375 50.1 1,543 29,200
(4 ½ IF)
5 ½" 5 ½ FH 7 3½ 1,349,365 53,080 57.8 1,770 32,800
6 ⅝" 6 5/8 FH 8 4⅝ 1,490,495 73,215 71.3 2,193 45,800

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 7
Chapter 7– Appendix
Buoyancy Factor

Mud Weight Buoyancy Mud Weight Buoyancy


Factor Factor
8.4 .872 12.6 .807
8.6 .869 12.8 .804
8.8 .866 13.0 .801
9.0 .862 13.2 .798
9.2 .859 13.4 .795
9.4 .856 13.6 .792
9.6 .853 13.8 .789
9.8 .850 14.0 .786
10.0 .847 14.5 .778
10.2 .844 15.0 .771
10.4 .841 15.5 .763
10.6 .838 16.0 .756
10.8 .835 16.5 .748
11.0 .832 17.0 .740
11.2 .829 17.5 .733
11.4 .826 18.0 .725
11.6 .823 18.5 .717
11.8 .820 19.0 .710
12.0 .817 19.5 .702
12.2 .814 20.0 .694
12.4 .811

©2008 SMITH International, Inc. BHA & Drill String Fundamentals Page 8
Chapter 7– Appendix

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