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- cahiers techniques _ 2 MERLIN GERIN Sac inermation ‘cule acer MC eb sr. oo giere february 1988 Ce MERLIN GERI : ‘These technical papers are a collection of documents intended for people In the: industry whe are looking for information in greater depth in o%der to complement ‘that given in technicat Specifications and catalogues. Certain papers go beyond the Information stage and constituts practioal training tools for executives and technicians in the industry and for trainee engineers. They contain data giving a beiter understanding of the technical and economic problems presented by electrotechnical equipment, by industriaé electronics and by electricity transmission and cistriaution. A ful list of the technical papors produced can be obtained on application from: MERLIN GERIN Service information 38050 GRENOBLE CEDEX Reproduction of this article Is not allowed without MG's authorization and mention of: "'cabiers techniques Merlin Gerin n°..." protection of electrical distribution networks by the logic selectivity system Roland Caivas Frangois Sautriau ‘summary Alter a brief review of the conventional processes for selective tripping (overour- rent and time lag), the principle of the Logie Selectivity System (patented by Merfin Gerin) is described. The Logie Selectivity relays Vigirack, mounted in Vigirack type 4 racks, are then presented; they benefit from the experience which has been acquired since the commerciatisation of the SSL relays in 1969. A description of certain of their applications to the most conventional types of distribution networks is given, illustrating the advantages of this protection system. anions techniques Merlin Garin 0° 2.1 introduction I! fault cocurs at any pointiin an elec: trical distribution circuit, tis essential that it does not interrupt the supply to all the workshops or olfices of that net work. This obvious requirement leads to the necessity of rapidly isolating tho detective section without depriving the other users of electrical anergy; this is In fact the principle of selective tripping. ‘The protecting element (circuil-breaker ‘or fuses) which is placed immediately upstream from the part of the circust where the fault hes occurred, and this alone element, must then operate; the ‘other protecting eiements must not trp. Conventional “selectivity processes (overcurrent and time iag) fulft these Tequirements to a more or less salis- factory degree. The Logic Selectivity System (Merlin Gesin. patent) makes it possible to altain a total selectivity between all sta: ‘ges of an electrical distribution network from high 10 iow voltages. it aiso allows, the fauit to be eliminated very rapidly and independent of the place where the fault occurred. ccanlers tecrniqase Matin Garin 2219.2 conventional selectivity processes and their limitations » overcurrent selectivity ‘This makes use of protective equip- mont oporating instantaneously {rapid Circuit-breakers or fuses) ‘The selectivity is based on the fact that the short circult curtent decreases with Increasing distance from the source. It Is thus used especially for low voltages: \where the connecting impedances are not neatigivie If leis the current setting for instante neous tripping and lee is the short. clreuit cyrant which is established at the point of departure 8, down-stieam from the protection equipment, solectivity is total Ilrof A > Ico al B selectivity fs partial ilrof A < lec at B | A © leo} oe Wa Figure 1 tec (Al In fact, for any fault current occurring at the point of departure B, and having a valuo between ir (A) and toc (B), the {two circuit-breakers A and B will cpen Thus overcurtont selectivity, more or loss partial according to the position of the fauit, only rarely guarantees a Selective tripping. Its main advantage Is ts ‘ow cost which justifies its use in simple installations, time lag selectivity This can provide complete selectivity by delaying the tripping of each circuit. breaker for durations at the higher a5 ‘the circult-broaker s nearer the source of energy. fn the example of Figure 2, the circuit. breakers D, are not delayed ; ciroult breakers D, are delayed for'0.3 sec, D, for 0.6 sac, and D, ‘or 0.9 sec. ‘An unwanted consoquonce of these variable delays is that a fault in Awill nly be eliminated by D, in 08 soc. Furthermors, the time for eliminating the fault becomes too long when it occurs close to the source, and an incompatibility can arise between the selectivity and the shorler dalay (0.2 sec at 20 k¥) which the distribu tor allows for the suppiy circuit breaker, ‘These excessive delays have the disadvantage of necessitating a ther- mal oversizing of the cables and especially of increasing considerably the dangers of damage cue to are pro- pagation from the point of the fault. logic selectivity ‘As we have just seen, overcurrent and timed selectivities have their weak points, Electricians have learnt how to five with them, often ai the expense: oF the selectivity itseit. The Logic Selectivity System has been developed with the aim of cor recting these disadvantages; it makes it possible to obtain a pertect tripping selectivity, and also to reduce const derably the delay in tipping the circuil-breakers closest to the source (0) 808 biography, | | , Figure 2 the principle of the logic selectivity system (SSL) Let us take the example ofa radial is tflbution (Figure 9, For simplification, conly a single departure point per stage is considered, To each circuit.breaie ts associated a “logic relay” (CAHL} recelving fault information from ite detectors (CT. rings) and emitting tripping and logie wait signals. ‘Any selay affected by a fault will sond: @ 4 logic wait signal (LYS) to the up- ‘Stream stage (an order te increase the Uup-siream relay's own time-iag). Ba ‘ripping signal to the circult- Breaker to which it Is associated, Unless it has itsoll recoived a logie wait signal from the down-stream stage In the example shown in Figure 3, when a fault appears in A, the (n) relays are cach Informed of this faul ‘he logic relay 1/sends a signat LWS tologie rolay 2, and a tipping signal to the ciroult breaker Dt. The relay GAHL2 places logic relay 3 momen: tasliy In a waiting position, eto, the (ret) GAHL tranemitting @ signal LWS to Jogic relay in), right up to the supply source unless that, beyond a certain point, the fault current becomes lower than the thresholds settings (overcur- rent selectivity). The circuil-breaker D, opens after a time 1D, = Ti +t T] is the logic relay t's own delay period {1s the circuit-bresker D,'s own ope- ning time (including the time of the atc). if the fault appears in B, the CAHL 1 and 0 1 are not affected anc CAHL 2 does not receive the signal AL, then the fault will be eliminated in a time TO, = Th +t Th same reasoning can be applied to any of the eircuit-broakers in & distri. bution network. The fauit at stage“ ted in a tire TD, = Tht ty Ul be elimina 2 S20 btlloaraoh, logic relay Ne logic rata Figure 3 ‘comers tecnniques Metin Gen 248.9 ean thus be seen that, with the Logie Solectivity Systom, tho time necessary for eliminating faults can be very shor, ‘and especially as this time is indepen: {ont of the number of stages; even bet ter, generally speaking, ine further one {goes ftom the receivers, the shorter the limotag T"%6; this means that TD,'s often iass than TD, Remarks concerning the Logic walt function (see figs 4and 5). The wait time is not @ locking opera. tion, itis an increase 3 tin the tims lag (1) of the upstream relay. it comes into pigy a8 soon as the fauit ‘eppears and only lasts as long as is nocossary for the circuit-breaker of the stage considered to eliminat tho fauit, te. Atl atecatap ‘The wail can in no case last too ‘ona, nor permanently block ihe up-streain foiay; the reasons for this are athe presence of 73 (having the function of suppressing ihe time:tag) a the wait signal ceases if T, fail, thanks to the function T2 (a limited diay function), ain the case of a power cut or of a Shortelrou't or of the earthing of the “pilot conductor” al delay times (4%) ate teduced {o 2670. In this case, the Salaotivity between the tio stages Gisapnears, But selective protection ks still assured over the rest of the Instatlation ‘The vigirack type 4 rack» (overcurrent, zero phase sequence fogie) ‘This is a rack for inditect relays desi ‘ghedi to protect high, medium and low Voltage, 50/60 Hz circults against the following faults: ‘current surges (short-circuits} 1 earth faults (appearence of a zero phase-sequence current). The modu: far design of this relay (@ rack with plug-in relay PCB'S) makes i possibie to obtain several variants: With overcurrent and logic PCB'S waich does not possess the zero phase-sequence function, so its use Is mainly reserved for networks with an isolated neutral (9 see bistogranny ‘ostcalien BE Teo a ceahiors techniques Marin Geri a? 2¢0.4 ‘Schematic of the Vigirack type 4 rack Figure 4 togle wait signat ‘ont to up-staam relay logic watt signat Sent by 2 downstream relay Graphical representation of intervention of different time relay. moment of occurrence of fault duration of tage 7 walt goat a time delay i tipping time required 7 for slminating fault sotual duration of togie wait [~ 7 Imposed on up-streamn relay Figure & With zero phase-sequence and logic PCB's which does not possess the overcur- rent function 80 its most commun pplication for zero phase-sequence Tongitudina’ protection. ‘With an overcurrent PCB alone or grou- ped with a zero phase-sequence PCB which oan receive @ logic wait signal fbut cannot send one out and will in most cases be placed at the head of the instatition. With overcurrent, zero phase-sequence and logie PCE’S which provide protection against over- currents (Short-citcuits) earth faults and carey out logie selectivity. ‘Some interesting characteristics 1 testing: possibilty of testing for a phase or an earth fault with and without sending of a trip signal; 1 cifferentiatsd signalling for phase ‘and earth faults with memorizing: ‘= supply source which can be diffe- zent for tha Logie wait function and for the relay itself because of the galvanic ‘solation between the two racks (inked functionally by the “logic” wire, often calle "pilot? wire) This characteristic gives great flexibility in uso; imesiag (Ty: two reversing con tacts available; instantaneous: one working contact available. 1m inputs: zero impedance for inputs connected to the CT's; antinarmonic filters; a supplementary input point, making it Possible to take into account iagioally any “fault” data sent by another ro- testing relay; taking into account of any zero: sequence fault data on the common phase of the $.CT’s or by sings, m “pllot wire”: if in a single unit the CAHL relays are supplied by the same auxillary source, itis possible for the pilot wito to have only a single con: ductor Instead of two. Vigirack type 4, relay Gras ia "ut" position ccamers techniques Marin Genin n®2ip.5 use of the logic selectivity protection ‘The logic selectivity protection can be employed on distribution networks of any structure and bath for high volta ‘ge and the mais tow-voltags outputs. Network operating in “open loops”. Vigirack Antenna type networks: The explanations given in the para- graph entitied "Principle of logic selec. tivity (SSL)” conaspond to this type of rotwork, Open loop networks ‘Aécording to the position of the brea King point, the signals emitted by the Vigirack relays associated fo the toon circuit breakers must be oriented towards one or other of the amivat points. ‘This orientation can be obtained either by the use of single-phase current, directional relays or by employing the auxiliary contacts of the foop circuit. breakers (see Figure 6} tf Closeloop networks. ‘Tha timeag signals must be correctly oriented by directional power relays according to the direction of flow of the ‘energy during the fauit. I the protected ‘etwork has nol an isolated neutral, it Is necessary to use either zero phase: sequence directional relays or Zero phase sequence longhusinal pote *Hons. Vigirack gira vigirack Figuee 6 feanies tennigues Mein Gorin? 28 - auniiary supply advantages of a logic selectivity protection Apart from the selectivity of the protec tion, which is the primary characteris. ‘ig of the system, the speed of tripping makes it possible to reduce the speck. fications relating to the behaviour of the conductors of the equipment and the current transformers, under short- circuit conditions, to values which represent an appreciable saving. ‘The system is very reliable; as we have s0en, it consists in the possiblity of the downstream relay increasing intelli gently the upstream relay’s owe time: lag. Under no circumstances can a tault affect all the protections, The system makes use of course of a time fag selectivity and presenta the big advantage of making it possible 16 obtain non-cumulative tripping times, ‘The system provides a solution to the ‘problem of the solactivity at tripping for 2 whole network, right from the main low-voltage feeders polnts to the high voltage feeders ‘There is only one restriction: the need to have a plot wire connection between the various stages of the protection; this is a minor disadvantage compared to all the advantages which the system provides. ‘The setting-up of this orotoctive systems is fairly simple; it can be applied 10 both experimental and oxisting Instal- lations, and! allows extensions to be made without modifying the clreuit values, Furthermore, since the system is inde- pendent of the number of stages pro- tected, the design of the networks can be based on the real nesds of the user, and not on the demande of the distributor. bibliography: 1) La sélectivite des protections. F. Sautriau, Cahiers Techniques MG, ne 13. (2) Brevet trangais n° 1 424 236. G) Leatlet on Vigirack protection systems BF 11,015 a, anions techniques Matin Garin n*2/8.7 : Roland Calvas. | the personinel and electric: machine: __ protection relay activity. Buring t " ‘period he participated in the develop- graduated from ENSERG in Engineer, 1984 and later trom the LA.E. He star. ted working for MG in 66. He wos Rist in charge of tesching electionies bot ‘within MG and outside as part of 8 ‘phversitySocustey relations ogra ‘Bier having worked in th Weld of sta- ‘le convertors: he ‘became a’sales ‘manager then products’ manager for ‘ment of the “Logic selectivity” tech- nique. He is now quality manage (MG's Terminal Distribution Division. | Francois: Sautriau Engineer, graduated trom the “Ecole ‘Supérieure tElectricite” in 1968. He came fo Merlin Gerin In Mareh 1970. ‘He.was systoms dosigner in the cor __sracting department up to.1976 then “ ehief project engineerin the techni. © eal" branch DRE: (Contracting ‘Denartment). He is at present head of