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2 DETAILED MECHANICAL DESIGN OF FIXED BED REACTOR

SHELL
Internal Diameter 1.04m
Material Of Construction SS316
Working Pressure 6atm
Design Pressure 6.6atm
Working Temperature 159°C
Design Temperature 250°C
Permissible Stress 980 kg/cm^2
Modulus Of Elasticity 19.5*10^5 kg/cm^2

Thickness Of Shell=ts= P*D/2*f*n-P = 5mm

The different types of stresses are to be tested in order to know the total stress on the reactor.
a. Circumferential Stress:
𝑃(𝐷𝑖+𝑡𝑠)
Ft= = 8171 kg/cm^2
2𝑡𝑠

b. Axial Stress:
i) Due to internal pressure

𝑃∗𝐷
F1= 4∗𝑡𝑠 = 4069 kg/cm^2

ii) Due to weight of vessel & contents


𝑊
F2=𝜋𝑡𝑠(𝐷+𝑡𝑠)

Where, W = weight of vessel & contents


W = π× D× H ×ts ×ρ × 1.2 + weight of Catalyst

F2= 265.6 kg/cm^2

iii) Due To Wind Load


0.7 𝑃𝑤(𝐷+𝑡𝑠)𝐻^2
M= 2

Assume, wind pressure = 130 kg/m^2

M= 818630 Kg-m

F3= M/(π*D^2*ts) = 19 kg/cm^2


Total Axial Stress= F1+F2+F3=4353.6 kg/cm^2

c. Due To Offset Piping

It is Assumed to be Approximately 2 Kg/cm^2

Fr=7081 kg/cm^2

HEAD
Type Of Head Torispherical
Internal Diameter 1.04
MOC SS316
Design pressure 66 Kg/cm^2
Permissible stress 980 Kg/cm^2
Thickness Oh Head 5mm

Torishperical heads are connected at top and bottom by means of a flanged joint.
The thickness of the torispherical head is given as
𝑃 𝑅𝑐 𝑊
tn= 2𝐹𝑛
Rc=D

R1= 0.01 *Rc

W= 1.54

Now,

tn= 5mm

FLANGES
Material Stainless Steel
Permissible Stress 980 kg/cm^2
Gasket Material Stainless Steel
Gasket Thickness 10mm
Seating Stress For Stainless Steel 710 kg/cm^2
Gasket Factor 4.25
Bolt Area 238.1cm^2

The flanges are made up of stainless steel.

External diameter is given below.

= 1.0048
Gi=D =1.023m

G0= 1.028m

The effective seating width is


b = 14mm

Under atmospheric conditions bolt load due to gasket reaction is given by:

G=(Go+Gi)*0.5=1.025m

Wm1=Ag*Ya= π b G Ya= 3.2 *10^5 kg

Wm2= 0.27*10^5 kg

The total bolt area is calculated on the basis of the greater load

Ab= Wm1/F= 238.1 cm^2

where, f is the permissible stress in bolt =1344 kg/cm^2

BOLTS
Material Carbon steel IS-Gr 70
Permissible Stress 1150 kg/cm^2
Number Of Bolts 41
Bolt Diameter 18cm

Number of Bolts can be calculated using this formula.

N= Mean Gasket Diamter(in cm)/2.5 = 41

Ab=πd^2*0.25

d=18cm= Bolt Diameter

Pitch Circle Diameter (B) = Go+ 2db + 12 mm= 1.04m

External Flange Diameter (A) = B + 2db= 1.05m


Wm= 3.47*10^6 kg

hg= Radial Distance From Gasket Load Reaction To Basket Circle = 0.5*(B-G)= 7.5mm

Total Hydrostatic End Force= H =π*0.25*G^2*P= 5.45*10^4 Kg

K=1.02

tf=225mm

NOZZLES
The thickness for all nozzles is taken to be thickness of shell
Thus ,

tn= 5mm

Material SS316
Thickness 5mm
The nozzles provided are as follows:

NOZZLE NUMBER SIZE IN mm


Gas Inlet at Bottom 1 150
Gas Outlet at Top 1 150
Manhole 1 200
Temperature Sensor 1 25
Pressure Sensor 1 25
Solid Catalyst Discharge 1 100
Pressure Relief Valve 1 25

= 4.13 mm
Area for the compensation:
Maximum horizontal distance for compensation = 300 mm
Maximum vertical distance for compensation = 7 x 5 = 35 mm
Area to be compensated = Dn × th’= 28 x 4.13= 116 mm2

1) Area available for compensation:


The portion of the head as excess thickness Ah = Dn (th – th’)
Where, th’ = theoretical head thickness required = 25 mm
th = Actual head thickness used =28 mm
Dn = Diameter of nozzle = 200 mm
Ah = 200 x (5 – 4.2) = 160 mm 2
2) Area of compensation provided by the nozzle An = 2 x Ho x (tn - tn’)
Where,
tn = Actual thickness of nozzle used = 5 mm
tn’ = Nozzle thickness required theoretically = 4.4 mm
Ho = 2.5 x 5 = 12.5 mm
An = 15 mm2
Since, Ah + An = 175 mm2 > A
No stiffening ring to be provided.