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WELLHEAD

Jakar ta Drilling School

July 2019
AGENDA
Introduction to Conventional
Surface Wellhead X-mas Trees

Unihead (Compact)
Wellhead
What is a Wellhead ? Geothermal
Wellhead
Offshore Wellhead

Wellhead Component Subsea Wellhead


WELLHEAD FOR WATER WELL

THIS IS ALSO
WELLHEAD MAIN FUNCTIONS

1. Casing/Tubing suspension.
2. Pressure sealing and isolation between casing at surface when
many casing strings are used.
3. Provides a means of attaching a blowout preventer during
drilling. (Video)
4. Provides a means of attaching a Christmas tree for production
operations.
5. Provides a reliable means of well access. (Tubing Head)
6. Provides a mean of attaching a well pump. (Artificial Lift)
7. Provides pressure monitoring and pumping access to annuli
between the different casing/tubing strings (video)
SURFACE WELLHEAD PICTURE
SURFACE WELLHEAD - PLATFORM
SUBSEA WELLHEAD PICTURE
WELLHEAD CLASSIFICATION
ACCORDING TO THE WELL LOCATION:
• Wellhead for land drilling.
• Surface location offshore. – Jack-up, platform (Mudline
Suspension sys.)
• Subsea wellhead.

ACCORDING TO THE WELLHEAD DESIGN:


• Spool Wellhead System
• Unitized Wellhead System
WELLHEAD TYPE
Surface
Wellhead
Offshore
Sub Sea
Wellhead
Wellhead
Conventional
Flange Type
Single
Onshore
Wellhead
Unihead
Wellhead
Split
Wellhead
WELLHEAD CLASSIFICATION
ACCORDING TO WELL TYPES Well Type

Artificial Lift
Flowing Well EOR Geothermal Other Type
Wells

Sucker Rod
Sweet Injection Standard Cavern wells
Pump

Hydraulic Observation
Sour ESP Big Bore
Fracking Wells

PCP Disposal Well

Steam Assisted
Gas Lift
Gravity Drainage

Cycle Steam
Plunger Lift Stimulation,
Other Type

Hydraulic Pump

Velocity String
API Specs are for CUSTOMERS to use
API Specs are for CUSTOMERS to use
COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS
APPLICABLE TO ALL WELLHEADS

Wellhead equipment that meets API Specification 6A (equivalent to


ISO 10423) is available in standard pressure increments:
 13.8 MPa (2000 psi)
 20.7 MPa (3000 psi)
 34.5 MPa (5000 psi)
 69.0 MPa (10,000 psi)
 103.5 MPa (15,000 psi)
 138.0 MPa (20,000 psi)
 207 MPa (30,000 psi)
Material
Class
WELLHEAD PRESSURE RATING
• Maximum Bottom Hole Pressure 
Formation Pressure

• Maximum Surface pressure:


• When full gas column
• Well stimulation
• Surface pressure to activate down hole
tool for well testing or well
completion
• Surface pressure to shear off pins at
Running Tools
• Leak when Pressure test casing or
tubing

• Round up to Wellhead Standard Pressure


Rating
WELLHEAD PRESSURE RATING – Pressure at surface ?

Section-C

Section-B

Section-A

• GG (Gas Gradient) = 0.1 Psi/Ft


Starting
Head • BHP = PPppg x 0.052 x ft-TVD
• Pressure at Surface = BHP - GG
WELLHEAD PRESSURE RATING - Example

120 ft
2300 ft
10K 11 ppg

BHP Gas At Surface


10K Psi 0.1 psi/ft Psi
6200 ft 1316 230 1086 2K
14 ppg
3894 5K
10K
10500 ft 4514 620
5K 15.8 ppg
7577 10K
15.1 ppg 12500 ft
2K
8627 1050
8565 10K
9815 1250
API Material Classes (Trims)
w/ limits for 17-4 SS (0.5 psia) and 410 SS (1.5 psia) stem and hanger mandrels
COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS
APPLICABLE TO ALL WELLHEADS
Standard temperature ratings are defined by an operating range.

 Conventional operations span -60 to 121⁰C in 8 ranges (K, L, P,


R, S, T, U, V).
o K and U are the largest and overlap the other ranges.

 Elevated temperature operations span -18 to 345⁰C in 2 ranges


(X, Y). Y has the highest temperature rating.
Standard temperature ratings, API 6A 19th Edition
COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS
APPLICABLE TO ALL WELLHEADS
Product Service Level (PSL) defines the degree of testing applied to
the wellhead component.

 PSL-1 is the baseline.

 PSL-2, PSL-3, PSL-3G, and PSL-4 include additional and ever


more stringent requirements to confirm component suitability for
challenging operations (e.g. high pressure, elevated
temperature, sour).
Product Service Level (PSL)
Product Service Level (PSL)
Product Service Level (PSL)
Product Service Level (PSL)
Product Service Level (PSL)
Product Service Level (PSL)
WELLHEAD INSTALLATION

Onshore Wellhead

Offshore Wellhead –
Mud Line Suspension Hanger

Offshore Sub Sea Wellhead


What is a Wellhead?
Equipment between the uppermost
X-tree
portion of the surface casing and the
Tubing Head
tubing head adapter connection Adapter

Wellhead

Casing
Cont’d… What is a WELLHEAD?

TUBING HEAD
Tubing Hanger

CASING SPOOL

CASING HANGER

CASING HEAD
BASE PLATE
WELLHEAD Accessories

Lock Down Screws

Annulus space between Gauges, Needle Valves


production casing and
production tubing Body Grease Fittings

Flanged Connections
Test port Fittings
Annulus space between
intermediate and production
casing
Test Port Fittings
Gate Valves / Ball Valves
Bull Plugs
Annulus space between surface
casing and intermediate casing
BASIC COMPONENTS OF A WELLHEAD
Casing Head
Casing Spool Flowing
Casing Hangers Equipment
dua ini
belum
Pack-off Flange Connections
ketemu
materinya Tubing Head Seals
Tubing Hanger
Tubing Head Adaptor back to
main
menu
CASING HEAD

INTRODUCTION
CASING HEAD
The casing head, also referred to as a casing bowl.
 Is the lowest part of the wellhead assembly.
 The bottom of the casing head is configured to attach to the casing
below (typically, the surface casing).
 The upper inside of the casing head provides a bowl in which the
next casing string can be set and sealed (if required).
 The top of the casing head then connects to the next wellhead
component.
 A casing head may also be supplied with a landing base plate that
takes the weight load off the surface casing and spreads it over the
conductor pipe.
 Access to the annulus between the surface casing and the next
casing string is available through side outlets.
Casing Heads Description and Function
Ring Gasket
Flange Groove
Bowl

Lockdown
Screw

Load
Shoulder

Outlet

Threaded
Bottom

Test Port Slip-on Weld


Bottom
Detail Conventional Wellhead Configuration Chart Casing Heads

C-21 C-22
Threaded
Studded Outlet Outlet

C-22-EG C-22-EG C-22-EG


Slip-On Weld Slip-Lock

EG; Elastomer
Groove

Slip-Lock Slip-On Weld


CASING HEAD INSTALLATION
HOW TO SAVE TIME OF CASING HEAD INSTALLATION
CASING HANGER

INTRODUCTION
CASING HANGER FUNCTION

 To suspend the load of the casing string from the casing


head or spool.
 To center the casing in the head.
 To provide a primary seal against the inside of the casing
head and isolate the casing annulus pressure from upper
wellhead components.
CASING HANGER
 Both casing heads and casing spool assemblies may require the use of casing
hangers.
 Casing hangers attach to the end of a given casing string and suspend and
seal the casing string in the top bowl of a casing head or spool.
 Casing hangers come in two main varieties:
 Slip type hangers that are installed around the casing after it is run, either
before or after the casing is cemented into place.
 Slip type casing hangers are used as a contingency when pipe is stuck,
allowing the casing to be cut off and set where it sits.
 Mandrel type hangers that are threaded onto the casing.
 Mandrel type casing hangers provide superior well control when landing
the hanger and improve the annular seal.
Casing Hanger
TUBING HEAD
TUBING HANGER

CASING SPOOL

CASING HANGER

CASING HEAD
BASE PLATE
Surface Wellheads Casing Hangers
Casing Hangers Types

Slip type Mandrel type

Non-automatic Automatic

Energizing method!

Lockdown screws Weight


and/or and/or
Cap screws Tension
Casing Hangers Description and Function
Casing Hangers Description and Function
1 1 Slips

4 2
4 2

3 3

Hinge
Slips
matched Extra Slips

Seal

Latch
Transport
“wedge Load shoulder screw
” shape
Casing Hangers Description and Function
• Suspends the casing load.
• Transfers casing weight.
• Centers casing.
• Seals or packoffs Casing in Top Bowl.
• Creates an annular space.
• Allows for testing of connections.
Casing Hangers Design
Dull teeth
increase friction
back side

Sharp
teeth
Typical Primary Hanger Models

C-21 C-22 C-122 C-29 C-129 C-229

C-22-EG C-29-ET
CASING HANGER INSTALLATION
 Shallow intermediate strings are usually suspended from the hanger and then
cemented to surface.
 Longer intermediate and production strings that are not cemented to surface
are usually cemented while the casing is suspended in tension from the rig
traveling block.
 After the cement has set for a few hours, the traveling block pulls a calculated
tension on the casing above the cement and it is at this point the hanger is set
in the bowl.
 Casing hangers are often called slips or seals as they are designed with built-
in seals.
 Sometimes, we install only a primary seal in shallow depth.
 Lock-down (also called hold-down) screws are used to hold the hanger in
place.
 It may be one piece, two or three pieces ( in larger diameters)
Casing Hangers & Well Pressure Control

barrier
+
barrier

P
barrier
Top Bowl +
barrier

Bottom Bowl

P
CASING SPOOL

INTRODUCTION
CASING SPOOL

TUBING HEAD
Tubing Hanger

CASING SPOOL

CASING HANGER

CASING HEAD
BASE PLATE
CASING SPOOL
 If a well includes one or more intermediate casing strings between
the surface and production casing, the next component required
after the casing head is the casing spool.
 The bottom of the casing spool mounts on top of a casing head or
previous spool, and the top connects to the next spool or tubing
head assembly.
 The spool is designed so the bottom bowl or counter-bore will
allow a secondary seal to be set on the previous casing string,
while the top bowl will hold a casing hanger to suspend and allow
a primary seal around the next string of casing. Multiple casing
spools may be used, one on top of the other, to hang intermediate
casing strings and the final production casing string
CASING SPOOL FUNCTION
1. Allow for a secondary seal on the previous casing string in the
counter-bore.
2. With a secondary seal in place, flange or hub seals and casing hanger
seals are isolated from internal casing pressure.
3. Provide a port for pressure testing primary and secondary casing seals
and flange connections.
4. Provide a platform to support, seal and pressure test the BOP during
drilling and well servicing operations.
5. Provide a load shoulder and controlled bore in the top bowl to
support the next casing hanger and enable a primary seal for the next
intermediate or production casing.
6. Provide annular access for fluid returns or fluid injections and
pressure monitoring, through side outlets drilled in the spool assembly.
CASING SPOOL
Detail Conventional Wellhead Configuration Chart Casing Spools

C-21 C-22 C-122 C-29 C-129 C-229

C-29-EG C-29-ET
SPOOL
EG; Elastomer Externally
Groove Threaded LDS’sc
Casing Spool Features

- Flange
- Top Bowl Casing
- Outlets Spool

- Bottom
Bowl - Flange

- Flange
- Top Bowl Casing
- Outlets Head

- Bottom
- Connection
Casing Spool Features

barrier
+
barrier
P

barrier
+
barrier

1 or 2 Test Ports

P
Common Packoffs and Secondary Seals

Without
bushing RCMS

M2M
Elastomeric

SLICK OD/FS ID 4 FS/S PI Seal SBMS-II


TUBING HEAD

INTRODUCTION
TUBING HEAD

 The tubing head assembly provides a means to suspend and seal the
production tubing in the wellhead.
 The tubing head is the top spool in the wellhead assembly and is
installed after the last casing string is set.
 The bottom of the tubing spool includes a counter bore that can be
used to set a seal against the production casing.
 The top of the tubing head provides a landing shoulder and a seal bore
for landing and enabling a seal to the tubing hanger.
 Above the tubing head is the tubing head adaptor which provides a
transition to the Christmas tree.
TUBING HEAD FUNCTION
1. Enable the suspension of the tubing.
2. Allow for sealing the annulus between the tubing and the production casing. •
Allow access to the annulus between the tubing and production casing, through
side outlets.
3. Provide a means to support and test the service rig BOP during well completions.
4. Provide a bit guide for running the tubing without causing damage to the
production casing.
5. Allow a secondary annulus seal to be set around the top of the production casing.
6. Provide access for a test port to test primary and secondary seals.
7. Ensure safe running and retrieving of tubing hangers in high pressure operations
(e.g., snubbing operations).
8. Allow for correct orientation of equipment to enable running multiple tubing
strings.
TUBING HEAD TYPE

Bottom
connection
threaded

1. Top
connection  Should be limited to low pressure
gas or oil wells.
threaded  It does not offer lock screws for
tubing hanger retention.
Welded
 A workover flange needs to be
installed in order to install a BOP
stack..
TUBING HEAD TYPE

Bottom
connection
2. Top
threaded connection  may be used for re-entry
flanged operations, new shallow gas or oil
wells, and thermal operations such
as cyclic steam injection.
 It does not provide a secondary
seal on the production casing.
Welded
 No ability to pressure test between
the production casing and the
previous casings string..
TUBING HEAD TYPE

Bottom
connection
2. Top
threaded connection  may be used for re-entry
flanged operations, new shallow gas or oil
wells, and thermal operations such
as cyclic steam injection.
 It does not provide a secondary
seal on the production casing.
Welded
 No ability to pressure test between
the production casing and the
previous casings string.
TUBING HEAD TYPE

flanged
3. Top and
bottom
connection

 Can be used for any operation.


clamp
hub
TUBING HEAD

TUBING HEAD
Tubing Hanger

CASING SPOOL
CASING HANGER

CASING HEAD
BASE PLATE
TUBING HEADS

Top Bowl Prep and Size


Top Flange size and
pressure rating
Lock Down Screw

Outlet size and


Pressure Rating

Bottom Flange size


and pressure rating
Bottom Bowl Prep Size
Test
Port
BASIC TUBING HEADS

Alignment pins/keys
TUBING HEAD FOR DUAL COMPLETION
Tubing Hangers, Tubing Head Adapters

INTRODUCTION
TUBING HANGERS

 A tubing hanger is also commonly known as a dog nut.


 A tubing hanger typically is threaded onto the top of a
tubing string and is designed to sit and seal in the tubing
head.
 Usually the tubing hanger is run through the BOP and
landed in the top bowl of the tubing head.
 The top of the tubing hanger provides a profile necessary
for the lock screws that will secure the hanger in the
tubing head
TUBING HANGERS TC-1A-ENS
Taper Landing
Threads
Secondary Neck
Seals
BPV / TTP
Groove

SCSSSV Line

Primary
Compression
Type Seal
Taper Threads
TUBING HANGERS TC-1A-EMS WITH XEMS
Extended Neck
Metal Seal ACME
(SBMS) Landing
Threads
BPV / TTP
Groove

Energizing
Ring

XEMS
Seal
SCSSV Line

Taper Threads
MANDREL TYPE TUBING HANGER
barrier barrier
+ +
barrier barrier

barrier
+
barrier

barrier
+
barrier
TUBING HANGER TYPE

Alignment pins/keys
TUBING HANGER BACK-PRESSURE VALVE
 Tubing hangers may come with
a back pressure thread profile
that enables the operator to
lubricate and isolation plug into
the tubing hanger.
 With an isolation plug in place,
pressure testing can now be
carried out above the tubing
head.
 It also provides well control for
installing and removing the
BOP or Christmas Tree, and for
temporary well suspensions.
TUBING HEAD ADAPTORS

Seal Bore Adaptor


Basic Adaptor

Suspension Adaptor
4 Basic
Adaptor Types Coupling Adaptor
X-MAS TREE

INTRODUCTION
FUNCTION AND FEATURES OF X-MAS TREE

Tree Cap

Swab Valve

Tee

Upper &
Lower Master
Valve Choke
Inner & Outer
Production
Tubing Head Wing Valve
Adapter
Gate Valve Show video
Unihead System

Overview
UNIHEAD WELLHEAD DESIGN
 11, 13 5/8 and 18 ¾ UNIHEAD
systems
 Both onshore and offshore
applications
 3000psi to 15,000psi working
pressure
 Suspension of multiple casing
strings
 Elastomer and Metal to metal
sealing technology for production
casing and completion
UNIHEAD WELLHEAD DESIGN

 Split or one piece Unihead


configurations
 K-U temperature rating through
metal to metal seals
 L-U rating for elastomers
 New dual Metal to metal seal
developed for UH-4 systems
 Flanged, Flamp and Speedloc
connections.
UNIHEAD -1 System Overview
 11” & 13-5/8” up to 10,000 psi
 Elastomer seals and lockdown screws
 Through-bore design reduces wellhead
installation time
 Consistent time and cost savings per well
 Maintains well control with the reduction of
BOP nipple up and down times
 Spools can be separated if required for
contingency operations
 Rotating flange option allows head to be
run through rotary table saving time
UNIHEAD -2 System Features
 Identical primary upper and lower packoff
assemblies
 Primary and contingency packoffs use
same running and retrieval tool
 Added versatility allowing conventional
tubing head to be installed above UH head
– Mandrel Hanger can be latched in upper
or lower head
 Rotating flange option allows head to be
run through rotary table, saving time.
Evolution to UNIHEAD -3
 UH3 is a different type of elastomer
seal, it uses metal non-extrusion
plates. These do not provide a
metal seal.
 This seal is extremely rugged
during the installation, very
suitable for gas applications, but
not high temperatures.

UH-3
Speed System
Evolution to UNIHEAD-4
 UH-4 is a full metal sealing
system, this is the system to be
applied in the most arduous of
conditions.
 The metal seal is well proven
with over 1800 installations to
date.
 Metal seal remains elastic and
expands out into a groove cut in
the head, to make it oilfield Metal Sealing
friendly. Packoff
Unihead Technology 1 thru 4

UNIHEAD-4
UNIHEAD-3
UNIHEAD-2
UNIHEAD-1
WELLHEAD TYPE: Quick Connect System
WELLHEAD TYPE: Horizontal Completion System
WELLHEAD TYPE: Splitted Type
WEAR BUSHING + RUNNING TOOL / TEST PLUG
 While drilling the well, it is required that the seal bores in each of the intermediate casing
spools and tubing spools be protected.
 A series of wear bushings are supplied to protect the seal areas discussed during the
drilling operation.
 The wear bushings are run on a drill pipe tool with J-lugs located on the OD that interface
with J-slots located in the top ID section of the wear bushing

wear bushing running tools. These tools are also used to


test the BOP stack
WELLHEAD CONNECTION

INTRODUCTION
WELLHEAD CONNECTION

Connections provide a secure, leak free joint between wellhead


components. There are five basic connection types commonly
used in wellhead design.
o Threaded
o Welded
o Flanged
o Studded
o Clamp hub
o Sliplock
o Connection that is unique to coiled tubing.
WELLHEAD CONNECTION - THREADED
Typically used only in lower pressures, sweet operations and for smaller
diameter pipe or fittings:
 Casing head to surface casing connections  Bottom hole test adapter or
 Casing head to upper wellhead components fluid sampling port
 Side outlets  Polished Rod BOPs
 Tubing hangers  Polished Rod Stuffing boxes
 Tubing heads  Plunger lift lubricator
 Adaptors  Back pressure valve
 Valves  Erosion (e.g. sand) or corrosion
 Flow tees monitoring probes
 Pipe nipples  Typically used only in lower
 Bull plugs pressures, sweet operations
 Pressure and temperature gauges and for smaller diameter pipe
 Needle valves or fittings.
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: WELDED SLIP-ON WELD
WELDED  Seal + Connection

1. SLIP-ON WELD:
 Used to make a connection between different diameters.

2. BUT WELD
 connecting two lengths of pipe of the same unit weight (kg/m) and diameter.
 joining different lengths of wellhead piping
 where a casing extension or repair is required at surface.
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: FLANGE TYPE
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: STUDDED
 One component that has studs threaded into its housing and a
second component with a flange bolted to the studs.
 Uses:
1. Typically used in any high pressure (i.e., 2000 psi to 30,000 psi) or
higher risk operations.
2. Used in any operations where there are requirements to shorten the
height or length of the wellhead components.
3. Used in any operations where there is a need to reduce the bending
moment on equipment.
4. Along with flanged connections, studded connections allow for the
installation of a test port to meet requirements of pressure testing
between primary and secondary seals
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: CLAM HUB

 The hubs of the two components being joined are


squeezed together over a seal ring or ring gasket and
held in-place by a clamp.
 The two clamp halves wrap around the hub and are
bolted to each other to a specified torque to provide
the required connection strength and seal rating
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: CLAM HUB
CLAM HUB USES:
o Typically used in any high pressure or higher risk operations.
o Most commonly found in thermal operations.
o Provides a superior ability to align and seal wellhead components and
piping modules as compared to flanged or studded connections, as small
differences in alignment are more easily “absorbed” by this type of
connection.
o Provides a higher fatigue resistance than flanged or studded connections.
o Offers a faster make up time versus flanged or studded connections.
o Since any damage to the face of the hub may compromise the metal to
metal seal, special care must be taken in any operation where there is
potential for this type of damage
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: CLAMP HUB TYPE
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: SLIPLOCK
 Typically used in drilling or other temporary operations in place of welded or
threaded connections as the Sliplock provides a faster connection time than
either of these other methods.
 May be used in observation style wells where the well bore is not exposed
to formation conditions
WELLHEAD CONNECTION: COIL TUBING CONNECTION TYPES
WELLHEAD SEALS

INTRODUCTION
WELLHEAD SEALS
 Seal composition:
o Elastomer and Graphite /
Carbon Seals.
o Metal Seals.
 Seal types:
o Primary Seals
o Secondary Seals
 If both are installed the wellhead
can be pressure tested.
FLOWING WELLS

INTRODUCTION
FLOWING WELLS

 When the reservoir pressure is capable to lift fluid to


the surface.
 Flowing wellheads typically are simple.
 Depending on the type of produced fluids and well
completion, production can be up the production
casing, production tubing, or the tubing-casing
annulus. – Sweet, low pressure, low risk wells (e.g.,
shallow gas) often do not have a tubing string
installed.
FLOWING WELLS: SWEET FLOWING WELLS
P Above 13.8 MPa
P≤ 13.8 MPa

Low Pressure / Low Risk


Gas Wells
FLOWING WELLS: SOUR WELLS

 Death + Corrosion
 The following examples all
present a corrosion hazard:
o CO2 and water
o Salt water
o Aggressive solvents (e.g., DMDS)
o Acid (well stimulation)
FLOWING WELLS: ARTIFICIAL LIFT WELLS
 Gas Lift
 ESP
 PCP
 Plunger Lift
 Sucker Rod Pump
 Hydraulic Pump
o The conventional wellhead should be modified to meet the
artificial lift method.
o Each method along with the modification applied will be
discussed.
o Special Wellhead Design
FLOWING WELLS: BEAM PUMPING
 The wellhead must be modified to
seal around the reciprocating rod.
 Emergency precaution in case of
broken rod
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT

 Flowing T
 BOP
 Stuffing Box
 Lubricator
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: FLOWING TEE

Replaced the wing valve in


conventional well head, to
direct the fluid towards
surface facilities
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: BOP

• Designed to prevent oil spills


in case of sucker rod or
polished rod breaks
• May be installed
o Between tubing head and
flowing T
o Between flowing T and
stuffing box
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: STUFFING BOX

Assembly to seal around the


polished rod to prevent leakage
to the surface
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT

• Many stuffing boxes have two


sets of packing elements.
• The lower is relaxed in normal
conditions, but used in case
of the upper one fails
• The packing element is made
of rubber or Teflon to offer low
friction but provide the
required seal
• The sealing mechanism is the
bolted being tightened
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: LUBRICATION
 Normally the packing element
is lubricated by the fluid in the
well.
 Intermittent pumping or high
water cut may lead to poor
lubrication.
 Poorly lubricated (dry) packing
element may burn leading to
fluid leakage to the surface.
 A lubrication oil reservoir may
be mounted above the stuffing
box
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: PCP LIFTING

 The wellhead must be


modified to seal around the
rotating rod.
 Emergency precaution in
case of broken rod.
 The rod string is supported
on the wellhead
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: PCP LIFTING

The Wellhead must perform


the following functions:
 Suspend the rod string and
carry the axial loads
 Deliver the torque required
at the polished rod
 Safely rotate the polished
rod at the required speed
 Prevent produced fluid from
escaping the system
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT:

Wellhead frame containing


 Flowing T
 BOP
 Stuffing Box
 Prime mover
o Power transmission
equipment
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT:
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: PRIME MOVER

Electric motor along


with switch board and
transformer will be
needed
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: GAS LIFTING

The X-tree is used not only to


control the production but also
the injection of the gas
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: ESP LIFTING

• The wellhead must include a


gas tight feed for the electric
power cable that runs from
surface to the downhole
ESP motor
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT:HYDRAULIC LIFTING

The wellhead must provide:


 Inlet of the injected fluid
 Outlet for the formation
fluid mixed with the
injection fluid
 The wellhead should also
withstand the high P of
the injected fluid.
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT:
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: PLUNGER LIFTING

The wellhead must accommodate a


lubricator / “plunger catcher” installed
on top of the flow cross
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT:
• At surface the arriving plunger is
captured in a lubricator, the produced
fluid unload to the flowline.
• In normal operations, the force of the
incoming plunger is absorbed by the
fluid column and springs and stops in
the lubricator assembly.
• In some cases the plunger may be
lifted without fluid, the velocity will be
faster, the impact will be stronger.
• In extreme circumstances, a plunger
arriving at a high velocity without a fluid
column may be capable of blowing
through the top of the lubricator
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: INJECTION WELLHEAD

 Similar in configuration to flowing


wells.
 The major concerns in the wellhead
are
o The operation pressure.
o The injected fluid
o Temperature (especially in
STEAM INJECTION)
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT: THE OPERATION PRESSURE

 The wellhead pressure


in case of injection wells
is always greater than a
normal flowing well, so
the wellhead must be
chosen to withstand the
anticipated pressure.
WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT:

The injected fluid • A


wise selection of the
wellhead material is
a must to be
suitable for the
injected fluid and
TEMPERATURE
variation
WELLHEAD for GEOTHERMAL WELL
WELLHEAD

• New Version Wellhead


• Wellhead Specification
• Wellhead Manufacturer
• Contract Strategy

135
WELLHEAD OLD vs NEW VERSION

Old Version

New Version

Note:
1. Unit I & II are typical, but:
• Unit I Double MV
• Unit II Single MV
2. The Usage of Expansion Spool is omitted in Unit III.
3. The Unit III Stack Up Drawing is as left by Drilling (without T Spool)
136
WELLHEAD SPECIFICATION

 13-3/8” SOW x 13-5/8” 2K x Master Valve.

 13-3/8” SOW x 13-5/8” 2K: should have port for pressure test by N2.

 Running Tool to run pre made-up wellhead.

 Easy to operate Master Valve (close and open with steam pressure
under the valve)

 Flushing port to clean up any debris on valve’s gate

 Provide manual guide for installation, close and open, maintenance, etc.

 No threaded

 Expandable Gate
137
WELLHEAD SPECIFICATION
MASTER VALVE:
Expanding Gate, Metal to metal seal on seat to body and seat to gate
upstream & downstream

EXPANDABLE
GATE

SLAB GATE

138
WELLHEAD SPECIFICATION

Master Valve Raw Material

Temperature, C
Class -29 to 38 50 100 150 200 250 300 325 350
Bar Psi Bar Psi Bar Psi Bar Psi Bar Psi Bar Psi Bar Psi Bar Psi Bar Psi
150 19.6 284 19.2 278 17.7 257 15.8 229 13.8 200 12.1 175 10.2 148 9.3 135 8.4 122
300 51.1 741 50.1 726 46.6 676 45.1 654 43.8 635 41.9 608 39.8 577 38.7 561 37.6 545
400 68.1 987 66.8 969 62.1 900 60.1 871 58.4 847 55.9 811 53.1 770 51.6 748 50.1 726
600 102.1 1,480 100.2 1,453 93.2 1,351 90.2 1,308 87.6 1,270 83.9 1,217 79.6 1,154 77.4 1,122 75.1 1,089
900 153.2 2,221 150.4 2,181 139.8 2,027 135.2 1,960 131.4 1,905 125.8 1,824 119.5 1,733 116.1 1,683 112.7 1,634
1500 255.3 3,702 250.6 3,634 233.0 3,379 225.4 3,268 219.0 3,176 209.7 3,041 199.1 2,887 193.6 2,807 187.8 2,723
2500 425.5 6,170 417.7 6,057 388.3 5,630 375.6 5,446 365.0 5,293 349.5 5,068 331.8 4,811
Source:322.6 4,678 - 2003
ASME B16.5 313.0 4,539

Source: ASTM 216/A216M 139


WELLHEAD SPECIFICATION
API-6A & ASME/ANSI Flange Rating Equivalent

140
RUNNING WELLHEAD

Run with Pre-Welded Pre-Welded Land on C


Online Wellhead
Wellhead Installation Plate
Installation 141
RUN 13-5/8” WELLHEAD

Pre-welded 13-5/8”
wellhead with 13-3/8”
casing.

13-3/8” Landing Joint has


been prepared. Need to
check RT elevation to
ensure Landing Joint length
fit with new RT elevation.
WELLHEAD vs TEMPERATURE

Wellhead Working
Pressure Derated
For Temperature

143
Master Valve Orientation

• MV Orientation at PAD C and B:  when operator


operate MV (close or open), he could see the main gate.
BOP CONFIGURATION: Drill 26” Hole Section

Diverter + Diverting Lines 30” Rotating Head + Flow Lines


BOP CONFIGURATION: Drill 17-1/2” Hole Section
BOP CONFIGURATION: Drill 12-1/4”, 9-7/8” and 7-7/8” Hole Section
WELLHEAD MANUFACTURER

Wellhead Manufacturer:

• WKM, IKS, Kyokuto, SAU, WIFFIC

148
OFFSHORE WELLHEAD
OFFSHORE WELLHEAD TYPE

Surface Mudline
Wellhead Suspension
Wellhead Offshore
Sub Sea
Wellhead
MUDLINE SUSPENSION SYSTEM

 As jackup drilling vessels drilled in deeper water, the need to transfer


the weight of the well to the seabed and provide a disconnect-and-
reconnect capability became clearly beneficial. This series of
hangers, called mudline suspension equipment, provides landing
rings and shoulders to transfer the weight of each casing string to
the conductor and the sea bed.
 The mudline suspension system also allows the well to be
temporarily abandoned (disconnected) when total depth (TD) is
achieved (when drilling is finished at total depth)
THE MUDLINE HANGER SYSTEM CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING
COMPONENTS

1. Butt-weld sub
2. Shoulder hangers
3. Split-ring hangers
4. Mudline hanger running tools
5. Temporary abandonment
caps and running tool •
Tieback tools
THE MUDLINE HANGER SYSTEM

 Each mudline hanger landing shoulder and landing ring


centralizes the hanger body, and establishes concentricity
around the center line of the well. Concentricity is
important when tying the well back to the surface.
 In addition, each hanger body stacks down relative to the
previously installed hanger for washout efficiency.
 Washout efficiency is necessary to clean the annulus area
of the previously run mudline hanger and running tool. This
ensures that cement and debris cannot hinder disconnect
and retrieval of each casing riser to the rig floor upon
abandonment of the well
THE MUDLINE HANGER SYSTEM
TEMPORARILY ABANDONING THE WELL
 After each casing string is disconnected from
the mudline suspension hanger and retrieved to
the rig floor in the reverse order of the drilling
process, threaded temporary abandonment
caps or stab-in temporary abandonment caps
(both of which makeup into the threaded
running profile of the mudline hanger) are
installed in selected mudline hangers before the
drilling vessel finishes and leaves the location.
The temporary abandonment caps can be
retrieved with the same tool that installed them.
TEMPORARILY ABANDONING THE WELL
THE MUDLINE HANGER SYSTEM - RECONNECTING TO THE WELL

 A mudline suspension system also incorporates tieback tools to reconnect


the mudline hanger to the surface for re-entry and/or completion.
 A surface wellhead system is installed, and the well is completed similarly
to the method used on land drilling operations
 The mudline suspension system has been designed to accommodate tying
the well back to the surface for surface completion, and it also can be
adapted for a subsea production tree. A tieback tubing head can be
installed to the mudline suspension system at the seabed, and a subsea
tree can be installed on this tubing head

The well is reconnected


Completion to surface
Drilling was done by using tieback tool for
Wellhead / Tree OR Sub Sea
Jack Up Rig deeper drilling or
Tree
completion
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE LAND WELLHEADS AND A THE
JACKUP MUDLINE

 The main difference between the wellheads used in the land drilling
application and the jackup drilling application (with mudline) is the slip-
and-seal assembly
 Because the weight of the well now sits at the seabed, a weight-set slip-
and-seal assembly is not used. Instead, a mechanical set (energizing the
seal by hand) is used, in which cap screws are made up with a wrench
against an upper compression plate on the slip-and-seal assembly to
energize the elastomeric seal.d
A MECHANICAL-SET SLIP-AND-SEAL ASSEMBLY
SUBSEA WELLHEAD
SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEMS

• SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEMS is a


pressure-containing vessel that provides
a means to hang off and seal off casing
used in drilling the well.
• The wellhead also provides a profile to
latch the subsea blowout preventer
(BOP) stack and drilling riser back to the
floating drilling rig. In this way, access to
the wellbore is secure in a pressure-
controlled environment.
• The subsea wellhead system is located
on the ocean floor, and must be installed
remotely with running tools and drillpipe
SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEMS
Drilling Operation Temporarily Sub Sea Tree
Abandonment Completion
A STANDARD SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEM WILL TYPICALLY
CONSIST OF THE FOLLOWING

 Drilling guide base.


 Low-pressure housing.
 High-pressure wellhead housing (typically 18¾ in.).
 Casing hangers
 Metal-to-metal annulus sealing assembly.
 Bore protectors and wear bushings
DRILLING GUIDE BASE
 provides a means for guiding and aligning the BOP onto the wellhead.
Guide wires from the rig are attached to the guideposts of the base, and
the wires are run subsea with the base to provide guidance from the rig
down to the wellhead system.
LOW-PRESSURE HOUSING

 provides a location point for the drilling


guide base, and provides an interface for
the 18¾-in. high- pressure housing. It is
important for this first string to be jetted or
cemented in place correctly, because this
string is the foundation for the rest of the
well.
HIGH-PRESSURE HOUSING

• a unitized wellhead with no annulus access.


• It provides an interface between the subsea BOP stack
and the subsea well.
• The subsea wellhead is the male member to a large-
bore connection, (the female counterpart is the
wellhead connector on the bottom of the BOP stack)
CASING HANGERS
 The casing hanger provides a metal-to-metal sealing
area for a seal assembly to seal off the annulus
between the casing hanger and the wellhead.
 The casing weight is transferred into the wellhead by
means of the casing hanger/wellhead landing
shoulder.
 Each casing hanger stacks on top of another, and all
casing loads are transferred through each hanger to
the landing shoulder at the bottom of the subsea
wellhead.
 Each casing hanger incorporates flow-by slots to
facilitate the passage of fluid while running through the
drilling riser and BOP stack, and during the cementing
operation.
METAL-TO METAL ANNULUS SEAL ASSEMBLY
 isolates the annulus between the casing hanger and
the high-pressure wellhead housing.
 The seal incorporates a metal-to-metal sealing system
that today is typically weight-set (torque-set seal
assemblies were available in earlier subsea wellhead
systems).
 During the installation process, the seal is locked to the
casing hanger to keep it in place.
 If the well is placed into production, then an option to
lock down the seal to the high-pressure wellhead is
available. This is to prevent the casing hanger and seal
assembly from being lifted because of thermal
expansion of the casing down hole.
BORE PROTECTORS AND WEAR BUSHINGS

• Once the high-pressure wellhead housing and the BOP


stack are installed, all drilling operations will take place
through the wellhead housing.
• The risk of mechanical damage during drilling
operations is relatively high, and the critical landing and
sealing areas in the wellhead system need to be
protected with a removable bore protector and wear
bushings
BIG BORE SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEMS
 as a result of the challenges associated with deep water
drilling.
 Ocean-floor conditions in deep and ultra deep water can
be extremely mushy and unconsolidated, which creates
well-foundation problems that require development of
new well designs to overcome the conditions.
 Second, underground aquifers in deep water have been
observed in far greater frequency than in shallower
waters, and it quickly became clear that these zones
would have to be isolated with a casing string.
 wellhead equipment designs would also have to change
to accommodate the additional requirements.
WITH SUBSEA WELLHEAD SYSTEMS
conductor and intermediate casing strings can be reconfigured to
strengthen and stiffen the upper section of the well (for higher
bending capacities), and overcome the challenges of an
unconsolidated ocean floor at the well site.
Each “water flow” zone encountered while drilling requires
isolation with casing and, at the same time, consumes a casing-
hanger position in the wellhead.
It became obvious that more casing strings and hangers were
required to reach the targeted depth than the existing wellhead-
system designs would accommodate
SUBSEA TREE