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## COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & SCIENCES

ELECTRICAL NETWORK ANALYSIS (ELE 200)
Semester _____________

REPORT
ELECTRICAL NETWORK ANALYSIS

## LAB INSTRUCTOR AZKA HAQ NAWAZ

ABSTRACT:
This report deals with the creation of a LED roulette that can be used in such a way that it can be
analyzed not only with white light, but also with LEDs with different wavelengths. Moreover,
the experiment focuses in the creation of a calibration protocol for the LEDs, based on a sensor,
in such a way that it is possible to quantify as a function of the distance between the light source
and the sample, as well as taking into account the aperture angle of the light source, the energy
that will arrive to the sample for its posterior analysis. Therefore, this protocol would be used as
a baseline for other experiment so that the correct components, the ones that better fits the needs
of the new test, can be selected.
INTRODUCTION:
Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel. In the game,
players may choose to place bets on either a single number, various groupings of numbers, the
colors red or black, whether the number is odd or even, or if the numbers are high (19–36) or low
(1–18). To determine the winning number and color, a croupier spins a wheel in one direction,
then spins a ball in the opposite direction around a tilted circular track running around the outer
edge of the wheel. The ball eventually loses momentum, passes through an area of deflectors,
and falls onto the wheel and into one of 37 (single zero French/European style roulette) or 38
(double zero American style roulette) colored and numbered pockets on the wheel. The winnings
are then paid to anyone who has placed a successful bet

Electronic Roulette (Roo-let) replaces the ivory ball with a circuit of flashing light emitting
diodes (LEDs). colorful LEDs are arranged in a circle next to each other. When the switch is
pushed, the LEDs light one after another, in a sequence that represents the movement of the
ivory ball. The number next to the lit LED when movement stops is the winning number. During
movement, the sound is generated (which is not included in the circuit). If the switch is not
pressed again, the circuits will automatically turn off, to conserve the battery power. A constant

EQUIPMENTS:
1: 555 Timer IC
2: CD 4017 IC
3: LED Lights x10
4: PnP Transistor (BC557)
5: RESISTORS (330, 10K, 3.3Mx2, 10M)
6: Capacitors: (1uF, 100nF)
7: Battery 9V
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

## Figure 1: LED Roulette Circuit Diagram

PROCEDURE:
Identified and installed the above parts as shown in the diagram.

## We have connected jumper wires.

The LED has been mounted onto the board with the flat side of the LED in the same direction as marked
on the board.

Each part of the LED has been soldered making space between the LEDs.

Mount the IC socket onto the board with the notch in the same direction as marked on the board. Then,
mount the IC onto the socket with the notches in the same direction.

Mount the transistor with the flat side and diode with the band in the same direction as marked on the
board.

Make sure that all the components have been installed correctly. The flat side of the LEDs should be in
the same direction as shown in diagram.

Now Put a 9V alkaline battery into the battery holder and push the switch.
PRECUATIONS:
1: Always wear safety glasses or safety goggles to protect your eyes when working with tools or
soldering iron, and during all phases of testing.

## Be sure there is adequate ventilation when soldering.

2: Locate soldering iron in an area where you do not have to go around it or reach over it. Keep it in a
safe area away from the reach of children.

3: Do not hold solder in your mouth. Solder is a toxic substance. Wash hands thoroughly after handling
solder

4: Always use appropriate insulated rubber gloves and goggles while working on any branch
circuit or any other electrical circuit.

5: Only make changes to the experimental setup when the circuit power is turned off and all
power sources read zero voltage and zero current, as applicable.

APPLICATIONS:
LED ROULETTE can be used in various things such as given below,

##  In electronic gaming circuits

 As a random number generator
 In touch intuitive decorative lighting setups

WORKING:
The 1uF capacitor charges because of current flowing through finger. When a capacitor charges,
the voltage at its positive terminal approaches the voltage of positive rail, and the voltage at
its negative terminal approaches the voltage of negative rail. And since the negative terminal
of capacitor is connected to the base of transistor via a 10M resistor, the voltage at the base of
transistor will be more towards negative rail.

The transistor is of PnP type, so if the voltage at its base is more towards negative, the transistor
gets biased and starts conducting current between its emitter & collector pins. Otherwise no
current flows between them, so more the negative voltage at the base of transistor, more will be
the conductivity between its emitter & collector pins.

One terminal of 100n capacitor near the 555 timer IC is connected to negative rail and the other
is connected to positive rail via a 10K resistor & transistor. And the speed with which this 100n
capacitor can charge or discharge determines the frequency of output square wave from 555
timer IC. Since the conductivity of transistor increases, the 100n capacitor will be able to charge
quickly and so the frequency of output wave from 555 timer IC increases.

The output of 555 timer IC is connected to the clock input of 4017 IC, Also the speed of rotation
of the LED's is directly proportional to the frequency of clock input signal of 4017, which is the
same as frequency of output wave from 555 timer IC, So the LED's start rotating faster.

Observations:

V-input = 9v

## ERRORS AND TROUBLESHOOTING:

The most frequently occurred problem is stated below:

1: while making the circuit we faced a problem in connectivity. After checking, we found that it was
soldering. So we tugged slightly on all parts again and made it soldered properly.

REFLECTIONS:
In this experiment (project), we have made LED Roulette circuit. This circuit was based
on circular roulette wheel. In this project we have used IC (555 timer & 4017), Resistors
(3.3M, 10k, 10M etc.) and capacitors (1uF & 100nF) as well as, we have used Transistor.
Capacitor and Transistor are the main components of this project. When we touch
connectors, capacitor charges and when we leave touch point capacitor discharges and transistor
allow the current to flow.
DEVIATIONS:
Although there are some aspects that need some changes, this system is almost complete
meaning at this point it works properly and providing coherent and useful results.
FORMULA:

## Deviation= Expected value – calculated value

*(100)
Expected value

8.12v – 7.512v
8.12v *(100)

Deviation = 7.487%

CONCLUSION:
This report was been made for LED roulette consists of certain numbers of LEDs arranged
circularly. One person needs to touch a pair of touch contacts provided at the left side of circuit.
Then the LED's rotate for some time and come to halt at a random number. If used for a gaming
purpose, the person who bets on the number at which the LED stops will win against everyone
who played that particular game.