1

Foundation design Foundation design
Present by Mr. Sieng PEOU Present by Mr. Sieng PEOU
Master science of geotechnical Master science of geotechnical
engineering engineering
Tel Tel--011 874 974 011 874 974
email: sieng_2000@yahoo.fr email: sieng_2000@yahoo.fr
Type of foundation Type of foundation
Shallow foundation Shallow foundation
11--Spread footing : support the load from Spread footing : support the load from
building by column building by column
22--Strip footing : support the load from Strip footing : support the load from
building by walls building by walls
33--Mat foundation: combined all footing Mat foundation: combined all footing
2
Type of foundation Type of foundation
Deep foundation Deep foundation
11-- End bearing pile : pile stand on End bearing pile : pile stand on
rocks or very dense soils, so we rocks or very dense soils, so we
have only end bearing capacity have only end bearing capacity
22-- Combined bearing pile : pile stand Combined bearing pile : pile stand
on normal soils, so we have end on normal soils, so we have end
bearing capacity and skin friction bearing capacity and skin friction
33-- Floating pile : pile stand on very Floating pile : pile stand on very
loose or very soft soil, so we have loose or very soft soil, so we have
only skin friction only skin friction
Spread footing Spread footing
Q
B
3
Strip footing Strip footing
q
B
Mat foundation Mat foundation
B
4
End bearing pile End bearing pile
Rock layer
Soft soil layer
Pile
Combined bearing pile Combined bearing pile
Stiff soil layer
Soft soil layer
Pile
5
Floating pile Floating pile
Soft soil layer
Pile
Bearing capacity for Shallow Bearing capacity for Shallow
foundation foundation
Type of failure Type of failure
11--General shear failure for dense soil,we General shear failure for dense soil,we
can use can use C & C & φ φφ φφ φφ φ for design soils bearing for design soils bearing
capacity capacity
22--Local shear failure for loose soil, we can Local shear failure for loose soil, we can
use use C’=2/3 C & C’=2/3 C & φ φφ φφ φφ φ’’= == == == =arctg(2/3tg arctg(2/3tgφ) φ) φ) φ) φ) φ) φ) φ) for for
design soils bearing capacity design soils bearing capacity
33--Punching shear failure for very loose Punching shear failure for very loose
soil,not recommended soil,not recommended
6
General shear failure General shear failure
Q
D
Shear line
Local shear failure Local shear failure
Q
D
Shear line
7
Punching shear failure Punching shear failure
Q
D
Failure mechanisms and derivation of Failure mechanisms and derivation of
equations equations
8
Failure mechanisms and derivation of Failure mechanisms and derivation of
equations equations
A relatively undeformed wedge of soil below the foundation A relatively undeformed wedge of soil below the foundation
forms an active Rankine zone with angles (45º + forms an active Rankine zone with angles (45º + φ φ'/2). '/2).
The wedge pushes soil outwards, causing passive Rankine The wedge pushes soil outwards, causing passive Rankine
zones to form with angles (45º zones to form with angles (45º -- φ φ'/2). '/2).
The transition zones take the form of log spiral fans. The transition zones take the form of log spiral fans.
For purely cohesive soils ( For purely cohesive soils (φ φ = 0) the transition zones become = 0) the transition zones become
circular for which Prandtl had shown in 1920 that the solution circular for which Prandtl had shown in 1920 that the solution
is is qq
ff
= (2 + = (2 + π ππ ππ ππ π) Cu = 5.14 Cu ) Cu = 5.14 Cu
This equation is based on a weightless soil. Therefore if the This equation is based on a weightless soil. Therefore if the
soil is non soil is non--cohesive (c=0) the bearing capacity depends on cohesive (c=0) the bearing capacity depends on
the surcharge q the surcharge q
oo
. For a footing founded at depth D below the . For a footing founded at depth D below the
surface, the surcharge surface, the surcharge q q
oo
= = γ γγ γγ γγ γDD. Normally for a shallow . Normally for a shallow
foundation (D<B), the shear strength of the soil between the foundation (D<B), the shear strength of the soil between the
surface and the founding depth D is neglected. surface and the founding depth D is neglected.
Semi Semi--circular slip mechanism circular slip mechanism
Moment causing rotation Moment causing rotation
= load x lever arm = load x lever arm
= [(q = [(q -- qq
oo
) x B] x [½B] ) x B] x [½B]
Moment resisting rotation Moment resisting rotation
= shear strength x length of arc x lever arm = shear strength x length of arc x lever arm
= [s] x [ = [s] x [ππ.B] x [B] .B] x [B]
At failure these are equal: At failure these are equal:
(q (q -- qq
oo
) x B x ½B = s x ) x B x ½B = s x ππ.B x B .B x B
Net pressure (q Net pressure (q -- qq
o o
) at failure ) at failure
= = 2 2 π ππ ππ ππ π x shear strength of the soil x shear strength of the soil
This is an upper This is an upper--bound solution. bound solution.
9
Circular arc slip mechanism Circular arc slip mechanism
Moment causing rotation Moment causing rotation
= load x lever arm = load x lever arm
= [ (q = [ (q -- qq
oo
) x B ] x [B/2] ) x B ] x [B/2]
Moment resisting rotation Moment resisting rotation
= shear strength x length of arc x lever arm = shear strength x length of arc x lever arm
= [s] x [2 = [s] x [2αα R] x [R] R] x [R]
At failure these are equal: At failure these are equal:
(q (q -- qq
oo
) x B x B/2 = Cu x 2 ) x B x B/2 = Cu x 2 α α R x R R x R
Since R = B / sin Since R = B / sin αα : :
(q (q -- qq
oo
) = Cu x 4 ) = Cu x 4αα /(sin /(sin α α)² )²
The worst case is when The worst case is when
tan tanαα=2 =2αα at at αα = 1.1656 rad = 66.8 deg = 1.1656 rad = 66.8 deg
The net pressure (q The net pressure (q -- qq
oo
) at failure ) at failure
== 5.52 x shear strength of soil 5.52 x shear strength of soil
Ultimate bearing capacity Ultimate bearing capacity
Settlement
σ
q
u
10
Bearing capacity for strip footing Bearing capacity for strip footing
general equation general equation
After Terzaghi (1943) After Terzaghi (1943)
qd = CNc + γ γγ γ
s
DNq +0.5 γ γγ γBNγ γγ γ
Nc = (Nq – 1 ) . Cotgφ φφ φ Prandtl 1921
Nγ γγ γ = 2(Nq + 1)tgφ φφ φ Caquot and Kerisel 1953 Vessic 1973
1924 Re )
2
45 ( tan
tan 2
issner e N
q
φ π
φ
+ =
Bearing capacity for footing Bearing capacity for footing
From TSA equation From TSA equation
After Vessic (1973) After Vessic (1973)
qd = 5.14 Cu(1+0.2B/L) + γ γγ γ
s
D
Cu:Undrained cohesion
B: Width of footing
L: Length of footing
11
Bearing capacity for footing Bearing capacity for footing
From TSA equation From TSA equation
After Skemton (1951) After Skemton (1951)
qd = 5 Cu(1+0.2B/L)(1+0.2D/B) + γ γγ γ
s
D
Cu:Undrained cohesion
B: Width of footing
L: Length of footing
D: Depth of footing
D/B<2.5
Bearing capacity for footing Bearing capacity for footing
From TSA equation From TSA equation
After Meyerhof (1951 to 1963) After Meyerhof (1951 to 1963)
qd = 5.14 Cu(1+0.2B/L)(1+0.2D/B) + γ γγ γ
s
D
Cu:Undrained cohesion
B: Width of footing
L: Length of footing
D/B<2.5
12
Bearing capacity for footing Bearing capacity for footing
From ESA equation From ESA equation
After Vessic (1973) After Vessic (1973)
qd = γ γγ γ
s
D Nq(1+B/L.tgφ φφ φ)+0.5γ γγ γBN
γ γγ γ
(1-0.4B/L)
φ φφ φ: Internal friction angle
B: Width of footing
L: Length of footing
Bearing capacity for footing Bearing capacity for footing
From ESA equation From ESA equation
After Meyerhof (1951 to 1963) After Meyerhof (1951 to 1963)
qd = γ γγ γ
s
D N
q
.S
q
.d
q
+0.5γ γγ γBN
γ γγ γ
S
γ γγ γ
d
γ γγ γ
φ φφ φ: Internal friction angle
B: Width of footing
L: Length of footing
S
q
=S
γ γγ γ
=1+0.1Κ =1+0.1Κ =1+0.1Κ =1+0.1Κ
P
B/L ; K
p
= tg
2
(45+φ/ φ/ φ/ φ/2)
d
q
=d
γ γγ γ
=1+0.1K
p
0.5
D/B
N
q
the same N
q
Terzaghi ; N
γ γγ γ
=(N
q
-1)tg(1.4φ) φ) φ) φ)
13
Bearing capacity for footing Bearing capacity for footing
From general equation From general equation
After Meyerhof (1963) After Meyerhof (1963)
qd = C.N
c
.F
cs
.F
cd
.F
ci
+γ γγ γ
s
D N
q
. F
qs
.F
qd
.F
qi
+0.5γ γγ γBN
γ γ γ γ
F
γ γγ γs
.F
γ γγ γd
.F
γ γγ γi
φ φφ φ: Internal friction angle
B: Width of footing
L: Length of footing
N
q
by Reissner1924 ; N
c
by Prandtl1921 ; N
γ γγ γ
by Caquot and
Kerisel 1953 and by Vessic 1973
q
net
=C.N
c
.F
cs
.F
cd
.F
ci
+γ γγ γ
s
D (N
q
-1). F
qs
.F
qd
.F
qi
+0.5γ γγ γBN
γ γ γ γ
F
γ γγ γs
.F
γ γγ γd
.F
γ γγ γi
Bearing factor Bearing factor
Shape factor by De Beer 1970 Shape factor by De Beer 1970
FF
cs cs
=1+B/L.N =1+B/L.N
qq
/N /N
cc
FF
qs qs
=1+B/L.tg =1+B/L.tgφφ
FF
γγss
==11--0.4.B/L 0.4.B/L
Depth factor by Hansen 1970 Depth factor by Hansen 1970
Condition D/B<1 Condition D/B<1
FF
cd cd
=1+0.4D/B =1+0.4D/B
FF
qd qd
=1+2.tg =1+2.tgφφ(1 (1--sin sinφφ))
22
D/B D/B
FF
γγd d
==11
14
Bearing factor Bearing factor
Depth factor by Hansen 1970 Depth factor by Hansen 1970
Condition D/B>1 Condition D/B>1
FF
cd cd
=1+0.4.arctg(D/B) =1+0.4.arctg(D/B)
FF
qd qd
=1+2.tg =1+2.tgφφ(1 (1--sin sinφφ))
22
.arctg(D/B) .arctg(D/B)
FF
γγd d
==11
Inclined factor by Meyerhof 1963 Meyerhof and Inclined factor by Meyerhof 1963 Meyerhof and
Hanna 1981 Hanna 1981
FF
ci ci
=F =F
qi qi
=(1 =(1--α/ α/90) 90)
22
FF
γγii
=(1 =(1--α/φ α/φ))
22
Bearing capacity of mat foundation Bearing capacity of mat foundation
The gross ultimate bearing capacity of a mat The gross ultimate bearing capacity of a mat
foundation can be determined by the same foundation can be determined by the same
equation used for shallow foundation. equation used for shallow foundation.
A suitable factor of safety should be used to A suitable factor of safety should be used to
calculate the net allowable bearing capacity.For calculate the net allowable bearing capacity.For
rafts on clay, the factor of safety should not be rafts on clay, the factor of safety should not be
less than 3 under dead load and maximum live less than 3 under dead load and maximum live
load.However, under the most extreme load.However, under the most extreme
conditions,the factor of safety should be at least conditions,the factor of safety should be at least
1.75 to 2. For rafts constructed over sand,a 1.75 to 2. For rafts constructed over sand,a
factor of safety of 3 should normally be used. factor of safety of 3 should normally be used.
15
Ultimate bearing capacity equation Ultimate bearing capacity equation
for mat foundation on saturated clay for mat foundation on saturated clay
) 4 . 0 1 )(
195 . 0
1 ( 14 . 5
) (
B
D
L
B
C q
f
u u net
+ + =
Allowable bearing capacity Allowable bearing capacity
Net ultimate bearing capacity Net ultimate bearing capacity
qq
net net
=q =q
dd
--γ γγ γγ γγ γ
ss
.D .D
Net allowable bearing capacity Net allowable bearing capacity
qq
net net
all all
=q =q
net net
/FS /FS
Gross allowable bearing capacity Gross allowable bearing capacity
qq
all all
=q =q
net net
all all
++γ γγ γγ γγ γ
ss
.D .D
16
Verify the stable of footing Verify the stable of footing
B&L
Q
Q
s
Q
f
Q
total
=Q+Q
f
+Q
s
Q- load apply by column
Q
f
–load of footing
Q
s
–load of soil above footing
Verify stable of footing Verify stable of footing
BL
Q
q
all
net
=
We find value of B
BL
Q
q
total
all
>
And verify the stable of
footing from equation
17
When effect water table When effect water table
Water level case I
Water level case II
D
d
D
1
D
2
B
When effect water table When effect water table
11--In case I if the water table is located so that In case I if the water table is located so that
0<D 0<D
11
<D, so we will change the factor <D, so we will change the factor
γγ
ss
.D .D γ. γ.DD
11
+D +D
22
((γγ
sat sat--
γγ
ww
))
Also value Also value γγ in the last term of the equation has in the last term of the equation has
to be replaced by to be replaced by γγ’= ( ’= (γγ
sat sat--
γγ
ww
))
22--In case II for a water table located so 0<d<B In case II for a water table located so 0<d<B
value value γγ in the last term of the equation has to be in the last term of the equation has to be
replaced by replaced by γγ
cal cal
= = γγ’+d/B.( ’+d/B.(γγ−−γγ’) ’)
18
Stable of footing when effect Stable of footing when effect
inclined load inclined load
B
Q
D
α
V
H
Q T
q
all
>V/(BL)
T
all
>H
V=Q.Cos α αα α
Η= Η= Η= Η=Q.Sin α αα α
T=V.tg(2/3φ φφ φ)+2/3.C.B.L.
Tall=T/1.5
When effect 0ne way bending When effect 0ne way bending
moment moment
Q
M
B
B
We change B to B’ for calculate bearing capacity
B’=B-2e
B
e
B
=M
B
/Q
19
Verify stable of footing when Verify stable of footing when
effect one way bending moment effect one way bending moment
max
q q
all
>
)
6
1 (
max
B
e
BL
Q
q
B
+ = )
6
1 (
min
B
e
BL
Q
q
B
− =
M
B
Q
When e
B
<B/6
Verify stable of footing when Verify stable of footing when
effect one way bending moment effect one way bending moment
max
q q
all
>
) 2 ( 3
4
max
B
e B L
Q
q

=
M
B
Q
When e
B
>B/6
Not recommended
20
Foundation with two way Foundation with two way
Eccentricity Eccentricity
For calculate bearing capacity we have to change:
B to B’=B-2e
B
L to L’=L-2e
L
A’=B’*L’
e
B
=M
B
/Q
e
L
=M
L
/Q
M
L
M
B
B
L
Q
Verify stable of footing when Verify stable of footing when
effect two way bending moment effect two way bending moment
Q
ult
= q
u
’.A’
Case e
L
/L>1/6
e
B
/B>1/6
B
1
=B(1.5-3e
B
/B)
L
1
=L(1.5-3e
L
/L)
B’=A’/L
21
Verify stable of footing when effect Verify stable of footing when effect
two way bending moment two way bending moment
Q
ult
= q
u
’.A’
Case 1/6<e
L
/L<0.5
0<e
B
/B<1/6
A’=0.5(L
1
+L
2
)B
B’=A’/L
1
Verify stable of footing when effect Verify stable of footing when effect
two way bending moment two way bending moment
Q
ult
= q
u
’.A’
Case e
L
/L< 1/6
1/6<e
B
/B< 0.5
A’=0.5(B
1
+B
2
)L
B’=A’/L
22
Verify stable of footing when effect Verify stable of footing when effect
two way bending moment two way bending moment
Q
ult
= q
u
’.A’
Case e
L
/L< 1/6
e
B
/B< 1/6
A’= L
2
B+0.5(B+B
2
)(L-L
2
)
B’=A’/L
Footing on two layer Footing on two layer
D
γ
s
B
d
1
c
1
γ
1
φ
1
c
2
γ
2
φ
2
23
Bearing capacity of footing Bearing capacity of footing
on two layer on two layer
11-- Determine influenced thickness Determine influenced thickness
H=0.5Btg(45+ H=0.5Btg(45+φφ
11
/2) /2)
If H<d If H<d
11
: our footing not effect on second layer, : our footing not effect on second layer,
so we calculate the soils bearing capacity by so we calculate the soils bearing capacity by
using values C using values C
11
,,γ γ
11
,φ ,φ
11
If H>d If H>d
11
: our footing effect on second layer, so : our footing effect on second layer, so
we calculate the soils bearing capacity by using we calculate the soils bearing capacity by using
condition as follows: condition as follows:
Bearing capacity of footing on Bearing capacity of footing on
two layer two layer
From TSA condition From TSA condition
1 1-- Design C Design C
RR
=C =C
U2 U2
/C /C
U1 U1
If C If C
RR
<1 : < 5.14 for strip footing <1 : < 5.14 for strip footing
< 6.05 for spread footing < 6.05 for spread footing
so we calculate the soils bearing capacity by using so we calculate the soils bearing capacity by using
equation equation
q q
net net
=C =C
u1 u1
NN
CC
If C If C
RR
>0.7 the value of N >0.7 the value of N
CC
is decrease 10% is decrease 10%
R
C
B
d
Nc 14 , 5
5 , 1
1
+ =
R
C
B
d
Nc 05 , 6
3
1
+ =
24
Bearing capacity of footing Bearing capacity of footing
on two layer on two layer
If C If C
RR
>1 : >1 :
for strip footing for strip footing
for spread footing for spread footing
so we calculate the soils bearing capacity by so we calculate the soils bearing capacity by
using equation using equation
qq
net net
=C =C
u1 u1
NN
CC
14 , 4
5 , 0
1
1
+ =
d
B
N
14 , 4
1 , 1
2
1
+ =
d
B
N
05 , 5
33 , 0
1
1
+ =
d
B
N 05 , 5
66 , 0
2
1
+ =
d
B
N
2
2 1
2 1
×
+
×
=
N N
N N
Nc
Bearing capacity of footing Bearing capacity of footing
on two layer on two layer
From general equation 1 From general equation 1
11-- Determine the average values of soils Determine the average values of soils
parameter parameter
22-- Determine the soils bearing capacity by Determine the soils bearing capacity by
using values using values
C’ and C’ and φ φφ φφ φφ φ’’
H
d H d
2 1 1 1
) (
'
φ φ
φ
− +
=
H
c d H c d
c
2 1 1 1
) (
'
− +
=
25
Bearing capacity of footing Bearing capacity of footing
on two layer on two layer
From general equation 2 From general equation 2
11-- Determine the bearing capacity for first layer Determine the bearing capacity for first layer
22-- Determine the soils bearing capacity for Determine the soils bearing capacity for
second layer second layer
qnet1 = C
1
.N
c
.F
cs
.F
cd
.F
ci
+γ γγ γ
s
D (N
q
-1). F
qs
.F
qd
.F
qi
+0.5γ γγ γ
1 11 1
BN
γ γ γ γ
F
γ γγ γs
.F
γ γγ γd
.F
γ γγ γi
qnet2= C
2
.N
c
.F
cs
.F
cd
.F
ci
+(γ γγ γ
s
D+γ γγ γ
1
d
1
) (N
q
-1). F
qs
.F
qd
.F
qi
+0.5.γ γγ γ
2 22 2
. .. .BN
γ γ γ γ
F
γ γγ γs
.F
γ γγ γd
.F
γ γγ γi
Bearing capacity of footing Bearing capacity of footing
on two layer on two layer
From general equation 2 From general equation 2
33-- Determine the bearing capacity Determine the bearing capacity
< q < q
net1 net1
P = 2(B+L) P = 2(B+L)
Pv = 0.5 Pv = 0.5 γγ
11
dd
11
22
+ + γγ
s s
D d D d
11
KK
s s
=1 =1--sin sinφφ
11
Af =BL Af =BL
Af
C Pd
Af
K P P
q q
s V
net net
1 1 1
2
tan
+
×
+ =
φ
26
Bearing capacity from in situ Bearing capacity from in situ
test test
From static cone penetration test From static cone penetration test
11-- for B<1.22m for B<1.22m
22-- for B>1.22m for B>1.22m
From dynamic cone penetration test From dynamic cone penetration test

qallowable =
15
c
q


qallowable = ( )
2
28 , 3
1 28 , 3
25 B
B qc +


q
allowable
=
20
Rd

Bearing capacity from in situ test Bearing capacity from in situ test
From standard penetration test SPT From standard penetration test SPT
11-- for B<1.22m and settlement 25mm for B<1.22m and settlement 25mm
but after Bowles 1977 but after Bowles 1977
22-- for B>1.22m and settlement 25mm for B>1.22m and settlement 25mm
but after Bowles 1977 but after Bowles 1977
cor all
N KPa q 98 , 11 ) ( =
2
28 , 3
1 28 , 3
99 , 7 ) ( |
¹
|

\
| +
=
B
B
N KPa q
cor all
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
25
33 , 0 1 16 , 19
S
B
D
N q
cor all
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ |
¹
|

\
| +
=
25
33 , 0 1
28 , 3
1 28 , 3
98 , 11
2
S
B
D
N
B
B
q
cor all
33 , 1 33 , 0 1 < |
¹
|

\
|
+
B
D
27
Combined footing Combined footing
Rectangular combined footing Rectangular combined footing
Q
1
Q
2
L
3
L
2
L
1
X
q
B
L
Section
Plan
Q
1
+Q
2
Design dimension of rectangular Design dimension of rectangular
combined footing combined footing
Determine the area of the footing Determine the area of the footing
Determine the location of the resultant of the Determine the location of the resultant of the
column loads column loads
For uniform distribution of soil pressure under For uniform distribution of soil pressure under
the foundation, the resultant of the column the foundation, the resultant of the column
loads should pass through the centroid of the loads should pass through the centroid of the
foundation.Thus, foundation.Thus,
) (
2 1
net all
q
Q Q
A
+
=
2 1
3 2
.
Q Q
L Q
X
+
=
) ( 2
1
X L L + =
28
Design dimension of rectangular Design dimension of rectangular
combined footing combined footing
Once the length L is determined,obtain the Once the length L is determined,obtain the
value of L value of L
11
Note that the magnitude of L Note that the magnitude of L
22
will be known and will be known and
depends on the location of the property line depends on the location of the property line
The width of the foundation then is The width of the foundation then is
3 2 1
L L L L − − =
L
A
B =
Combined footing Combined footing
Trapezoidal combined footing Trapezoidal combined footing
L
2
L
3
L
1
X
Q
1 Q
2
Q
1
+Q
2
B
1 B
2
L
Section
Plan
29
Design dimension of trapezoidal Design dimension of trapezoidal
combined footing combined footing
Determine the area of the footing Determine the area of the footing
And we have relation And we have relation
Determine the location of the resultant of the Determine the location of the resultant of the
column loads column loads
) (
2 1
net all
q
Q Q
A
+
=
2 1
3 2
.
Q Q
L Q
X
+
=
L
B B
A
2
2 1
+
=
Design dimension of trapezoidal Design dimension of trapezoidal
combined footing combined footing
From the property of a trapezoid, we have From the property of a trapezoid, we have
With Known values of With Known values of A,L,X A,L,X and and LL
22
we can find we can find
values of values of BB
11
and and B B
22
, Note that for a trapezoid, , Note that for a trapezoid,
3
2
2 1
2 1
2
L
B B
B B
L X
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+
= +
2 3
2
L
L X
L
< + <
30
Combined footing Combined footing
Cantilever footing Cantilever footing
Q
1
Q
2
R
1
R
2
S
e
L
1
B
2
Section
Plan
Design dimension of Design dimension of
Cantilever footing Cantilever footing
Design arm moment for soils reaction Design arm moment for soils reaction
strength R strength R
11
S’=S S’=S--e (value of e (value of ee is proposed by designer) is proposed by designer)
Design soils reaction strength Design soils reaction strength
'
1 1
S
S
Q R =
'
.
1
2 2
S
e Q
Q R − =
1 2 1 2
R Q Q R − + =
31
Design dimension of Design dimension of
Cantilever footing Cantilever footing
Design the dimension of first footing Design the dimension of first footing
C is length of column C is length of column
Design the dimension of second footing Design the dimension of second footing
all
net
q
R
A
1
1
=
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
2
2
1
C
e L
1
1
1
L
A
B =
all
net
q
R
A
2
2
=
2
2
2
L
A
B =
Rock quality Rock quality
Rock quality designation(RQD) is an index or Rock quality designation(RQD) is an index or
measure of the quality of a rock mass(Stagg and measure of the quality of a rock mass(Stagg and
Zienkiewicz 1968) used by many engineers.RQD Zienkiewicz 1968) used by many engineers.RQD
is computed from recovered core samples as is computed from recovered core samples as
A core advance of 1500mm produced a sample A core advance of 1500mm produced a sample
length of 1310mm consisting of dust,gravel,and length of 1310mm consisting of dust,gravel,and
intact pieces of rock.The sum of length of pieces intact pieces of rock.The sum of length of pieces
100mm or larger in length is 890mm.The recovery 100mm or larger in length is 890mm.The recovery
ratio L ratio L
rr
=1310/1500=0.87 and RQD=890/1500=0.59 =1310/1500=0.87 and RQD=890/1500=0.59
advance core of Length
100mm core of pieces intact of length > ∑
= RQD
32
Allowable Bearing capacity of Allowable Bearing capacity of
rock rock
The allowable bearing capacity is The allowable bearing capacity is
depending on geology,rock type,and depending on geology,rock type,and
quality(as RQD). quality(as RQD).
If RQD>0.8 would not require as high an If RQD>0.8 would not require as high an
FS as for RQD=0.4. FS as for RQD=0.4.
We take FS from 6 to 10 for RQD less We take FS from 6 to 10 for RQD less
than about 0.75 than about 0.75
Bearing capacity for sound Bearing capacity for sound
rock rock
1
)
2
45 ( tan 5
)
2
45 ( tan
4
6
+ =
+ =
+ =
q
c
q
N N
N
N
γ
φ
φ
Φ=45 degree for most rock except
limestone or shale where values
between 38 to 45 degree.
Similarly we could in most cases
estimate C
u
=5MPa as a conservative
value.
And finally we may reduce the ultimate
bearing capacity base on RQD as:
q
ult
=q
ult
(RQD)
2
For calculate bearing capacity
we use equation Terzaghi
33
Rang of properties for selected rock Rang of properties for selected rock
groups;data from several sources groups;data from several sources
Type of Type of
rock rock
Unit wt.(KN/m Unit wt.(KN/m
33
)) E(MPa.10 E(MPa.10
3) 3)
µ µ q q
u( u(
(Mpa) (Mpa)
Basalt Basalt 28 28 17 17--103 103 0.27 0.27--0.32 0.32 170 170--415 415
Granite Granite 26.4 26.4 14 14--83 83 0.26 0.26--0.30 0.30 70 70--276 276
Schist Schist 26 26 7 7--83 83 0.18 0.18--0.22 0.22 35 35--105 105
Limestone Limestone 26 26 21 21--103 103 0.24 0.24--0.45 0.45 35 35--170 170
Porous Porous
limestone limestone
-- 3 3--83 83 0.35 0.35--0.45 0.45 7 7--35 35
Sandstone Sandstone 22.8 22.8--23.6 23.6 3 3--42 42 0.20 0.20--0.45 0.45 28 28--138 138
Shale Shale 15.7 15.7--2.2 2.2 3 3--21 21 0.25 0.25--0.45 0.45 7 7--40 40
concrete concrete 15.7 15.7--23.6 23.6 variable variable 0.15 0.15 15 15--40 40
Settlement of shallow Settlement of shallow
foundation foundation
There are two types of settlement There are two types of settlement
11--Immediate settlement or elastic settlement S Immediate settlement or elastic settlement S
ee
for sandy soils for sandy soils
22--Consolidation settlement S Consolidation settlement S
cc
for fine grained for fine grained
soils soils
22--11--Primary consolidation settlement for soils Primary consolidation settlement for soils
normal normal
22--22--Secondary consolidation settlement for Secondary consolidation settlement for
organics soils organics soils
34
Immediate settlement on sandy soils Immediate settlement on sandy soils
Foundation could be considered fully flexible or Foundation could be considered fully flexible or
fully rigid fully rigid
11--A uniformly loaded, perfectly flexible A uniformly loaded, perfectly flexible
foundation resting on an elastic material such foundation resting on an elastic material such
as saturated clay will have a sagging profile as as saturated clay will have a sagging profile as
shown in shown in figure 1 figure 1,because of elastic ,because of elastic
settlement. settlement.
22--If the foundation is rigid and is resting on an If the foundation is rigid and is resting on an
elastic material such as clay,it will undergo elastic material such as clay,it will undergo
uniform settlement and the contact pressure will uniform settlement and the contact pressure will
be redistributed as shown in be redistributed as shown in figure 2 figure 2..
Type of foundation settlement Type of foundation settlement
Figure 1
Settlement profile
Settlement profile
Figure 2
35
Calculate immediate Calculate immediate
settlement settlement
Q
D
H
Soil
Rock
q
0
µ−Poisson’s ratio
E-Modulus of elasticity
Calculate immediate Calculate immediate
settlement settlement
At corner of the flexible foundation At corner of the flexible foundation
At center of the flexible foundation At center of the flexible foundation
Average settlement for flexible foundation Average settlement for flexible foundation
Settlement for rigid foundation Settlement for rigid foundation
2
) 1 (
2 0
α
µ − =
E
Bq
S
e
α µ ) 1 (
2 0
− =
E
Bq
S
e

|
|
¹
|

\
|
− +
+ +
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− +
+ +
=
1 1
1 1
ln
1
1
ln
1
2
2
2
2
m
m
m
m m
m m
π
α
B
L
m =
av e
E
Bq
S α µ ) 1 (
2 0
− =
r e
E
Bq
S α µ ) 1 (
2 0
− =
36
Value of Value of αα
Shape of Shape of
foundation foundation
Flexible foundation Flexible foundation Rigid Rigid
foundation foundation
Center Center Corner Corner Average Average
Circular Circular 11 0.64 0.64 0.85 0.85 0.79 0.79
Square Square 1.12 1.12 0.56 0.56 0.95 0.95 0.82 0.82
Rectangular Rectangular
L/B=1.5 L/B=1.5 1.36 1.36 0.68 0.68 1.15 1.15 1.06 1.06
L/B=5.0 L/B=5.0 2.1 2.1 1.05 1.05 1.83 1.83 1.7 1.7
L/B=10 L/B=10 2.54 2.54 1.27 1.27 2.25 2.25 2.1 2.1
Immediate settlement of Immediate settlement of
foundation on saturated clay foundation on saturated clay
Janbu et al.(1956)proposed an equation Janbu et al.(1956)proposed an equation
for evaluating the average settlement of for evaluating the average settlement of
flexible foundations on saturated clay soils flexible foundations on saturated clay soils
(Poisson’s ratio (Poisson’s ratio µ=0.5) µ=0.5)
E
B q
A A S
e
0
2 1
. =
37
Variation of A Variation of A
11
With H/B by Christian and With H/B by Christian and
Carrier(1978) Carrier(1978)
H/B H/B AA
11
Circle Circle L/B L/B
11 22 33 44 55
11 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36 0.36
22 0.47 0.47 0.53 0.53 0.63 0.63 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.64
44 0.58 0.58 0.63 0.63 0.82 0.82 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94
66 0.61 0.61 0.67 0.67 0.88 0.88 1.08 1.08 1.14 1.14 1.16 1.16
88 0.62 0.62 0.68 0.68 0.90 0.90 1.13 1.13 1.22 1.22 1.26 1.26
10 10 0.63 0.63 0.70 0.70 0.92 0.92 1.18 1.18 1.30 1.30 1.42 1.42
20 20 0.64 0.64 0.71 0.71 0.93 0.93 1.26 1.26 1.47 1.47 1.74 1.74
30 30 0.66 0.66 0.73 0.73 0.95 0.95 1.29 1.29 1.54 1.54 1.84 1.84
Variation of A Variation of A
22
With D/B by Christian With D/B by Christian
and Carrier(1978) and Carrier(1978)
D/B D/B AA
22
00 1 1
22 0.9 0.9
44 0.88 0.88
66 0.875 0.875
88 0.87 0.87
10 10 0.865 0.865
12 12 0.863 0.863
14 14 0.86 0.86
16 16 0.856 0.856
18 18 0.854 0.854
20 20 0.85 0.85
38
Consolidation settlement Consolidation settlement
For normally consolidated clay For normally consolidated clay σσ’’
0 0
≥ ≥ σσ’’
p p

o
o
o
e
H Cc
S
σ
σ σ ∆ +
+
×
= . log .
1
) 4 (
6
1
b m t
σ σ σ σ + + = ∆

s
L
W
Cc ∫

= .
100
(%)
2343 . 0
u P P
C I
48 . 0
22 '

= σ
83 . 0
04 . 7 '
u P
C = σ
689 . 0
0
0
'
'. 193 . 0 '

=
σ
σ σ
N
P
By Mayne & Mitchell
By Mitchell(1988)
By Mayne & Kemper(1988)
Consolidation settlement Consolidation settlement
For over consolidated clay For over consolidated clay σσ’’
0 0
<<σσ’’
p p
11--
22--
σ'
O
+ ∆ ∆∆ ∆
σ σσ σ
≤ ≤≤ ≤ σ'
P
o
o
o
e
H Cs
S
σ
σ σ ∆ +
+
= log
1
.

s
L
W
Cs ∫

= .
100
(%)
0463 , 0
σ'
O
+ ∆ ∆∆ ∆
σ σσ σ
> σ'
P
|
|
¹
|

\
| ∆ +
+
+
+
=
P
o
o o
P
o
e
H Cc
e
H Cs
S
'
'
log .
1
. '
log .
1
.
σ
σ σ
σ
σ
39
Tolerable Settlement of Tolerable Settlement of
building building
Settlement analysis is an important part of Settlement analysis is an important part of
the design and construction of foundation the design and construction of foundation
Large settlement of various component of Large settlement of various component of
structure may lead to considerable structure may lead to considerable
damage or may interfere with the proper damage or may interfere with the proper
functioning of the structure. functioning of the structure.
Settlement of foundation Settlement of foundation
δ
i
-total displacement at
point i
δ
ij-
different settlement
between point i and j
∆− relative deflection
η
ij
= angular
distortion
∆/L=deflection ratio
ω
δ

ij
ij
l
40
Limiting angular distortion as recommended Limiting angular distortion as recommended
by Bjerrum(Compiled from Wahls,1981) by Bjerrum(Compiled from Wahls,1981)
damage Category of potential damage Category of potential η ηη ηη ηη η
Danger to machinery sensitive to settlement Danger to machinery sensitive to settlement 1/750 1/750
Danger to frames with diagonals Danger to frames with diagonals 1/600 1/600
Safe limit for no cracking of building Safe limit for no cracking of building 1/500 1/500
First cracking of panel walls First cracking of panel walls 1/300 1/300
Difficulties with overhead cranes Difficulties with overhead cranes 1/300 1/300
Tilting of high rigid building becomes visible Tilting of high rigid building becomes visible 1/250 1/250
Considerable cracking of panel and brick walls Considerable cracking of panel and brick walls 1/150 1/150
Danger of structure damage to general building Danger of structure damage to general building 1/150 1/150
Safe limit for flexible brick walls L/H>4 Safe limit for flexible brick walls L/H>4 1/150 1/150
Safe limit include a factor of safety Safe limit include a factor of safety
Allowable settlement criteria:1955 U.S.S.R Allowable settlement criteria:1955 U.S.S.R
Building code(compiled from walhls,1981) Building code(compiled from walhls,1981)
Type of structure Type of structure Sand and hard clay Sand and hard clay Plastic clay Plastic clay
η ηη ηη ηη η
Civil and industrial building column foundation Civil and industrial building column foundation
For steel and reinforced concrete structure For steel and reinforced concrete structure 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
For end rows of columns with brick cladding For end rows of columns with brick cladding 0.007 0.007 0.001 0.001
For structure where auxiliary strain does not arise during For structure where auxiliary strain does not arise during
Nonuniform settlement of foundation Nonuniform settlement of foundation 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
Tilt of smokestacks,tower,silos,and so on Tilt of smokestacks,tower,silos,and so on 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.004
Crane ways Crane ways 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003
∆ ∆∆ ∆∆ ∆∆ ∆/L /L
Plain brick walls Plain brick walls
For multistory dwelling and civil building For multistory dwelling and civil building
At L/H<3 At L/H<3 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0004
At L/H>5 At L/H>5 0.0005 0.0005 0.0007 0.0007
For one For one--story mills story mills 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010 0.0010
41
Allowable average settlement for different building Allowable average settlement for different building
type(compiled from Wahls,1981) type(compiled from Wahls,1981)
Type of building Type of building Allowable average Allowable average
settlement(mm) settlement(mm)
Building with plain brick walls Building with plain brick walls
L/H>2.5 L/H>2.5 80 80
L/H<1.5 L/H<1.5 100 100
Building with brick walls,reinforced with Building with brick walls,reinforced with
reinforced concrete or reinforced brick reinforced concrete or reinforced brick
150 150
Framed building Framed building 100 100
Solid reinforced concrete foundation of Solid reinforced concrete foundation of
smokestacks,silos,towers,and so on smokestacks,silos,towers,and so on
300 300
Deep foundation Deep foundation
Need for pile foundation Need for pile foundation
11--When the upper soils layers are highly compressible When the upper soils layers are highly compressible
and too weak to support the load transmitted by the and too weak to support the load transmitted by the
superstructure, piles are used to transmit the load to superstructure, piles are used to transmit the load to
underlying bedrock or stronger soil layer. underlying bedrock or stronger soil layer.
22--When subjected to horizontal force, pile foundations When subjected to horizontal force, pile foundations
resist by bending while still supporting the vertical load resist by bending while still supporting the vertical load
transmitted by superstructure.This situation is transmitted by superstructure.This situation is
generally encountered in the design and construction generally encountered in the design and construction
of earth of earth--retaining structures and foundations of tall retaining structures and foundations of tall
structures that are subjected to strong wind and/or structures that are subjected to strong wind and/or
earthquake forces. earthquake forces.
42
Deep foundation Deep foundation
33--The expansive and collapsible soils may extend to a The expansive and collapsible soils may extend to a
great depth below the ground surface.These soils great depth below the ground surface.These soils
swell and shrink as the water content increase and swell and shrink as the water content increase and
decrease.If shallow foundations are used, the decrease.If shallow foundations are used, the
structure may suffer considerable damage.The pile structure may suffer considerable damage.The pile
have to extend into stable soil layer beyond the zone have to extend into stable soil layer beyond the zone
of possible moisture change. of possible moisture change.
44--The foundation of some structures, such as The foundation of some structures, such as
transmission towers,offshore platforms, and basement transmission towers,offshore platforms, and basement
mats below the water table, are subjected to uplifting mats below the water table, are subjected to uplifting
forces.Pile are sometime used for these foundations to forces.Pile are sometime used for these foundations to
resist the uplifting force. resist the uplifting force.
Deep foundation Deep foundation
55--Bridge abutments and piers are usually constructed Bridge abutments and piers are usually constructed
over pile foundations to avoid the possible loss of over pile foundations to avoid the possible loss of
bearing capacity that a shallow foundations might bearing capacity that a shallow foundations might
suffer because of soil erosion at the ground surface. suffer because of soil erosion at the ground surface.
Although numerous investigations, both theoretical Although numerous investigations, both theoretical
and experimental, have been conducted to predict the and experimental, have been conducted to predict the
behavior and the load behavior and the load--bearing capacity of piles in bearing capacity of piles in
granular and cohesive soils,the mechanisms are not granular and cohesive soils,the mechanisms are not
yet entirely understood and never be clear.The design yet entirely understood and never be clear.The design
of pile foundations may be considered somewhat of of pile foundations may be considered somewhat of
an”art”as a result of the uncertainties involved in an”art”as a result of the uncertainties involved in
working with some subsoil condition. working with some subsoil condition.
43
Types of piles Types of piles
Different types of piles are used in construction Different types of piles are used in construction
work,depending on the type of load to be work,depending on the type of load to be
carried, the subsoil conditions,and the water carried, the subsoil conditions,and the water
table.Pile can be divided into these categories: table.Pile can be divided into these categories:
--Steel piles Steel piles
--Concrete piles Concrete piles
--Wooden(timber)piles Wooden(timber)piles
--Composite piles Composite piles
44
Comparisons of piles made of different materials Comparisons of piles made of different materials
Pile type Pile type Usual Usual
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Maximum Maximum
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Usual load Usual load
(KN) (KN)
Approximate Approximate
maximum maximum
load(KN) load(KN)
Steel Steel 15 15--60 60 Practically Practically
unlimited unlimited
300 300--1200 1200 --
Advantages: Advantages: aa--Easy to handle with respect to cutoff and extension to the Easy to handle with respect to cutoff and extension to the
desired length desired length
bb--Can stand high driving stresses Can stand high driving stresses
cc--Can penetrate hard layer such as dense gravel,soft rock Can penetrate hard layer such as dense gravel,soft rock
dd--High load High load--carrying capacity carrying capacity
disadvantages: disadvantages: aa--Relatively costly material Relatively costly material
bb--High level of noise during pile driving High level of noise during pile driving
cc--Subject to corrosion Subject to corrosion
dd--HH--piles may be damaged or deflected from the vertical piles may be damaged or deflected from the vertical
during driving through hard layers or past major obstructions during driving through hard layers or past major obstructions
Comparisons of piles made of different materials Comparisons of piles made of different materials
Pile type Pile type Usual length Usual length
of pile(m) of pile(m)
Maximum Maximum
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Usual Usual
load load
(KN) (KN)
Approximate Approximate
maximum maximum
load(KN) load(KN)
Precast Precast
concrete concrete
precast::10 precast::10--15 15
Prestressed: Prestressed:
10 10--35 35
precast::30 precast::30
Prestressed: Prestressed:
60 60
300 300--
3000 3000
precast::800 precast::800--
900 900
Prestressed: Prestressed:
7500 7500--8500 8500
Advantages: Advantages: aa--Can be subjected to hard driving Can be subjected to hard driving
bb--Corrosion resistant Corrosion resistant
cc--Can be easy combined with concrete superstructure Can be easy combined with concrete superstructure
disadvantages: disadvantages: aa--Difficult to achieve proper cutoff Difficult to achieve proper cutoff
bb--Difficult to transport Difficult to transport
45
Comparisons of piles made of different materials Comparisons of piles made of different materials
Pile type Pile type Usual Usual
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Maximum Maximum
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Usual load Usual load
(KN) (KN)
Approximate Approximate
maximum maximum
load(KN) load(KN)
Cased cast Cased cast--
in place in place
concrete concrete
55--15 15 15 15--40 40 200 200--500 500 800 800
Advantages: Advantages: aa--Relatively cheap Relatively cheap
bb--Possibility of inspection before pouring concrete Possibility of inspection before pouring concrete
cc--Easy to extend Easy to extend
disadvantages: disadvantages: aa--Difficult to splice after concreting Difficult to splice after concreting
bb--Think casings may be damages during driving Think casings may be damages during driving
Comparisons of piles made of different materials Comparisons of piles made of different materials
Pile type Pile type Usual Usual
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Maximum Maximum
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Usual load Usual load
(KN) (KN)
Approximate Approximate
maximum maximum
load(KN) load(KN)
uncased uncased
cast cast--in place in place
concrete concrete
55--15 15 30 30--40 40 300 300--500 500 700 700
Advantages: Advantages: aa--Initially economical Initially economical
bb--Can be finished at any elevation Can be finished at any elevation
disadvantages: disadvantages: aa--Voids may be created if concrete is placed rapidly Voids may be created if concrete is placed rapidly
bb--In soft soils,the sides of the hole may cave in thus In soft soils,the sides of the hole may cave in thus
Squeezing the concrete Squeezing the concrete
46
Comparisons of piles made of different materials Comparisons of piles made of different materials
Pile type Pile type Usual Usual
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Maximum Maximum
length of length of
pile(m) pile(m)
Usual load Usual load
(KN) (KN)
Approximate Approximate
maximum maximum
load(KN) load(KN)
Wood Wood 10 10--15 15 30 30 100 100--200 200 270 270
Advantages: Advantages: aa--Economical Economical
bb--Permanently submerged piles are fairly resistant to decay Permanently submerged piles are fairly resistant to decay
cc--Easy to handle Easy to handle
disadvantages: disadvantages: aa-- Decay above water table Decay above water table
bb--Can be damaged in hard driving Can be damaged in hard driving
cc--Low load Low load--bearing capacity bearing capacity
dd--Low resistance to tensile load when splices Low resistance to tensile load when splices
Typical concrete pile Typical concrete pile



Pile
Shape*



D
(mm)

Area of
cross
section
(cm²)



Perimeter
(mm)


Number of strands
12.7-mm 11.1-mm
diameter diameter

Minimum
effective
prestress
force (kN)


Section
modulus
(m³ x 10
-3
)
Design bearing
capacity (kN)
Concrete strength
(MN/m²)

34.5 41.4
S
O
S
O
S
O
S
O
S
O
S
O
S
O
S
O
254
254
305
305
356
356
406
406
457
457
508
508
559
559
610
610


645
536
929
768
1265
1045
1652
1368
2090
1729
2581
2136
3123
2587
3658
3078
1016
838
1219
1016
1422
1168
1626
1346
1829
1524
2032
1677
2235
1854
2438
2032
4
4
5
4
6
5
8
7
10
8
12
10
15
12
18
15
4
4
6
5
8
7
11
9
13
11
16
14
20
16
23
19


312
258
449
369
610
503
796
658
1010
836
1245
1032
1508
1280
1793
1486
2.737
1.786
4.719
3.097
7.489
4.916
11.192
7.341
15.928
10.455
21.844
14.355
29.087
19.107
37.756
34.794
556
462
801
662
1091
901
1425
1180
1803
1491
2226
1842
2694
2231
3155
2655

778
555
962
795
1310
1082
1710
1416
2163
1790
2672
2239
3232
2678
3786
3186

47
Practical list of typical air and steam hammers Practical list of typical air and steam hammers
Maker of
hammer*
Model
no.
Type of
hammer
Rated energy
(kN-m)
Blows per
minute
Ram weight
(kN)
V
V
V
MKT
V
V
R
MKT
R
V
R
MKT
V
V
MKT
MKT
MKT
V
3100
540
060
OS-60
040
400C
8/0
S-20
5/0
200-C
150-C
S-14
140C
08
S-8
11B3
C-5
30-C
Single acting
Single acting
Single acting
Single acting
Single acting
Differential
Single acting
Single acting
Single acting
Differential
Differential
Single acting
Differential
Single acting
Single acting
Double acting
Double acting
Double acting
407
271
244
244
163
154
110
82
77
68
66
51
49
35
35
26
22
10
58
48
62
55
60
100
35
60
44
98
95-105
60
103
50
55
95
110
133
449
182
267
267
178
178
111
89
78
89
67
62
62
36
36
22
22
13

Practical list of typical diesel hammers Practical list of typical diesel hammers
Maker of
hammer*
Model
no.
Rated energy
(kN-m)
Blows per minute Piston weight
(kN)
K
M
K
K
M
K
MKT
K
V
L
M
V
L
MKT
MKT
L
K150
MB70
K-60
K-45
M-43
K-35
DE70B
K-25
N-46
520
M-14S
N-33
440
DE20
DE-10
180

379.7
191.2-86
143.2
123.5
113.9-51.3
96
85.4-57
68.8
44.1
35.7
35.3-16.1
33.4
24.7
24.4-16.3
11.9
11.0
45-60
38-60
42-60
39-60
40-60
39-60
40-50
39-60
50-60
80-84
42-60
50-60
86-90
40-50
40-50
90-95
147
71
59
44
42
34
31
25
18
23
13
13
18
9
5
8

48
Pile driven formulas Pile driven formulas
To develop the desired load To develop the desired load--carrying capacity,a point bearing carrying capacity,a point bearing
pile must penetrate the dense soil layer sufficiently or have pile must penetrate the dense soil layer sufficiently or have
sufficient contact with a layer of rock.This requirement cannot sufficient contact with a layer of rock.This requirement cannot
always be satisfied by driving a pile to a predetermined depth always be satisfied by driving a pile to a predetermined depth
because soil profile vary.For that reason, several equations because soil profile vary.For that reason, several equations
have been developed to calculate the ultimate capacity of a pile have been developed to calculate the ultimate capacity of a pile
during driving.These dynamic equations are widely used in the during driving.These dynamic equations are widely used in the
field to determine whether the pile has reached a satisfactory field to determine whether the pile has reached a satisfactory
bearing value at the predetermined depth.One of the earliest of bearing value at the predetermined depth.One of the earliest of
these dynamic equations these dynamic equations--commonly referred to as the commonly referred to as the
Engineering News Record (ENR) formula Engineering News Record (ENR) formula--is derived from the is derived from the
work work--energy theory;that is : Energy imparted by the hammer energy theory;that is : Energy imparted by the hammer
per blow =(pile resistance)(penetration per hammer blow) per blow =(pile resistance)(penetration per hammer blow)
ENR equations ENR equations
Where W Where W
RR
--Weight of the ram Weight of the ram
hh--height of fall of ram(Cm) height of fall of ram(Cm)
SS--penetration of the pile per penetration of the pile per
hammer blow(Cm) hammer blow(Cm)
CC--a constant a constant
C=2.54 Cm for drop hammer C=2.54 Cm for drop hammer
C=0.254Cm for steam hammer C=0.254Cm for steam hammer
Factor of safety FS=6 Factor of safety FS=6
C S
h W
Q
R
u
+
=
49
ENR equations for single and double acting ENR equations for single and double acting
hammer hammer
Where E Where E--hammer efficiency hammer efficiency
HH
EE
--rated energy of the hammer rated energy of the hammer
SS--penetration of the pile per hammer penetration of the pile per hammer
blow(Cm) blow(Cm)
CC--a constant a constant
C=0.254 Cm C=0.254 Cm
Factor of safety FS=4 to 6 Factor of safety FS=4 to 6
C S
H E
Q
E
u
+
=
.
Modified ENR equations Modified ENR equations
Where E Where E--hammer efficiency hammer efficiency
hh--height of fall of the ram(Cm) height of fall of the ram(Cm)
SS--penetration of the pile per hammer penetration of the pile per hammer
blow(Cm) blow(Cm)
WW
PP
--weight of the pile weight of the pile
nn--coefficient of restitution between coefficient of restitution between
the ram and the pile cap the ram and the pile cap
C=0.254 Cm C=0.254 Cm
Factor of safety FS=4 to 6 Factor of safety FS=4 to 6
P R
P R R
u
W W
W n W
C S
h EW
Q
+
+
+
=
2
50
Michigan state highway commission equations Michigan state highway commission equations
After testing on 88 pile(1965) After testing on 88 pile(1965)
Where W Where W
RR
--weight of the ram weight of the ram
WW
PP
--weight of the pile weight of the pile
HH
EE
--rated energy of the hammer rated energy of the hammer
SS--penetration of the pile per hammer penetration of the pile per hammer
blow(M) blow(M)
CC--a constant a constant
C=2.54.10 C=2.54.10
––33
MM
Factor of safety FS= 6 Factor of safety FS= 6
P R
P R E
u
W W
W n W
C S
H
Q
+
+
+
=
2
25 , 1
Danish equations Danish equations
Where E Where E--hammer efficiency hammer efficiency
EE
PP
--modulus of elasticity of the pile modulus of elasticity of the pile
HH
EE
--rated energy of the hammer rated energy of the hammer
SS--penetration of the pile per hammer penetration of the pile per hammer
blow(M) blow(M)
LL--length of the pile length of the pile
AA
PP
--area of the pile cross section area of the pile cross section
Factor of safety FS= 6 Factor of safety FS= 6
P P
E
E
u
E A
L EH
S
EH
Q
2
+
=
51
Pacific Coast Uniform Building Code equations Pacific Coast Uniform Building Code equations
After International Conference of building After International Conference of building
officials,1982 officials,1982
Where E Where E--hammer efficiency hammer efficiency
HH
EE
--rated energy of the hammer rated energy of the hammer
SS--penetration of the pile per hammer penetration of the pile per hammer
blow(M) blow(M)
LL--length of the pile length of the pile
EE
PP
--modulus of elasticity of pile modulus of elasticity of pile
n=0.25 for steel piles and n=0.1 for another n=0.25 for steel piles and n=0.1 for another
piles piles
Factor of safety FS= 4 to 5 Factor of safety FS= 4 to 5
P P
u
P R
P R
E
u
E A
L Q
S
W W
nW W
EH
Q
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+
=
) (
Value of E & n Value of E & n
Hammer type Hammer type Efficiency,E Efficiency,E
Single and double acting hammers Single and double acting hammers 0.7 0.7--0.85 0.85
Diesel hammers Diesel hammers 0.8 0.8--0.9 0.9
Drop hammers Drop hammers 0.7 0.7--0.9 0.9
Pile material Pile material Coefficient of restitution Coefficient of restitution
n n
Cast iron hammer and concrete pile Cast iron hammer and concrete pile
without cap without cap
0.4 0.4--0.5 0.5
Wood cushion on steel pile Wood cushion on steel pile 0.3 0.3--0.4 0.4
Wooden pile Wooden pile 0.25 0.25--0.3 0.3
52
Equation for estimation of pile Equation for estimation of pile
capacity capacity
QQ
UU
=Q =Q
PP
+Q +Q
ss
Where Q Where Q
UU
is ultimate load carrying capacity is ultimate load carrying capacity
of pile of pile
QQ
PP
is load carrying capacity of the pile is load carrying capacity of the pile
point point
QQ
SS
is frictional resistance is frictional resistance
Pile foundation Pile foundation
L
Weak
soil
Rock
Q
p
Q
u
= Q
p
L
L
b
Weak
soil
Q
p
Q
s
Strong soil layer
Q
u
= Q
p
+Q
s
Strong soil layer
L
Weak
soil
Q
p
Q
u
= Q
s
Q
s
53
Minimum pile embedment depth Minimum pile embedment depth
into founding soil strata into founding soil strata
From civil engineering association forum the From civil engineering association forum the
minimum pile embedment depth into bearing minimum pile embedment depth into bearing
stratum is 3 times diameter of pile. stratum is 3 times diameter of pile.
Replace the pile with one having a different helix Replace the pile with one having a different helix
configuration. The replacement pile must not configuration. The replacement pile must not
exceed any applicable maximum embedment exceed any applicable maximum embedment
length and either (A) meet the minimum effective length and either (A) meet the minimum effective
torsion resistance criterion and all applicable torsion resistance criterion and all applicable
embedment criteria shown in Table for the embedment criteria shown in Table for the
design load type (s), or (B) pass proof testing. design load type (s), or (B) pass proof testing.
Replacement pile embedment Replacement pile embedment
criteria criteria
Design Load type Design Load type Replacement Pile Embedment Criterion Replacement Pile Embedment Criterion
Tension Tension The last helix must be embedded at The last helix must be embedded at
least three times its own diameter least three times its own diameter
beyond the position of the first helix beyond the position of the first helix
of the replaced pile. of the replaced pile.
Compression Compression The last helix must be embedded The last helix must be embedded
beyond the position of the first helix beyond the position of the first helix
of the replaced pile. of the replaced pile.
Shear/Overturning Shear/Overturning Embedment must satisfy the specified Embedment must satisfy the specified
minimum. minimum.
54
Load Load--carrying Capacity of the pile point,Q carrying Capacity of the pile point,Q
PP
from Terzaghi’s equation from Terzaghi’s equation
QQ
PP
=A =A
PP
.q .q
PP
=A =A
PP
(CN (CN
* *
cc
+q’N +q’N
* *
qq
))
Where A Where A
PP
--area of pile tip area of pile tip
CC--cohesion of the soil supporting the pile tip cohesion of the soil supporting the pile tip
qq
PP
--unit point resistance unit point resistance
q’ q’--effective vertical stress at the level of the pile effective vertical stress at the level of the pile
tip tip
NN
**
CC
,N ,N
**
qq
--bearing capacity factor after Caquot & bearing capacity factor after Caquot &
Kerisel Kerisel
φ tg
e N
q
7 *
=
φ cot ) 1 (
* *
− =
q C
N N
Load Load--carrying Capacity of the pile point,Q carrying Capacity of the pile point,Q
PP
from Eric Gervreau in Euro code 2000 from Eric Gervreau in Euro code 2000
QQ
PP
=A =A
PP
.q .q
PP
=A =A
PP
(1.3CN (1.3CN
* *
cc
+50N +50N
* *
qq
))
Where A Where A
PP
--area of pile tip area of pile tip
CC--cohesion of the soil supporting the pile cohesion of the soil supporting the pile
tip tip
qq
PP
--unit point resistance unit point resistance
NN
**
CC
,N ,N
**
qq
--bearing capacity factor after bearing capacity factor after
Caquot & Kerisel Caquot & Kerisel
φ tg
e N
q
7 *
=
φ cot ) 1 (
* *
− =
q C
N N
55
Critical depth Critical depth
In the case of calculation of In the case of calculation of q’ q’, the normal , the normal
practice is to assume that practice is to assume that q’ q’ increases increases
linearly with depth from zero at ground linearly with depth from zero at ground
level to a maximum value level to a maximum value q’ q’
(max) (max)
at the tip at the tip
of pile. of pile.
However, extensive research carried out However, extensive research carried out
by Vessic(1967) has indicated that by Vessic(1967) has indicated that q’ q’
varies linearly from the ground surface up varies linearly from the ground surface up
to a limited depth only beyond which to a limited depth only beyond which q’ q’,,
remains constant irrespective of the depth remains constant irrespective of the depth
of embedment of pile. of embedment of pile.
Critical depth Critical depth
This phenomenon was attributed to arching of This phenomenon was attributed to arching of
SAND SAND..
This depth within which This depth within which q’ q’ varies linearly with varies linearly with
depth may be called as the depth may be called as the critical depth critical depth DD
cc
..
From the curves given by From the curves given by Poulos Poulos (1980), we (1980), we
may write may write
For 28< For 28<φφ<36.5 we have D <36.5 we have D
cc
/B=5+0.24( /B=5+0.24(φφ--28) 28)
For 36.5< For 36.5<φφ<42 we have D <42 we have D
cc
/B=7+2.35( /B=7+2.35(φφ--36.5) 36.5)
56
Critical depth Critical depth
From Caquot & Kerisel D From Caquot & Kerisel D
cc
=B/4.N* =B/4.N*
qq
(2/3) (2/3)
In Bearing Capacity Technical Guidance by Career In Bearing Capacity Technical Guidance by Career
Development and Resources for Geotechnical Development and Resources for Geotechnical
Engineers Engineers
--Dc = 10B, for Dc = 10B, for loose loose silts and sands silts and sands
--Dc = 15B, for Dc = 15B, for medium medium dense silts and sands dense silts and sands
--Dc = 20B, for Dc = 20B, for dense dense silts and sands silts and sands
--loose when loose when N<10 or N<10 or φ φφ φφ φφ φ<30 <30
--medium dense when medium dense when 10<N<30 or 30< 10<N<30 or 30<φ φφ φφ φφ φ<36 <36
--dense when dense when 30<N or 36< 30<N or 36<φ φφ φφ φφ φ
Critical depth Critical depth
This critical concept implies that This critical concept implies that ff
ss
for cohesionless for cohesionless
soil for a driven pile varies linearly with depth up to soil for a driven pile varies linearly with depth up to
depth depth DD
cc
only and beyond this depth only and beyond this depth ff
ss
remains remains
constant. constant.
Note that the application concept Note that the application concept DD
cc
in case the soil is in case the soil is
homogeneous for the whole depth of embedment homogeneous for the whole depth of embedment DD..
Since no information is available on the layered Since no information is available on the layered
system of soil, this approach has to be used with system of soil, this approach has to be used with
caution. Tomlinson(1986) Bowles(1988) has not use caution. Tomlinson(1986) Bowles(1988) has not use
of this concept . of this concept .This indicates that this method has This indicates that this method has
not yet found favor with the designer. not yet found favor with the designer.
57
Load Load--carrying Capacity of the pile point in sand carrying Capacity of the pile point in sand
from ESA condition after Meyerhof (1976) from ESA condition after Meyerhof (1976)
Q Q
PP
=A =A
PP
.q .q
PP
=A =A
PP
q’N q’N
* *
qq
Where A Where A
PP
--area of pile tip area of pile tip
qq
PP
--unit point resistance unit point resistance
q’ q’--effective vertical stress at the level of effective vertical stress at the level of
the pile tip the pile tip
NN
**
qq
--bearing capacity factor bearing capacity factor
Q Q
PP
=A =A
pp
q’N q’N
**
qq
<A <A
pp
qq
ii
qq
ii
=50N =50N
* *
qq
tg tgφ φφ φφ φφ φ(KN/M (KN/M
22
))
As per Tomlinson, the maximum base resistance As per Tomlinson, the maximum base resistance
qq
pp
is normally limited 11000KPa. is normally limited 11000KPa.
φ tg
e N
q
7 *
=
Load Load--carrying Capacity of the pile point in carrying Capacity of the pile point in
sand from ESA condition after Meyerhof sand from ESA condition after Meyerhof
(1976) (1976)
The angle The angle φφ to be use for determination to be use for determination
NN
qq
**
are are
For driven pile For driven pile φ φ = = φφ
11
For bored pile For bored pile φ φ = = φφ
11
--3 3
Where Where φφ
11
is angle of internal friction prior to is angle of internal friction prior to
installation of pile. installation of pile.
58
Load Load--carrying Capacity of the pile point in carrying Capacity of the pile point in
saturated clay from TSA condition saturated clay from TSA condition
QQ
PP
=A =A
PP
.q .q
PP
=A =A
pp
CC
UU
N N
* *
cc
= 9C = 9C
UU
AA
PP
Where A Where A
PP
--area of pile tip area of pile tip
qq
PP
--unit point resistance unit point resistance
NN
**
cc
--bearing capacity factor for bearing capacity factor for φφ=0 N =0 N
* *
CC
=9 =9
Carrying capacity of piles in layered soil Carrying capacity of piles in layered soil
from meyerhof equation from meyerhof equation
59
Carrying capacity of piles in layered soil Carrying capacity of piles in layered soil
If the pile toe terminates in a layer of dense sand or If the pile toe terminates in a layer of dense sand or
stiff clay overlying a layer of soft clay or loose sand stiff clay overlying a layer of soft clay or loose sand
there is a danger of it punching through to the weaker there is a danger of it punching through to the weaker
layer. layer.
To account for this, Meyerhof's equation is used. To account for this, Meyerhof's equation is used.
The base resistance at the pile toe is The base resistance at the pile toe is
qq
p p
= q = q
22
+ (q + (q
11
--qq
22
)H / 10B but < q )H / 10B but < q
11
where where
--B is the diameter of the pile B is the diameter of the pile
--H is the thickness between the base of the pile and H is the thickness between the base of the pile and
the top of the weaker layer the top of the weaker layer
--qq
22
is the ultimate base resistance in the weak layer is the ultimate base resistance in the weak layer
--qq
11
is the ultimate base resistance in the strong layer. is the ultimate base resistance in the strong layer.
Relation between ultimate point resistance of pile Relation between ultimate point resistance of pile
and depth in sand stratum beneath weak soil layer and depth in sand stratum beneath weak soil layer
from Terzaghi 1982 from Terzaghi 1982
60
Relation between ultimate point resistance of pile Relation between ultimate point resistance of pile
and depth in sand stratum beneath weak soil layer and depth in sand stratum beneath weak soil layer
from Terzaghi 1982 from Terzaghi 1982
Frictional Resistance Q Frictional Resistance Q
SS
Where P Where P--perimeter of the pile section perimeter of the pile section
∆∆LL--incremental pile length over incremental pile length over
which P and f are taken constant which P and f are taken constant
ff--unit friction resistance at any unit friction resistance at any
depth Z depth Z
f L P Q
s
. .∆ ∑ =
61
Skin friction from Skin friction from ββ Method Method
f=βσ’
0
σ’
0
-effective vertical stress at center of layer
As Tomlinson, the maximum frictional resistance is
limited 110KPa
From Meyehof 1976
φ<28 we have β=0.44
28<φ<35 we have β=0.75
35<φ<37 we have β=1.20
Skin friction from Skin friction from ββ Method Method
62
Skin friction from Skin friction from ββ Method Method
The angle The angle φφ to be use for determination to be use for determination ββ are are
For driven pile For driven pile φ φ = 0.75 = 0.75φφ
11
+10 +10
For bored pile For bored pile φ φ = = φφ
11
--3 3
Where Where φφ
11
is angle of internal friction prior to is angle of internal friction prior to
installation of pile. installation of pile.
Skin friction from Skin friction from αα Method Method
Skin friction for clayey soil for driven pile
f=αxCu α=1 for Cu=<25KPa
α=0.5 for Cu=>70KPa
α=1-(Cu-25)/90 for 25KPa<Cu<70KPa API(1984)
α=1 for Cu<=35KPa
α=0.5 for Cu=>80KPa
α=1-(Cu-35)/90 for 35KPa<Cu<80KPa Semple and Rigden(1984)
Skin friction for clayey soil for Bored pile or drilled shafts
f=αxCu α=0.45 for London clay Skempton(1959)
α=0.7 time value for driven diplacement pile Flaming et al(1985)
α=0 for Z<1.5 Reese and Oneill(1985)
63
Tomlinson Tomlinson αα method method
Case 1:pile driven through sands or sandy Case 1:pile driven through sands or sandy
gravels into stiff clay strata. gravels into stiff clay strata.
Case 2:pile driven through soft clay into Case 2:pile driven through soft clay into
stiff clay strata. stiff clay strata.
Case 3:pile driven into a firm to stiff clay Case 3:pile driven into a firm to stiff clay
without any overlying strata. without any overlying strata.
The value of The value of α αα αα αα α vary with C vary with C
uu
and L/B ratio and L/B ratio
Tomlinson Tomlinson αα method method
64
Negative skin friction Negative skin friction
Negative skin friction is a downward drag force exerted Negative skin friction is a downward drag force exerted
on the pile by the soil surrounding it.This action can on the pile by the soil surrounding it.This action can
occur under conditions such as the following: occur under conditions such as the following:
11--if a fill of clay soil is placed over a granular soil layer if a fill of clay soil is placed over a granular soil layer
into witch a pile is driven, the fill will gradually into witch a pile is driven, the fill will gradually
consolidate. This consolidation process will exert a consolidate. This consolidation process will exert a
downward drag force on the pile during the period of downward drag force on the pile during the period of
consolidation. consolidation.
22--if a fill of granular soil is placed over a layer of soft if a fill of granular soil is placed over a layer of soft
clay,it will induce the process of consolidation in the clay clay,it will induce the process of consolidation in the clay
layer and thus exert a downward drag on the pile layer and thus exert a downward drag on the pile
33--lowering of the water table will increase the vertical lowering of the water table will increase the vertical
effective stress on the soil at any depth,which will induce effective stress on the soil at any depth,which will induce
consolidation settlement in clay.If a pile is located in the consolidation settlement in clay.If a pile is located in the
clay layer,it will be subjected to a downward drag force. clay layer,it will be subjected to a downward drag force.
Clay fill over granular soil
Hf
Sand
Clay
fill
L
Granular soil fill over clay
Hf
L
Sand
fill
Clay
Neutral
plane
L1
65
Clay fill over granular soil Clay fill over granular soil
Where: Where:
K’=earth pressure coefficient =Ko=1 K’=earth pressure coefficient =Ko=1--sin sinφφ
σσ’’
oo
=vertical effective stress at any depth Z =vertical effective stress at any depth Z
= = γγ’’
ff
.Z. .Z.
γγ’’
f f
=effective unit weight of fill Clay =effective unit weight of fill Clay
δδ=soil =soil--pile friction angle = 0.5 pile friction angle = 0.5φφ to 0.7 to 0.7φφ
δ σ tan ' '
0
K f
n
=
2
tan ' '
) tan ' ' (
2
0
δ γ
δ γ
H PK
Zd PK Q
f
z
H
f n
= =

Granular soil fill over clay Granular soil fill over clay
In this case, the evidence indicates that the In this case, the evidence indicates that the
negative skin stress on the pile may exist from negative skin stress on the pile may exist from
Z=0 to Z=L Z=0 to Z=L
11
,which is referred to as the neutral ,which is referred to as the neutral
depth.The neutral depth may be given as depth.The neutral depth may be given as
(Bowles 1982) (Bowles 1982)
Hence,the total drag force is Hence,the total drag force is
'
' 2
'
'
2
1
1
γ
γ
γ
γ
f f f f f f
H H H L
L
H L
L −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
− −
=

+ = + =
1
0
2
1
1
2
tan ' '
tan ' ' tan ) ' ' ( '
L
f f Z f f n
PK L
H L PK d Z H PK Q
δ γ
δ γ δ γ γ
66
Determine End bearing capacity of Determine End bearing capacity of
pile foundation from SPT test pile foundation from SPT test
Driven Method
C
Sand q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.45 N=average SPT value in By Martin et al(1987)
q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.4 local failure zone By Decourt(1982)
q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.04 Ls/D Ls=Length of pile in sand Mayerhof(1976)
D=width of pile C<=0.4
Silt, sandy silts q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.35 N=average SPT value in Matin et al.(1987)
Glacial Coarse to fine siltq
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.25 local failure zone Thorburn and Mac Vicar(1987)
Residual sandy silt q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.25 Decourt(1982)
Residual Clayey silt q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.2 Decourt(1982)
Clay q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.2 Matin et al.(1987)
Clay q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.12 Decourt(1982)
All soil q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.3 ForL/D>=5 Shioi and Fukui(1982)
If L/D<5,C=0.1+0.04L/D
for closed end pile
and C=0.06L/D
for open end pile
Determine End bearing capacity of Determine End bearing capacity of
pile foundation from SPT test pile foundation from SPT test
Cast in place method
Coarse grained soil q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.15 q
p
<3.0MPa Shioi and Fukui(1982)
q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.15 q
p
<7.5MPa Yamashita et al(1987)
Fine grained soil q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.15 q
p
=0.09(1+0.16Lt) Yamashita et al(1987)
Lt=pile length
Bored pile
Sand q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.1 Shioi and Fukui(1982)
Clay q
p
=CN(Mpa) 0.15 Shioi and Fukui(1982)
67
Determine skin friction from SPT Determine skin friction from SPT
test test
Driven Methode A B
Coarse grained soil q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 0 2 N=average SPT Mayerhof(1956)
along Shaft Shioi and Fukui(1982)
Coarse grained &fine soil q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 10 3.3 3<N<50 Decourt(1982)
Fine grained soil q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 0 10 Shioi and Fukui(1982)
Cast in place methode
Coarse grained soil q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 30 2 qf<200Kpa Yamashita et al(1987)
q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 0 5 Shioi and Fukui(1982)
Fine grained soil q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 0 5 qf<150Kpa Yamashita et al(1987)
q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 0 10 Shioi and Fukui(1982)
Bored pile
Coarse grained soil q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 0 1 Findlay(1984)&Shioi & Fukui(1982)
q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 0 3.3 Wright &Reese(1979)
Fine graned soil q
f
=A+BN(Kpa) 10 3.3 qf<170Kpa Decourt(1982)
Load Load--Carrying capacity of pile point resting on Carrying capacity of pile point resting on
rock rock
The ultimate unit point resistance in The ultimate unit point resistance in
rock(Goodman,1980) is approximately rock(Goodman,1980) is approximately
qq
pp
=q =q
uu--RR
(N (N
φ φφ φφ φφ φ
+1) +1)
Where N Where N
φφ
=tg =tg
22
(45+ (45+φφ/2) /2)
qq
uu--RR
=unconfined compression strength of rock =unconfined compression strength of rock
φφ=drained angle of friction of rock =drained angle of friction of rock
The allowable load The allowable load--carrying capacity of the pile carrying capacity of the pile
point.thus point.thus
[ ]
FS
A N q
Q
P R u
all p
) 1 (
) (
+
=
− φ
FS=3
68
Typical unconfined compressive strength of rock Typical unconfined compressive strength of rock
Rock type Rock type qq
uu--RR
(Mpa) (Mpa)
Sandstone Sandstone 70 70--140 140
Limestone Limestone 105 105--210 210
Shale Shale 35 35--70 70
Granite Granite 140 140--210 210
Marble Marble 60 60--70 70
5
) (
) (
lab R u
design R u
q
q


=
Drilled Shafts Extending into Drilled Shafts Extending into
Rock Rock
Based on the procedure developed by Reese and Based on the procedure developed by Reese and
O’Neill(1988 O’Neill(1988--1989),we can estimate the bearing load 1989),we can estimate the bearing load
capacity of drilled shafts extending into Rock as capacity of drilled shafts extending into Rock as
follows: follows:
1 1--Calculate the ultimate unit side resistance as: Calculate the ultimate unit side resistance as:
f=6.564q f=6.564q
uu
0.5 0.5
≤0.15q ≤0.15q
uu
Where q Where q
uu
=unconfined compression strength or Rock =unconfined compression strength or Rock
core core
22--Calculate the ultimate capacity based on side Calculate the ultimate capacity based on side
resistance only: resistance only:
Qu= Qu=ππDD
ss
Lf Lf
69
Calculate the settlement Se of the shaft at the top of the Rock Calculate the settlement Se of the shaft at the top of the Rock
socked: socked:
Se=Se(s)+Se(b) Se=Se(s)+Se(b)
Where Se(s)=elastic compression of the drilled shaft within the Where Se(s)=elastic compression of the drilled shaft within the
socket, assuming on side resistance socket, assuming on side resistance
Se(b)=settlement of the base Se(b)=settlement of the base
However Se(s)= However Se(s)=
And Se(b)= And Se(b)=
C C
E A
L
U
Q
mass S
f
E D
I
U
Q
70
Where Q Where Q
uu
=Ultimate friction load =Ultimate friction load
AA
cc
=Cross =Cross--section area of the drilled shaft section area of the drilled shaft
in the socked in the socked
DD
ss
=Diameter of the drilled shaft =Diameter of the drilled shaft
EE
cc
=Young’s modulus of the concrete =Young’s modulus of the concrete
EE
mass mass
=Young’s modulus of the rock mass =Young’s modulus of the rock mass
II
ff
=Elastic influence coefficient (read on =Elastic influence coefficient (read on
chart) chart)
L=Depth of embedment in rock L=Depth of embedment in rock
If Se is less than 10mm, then the ultimate load If Se is less than 10mm, then the ultimate load--
carrying capacity from this way is correct. carrying capacity from this way is correct.
If Se≥ 10mm, there way be rapid, progressive side If Se≥ 10mm, there way be rapid, progressive side
shear failure in the rock socket ,resulting in a shear failure in the rock socket ,resulting in a
complete loss of side resistance. In that case the complete loss of side resistance. In that case the
ultimate capacity is equal to the point resistance : ultimate capacity is equal to the point resistance :

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+
=
5 . 0
300 1 10
3
3
S
S
S
c U
C
D
C
A q Qu
δ
71
Where C Where C
ss
=Spacing of discontinuities =Spacing of discontinuities
δδ=Thickness of individual discontinuity =Thickness of individual discontinuity
qq
uu
=unconfined compression strength of =unconfined compression strength of
the rock beneath the base of the socket or the rock beneath the base of the socket or
drilled shaft concrete, whichever is smaller. drilled shaft concrete, whichever is smaller.
Note that applies for horizontally stratified Note that applies for horizontally stratified
discontinuities with C discontinuities with C
ss
>305 mm and >305 mm and δδ<5mm <5mm
Typical values of angle of friction of rocks Typical values of angle of friction of rocks
Rock type Rock type Angle of friction Angle of friction
φ φφ φφ φφ φ(deg) (deg)
Sandstone Sandstone 27 27--45 45
Limestone Limestone 30 30--40 40
Shale Shale 10 10--20 20
Granite Granite 40 40--50 50
Marble Marble 25 25--30 30
72
Group pile Group pile
Pile cap
L
d d
B
g
L
g
d
d
d d
Group pile efficiency Group pile efficiency
Determination of the load bearing capacity of group Determination of the load bearing capacity of group
piles is extremely complicated and has not yet been piles is extremely complicated and has not yet been
fully resolved.When the piles are placed close to each fully resolved.When the piles are placed close to each
other,a reasonable assumption is that the stress other,a reasonable assumption is that the stress
transmitted by the piles to the soil will overlap,thus transmitted by the piles to the soil will overlap,thus
reducing the load bearing capacity of the reducing the load bearing capacity of the
pile.Ideally,the piles in a group should be spaced so pile.Ideally,the piles in a group should be spaced so
that the load bearing capacity of the group should be that the load bearing capacity of the group should be
no less than the sum of the bearing capacity of the no less than the sum of the bearing capacity of the
individual piles.In practice,the minimum center to individual piles.In practice,the minimum center to
center pile spacing center pile spacing d d is is 2.5D 2.5D and in ordinary situations and in ordinary situations
is actually about is actually about 3D 3D to to 3.5D 3.5D..
73
Efficiency factor Efficiency factor
Many structural engineers used a simplified Many structural engineers used a simplified
analysis to obtained the group efficiency for analysis to obtained the group efficiency for
friction piles (ratio between friction piles (ratio between QQ
ss
& Q & Q
uu
is over is over
80% 80%),particularly in sand.The piles may act in one ),particularly in sand.The piles may act in one
of two way: of two way:
11--as a block with dimension as a block with dimension LL
gg
*B *B
gg
*L *L
22--as individual piles as individual piles
If the piles act as the block, the frictional capacity is If the piles act as the block, the frictional capacity is
QQ
g(u) g(u)
=f =f
av av
PP
gg
L note P L note P
gg
=2(n =2(n
11
+ n + n
22
--2)d+4D 2)d+4D
For each pile acting individually For each pile acting individually
QQ
(u) (u)
=f =f
av av
LP LP
Efficiency factor Efficiency factor
Where Where ηη=group efficiency =group efficiency
QQ
g(u) g(u)
=ultimate load bearing capacity of =ultimate load bearing capacity of
group pile group pile
QQ
(u) (u)
=ultimate load bearing capacity of =ultimate load bearing capacity of
each pile each pile
) (
) (
u
u g
Q
Q

= η
2 1
2 1
4 ) 2 ( 2
n Pn
D d n n + − +
= η
74
Converse Labarre equation Converse Labarre equation
θ η

− + −
− =
2 1
1 2 2 1
90
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
n n
n n n n
) / ( (deg) d D arctg = θ
Pile in sand Pile in sand
Model test results on group piles in sand have shown Model test results on group piles in sand have shown
that group efficiency can be that group efficiency can be greater than 1 greater than 1 because because
soil compaction zones are created around the piles soil compaction zones are created around the piles
during driving.Based on the experimental observations during driving.Based on the experimental observations
of the behavior of group piles in sand to date,two of the behavior of group piles in sand to date,two
general conclusions may be drawn: general conclusions may be drawn:
11--for driven group piles in sand with for driven group piles in sand with d>3D, Q d>3D, Q
g(u) g(u)
==Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣQQ
(u) (u)
22--for bored group piles in sand at conventional for bored group piles in sand at conventional
spacing spacing
d=3D,Q d=3D,Q
g(u) g(u)
may be taken may be taken 2/3 to 3/4 time 2/3 to 3/4 time Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣQQ
(u) (u)
75
Pile in clay Pile in clay
The ultimate load bearing capacity of group piles in clay The ultimate load bearing capacity of group piles in clay
may be estimated with the following procedure: may be estimated with the following procedure:
11--Determine Determine Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣQQ
uu
=n =n
11
nn
22
(Q (Q
PP
+Q +Q
ss
) ; ) ;
Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣQQ
uu
=n =n
11
nn
22
[9C [9C
uu
AA
pp
++Σα Σα Σα Σα Σα Σα Σα ΣαPC PC
uu
L] L]
22--determine the ultimate capacity by assuming that the determine the ultimate capacity by assuming that the
piles in the group act as a block with dimension piles in the group act as a block with dimension
Lg*B Lg*B
gg
*L.The skin resistance of the block is: *L.The skin resistance of the block is:
QQ
s(g) s(g)
==Σ2α Σ2α Σ2α Σ2α Σ2α Σ2α Σ2α Σ2αCu Cu( (( (( (( (LL
gg
+B +B
gg
)L )L
Calculate the point bearing capacity from Calculate the point bearing capacity from
QQ
P(g) P(g)
=N =N
**
cc
CC
uu
LL
gg
BB
gg
, N , N
**
CC
=5.14(1+0.2B =5.14(1+0.2B
gg
/L /L
gg
)(1+0.2L/B )(1+0.2L/B
gg
)<9 )<9
Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣQQ
(u) (u)
=Q =Q
s(g) s(g)
+Q +Q
P(g) P(g)
33--Compare the 2 results,The lower of the two value is Compare the 2 results,The lower of the two value is
QQ
g(u) g(u)
Piles in rock Piles in rock
For point bearing piles resting on For point bearing piles resting on
rock,most building codes specify that rock,most building codes specify that
QQ
g(u) g(u)
==Σ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣΣ ΣQQ
(u) (u)
,provided that the minimum ,provided that the minimum
center to center spacing of pile is center to center spacing of pile is
D+300mm D+300mm.For H .For H--piles and piles with piles and piles with
square cross sections,the magnitude of D square cross sections,the magnitude of D
is equal to the diagonal dimension of the is equal to the diagonal dimension of the
pile cross section pile cross section
76
Settlement of piles and groups in Settlement of piles and groups in
sands and Gravels sands and Gravels
The present Knowledge is not sufficient to The present Knowledge is not sufficient to
evaluate of pile and pile groups. For most evaluate of pile and pile groups. For most
engineering structures, the loads to be applied engineering structures, the loads to be applied
to a pile group will be governed by consideration to a pile group will be governed by consideration
of consolidation settlement rather than by of consolidation settlement rather than by
bearing capacity of the groups divided by an bearing capacity of the groups divided by an
arbitrary factor of safety of 2 or 3. It has been arbitrary factor of safety of 2 or 3. It has been
found from field observation that the settlement found from field observation that the settlement
of a pile groups is many times the settlement of of a pile groups is many times the settlement of
a single pile at the corresponding working load. a single pile at the corresponding working load.
Settlement of piles and groups in Settlement of piles and groups in
sands and Gravels sands and Gravels
The settlement of a group is affected by the The settlement of a group is affected by the
shape and size of group, length of pile, method shape and size of group, length of pile, method
of installation of pile and possibly many other of installation of pile and possibly many other
factors. factors.
There are no equations that would There are no equations that would
satisfactorily predict the settlement of pile in satisfactorily predict the settlement of pile in
SAND. It is better to rely on load tests for SAND. It is better to rely on load tests for
piles in SAND. piles in SAND.
In this chapter we try to show some equations In this chapter we try to show some equations
for estimation the settlement of pile in SAND. for estimation the settlement of pile in SAND.
77
Settlement of pile shaft Settlement of pile shaft
Where : L Where : L--pile length pile length
EE
PP
--elastic modulus of pile elastic modulus of pile
material,for concrete pile E material,for concrete pile E
PP
=21000MPa =21000MPa
ζζ=0.5 =0.5
AA
PP
--area of pile tip area of pile tip
p p
all
f
all
p
E A
L Q Q
Se
) (
1
ξ +
=
Settlement of pile cause by load at Settlement of pile cause by load at
the pile point the pile point
Where : B Where : B--Width of pile Width of pile
EE--elastic modulus of soil elastic modulus of soil
µµ--Poisson ratio Poisson ratio
) 1 ( 85 . 0
2
2
µ − =
E
B q
Se
all
p
78
Settlement of pile cause by the load Settlement of pile cause by the load
transmitted along the pile shaft transmitted along the pile shaft
Where : B Where : B--Width of pile Width of pile
EE--elastic modulus of soil elastic modulus of soil
µµ--Poisson ratio Poisson ratio
LL--pile length pile length
PP--perimeter of the pile section perimeter of the pile section
f
all
f
I
E
B
PL
Q
Si ) 1 (
2
3
µ − =
B
L
I
f
35 . 0 2 + =
Consolidation settlement of group piles Consolidation settlement of group piles
The settlement of pile group in clay can be estimated The settlement of pile group in clay can be estimated
by assuming that the total load is carried by an by assuming that the total load is carried by an
equivalent raft located at depth of equivalent raft located at depth of 2L/3 where L 2L/3 where L is the is the
length of the piles.It may be assumed,that the load is length of the piles.It may be assumed,that the load is
spread from the perimeter of the group at a slope of spread from the perimeter of the group at a slope of 1 1
horizontal to 4 horizontal to 4 vertical vertical to allow for that part of the to allow for that part of the
load transferred to the soil by skin friction.The vertical load transferred to the soil by skin friction.The vertical
stress increment at any depth below the equivalent stress increment at any depth below the equivalent
raft may be estimated by assuming in turn that the raft may be estimated by assuming in turn that the
total load is spread to the underlying soil at slope of total load is spread to the underlying soil at slope of 1 1
horizontal to 2 vertical horizontal to 2 vertical.The consolidation settlement .The consolidation settlement
is than calculated as the shallow foundation. is than calculated as the shallow foundation.
79
Equivalent raft concept Equivalent raft concept
2L/3
L
1:4
1:2
Q
B’&L’
' ' L B
Q
q =
d d
L’=D+2d+L/3
B
g
L
g
d d
d
B’=D+d+L/3
q
Thank you for your attention Thank you for your attention
Mr. Sieng Mr. Sieng
PEOU PEOU
Master Master
science of science of
geotechnical geotechnical
engineering engineering

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