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The term ‘Green Revolution’ is a general one that is applied to successful agricultural experiments in many developing countries.

With the experience of agricultural development started in Mexico by Norman Borlaug in 1943 judged as a success, the Rockefeller Foundation sought to spread it to other nations. India is one of the countries where it was most successful. Green Revolution is the significant increase in agricultural productivity resulting from the introduction of high-yield varieties of grains, the use of pesticides, and improved management techniques. It was a technology package comprising material components of improved high yielding varieties of two staple cereals (rice and wheat), irrigation or controlled water supply and improved moisture utilization, fertilizers, and pesticides, and associated management skills. Historically, world's worst recorded food disaster occurred 1943 in British-ruled India. Known as the Bengal Famine, estimated 4 million people died of hunger that year in eastern India (which included today's Bangladesh). Initially, this catastrophe was attributed to an acute shortfall in food production in the area. When the British India in 1947; India continued to be haunted by memories the Bengal Famine.

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It was therefore natural that food security was one of the main items on free India's agenda. This awareness led, on one hand, to the Green Revolution in India and, on the other, legislative measures to ensure that businessmen would never again be able to hoard food for reasons of profit. The Green Revolution, spreading over the period from1967/68 to 1977/78, changed India’s status from a food-deficient country to one of the world's leading agricultural nations. The major benefits of the Green Revolution were experienced mainly in northern and northwestern India between 1965 and the early 1980s; the program resulted in a substantial increase in the production of food grains, mainly wheat and rice. Until 1967 the government largely concentrated on expanding the farming areas. But the population

The action came in the form of the Green Revolution. the Green Revolution continued with this quantitative expansion of farmlands. . So. the decision was made to have two crop seasons per year. Double cropping was a primary feature of the Green Revolution. It developed new strains of high yield variety seeds. The Indian Council for Agricultural Research (which was established by the British in 1929) was reorganized in 1965 and then again in 1973. This called for an immediate and drastic action to increase yield. The area of land under cultivation was being increased from 1947 itself. Using seeds with superior genetics was the scientific aspect of the Green Revolution. Water for the second phase now came from huge irrigation projects. Dams were built and other simple irrigation techniques were also adopted.was growing at a much faster rate than food production. Though other methods were required. Instead of one crop season per year. The one-season-per-year practice was based on the fact that there is only one rainy season annually. But this was not enough to meet the rising demand. the expansion of cultivable land also had to continue. mainly wheat and rice and also millet and corn. There were three basic elements in the method of the Green Revolution Continuing expansion of farming areas Double-cropping in the existing farmland Using seeds with improved genetics.

Increase in Production / yield. 4 . 3.Advantage to farmers including their economic situation improving. Paddy rice increased by 91% along with sugar cane up 41% and income of farmers by 20% after Green Revolution. 5. and wheat increased steadily during that period. The production increases can be . mechanizing improved working conditions. synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and improved crop varieties developed through the conventional. sciencebased methods available at the time.Technologies The Green Revolution spread technologies that had already existed before.New seeds developed with better yield and disease fighting capability.Yields of rice.Better land use by employing two and three crop pattern.Better scientific methods applied as per requirement of farms. These technologies included use of pesticides. 2 . maize. Cereal production more than doubled in developing nations between the years 1961–1985. control on many insects and pests. Another advantage of 'the Green Revolution' is that it decreased the amount of human labour. some of the negative and positive impact of Green revolution can be enlisted as follows: Positives: 1 . ADVANTAGES In Indian context. but had not been widely used outside industrialized nations.

there is increased weeds. fertilizer. . 2. The Green Revolution also created plenty of jobs not only for agricultural workers but also industrial workers by the creation of related facilities such as factories and hydroelectric power stations DISADVANTAGES OF GREEN REVOLUTION Some of the major disadvantages of Green Revolution observed till now are: 1. 3. insecticides and fertilizers many birds and friendly insects have been lost and this is a big loss in long term. 5. at least in the case of Asian rice. and seed development.Chemicals in water: Chemicals used in farms go down and contaminate ground water which affects public health. depth which was 40 to 50 feet earlier. lands do not get resting time nor the farmers employ proper weed removal system.attributed roughly equally to irrigation. 6: Water table has gone down: Water table has gone down due to lack of water harvesting systems and now there is need sometimes to pull water from 300 to 400 ft.Pest infestation gone up: Pests which could be controlled by bio degradable methods have become resistant to many pesticides and now these chemical pesticides have become non effective. Also.Degradation of land: Due to change in land use pattern and employing two and three crop rotation every year land quality has gone down and yield has suffered.Loss of bio diversity: Due to heavy use of chemical pesticides.Weeds increase: Due to heavy crop rotation pattern. due to heavy chemical fertilizer inputs land has become hard and carbon material has gone down. 4. thus.

which is expensive and unaffordable by the poor farmers. A NEED FOR SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION India’s agriculture has been in decline in recent years and growing at a far slower pace than the overall economy. which grows about 3% a year. leading to depletion of underground water table. The developed methods of modern irrigation drilled out the water table below the ground. ringing alarm bells about food security. Some two-thirds of its population still live off agriculture.7: Loss of old seeds: We have started using new seeds and lost old once since new once give better yield but due to this we have lost many important greens in these seeds. Thus. That is less than half the 8% economic expansion forecast by the government for the financial year to March 2009. . so that the ratio of crops produced to energy input has decreased over time. In 2006. • New machinery replaced manual labour leading to unemployment and rural-urban migration and made people to work at low wages. • The consumption of the chemicals and pesticides used to kill pests by humans in some cases may be increasing the likelihood of cancer in some of the rural villages using them. the energy input to produce a crop has increased faster. Moreover. it was forced to import grain for the first time in years. • While agricultural output increased as a result of the Green Revolution. the fertility of the soil was lost due to the increased use of chemical fertilizers. Some other disadvantages are: • Poor farmers could not afford HYV seed • Some borrowed and ended up with large debts HYV seeds need more water and fertilizer.

The government has identified agriculture as a key area for economic reform and called for changes to boost output of staples such as wheat. rice. or its 1. We have to take lessons from mistakes of Green Revolution and move forward to give the Nation a Second Green Revolution for the development of our country’s economy taking due care of our environment. pulses and vegetables and bring down food prices for public interest.  .India needs a second Green Revolution to boost food supplies.1 billion people will face huge social turmoil. the country’s top farm scientist has warned.