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First Edition, 2007

ISBN 978 81 89940 33 1

© All rights reserved.

Published by:

Global Media
1819, Bhagirath Palace,
Chandni Chowk, Delhi-110 006
Email: globalmedia@dkpd.com

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Freelancer

2. Journalism

3. News

4. News Agencies

5. Sports, Science, Gotcha and Environmental Journalism

6. Scientific Literature

7. Freedom of Press

8. Journalism Ethics and Standards

9. Freedom of Information Legislation

10. How to Become Freelance Writer

Some freelancers may provide written estimates of work and request deposits from clients. and business documentation. with their full-time counterparts being. percentage upfront. Payment for freelance work also varies greatly. expanding markets and helping to build it into one of the largest economic segments for many economies. Development for freelancing has been especially high for software development. computer programming and graphic design. . The term was first coined by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) in his well-known historical romance Ivanhoe to describe a "medieval mercenary warrior. respectively. Only in modern times has the term morphed from a noun (a freelance or a freelancer) into various verb forms (a journalist who freelances). while others may perform work based on verbal agreements. some consultants have adopted a value-based pricing method based on the perceived value of the results to the client. payment arrangements may be upfront. Freelancers may charge by the day or hour. Some require clients to sign written contracts." The phrase later transitioned to a figurative noun around the 1860s and was then officially recognized as a verb in 1903 by various authorities in etymology such as the Oxford English Dictionary.Freelancer A freelancer or freelance worker is a person who pursues a profession without a long- term commitment to any one employer. Instead of a flat rate or fee. and many other professional and creative services." Fields where freelancing is especially common include journalism and other forms of writing. By custom. The Internet has opened up many freelance opportunities. perhaps enforceable through the very nature of the work. and an adverb (she worked freelance). The author and poet Ernest William Hornung (1866 . for my part. or upon completion. consulting. The practice is widespread: for example.1921) also used the term in "The Gift of the Emperor" to describe something of poor quality: "I warmed to my woes. It was no easy matter to keep your end up as a raw freelance of letters. the police and the military. information technology. Freelance practice varies greatly. bounty hunters and mercenaries are freelancers. or on a per-project basis. I was afraid I wrote neither well enough nor ill enough for success.

A major drawback is the uncertainty of work — and thus income — and lack of company benefits such as health insurance or retirement pay. Another drawback is that freelancers often must handle contracts. The experience also allows the opportunity to build up a portfolio of work and cultivate a network of clients in hopes of obtaining a permanent position. marketing.For more complex projects. often associating the practice with personal failure (an inability to find work with a major employer) and even criminality . accounting. and other business functions by themselves. some Americans and most Europeans view freelancing as a socially elevated occupation. legal issues. freelancing is viewed as either above or below the social system. In keeping with Scott's original coinage. many Asian countries appear to follow Hormung by holding low regard for freelancers. Benefits and drawbacks Freelancers generally enjoy a greater variety of assignments than in regular employment. a contract may set a payment schedule based on milestones or outcomes. However. Freelancers vs. and almost always have more freedom to choose their work schedule. they can sometimes turn into a significant out-of-pocket expense. Society From a cultural standpoint. Working hours can extend beyond the standard working day and working week. If they do choose to pay for professional services.

Journalism Journalism is a discipline of collecting. while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable. magazines and. most recently. and are almost always ed. news media organizations usually and proofread their reports prior to publication. analyzing. provincial and local levels. news magazines and broadcast sources.. more often those reports are written. producing news articles on short deadlines. and often may compose their reports in the field. radio. They also use the telephone. and journalists report and write on a wide variety of subjects: politics on the international. education. and presenting news regarding current events. hobbies and recreation. While under pressure to be first with their stories. in the newsroom. lifestyles. pets. or for news publications and outlets with a select group of subscribers. when. where. Journalists are usually expected and required to go out to the scene of a story to gather information for their reports. general circulation specialty publications like trade and hobby magazines. verifying. television. why and how. what. Journalists can report for general interest news outlets like newspapers. . Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public. and explaining the significance and effect of events or trends. health and medicine. Reporting Journalism has as its main activity the reporting of events — stating who. quality and style. the computer and the internet to gather information. the World Wide Web through the Internet. Journalism exists in a number of media: newspapers. sports. adhering to each organization's standards of accuracy. the office space where journalists and ors work together to prepare news content. However. sex and relationships. clothing... The subject matter of journalism can be anything and everything. issues and people. food. national. News-oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of " (attributed to Phil Graham). because journalists often record important events. economics and business on the same four levels. trends. Those who practice journalism are known as journalists.

people in the subject or area. For example. Radio reporters may also write the introduction to the story read by a radio news anchor. Broadcast journalism Radio journalists must gather facts to present them fairly and accurately. although this style is used more for straight or hard news reports rather than features. or to provide leads to other subjects of stories yet to be reported. Feature stories are usually written in a looser style that usually depends on the subject matter of the report. online news pages and others. They are also expected to develop their investigative skills to better research and report stories. while hobby publications can be more feature-oriented. Each genre can have its own requirements for researching and writing reports. both interviews with people involved in the story and background sounds that help characterize the story. hobby magazines. with less emphasis on the inverted pyramid. news magazines. but also must find and record relevant and interesting sounds to add to their reports. shots of the . general interest magazines. newsletters. newspaper journalists in the United States have traditionally written reports using the inverted pyramid style. especially if they cover a specific subject or area (a "beat") are expected to cultivate sources. either to explain the details of a story. Trade publications can be more news- oriented. that they can communicate with. Print journalism Print journalism can be split into several categories: newspapers. including on-camera interviews with people involved in the story. so that.Journalists. and may also answers questions live from the anchor. and in general granted more space (see Feature-writing below). private publications. the least important facts will be automatically cut from the bottom. Television journalists rely on visual information to illustrate and characterize their reporting. if the story must be cut because there is not enough space for it. Written hard news reports are expected to be spare in the use of words. News magazine and general interest magazine articles are usually written in a different style. trade magazines. ors usually ensure that reports are written with as few words as possible. and to list the most important information first.

The debate about whether blogging is really journalism rages on (see blogging entry below). television reporters also may write the introductory script that a television news anchor would read to set up their story. Variations of journalism Feature journalism . have met with limited success. such as Slate and Salon. However. and graphics usually produced at the station to help frame the story. New reports that were set to be released at expected times now can be published as soon as they are written and ed. for which a subscripton is required to view its contents — but some outlets. such as the New York Times website. Blogs now can create news as well as report it. on-line journalism. and the profound penetration to anyone with a computer and web browser. increasing the deadline pressure and fear of being scooped many journalists must deal with. and blur the dividing line between news and opinion. The speed at which news can be disseminated on the web. Like radio reporters. offer current news for free but archived reports and access to opinion columnists and other non-news sections for a periodic fee. On-line journalism The fast and vast growth of the Internet and World Wide Web has spawned the newest medium for journalism. in part because they do or did charge subscription fees. Attempts to start unique web publications. Most news websites are free to their users — one notable exception being the Wall Street Journal website. The bulk of on-line journalis has been the extension of existing print and broadcast media into the web via web versions of their primary products. the growth of blogs as a source of news and especially opinion on the news has forever changed journalism.scene where the story took place. Both radio and television journalists usually do not have as much "space" to present information in their reports as print journalists. have greatly increased the quantity and variety of news reports available to the average web user.

many of whom specialize in this form of in- depth journalism. Gay Talese. Hunter S. because their content and methods did not adhere to accepted journalistic standards. usually meeting standards of high quality. the reporter must also find a creative and interesting way to write the article. and are combined with photographs. Some television news shows experimented with alternative formats. Sports journalism . Journalists must work even harder to avoid clichéd images and words when writing the lead and the rest of the article. In the last half of the 20th Century the line between straight news reporting and feature writing blurred as more and more journalists and publications experimented with different approaches to writing an article. features. and many magazines fan more features than straight news. as do most television and radio news organizations. and combinations of the two. Often the lead of a feature article is dictated by its subject matter. because while a journalist must apply the same amount of effort to accurately gather and report the facts of the story." They may also be highlighted by typographic effects or colors. However. a majority of newspapers still maintain a clear distinction between news and features. Writing features can be more demanding than writing straight news stories. Feature articles usually are longer than straight news articles. Other U. Urban and alternative weekly newspapers went even further blurring the distinction. Thompson and other journalists used many different approaches to writing news articles. National Public Radio. Tom Wolf. The lead must grab the reader's attention yet accurately embody the ideas of the article. on the other hand.S. drawings or other "art. or the first one or two paragraphs of the story.Newspapers and periodicals often contain features (see under heading feature style at article news style) written by journalists. and many TV shows that claimed to be news shows were not considered as such by many critics. public radio news organizations have achieved similar results. especially the lead. is considered a good example of a good mixture of straight news reporting.

time-consuming and expensive — requiring teams of journalists. Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism. or use of the company's legal staff to secure documents under freedom of information laws. the prominence of sports in Western culture has justified the attention of journalists to not just the competitive events of sports. in which journalists' reporting conveys information on science topics to the public. Sports journalism in the United States has traditionally been written in a looser. computers to analyze public-record databases. While some critics don't consider sports journalism to be true journalism. . can be complicated. but not all. immoral and illegal behavior by individuals. long- distance travel. including newspapers. more creative and more opinionated tone than traditional journalistic writing. Science journalists must understand and interpret very detailed.Sports journalism covers many aspects of human athletic competition. Many. including several medical doctors who cover medicine. months of research. businesses and government agencies. but also to athletes and the business of sports. in which journalists investigate and expose unethical. An emphasis on the accurate description of statistical performances of athletes is also an important part of sports journalism. magazines. the emphases on accuracy and underlying fairness is still a part of sports journalism. journalists covering science have training in the sciences they cover. as well as cover disputes within the scientific community with a balance of fairness to both sides but also with a devotion to the facts. Science journalism. interviews (sometimes repeated interviews) with numerous people. Scientific journalists also must choose which developments in science merit news coverage. technical and sometimes jargon-laden information and render it into interesting reports that are comprehensible to consumers of news media. Investigative journalism Investigative journalism. and is an integral part of most journalism products. however. and radio and television news broadcasts.

writer Walter Lippmann and American philosopher John Dewey debated over the role of journalism in a democracy. this kind of reporting is often the first to suffer from budget cutbacks or interference from outside the news department. as well as people who seek attention. models and photographers. and can win awards and recognition to the journalists involved and the media outlet that did the reporting. area of journalism that grew in stature in the 20th Century is 'celebrity' or 'people' journalism. including movie and stage actors. less reputable. to the point of these journalists behaving unethically in order to provide coverage. and accusations of gotcha journalism. A&E Network and The Biography Channel. and Extra. Access Hollywood. and numerous other television productions and thouasands of websites. and in that it often covers celebrities obssessively. and people thrust into the attention of the public. However. it can bring the attention of the public and government problems and conditions that the public deem need to be addressed. syndicated television shows like Entertainment Tonight. other notable people in the entertainment industry. magazines like People and Us Weekly. Inside ion. such as people who do something newsworthy. musical artists. which focuses on the personal lives of people. The Insider. Most other news media provide some coverage of celebrities and people. celebrity journalism has become the focus of national tabloid newspapers like the National Enquirer. as modern journalism was just taking form. Role of journalism in society In the 1920's. . Celebrity journalism differs from feature writing in that it focuses on people who are either already famous or are especially attractive. done well. Investigative reporting done poorly can also expose journalists and media organizations to negative reaction from subjects of investigations and the public. such as politicians. Once the province of newspaper gossip columnists and gossip magazines. cable networks like E!. primarily celebrities. have come to characterize celebrity journalism. Paparazzi.Because of its inherently confrontational nature. 'Celebrity' or 'People' journalism Another. photographers who would follow celebrities incessantly to obtain potentially embarrassing photographs.

Over time. it was in the public forum that decisions should be made after discussion and debate. etc. It's important to note that while there is an assumption of equality. the journalist's role was to inform the public of what the elites were doing. and so an intermediary was needed to filter news for the masses. Experts . Dewey believes the shared knowledge of many is far superior to a single individual's knowledge. his idea has been implemented in various degrees. Lippman put it this way: The public is not smart enough to understand complicated. When elites spoke. That was the role of journalists. and is more commonly known as "community journalism. Dewey believed that journalists should take in the information. Furthermore. It was also to act as a dog over the elites as the public had the final say with their votes. then the best ideas would bubble to the surface. In Lippman's world. Therefore the public needed someone to interpret the decisions or concerns of the elite to make the information plain and simple. In Dewey's world. journalists listened and recorded the information. journalists are able to engage citizens and the experts/elites in the proposition and generation of content. politicians. the public was too consumed with their daily lives to care about complex public policy. His reasoning behind this was that the public was not in a position to deconstruct a growing and complex flurry of information present in modern society. believed the public was not only capable of understanding the issues created or responded to by the elite.e. In the meantime. but should report on issues differently than simply passing on information. catching the flow of information that is handed down from experts/elites. The journalist became the middleman. When issues were throughly vetted. policy makers. bureacrats. Lippmann understood that journalism's role at the time was to act as a mediator or translator between the public and policymaking elites. In this new paradigm. and passed it on to the public for their consumption. the elite (i. distilled it. Dewey. on the other hand.) would keep the business of power running. Dewey still celebrates expertise." This concept of Community Journalism is at the center of new developments in journalism. Effectively that kept the public at the bottom of the power chain. Dewey believed journalists not only had to inform the public. political issues. then weigh the consequences of the policies being enacted by the elites on the public. scientists. Lippmann believed that the public would affect the decision making of the elite with their vote.Their differing philosophies still characterize a debate about the role of journalism in society and the nation-state. a journalist's role changed.

• Abstain from reporting or otherwise participating in the research and writing about a subject in which the journalist has a personal stake or bias that cannot be set aside. illustrating many aspects of a conflict rather than siding with one. Dewey's approach is a better descriptor of how many journalists see their role in society. • Use careful judgment when organizing and reporting information. businesses and other actors. and dialogue lie at the heart of a democracy. • Check every fact reported. • Fully attribute information gathered from other published sources. • Be careful about granting confidentiality to sources (news organizations usually have specific rules that journalists must follow concerning grants of confidentiality). but there is not the hierarchical structure present in Lippman's understanding of journalism and society. • Use multiple original sources of information. While Lippman's journalistic philosophy might be more acceptable to government leaders. conversation. and cite the sources of this information in reports. • Approach researching and reporting a story with a balance between objectivity and skepticism. Professional and ethical standards Journalists are expected to follow a stringent code of journalistic conduct that requires them to. • Report without bias. how much of society expects journalists to function. may criticize some of the excesses committed by journalists. especially if the subject of the report is controversial. • Decline gifts or favors from any subject of a report. some newspapers also note when an article uses information from previous reports). Americans.and scholars are welcome in Dewey's framework. see Journalism sourcing. debate. According to Dewey. • Find and report every side of a story possible. for example. o For more information on using sources. should original sources not be available (to not do so is considered plagiarism. among other things: • Use original sources of information. enabling people to make informed decisions on the issues of the time. but they tend to expect journalists to serve as dogs on government. including interviews with people directly involved in a story. Recognition of excellence in journalism . original documents and other direct sources of information. and avoid even the appearance of being influenced. and. whenever possible. in turn.

trusting too much to anecdote. naive or unwary reporters and ors alike may fall prey to public relations. ors may sacrifice reporters in distant news . complacent or biased. In the television industry. or through failure to check enough sources. Young reporters may be blind to issues affecting the elderly. duPont-Columbia University Awards for excellence in radio and television journalism. But ors can get tired. An or may be blind to a favorite reporter's omissions. The Pulitzer Prize. of course. and in what depth. they may simply be unaware of them. bias can creep into a story through a reporter's choice of facts to summarize. producers or news directors whose job is to check reporters' work at various stages. for what audience. Failing to uphold standards Such a code of conduct can. in the real world. As much as reporters try to set aside their prejudices. Journalists who believe they are being fair or objective may give biased accounts -. administered by Columbia University in New York City. (See Media bias.) Provincial ors also may be ill-equipped to weigh the perspective (or check the facts of) a correspondent reporting from a distant city or foreign country.by reporting selectively. magazines and broadcast media for excellence in various kinds of journalism. And. universities and foundations that recognize excellence in journalism.) Even in routine reporting.) A news organization's budget inevitably reflects decision-making about what news to cover. News organizations provide ors. Those decisions may reflect conscious or unconscious bias. be difficult to uphold consistently.There are several professional organizations. propaganda or disinformation. and the Scripps Howard Foundation gives the National Journalism Awards in 17 categories. hear and report dissenting voices. is awarded to newspapers. A 20-year veteran of the "police beat" may be deaf to rumors of departmental corruption. When budgets are cut. lazy. prejudices or fabrications. (See Jayson Blair. or seek fresh perspectives. The Society of Professional Journalists gives the Sigma Delta Chi Award for journalism excellence. or giving a partial explanation of actions. Publications marketed to affluent suburbanites may ignore urban problems. (See News management. the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences gives awards for excellence in television journalism. The Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism gives the Alfred I.

often by restricting opinion columns to the orial page and its facing or "op-ed" (opposite the orials) page. publishers and consumers of journalism draw a distinction between reporting — "just the facts" — and opinion writing. Unsigned orials are traditionally the official opinions of the paper's orial board. Reporting versus orializing Generally.bureaus. reduce the number of staff assigned to low-income areas. can try to use their powers over journalists to influence how news is reported and published. especially if there is limited time or space for a story. while others defend it as the only way to attempt to provide . has made it a practice to reveal examples of executives who try to influence news coverage. while op-ed pages may be a mixture of syndicated columns and other contributions. of executives who do not abuse their powers over journalists. Complex stories often require summarizing and interpretation of facts. Stories involving great amounts of interpretation are often labelled "news analysis. The practice has been sharply criticized by journalists and others as being highly unethical and sensational. such as those on the CBS-TV news show 60 Minutes and by Geraldo Rivera. The limited time for each story in a broadcast report rarely allows for such distinctions. However. frequently with some attempt to balance the voices across some political or social spectrum. especially advertising sales executives. One journalism magazine. the distinction between reporting and opinion can break down. and of journalists who resist such pressures." but still run in a paper's news columns. Columbia Journalism Review. owners and other corporate executives. currently on the Fox News cable channel. or wipe entire communities from the publication's zone of interest. Journalists usually rely on top management to create and maintain a "firewall" between the news and other departments in a news organization to prevent undue influence on the news department. and by hundreds of American local television reporters conducting investigations. Ambush journalism Refers to aggressive tactics practiced by journalists to suddenly confront with questions people who otherwise do not wish to speak to a journalist. The practice has particularly been applied by television journalists. Publishers.

where the story. including better access to public events. their officials and policies. These privileges extend from the legal rights of journalists but are not guaranteed by those rights.those subject to it an opportunity to comment for a report. Gotcha journalism Refers to the deliberate manipulation of the presentation of facts in a report in order to portray a person or organization in a particular way that varies from an accurate portrayal based on balanced review of the facts available. Many subjects of reporting have claimed to have been subjected to it. while other nations severely restrict what journalists can research and/or publish. Nations or jurisdictions that formally license journalists may confer special privileges and responsibilities along with those licenses. and those governments have widely varying policies and practices towards journalists. Sometimes government officials may attempt to punish individual journalists who irk them by denying them some of these privileges extended to other journalists. and to extended interviews with public officials. It particular is applied to broadcast journalism. as well as the perception that the press often represents their consumers. Journalists in many nations have enjoyed some privileges not enjoyed by members of the general publlic. celebrities and others in the public eye. It is considered highly unethical to engage in gotcha journalism. images and interviews are tailored to create a particular impression of the subject matter. and some media outlets are guilty of deliberately biased reporting. which control what they can research and write. and do relatively little to restrict press rights and freedoms. but in the United States the tradition of an . These privileges are available because of the perceived power of the press to turn public opinion for or against governments. although doing it on private property could open a journalist to being charged with trespassing. Ambush journalism has not been ruled illegal in the United States. Many Western governments guarantee the freedom of the press. and what press organizations can publish. crime scenes and press conferences. Legal status Journalists around the world often write about the governments in their nations.

destruction or seizure of property (especially the means of production and dissemination of news content). whether wars between nations or insurgencies within nations. journalists are directly employed. the powers the press enjoy in many nations often make this tactic ineffective or counter-productive. controlled or censored by their governments. Libel or defamation lawsuits can also become conflicts between the journalists' rights to publish versus the private citizen's right to privacy. either by their own actions or because they are involved in a public event or incident. Some journalists have claimed lawsuits brought against them and news organizations — or even the threat of such a lawsuit — were intended to . for example) grant journalists greater access than others enjoy. and citizens can bring suit against journalists who they claim have published damaging untruths about them with malicious disregard for the truth. if not giving up their rights to protection by government. Citizens in most nations also enjoy the right against being libeled or defamed by journalists. A national shield law has been proposed. The power of journalists over private citizens is limited by the citizen's rights to privacy. governments who may claim to guarantee press rights actually intimidate journalists with threats of arrest. In other nations. but those statutes' definitions of "journalist" were often based on access to printing presses and broadcast towers. Rights of journalists versus those of private citizens and organizations Journalists enjoy similar powers and privileges as private citizens and organizations. however. many who seek favorable representation in the press (celebrities. often give up expectation to protection by government. However. Journalists who are captured or detained during a conflict are expected to be treated as civilians and to be released to their national government. In some nations. Some of the states have explicit shield laws that protect journalists from some forms of government inquiry.independent press has avoided any imposition of government-controlled examinations or licensing. torture or murder. Journalists who elect to cover conflicts. Citizens and private organizations can refuse to deal with some or all journalists. The right to privacy of a private citizen may be reduced or lost if the citizen is thrust into the public eye.

In the present decade in the U. the Supreme Court has upheld lower federal court rulings that restrict to varying degrees the rights of journalists to withhold information. particularly Zimbabwe and the People's Republic of China. the government has had more legal rights to protect what it considers sensitive information. and to force journalists to reveal the sources of leaked information. This is referred to as the Chilling effect. by extension.. journalists depend on the rights granted by government to the public and. and some states have acted in the last decade to broaden those . Punishments can include threats. for example. for access to information held by the government. or jailtime. journalists and news organizations must function under similar threat of retaliation from private individuals or organizations as from governments.stifle their voices with the threat of expensive legal procedings. Right to protect confidentiality of sources Journalists' interaction with sources sometimes involves confidentiality. political parties. Criminals and criminal organizations. both domestic and foreign. torture and murder. and prosecutors on the state and federal levels have sought to jail journalists who refuse demands for information and sources they seek to protect. physical damage to property. some zealous religious organizations. than the United States. These rights also vary from nation to nation (see Freedom of information legislation) and. to the press. despite a long tradition of a journalist's ability to protect sources from government inquiry. from state to state. withholding sources can land journalists in contempt of court.S. Right of access to government information Like sources. and even mobs of people have been known to punish journalists who speak or write about them in ways they do not like. in the United Kingdom. Other nations. in the United States. even if plaintiffs cannot prove their cases. assault. In many nations. The scope of rights granted journalists varies from nation to nation. an extension of freedom of the press giving journalists a legal protection to keep the identity of a source private even when demanded by police or prosecutors. Some states have more open policies for making information available. have a reputation of persecuting journalists.

In the United States. for example. although the government has the right to redact. . the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) guarantees journalists the right to obtain copies of government documents. Other federal legislation also controls access to information (see Freedom of information in the United States).rights. information from documents in those copies that FOIA allows them to withhold. or black out. New Jersey. has updated and broadened its Sunshine Law to better define what kinds of government documents can be withheld from public inquiry.

and enterprise or investigative reporting. The weather is typically presented by a Weather reporter. News is often reported by a variety of sources. who provide opinion or personal point-of-view. are or will be affected?) • Timeliness (did the event occur very recently?) • Revelation (is there significant new information. why and how. News reporting is a type of journalism. such as newspapers. as compared to commentators or analysts. news organizations are often expected to aim for objectivity: Reporters try to cover all sides of an issue without bias. . typically written or broadcast in news style. Newsworthiness To be considered newsworthy. where. an event usually must have broad interest in one or more news values • Effect (how many people were. news analysis. News coverage traditionally begins with the "five W's and the H"—who. wire services. although there are grey areas. Distinctions include between hard news (serious and timely topics) and soft news (lighter topics). previously unknown?) • Proximity (was the event nearby geographically?) In recent years increasing weight has also been given to the following news values:- • Entertainment (does it make for a fun story?) • Oddity (was the event highly unusual?) • Celebrity (was anyone famous involved?) News items and journalism can be divided in various ways. Objectivity In democracies. breaking news (immediate events). in which a topic is examined in great detail. television and radio programs.News New is any new information or current events. when. The reporting of news falls into the field of journalism. Most news is investigated and presented by journalists and can be distributed to various sites via news agencies. and web sites. what.

based on the French 'nouvelles'. east. it is difficult to achieve. west. Many single-party countries have operated state-run news organizations.In the United Kingdom. the equivalent word was 'newes'. Even in those situations where objectivity is expected. Current events Current events/Southeast Asia < Portal:Current events Regional Topic-Specific World • Africa | Britain and Ireland | China | India | Science and Technology | Middle East | Oceania | Southeast Asia | United Sports | Video games States Highlights in October 2006 October 30. an acronym for "north. Etymology "News" developed as a special use of the plural form of "new" in the 14th century. In Middle English. south". and individual journalists may fall foul of their own personal bias. 2006 (Monday) . the Office of Communications. limits are set by the government agency Ofcom. which may present the government's views. Individuals and organizations who are the subject of news reports may use news management techniques to try to make a favourable impression. or succumb to commercial or political pressure. It is not. as is often claimed. Both newspapers and broadcast news programs in the United States are generally expected to remain neutral and avoid bias except for clearly indicated orial articles or segments.

(INQ7)(People's Online Journal) • Pojaman Shinawatra. Air quality is improved in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. Airports reopen on Sumatra that were closed due to the smog. Khunying Pojaman met General Prem in a respect-paying manner and simply asked about each other's well-being. the strongest storm to hit the Philippines in eight years. (The Star) • About 10. Prem Tinsulanonda at his home for about 15 minutes. wife of deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra meets with Privy Councilor Gen. • China-ASEAN Summit: o Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao was meeting Monday with leaders of Asean members. Malaysia and Singapore. (AFP) (INQ7) • Southeast Asian haze: Rains douse forest fires and clear skies in Indonesia. 2006 (Thursday) • ASEAN receives permanent observer status at the United Nations after the approval of a resolution for its application. (TNA) (Nation) (Nation) . (The Star) o Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi is expected to discuss the Korean issue when he meets his Chinese counterpart Wen Jiabao today. 2006 (Friday) • President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo departs for a five-day visit to China to discuss trade and chair a summit for China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. in the south China city of Nanning for a summit showcasing Beijing's influence and increasingly close ties with its neighbours. (Reuters) • South Thailand insurgency: Interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont makes a surprise visit to Songkhla. blasted out to the South China Sea today after bringing the north of the archipelago to a near standstill. where he pays a visit to Buddhist monks and Royal Thai Army soldiers injured in a bomb attack on Sunday in Narathiwat.000 volunteers are on standby and ready to be mobilised in evacuation operations in the eventuality of floods in the interior areas of Ulu Kelantan next month and in December. "There was no discussion about politics or power seizing. (AFP) October 26." an aide to Prem is quoted as saying by The Nation. including Malaysia. (Nation) (AFP) • Junta leader Sonthi Boonyaratglin warns deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra that he should not return to Thailand without his permission. (Reuters) October 27. (Bernama) • Typhoon Cimaron.

" Sonthi tells The Nation. (AFP) • Parliament passes a bill for compulsory military service for men between 18 and 30. Human Rights and Amnesty International call on the government to bring those responsible for the deaths and injuries to justice. "It will be difficult to implicate him. in which more than 80 Muslim protestors died after being arrested. where he meets with his counterpart Nguyen Tan Dung and other leaders to reaffirm diplomatic trade ties. They were among 91 suspected defectors. is appointed to a ministerial post by the National Assembly. including 52 women and 10 children under the age of 15.(AP) . despite pushing by international donors to reduce the size of the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces. (AFP) (TNA) • Vietnam will be granted full membership in the World Trade Organization. (INQ7) October 24. (AFP) • Seventy-six North Koreans are arrested with illegally entering the kingdom. (Australian) • East Timor crisis: A clash between rival armed groups near Dili leaves two people dead and causes the closure of Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport. (AFP) (TNA) • In a 8-7 vote. the estranged wife of ousted Funcinpec leader Prince Norodom Ranariddh. (TNA) • Interim government: o Junta leader Sonthi Boonyaratglin who led the coup d'état that ousted prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra says an investigation has thus far turned up no links between the deposed premier and any corruption scandals. the Supreme Court of the Philippines votes against a 'People's Intiative' intended to change the constitution. (Reuters) October 25. 2006 (Wednesday) • The coup in Thailand and the Myanmar issue could keep planned talks between ASEAN nations and US President George W. (Nation) o Interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont meets with leaders of political parties and promises to ease restrictions on political gatherings set by the junta. found on Tuesday in an apartment in Pathum Thani. Bush from happening next month on the sidelines of the APEC summit. 2006 (Tuesday) • Princess Marie Ranariddh. flying to Hanoi. The move makes public the much-rumored split of the royal couple. (AFP) • South Thailand insurgency: On the second anniversary of the Tak Bai Incident. the trade body reports. one-day visits to neighboring countries since assuming the premiership.

Two others. Sirojul Munir and Muhammad Rudi bin Salim. Both had been sentenced in 2003 to five years for their part in bombings. (Age) • South Thailand insurgency: o Three Muslims are killed as celebrations begin for Eid al-Fitr to mark the end of Ramadan. (TNA) (Nation) • Thailand interim civilian government: o Meechai Ruchuphan. including an iman. His sentence had earlier been reduced to 10 years. One person died in a clash on Monday. Thailand's interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont visits Manila. (Australian) (Guardian) • Jail time is reduced by six weeks for Tommy Suharto. "I told ." Surayud said. who served as legal adviser to the administration of deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. the Cabinet endorses the revival of the Southern Border Provinces Administrative Center. is elected speaker of the National Legislative Assembly. saying they are "junta lapdogs" and the "servants of dictators". (Reuters) • Two Muslims. convicted in the 2002 Bali bombings. (AFP) o In a move the government hopes will pave the way towards peace in southern Thailand. (TNA) (Nation) o 100 protestors demonstrate at the parliment building call for the members of assembly to resign. One is fatally shot in front of a mosque in Yala. where he meets President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Surayud says he discussed the South Thailand insurgency. since the execution last month of three Christian militants. "I appreciate the role of the Philippine government in adopting the right approach to tackle insurgency in its southern region. 2006 (Monday) • Continuing his round of visits to neighboring countries. noting that Manila is in talks with Moro Islamic Liberation Front. were shot on Monday in Pattani. which was shut down in 2001 by the Thaksin administration. are released from prison. who was sentenced to 15 years in 2002 for paying a hitman to kill a Supreme Court judge. Other candidates were Prasong Soonsiri and Purachai Piumsomboon. Its approval comes on the eve of the second anniversary of the Tak Bai Incident. who backs his "very strong" commitment to undertake a "roadmap to constitutional democracy" in a year's time. Their early releases spark condemnation from victims' families and the Australian government. (Nation) October 23. the former dictator's son. The center will coordinate various government activities and serve as a mediation body.

At its peak earlier this month.(Antara) • Thai interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont continues his round of visits to ASEAN neighbors." he says. (TNA) October 21. United Nations peacekeepers are brought in to restore order. the government says. including five Buddhist monks making their morning alms rounds. (AFP) (AP) • Former prime minister Mahathir Mohamad meets with Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi amidst hopes by their party. and four others are injured. paying a one-day visit to Indonesia. that the two would put an end to their public bickering. (AFP) (TNA) • Thailand flooding: o Already under pressure from flooding to the north. the United Malays National Organisation. Denpasar. including Jambi. 2006 (Saturday) • Southeast Asian haze: 12 airlines cancel domestic flights from Soekarno- Hatta International Airport due to smog at many destinations. Two men are stabbed in the fighting. Flooding since August in central and northern Thailand has claimed 124 lives. Makassar. Jayapura. He meets President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. ongoing insurgency in its three southern border provinces." (AFP) • South Thailand insurgency: A bomb hidden in a wastebin in front of an electronics shop in Narathiwat explodes. after two hours. 2006 (Sunday) • East Timor crisis: Fighting breaks out between two rival gangs after the mutilated remains of two bodies are found. who encourages the junta-backed premier to lift martial law." (TNA) (INQ7) (AFP) October 22.897 as measured up to October 20. after heavy rains from . (TNA) o The Department of Fisheries warns that crocodiles bred in illegal farms have been escaping from their confinement due to the floods encompassing much of the central provinces. (TNA) o The total number of patients suffering from flood-related ailments has soared to 472. Mahathir emerges as critical as ever. (TNA) (AFP) (Antara) • Flooding in Myanmar and Thailand has killed 143 people. Semarang. a public health official says. "I can't say I am happy. killing a soldier and injuring a dozen people. the Bangkok area is on the alert for floods during a period of hide tides. Bengkulu. I am satisfied I am able to say these things directly to him. "I will continue to criticise if I feel something is done which is not beneficial to the country. Pekanbaru and Padang. Surabaya. Banjarmasin. However.

(Novosti) • South Thailand insurgency: Five people are killed and 12 injured in overnight and early morning attacks. 2006 (Wednesday) . the country will be stabilized. though the water has already subsided in most places. ends a sit-in after winning a court ruling against his suspension. But if you work poorly. his deputy and council were suspended on Tuesday after the government said there were 500 non-existent employees on the city payroll. Two soldiers are injured in another bomb attack. Two people are killed in drive-by shootings late Thursday in Narathiwat and another fatally shot early today. and the people will be happy. (AFP) (TNA) October 19. 2006 (Friday) • Southeast Asian haze: o Malaysia calls for a regionwide firefighting taskforce to put out the forest fires in Indonesia. Binay. (AFP) October 20. (AFP) October 18. costing about US$9 billion in losses. "If all of you perform your duty properly. floods have killed 19 people. where farmers are clearing land for oil palm plantations. Natural Resources and Environment Minister Azmi Khalid says he'll push the proposal at ASEAN ministerial talks in the Philippines next month. (AFP) • Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay. a critic of President Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo." the prince says. (CNA) (Straits Times) • Ousted as leader of the Funcinpec party. (TNA) (AFP) • The legislative assembly of the interim civilian government is sworn in by Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn. amphibious aircraft that can be used to fight forest fires. The planes are expected to arrived in Indonesia on November 1. which they say is worst since 1997. 2006 (Thursday) • Southeast Asian haze: NGOs call for a detailed study on the the economic impact of the haze. central and eastern Myanmar. the country and the people will suffer. (AFP) (Bernama) (Star) o Indonesia signs a contract with the Russian government to lease two Beriev Be-200 airplanes. Two people die and 10 are injured in a bomb blast at a tea house in Songkhla. Prince Norodom Ranariddh says he plans to form a new political party.

(CNA) • Thai Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont meets with Malaysian Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and Foreign Minister Syed Hamid Albar during a visit to re-affirm ties and discuss security issues." but says Reinado himself. In Kuala Lumpur. (AFP) • Indonesia confirms the 55th death from H5N1. Cambodia's ambassasor to Germany. The 79-page report clears President Xanana Gusmão of ordering former military police chief Major Alfredo Reinado "to carry out criminal actions. (Reuters) (AP) • The United Nations issues its report on the East Timor crisis. 2006 (Tuesday) • Southeast Asian haze: o Rain brings relief to residents in Pekanbaru on Sumatra but firefighters working to douse forest fires in Central Kalimantan are hampered by a lack of adequate equipment. (CNA) o Civil servants in Central Kalimantan Province are offered two days off work if they help fight fires in the Borneo jungles. (AFP) • Lapindo Brantas. visibility is less than 300 meters and flights from the provincial airport have been suspended indefinitely. and says he's willing to continue as a negotiator. so they need a response from the government. The victim is a 27-year- old woman from Central Java. The company's parent. including the South Thailand insurgency. who was jailed on weapons charges but later escaped in a prison break. (AFP) o Visibility improves in Singapore. will pay more than US$100 million this year towards the clean up. but hazey conditions are likely to return on Thursday. Visibility in Palangkaraya is less than 100 meters." he told the New Straits Times. ouster "illegal". says it will spend around $106 million on the disaster. In Jambi on Sumatra. the gas-drilling company that officials say is responsible for the mudspill that has left 12. the API is 108. could be "reasonably suspected of having committed crimes. The party names Keo Puth Rasmey. as its new head. East Java. The mudflow. "I think they are at a stage where they want to talk.000 people homeless in Sidoarjo. is being routed towards the sea. Former premier Mahathir Mohamad says the insurgents want to hold talks. (AFP) (AP) ." (AFP) (Age) • Southeast Asian haze: o Air quality in Kuala Lumpur and Johor hit unhealthy levels due to the land-clearing fires in Indonesia. which reports a PSI falling from 92 to 70. Energi Mega Persada. which calls for former prime minister Mari Alkatiri and other officials to be criminally investigated. for which it has yet to admit any responsibility. (AFP) (TNA) (NST) October 17. meanwhile.

The Rev Irianto Kongkoli. 2006 (Sunday) • Interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont pays a visit to Phnom Penh and meets Prime Minister Hun Sen to reaffirm ties and pledge cooperation on cross-border issues. 2006 (Saturday) • Interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont embarks on his first international mission. 2006 (Monday) • A Christian priest. (TNA) October 16. Five people were killed late Monday in drive-by shootings: four people in Yala and a one person in Pattani. he meets with Prime Minister Bouasone Bouphavanh and President Choummaly Sayasone. In Vientiane. Sulawesi. bank in Yala. Kongkoli was an outspoken priest who had led many protests against last months execution of three Christian militants found guilty of taking part in an attack on a Muslim boarding school. Mr. 57. (CNA) • Deposed Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra has expressed a desire to return to Thailand. (BBC) • South Thailand insurgency: A Pattani Province official is killed in a drive-by shooting (TNA) October 15. for a round of visits with neighboring countries. (TNA) (TNA) • Southeast Asian haze: Air quality in Singapore worsens after being in the good to moderate range for more than a week. Thaksin has the right to return to Thailand but the timing will have to be discussed among all parties concerned. bringing to 13 the number of people killed in violence in the southern provinces since Sunday. well into the PSI's "unhealthy" range of 100-200. is fatally shot in Palu. The Pollutant Standards Index hits 110 at 8pm." says interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont. (TNA) . "As a Thai citizen. (AFP) • Tarisa Watanagase is appointed governor of the Bank of Thailand. replacing Pridiyathorn Devakula who was appointed finance minister in the interim government. (TNA) (TNA) October 14. Tarisa. was an assistant governor of the BoT and is the first female governor in the bank's 64-year .

October 13, 2006 (Friday)

• Southeast Asian haze:
o At a meeting of environment ministers in Pekanbaru, Sumatra,
Indonesia appeals for help from its neighbours to deal with blazes
that are creating the regionwide smog. "We are open to suggestions
that will increase our effectiveness in suppressing current and future
fires, and we welcome assistance from within and outside the region
to overcome this dreadful problem which affects millions of lives,"
Indonesian environment minister Rachmat Witoelar says. (AFP)
o Indonesia is "respectfully urged" by its neighbors to ratify the
ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. ASEAN
Secretary-General Ong Keng Yong also calls on Indonesia to sign
the treaty. (AFP) (CNA)
• South Thailand insurgency: A police sergeant is injured in Yala as he
inspects a suspicious object left in a food shop. (Nation)

October 12, 2006 (Thursday)

• Southeast Asian haze: Environment ministers from Brunei,
Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand will meet in Pakanbaru, Riau,
to discuss the haze. (AFP)
• East Timor Prime Minister Jose Ramos-Horta says his country does not
want a United Nations peacekeeping force and will continue to rely on
troops deployed by regional neighbors, such as Australia, which were sent
after the political crisis. Cambodia says it plans to send troops.
• Thailand interim civilian government: A new parliament, comprising 242
members selected by the Council for National Security is endorsed by King
Bhumibol Adulyadej. Members include Chamlong Srimuang, one of the
leaders of the People's Alliance for Democracy; former Thai Rak Thai party
member and interior minister Purachai Piumsombun, former foreign
minister Surin Pitsuwan, and Wissanu Krea-ngam, who served as deputy
prime minister in the Thaksin administration. The new body may question
government policy but has no power to change laws or remove government
officials from office. (AFP) (TNA)
• South Thailand insurgency: Three people are fatally shot in separate
attacks. One was a rubber factory worker in Yala. Another was a man who
was gunned down at his home in Narathiwat. The third was killed in a drive-
by shooting in Pattani. (AFP)
• Thailand floods:
o A family of three is swept away in a flash flood in Mae Hong Son,
bringing the flooding death toll to 42. (TNA)

and flooding farmland. (Nation)

October 11, 2006 (Wednesday)

• Southeast Asian haze:
o President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono apologizes to Malaysia and
Singapore for the haze that originates from land clearing fires in
Sumatra and Kalimantan. "Clearly, this is not a problem we intend to
inflict to our neighbours and we are continuously trying to tackle it
and prevent it in future," he says, vowing to punish the plantation
firms that are setting the fires.
o Singapore invites environment ministers for a meeting of the
affected nations, which also include Brunei and Thailand, but
Indonesian foreign minister Hassan Wirayuda insists the meeting
should be held in his country, possibly in Pakanbaru, Riau.(AFP)
• Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen is in Australia on a visit to discuss
security and trade relations. He holds a news conference with his Australian
counterpart, John Howard, in which both leaders decry the North Korean
nuclear test. (VOA)

October 10, 2006 (Tuesday)

• Communist Party of Vietnam secretary-general Nông Đức Mạnh
arrives for a four-day visit in Laos, where he's to meet his counterpart,
Choummaly Sayasone, as well as Prime Minister Bouasone Bouphavanh.
(AFP)
• Southeast Asian haze:
o Malaysian Natural Resources and Environment minister Azmi
Khalid says talks with his counterparts from Singapore and
Indonesia are being planned. (AFP) (CNA) (Reuters)
o Malaysia's Meteorological Services Department reports improved
visibility in northern regions of peninsular Malaysia. (BERNAMA)
• More than 1,000 delegates gather in Yangon for the reconvening of the
constitutional convention in Myanmar, chaired by the junta, which lashes
out at the United Nations Security Council for its discussion of the country
in sessions last month. (Guardian) (BBC) (AFP)
• Six people are killed and at least 42 injured in a bombing during a town
celebration in Makilala, Cotabato on Mindanao. Two others are killed and
four injured in a blast at a market in Tacurong, Sultan Kudarat. Officials
blame Muslim extremist groups. (AFP) (Sun.Star) (BBC) (CNN)
• Heavy rains cause flooding in Bangkok, with footpaths in Siam Square
under water and key roads snarled with traffic. However, King Bhumibol
Adulyadej orders flood runoff from the Chao Phraya River diverted to the

(Nation) (Nation) (TNA)

October 9, 2006 (Monday)

• As it prepares to re-open its constitutional convention, the junta criticizes
the National League for Democracy, which is boycotting the proceedings,
and vows that any party "attempting to undermine the National Convention
will be crushed with the people's strength." (AP)
• Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont's cabinet, chosen Sunday, is sworn in
by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. Among the names are Bank of Thailand
Governor Pridiyathorn Devakula as finance minister and deputy premier and
Nit Phibunsongkhram as foreign minister. The monarch urges the new
government to look after Thailand's image. "The country is in dire straits
confronted with flooding and other problems and bad things about Thailand
are widely said among Thais and foreigners, hence it is important to rectify
the tainted image," he told the cabinet. (Nation) (Nation)
• Seven villagers are killed in flash floods and mudslides in Chiang Mai
Province, bringing the nationwide death toll from flooding to 39. (TNA)
(Nation)

October 8, 2006 (Sunday)

• Sixteen provinces are affected by flooding, which has caused 32 deaths,
138,000 to be ill and affected nearly 1.8 million people. (Nation)

• New People's Army rebels burn airport equipment in Silay on the central
island of Negros after contractors refuse to pay revolutionary taxes.(Yahoo!
News)

October 7, 2006 (Saturday)

• The haze hits the unhealthy stage for the first time in years, reaching a
PSI of 150 by 2100 hours, the worse in a decade, and triggering the first
health advisory by the National Environment Agency. (CNA)
• The largest shopping mall in Singapore, VivoCity, opens with 1.1
million square feet of retail space. (CNA)
• In response to an orial in the recently banned Far Eastern Economic
Review, the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts advises
the magazine to seek legal redress (FEER) (AFP) (CNA)
• Flooding is problematic throughout Thailand, including Chanthaburi,
where residents waded through chest-deep waters because of a shortage of

(AFP) • Haze reaches the worst level of the year in Singapore. (AP) (AFP) • Human Rights decries the overturning of a 14-year sentence for Pollycarpus Priyanto. the wife of Jemaah Islamiyah leader Dulmatin. (AP) October 6. closing schools in Jakarta and has now spread to the Northern Mariana Islands. (FEER) (AFP) October 5. saying "courts in Cambodia are totally stupid and merciless. Oemar Sovie. 2006 (Thursday) • Haze from land-clearing fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra are blamed for disrupting travel in Malaysia." Earlier in the week. convicted last year of killing labor leader Chea Vichea are in court for an appeals hearing. Sok Sam Oeun denounces his conviction. Another official says members of Patani United Liberation Organization and Bersatu have made contact and that negotiations could begin as early as next month. leaving more than 6. (CNA) (AFP) • The Philippines military says it has captured Istiada H. who's said to have been behind the 2002 Bali bombings. which is then postponed when one of the three judges does not show up.(AFP) • South Thailand insurgency: o Royal Thai Army Commander-in-Chief Gen. • Around 1. She was arrested on Tuesday in a raid on Jolo Island.700 pieces to be moved by hand. a witness to the killing released a statement saying neither man was at the scene. (AFP) • The Far Eastern Economic Review says it has been banned in Singapore because it refused to apologize for an article about Democratic Party leader Chee Soon Juan over which Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and Lee Kuan Yew have both filed defamation suits.(AP) (AFP) o Sources say meetings between Thai officials and rebel leaders to set up the peace talks were held on Langkawi three months ago and . but the witness has gone into hiding fearing for her safety.200 pieces of luggage is lost in the baggage-handling system at Suvarnabhumi Airport after a malfunction shuts down the computerized system for an hour. as Indonesian officials say they are "working round the clock" to douse land-clearing fires in Kalimantan. Sonthi Boonyaratglin says he's been contacted by leaders of various rebel factions who are interested in starting peace talks. 2006 (Friday) • Sok Sam Oeun and Born Samnang. a Garuda Indonesia pilot convicted in the 2004 arsenic-poisoning death of rights activist Munir Said Thalib.

which they say is a hole the size of a large pizza. Drilling crews are seeking the source of the hot mud. the first in Southeast Asia. As the new jumbo jet's first customer. says interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont. with floods submerging thousands of homes as rains continue. (Nation) • Severe flooding continues across northern and central Thailand. A schoolboy is swept away and drowned in Prachin Buri. It is seen as a strategic milestone for the country. (AP) October 3. which is sending its first astronaut to the International Space Station next year." (NST) (Star) • India is transferring some military hardware to Myanmar in a bid to counter the influence of China and to aid the junta in fighting such insurgent groups as the United Liberation Front of Asom and the Nagaland Rebels. is withdrawing his candidacy. despite warnings from environmental groups. officials say. East Java. could continue for years. (AP) (AFP) October 4. bringing the death . (AFP) (BERNAMA) • Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi says he's "taken note" of Lee Kuan Yew's apology on statements he made about Chinese in Malaysia and Indonesia and calls for Lee to make assurances "that such a statement should not be made again. (IANS)(IANS) • Singapore Airlines says it wants to be compensated for delays in the Airbus A380. which seek shelter in Myanmar's jungles. o Officials say 59 people were killed. 2006 (Tuesday) • Former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra announces his resignation as leader of the Thai Rak Thai Party as the former ruling party undergoes an "exodus" of membership in the face of regulations imposed by the Council for National Security that would ban party leaders from politics for five years if their parties are dissolved for breaking electoral laws. caused by a gas- exploration drilling accident. as they prepare to route the mud towards the sea. Surakiart Sathirathai. (Nation) • Thailand's candidate for Secretary-General of the United Nations. (CNA) • Typhoon Xangsane: o Officials reported 110 dead and 79 missing. (CNA) • Malaysia opens its national space center. after an informal poll of the 15 Security Council members gave their nod to South Korean Foreign Minister Ban Ki- Moon. the airline expected delivery this year but it has now been delayed until October 2007. 2006 (Wednesday) • The steaming mudflow in Sidoarjo.

Surayud also pays a call on US Ambassador Ralph L. 2006 (Saturday) . who said policies of the government of Prime Minister Hun Sen "have subverted the essential principles of democracy. 64% approve of the new government. 2006 (Monday) • Cambodia's National Elections Committee responds to an address by envoy Yash Ghai to the United Nations Human Rights Council. (TNA) (Nation) October 2. Surayud Chulanont is appointed interim prime minister of by the ruling military regime. SOS Children has opened its school in Danang as an emergency centre and reports that 25% of the roofs in its village have blown off. (AP) o The storm hits central Vietnam." (AFP) • The state-run New Light of Myanmar reports on fighting between government troops and the Shan State Army-South in which 17 villagers were killed. with parts of Luzon and Manila still without power. killing 10 people and injuring more than 130 others." The elections body said the envoys comments were "unsubstantiated. offering good wishes for the religious leaders 93rd birthday. (AFP) October 1. (AP) • Interim civilian government: o Surayud Chulanont begins his first day as prime minister by paying a visit to Supreme Patriarch Nyanasamvara Suvaddhana at Wat Bowonniwet. 2006 (Sunday) • Thailand coup d'état: Gen. Boyce and Bank of Thailand Governor Pridiyathorn Devakula (Nation) o Responding to the new prime minister's assertion that he will focus on a sufficiency economy that puts people's happiness before economic growth. SOS(Xinhua) (VietnamNet) September 30. including Danang. a poll by Assumption University has 89% of respondents approving of that approach. barriers and inundate Mueang Ang Thong. (BBC) • Typhoon Xangsane: o 76 people are dead and 69 are missing in flooding and landslides. (Nation) • The government reports at least 11 people were killed and dozens more injured in Typhoon Xangsane.

Deputy Supreme Commander Gen. Bulacan. Gen. Bataan. (AP) (DPA) • Thailand coup d'état: o Surayud Chulanont will be named as the interim prime minister. Viroj Buacharoon." The general also appeals to the foreign press to tone down its negative coverage of the coup and says that "we are considering lifting (restrictions against the press) very soon. killing at least 60 people and causing extensive damage in Manila and several provinces. who swaps posts with Army adviser. Iloilo. removing several pre-Cadet classmates of former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Antique and Leyte. Winai Phattiyakul. replacing Gen. (Inq7) (Reuters) o Vietnam prepares to evacuate 180. . (AP) • Thailand coup d'état: The Council for Democratic Reform submits an interim constitution for formal approval to King Bhumibol Adulyadej. (TNA) September 28. 2006 (Thursday) • The Ministry of Information. Fourth Army Region command. (AP) September 29. Boonsang Niampradit is named supreme commander.(Times) (AFP) o Responding to criticism and the suspension of aid by the US. (CNA) • Forty years in the making.000 people from nine central provinces before the typhoon hits. junta spokesman Gen. which is dealing with the south Thailand insurgency. several officials say. Laguna. (TNA) (AFP) • Typhoon Xangsane: o Relief efforts begin following the worst typhoon to hit metro Manila in more than a decade. Lt. but overshadowed by the coup d'état. Gen. Communications and the Arts bans the Far Eastern Economic Review from local circulation for failing to comply with amended conditions in Section 24 of the Newspaper and Printing Presses Act. Gen. been celebrating its 18th anniversary this week. 2006 (Friday) • Typhoon Xangsane lashes the Philippines. is named permanent secretary for defence. The junta's secretary-general. though his appointment won't be official until it is ratified over the weekend by King Bhumibol Adulyadej. goes to Lt." (AP) o The Council for Democratic Reform announces its annual military shuffle. Ongkorn Thongprasom. Bicol. including Quezon. Ruangroj Mahasaranond. Winai Phattiyakul asks the US to "understand the decision of Thailand.

(Nation) o Gen. (Bernama) • Around 200. we will just give them our expertise.000 civil servants in the support category – hospital attendants. since we don't know yet what will happen. is declared a disaster area. 2006 (Wednesday) • Indonesia joins Malaysia in demanding Lee Kuan Yew to clarify and apologize for his remark on Chinese in Indonesia and Malaysia." he says. gardeners and clerical and administrative staff – who earn basic pay of 480 ringgit (about US$130) per month are demanding a salary hike. The first flight is Lufthansa cargo flight LH 8442 from Frankfurt via Mumbai at 3:02am. I . as airline and airport staff prepare for the massive move from the old Don Mueang International Airport. "There are still concerns about security issues. Glitches include lengthy waits for baggage to come through the new system managed by Thai Airways International. (TNA) (IHT) • Thailand coup d'état: o Privy Councillor Gen. meanwhile. Nearly 3. 2006 (Tuesday) • Malaysia sends two of its astronaut candidates.000 families are to be relocated at the expense of oil company PT Lapindo Brantas. The mud. East Java. the Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy names several other civilians for advisory panels. (NST) (AFP) • Royal Thai Air Force Air Chief Marshal Chalit Pukbhasuk tours Suvarnabhumi Airport and declares it ready for Thursday's official opening. is instead named to head the junta's economics advisory panel. whose name was mentioned as a possible interim prime minister. which will be installed "in a day or two". (Bangkok Post) o Bank of Thailand Governor Pridiyathorn Devakula. Additionally. Surayud Chulanont emerges as leading candidate for interim prime minister. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor and Faiz Khaleed for training in Star City. Porong district in Sidoarjo. "We will not control the cabinet. Russia for their mission to the International Space Station. (Reuters) • Inundated by mudflow from a gas exploration well for the past four months. (BBC) (Jakarta Post) (ANTARA) September 26. many of whom hadn't been previously notified. Mueang as Bangkok's international airport. is being routed towards the sea. drivers. Sonthi Boonyaratglin says the junta will remain in power and serve in advisory capacity to a civilian government. (AFP) (AP) (TNA) September 27.

2006 (Sunday) • Hundreds attend funerals on Sulawesi to mourn the executed Christians. (News24) • Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong arrives in Ho Chi Minh City for a two-day visit to Vietnam. (AP) • The country's 51st death from H5N1 is confirmed. Gen. Marianus Riwu and Dominggus da Silva. (BBC) September 25. Winai Phattiyakul. was the only Thai TV station to broadcast a state-of- emergency message from deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Ang Thong. meeting his counterpart. (Nation) September 24. who were executed for leading attacks on Muslims in 2000 that killed 70 people. (BBC) . Modernnine. The victim is a 59-year-old farmer from northeast Thailand who died on August 10. the ruling Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy would take on a protective role and be renamed the Council of National Security. o Under a civilian-led interim government. four people are killed in late-night attacks: Two are killed in an attack on a police station in Yala. Fabianus Tibo. (The Nation) (IHT) • Northern and central Thailand are hit by flooding. meeting with Slovak President Ivan Gasparovic and pledging to strengthen ties between their two countries. o The board of MCOT resigns en masse to take responsibility for their actions on Day 1 of the coup. including Phichit. when MCOT's television station. Phitsanulok. o The junta's secretary-general. A village headman is fatally shot at his home in Narathiwat and in Pattani a man is fatally shot while riding his motorcycle. sources say. 2006 (Monday) • King Norodom Sihamoni visits Slovakia. He is due to return to Bangkok to hold talks with CDRM leaders. The victim is a 9- year-old boy who died in a Jakarta hospital. (TNA) • The country's third death this year from H5N1 is confirmed by health officials. (CNA) (Thanh Nien) • Thailand coup d'état: o Supachai Panitchpakdi tentatively accepts the junta's invitation to become interim prime minister. Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung. Vietnam seeks stronger business ties with Singapore. says the new constitution has been drafted and that the a long-delayed government budget will also be approved. (The Nation) • In the South Thailand insurgency. Lampang and Nakhon Sawan.

following the execution of three Christian militants found guilty of taking part in an attack on a Muslim boarding school. (Reuters) • Thailand coup d'état: o The first public protest against the junta is held. 2006 (Thursday) • Lee Kuan Yew claims Chinese in Indonesia and Malaysia "are hardworking and. is off the list. (BBC) • Thailand coup d'état: o Tanks are withdrawn from Sanam Luang though tanks are still in place in other parts of the capital. (CDRM). 2006 (Friday) • Thousands riot in Central Sulawesi. (Bangkok Post)(The Nation) o 54 radio stations in northeastern Thailand are shut down by the Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy. o The junta prepares to appoint an interim civilian prime minister. Supreme Administrative Court head Akkharathorn Chularat. (The Nation) September 22. Indonesia. 48. 42. 60. they are systematically marginalized" and Singapore must stand up against its two larger neighbors. with the Bangkok Post reporting 20 people present and The Nation saying 100 • South Thailand insurgency: Four policemen are injured in an explosion at a bus stop explosion in Pattani. Supreme Court president Charnchai Likhitchittha and Bank of Thailand governor Pridiyathorn Devakula. a source says. Another name. (Reuters) • Three Christians. The men were accused of . confirmed. (AFP) September 23. and Dominggus da Silva. 2006 (Saturday) • Malaysia demands Lee Kuan Yew to clarify his comment on Chinese Malaysians (International Herald Tribute) • Thailand coup d'état: Local newspaper reports of the first public protest against the junta vastly differ. (The Nation) September 21. therefore. Fabianus Tibo. Marinus Riwu. The short list includes UNCTAD director-general Supachai Panitchpakdi. are executed by firing squad in direct violation of a government pardon for all those involved in the Poso conflict.

workers call the trial a sham. as is Supreme Administrative Court president Ackaratorn Chularat. (AFP) (The Nation) (The Nation) o In the absence of a parliament. the junta formally assumes legislative powers. Through a spokesman. is mentioned as a possible interim prime minister. including the nation's intelligence chief. (The Nation)(The Nation) o The junta calls for a ban on expressions of public opinion. (AFP) o The junta bans any meetings by political parties. (AsiaOne) • Thailand coup d'état: o Deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra issues a press statement in London. are summoned and held by the junta. (Guardian) (The Nation) (AFP) o In moves to distance himself from Thaksin. In addition. Newin Chidchob and Yongyuth Tiyapairaj. 2006 (Wednesday) • Singapore 2006: o The 61st International Monetary Fund-World Bank annual meeting ends with an agreement on the need to revive stalled global trade . former deputy prime minister Surakiart Sathirathai arrives in Bangkok and thanks the junta for its support in his bid to become United Nations Secretary- General. The junta also bans local TV stations from broadcasting SMS messages from viewers. (CNA) • The Singapore Changi Airport wins six more awards in September to garner a total of 16 in 2006 so far. (AFP) (The Nation) (The Nation) September 20. (The Nation) o The United States is said to be reviewing its aid to Thailand. the billionaire ex-premier also says he plans to take a "deserved rest". it wins the World Travel Awards for Asia's Leading Airport and World's Leading Airport. urging the junta to have elections soon. (AFP) (The Nation) o Former Thaksin cabinet members. Also four police generals. which is a stronghold for Thaksin supporters. (CBS News) • Chua Sock Koong will be the new Chief Executive Officer of Singapore Telecommunications. are transferred to inactive posts. Three- hundred community radio stations are shut down in northern Thailand. o Former Director-General of the World Trade Organization Supachai Panitchpakdi. currently secretary-general United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. replacing Lee Hsien Yang in April 2007. including the the Best Airport in the World and Best Airport for Duty Free Shopping award by both Business Traveller (UK/Europe) and Business Traveller (Asia/Pacific).

"Globalisation is not without its downsides. Sondhi Boonyaratkalin named as head. (The Nation) o Coup leaders declare Wednesday a holiday. Bank of Thailand Governor Pridiyathorn Devakula is named as the possible next prime minister. (The Nation) September 19. also clarified some pointers over the about-turn in the handling of 27 Civil Society Organisation representatives whom the Singaporean authorities originally objected from being allowed entry into the country. but properly managed. accusing the United States of fabricating lies and condemning Japan for its change in position on Myanmar. Minister in Charge of Singapore 2006. calling for good governance in the face of globalisation. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo says troops are on the verge of wiping out the Muslim rebel group. where he is reunited with family and friends who fled Thailand after the coup. Royal Thai Army troops are stationed at media outlets. with Army Commander-in-Chief Gen. Japan had previously sided with China and Russia in blocking the Myanmar issue. Mrs Lim Hwee Hua. with banks and government offices closed. (AFP) (NLM) • A military officer is killed and 24 other government troops are injured in two clashes with Abu Sayyaf in Sulu. (AP) • An orial in the state-run New Light of Myanmar reacts angrily to the UN Security Council vote to have Myanmar placed on the council's agenda. o The Singapore 2006 organising committee thanks Singaporeans and corporations for helping to make what delegates called the "best and most memorable IMF/World Bank meeting they've had" a success. (Sun. Meanwhile. 2006 (Tuesday) • King Norodom Sihamoni is on an official visit to the Czech Republic.Star) (Reuters) • Singapore 2006 events: o Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong addresses the opening of the IMF- World Bank meetings. (The Nation) (The Nation) (The Nation) (BBC) o Deposed premier Thaksin Shinawatra cancels his speech before the UN General Assembly and flies to London. it is a powerful force for the good." (CNA) o Singapore. (The Nation) o The junta promises civilian government in two weeks. (CNA) • Thailand coup d'état: o Six military and police generals are named to the junta's Administrative Reform Council. the IMF and the World Bank call for resumption of world . where he and President Vaclav Klaus pledge to strengthen ties between the two countries. and move to censor the media and ban public gatherings.

Marianus Riwu and Dominggus da Silva. are executed by firing squad in Palu. (Reuters) (Forbes) (BBC) (ABC News) Southeast Asia/September 2006 Highlights in September 2006 • The Parliament of Cambodia passes a law that will send adulterers to jail for up to a year. • Despite being pardoned. Fabianus Tibo. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor. who are undergoing training in Russia for a . • Laos is backed in its bid to host the 2009 Southeast Asian Games by the Chinese government. for their role in leading attacks on Muslims in 2000 in Poso. State TV stations broadcast messages of loyalty to the King. The vote prompts a walkout by opposition Sam Rainsy Party lawmakers. (AP) • Thailand coup d'état: o Tanks move into place around government buildings in Bangkok. where they had camped out since Saturday to call attention to what they said were restrictions on free speech and assembly. • Malaysia chooses its first astronauts. which will build all the facilities needed for the regional athletic competition. o Chee Soon Juan and other activists end a protest in Hong Lim Park. Faiz Khaleed. o An announcement on Thai television declares that a "Council of Administrative Reform" with King Bhumibol Adulyadej as head of state had seized power without any resistance. where he went for the United Nations General Assembly. Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra declares a state of emergency in a TV broadcast from the United States. Central Sulawesi. but the transmission is cut off. three Christians. and an alternate. while international broadcast channels are blocked.

• As Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra is in New York to address the UN General Assembly.(CNA) • In the wake of Thursday's bombings at banks in southern Thailand. including metro Manila. because when government officials have more women." National Assembly Chairman Heng Samrin says. Sonthi Boonyaratglin calls for talks the leaders of the militants. 2006 (Friday) • The Parliament of Cambodia passes a law that would send adulterers to jail for up to a year. the Pattani United Liberation Organization announces in a press release that it welcomes such talks. Though no group claims responsibility for the resurgence of violence in the south since 2003. (TNA) (TNA) September 2. (The Nation) (The Nation) • The first international flights are conducted as a trial run for Suvarnabhumi Airport. September 1. stages a coup d'état. The AFC U-17 Championship starts on Sunday in Singapore. Sonthi Boonyaratglin. they seek more financial sources to support their girls. which is counter to the Thaksin administration's policy against negotiations. (Reuters) • The Asian Football Confederation bans Laos from youth soccer competition after the country fielded a 15-year-old in an under-13s tournament. the military (soldier pictured). (Bernama) • The National Arts Council Singapore markets the inaugural Singapore Biennale as a major milestone in the development of the arts in Singapore. (AP) • Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi acting in his capacity as the Finance Minister tables the 2007 Budget. 2006 (Saturday) • Myanmar developments: . The vote prompts a walkout by opposition Sam Rainsy Party lawmakers who said that poverty and corruption were more important issues. before moving on to Vietnam. led by Royal Thai Army chief Gen. "This law is also aimed at reducing corruption. Army chief Gen. • More than 90 people are killed as Typhoon Xangsane (Milenyo) strikes the Philippines. Two Thai Airways International flights depart safely to Singapore and Hong Kong and then return later in the day. and culminates at the 2006 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group at the Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre. • The Security Council agrees to put Myanmar on its agenda. • The Singapore 2006 events commences with the Singapore Biennale.

Chakrit Chantra. (CNA) • Philips says it will open a new LED plant in Singapore. are Maj-Gen. 2006 (Monday) • The first Malaysian astronaut will be Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor. Thaai Klinchana. a 34- year-old physician. with hundreds of people displaced across northern Thailand. Manas Sookprasert and Sgt-Maj. 2006 (Tuesday) • Abdul Aziz Imam Samudra is sentenced to eight years in prison for his role in the 2005 Bali bombings.Star) September 6. 26. 2006 (Wednesday) . Lt-Col. to kill the premier. (The Nation) September 4. (AFP) • More than 400 CEOs are in Singapore for the Sixth Forbes Global CEO Conference. Russia for a mission to the International Space Station in October 2007. (AFP) • At least 30 Abu Sayyaf militants are killed by government troops in fighting on Jolo Island where security forces are still trying to capture two Jemaah Islamiya terrorists blamed for the 2002 Bali bombings. accused of working with Lt. o US Ambassador to the UN John Bolton says he has taken steps to have the issue of Myanmar formally put on the agenda of the Security Council. Col. The four officers. Thein Sein announces the military government will reconvene its constitutional convention to next month. 2006 (Sunday) • Flooding along the Nan and Yom River kills three people in Sukhothai. The pair will undergo training in Star City. (AFP) o Lt. already in custody. The former high-school computer teacher had created a website for the bombings' alleged masterminds. (CNA) • Four Royal Thai Army officers are charged with conspiracy in the assassination attempt on caretaker Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Phichit and Phitsanulok. (AP) September 3. with Malaysian Army dentist Faiz Khaleed. including Lampang. Gen. (TNA) September 5. employing around 900 workers and set to start production in 2007. (Sun. Surapol Sukpradit. slain bombmaker Azahari Husin and the fugitive Noordin Mohammad Top. Pairoj Thiraphab. chosen as an alternate.

and Scott Rush – have their life sentences for heroin smuggling increased to the death penalty. (Inq7) o Southern Philippine cities are alerted to the possibility of bomb attacks by Abu Sayyaf. So far. Thailand ranks 18th. Indonesia 135th. Tong plans to appeal the ruling. is sentenced to eight years. The victim is a woman South Sulawesi. "We did not send (the samples) to the WHO because our positive results are usually positive results at the WHO. (Inq7) • Thailand's Criminal Court grants extradition for Vietnamese dissident Ly Tong. Dwi Widyarto. 11 the government has lost 11 soldiers since last month in its renewed offensive against Abu Sayyaf. Norman. (AFP) • Government offensive against Abu Sayyaf: o Memorial services are held in Zamboanga City for six Marines killed in an attack on Monday in which a 27-man unit engaged in a firefight with close to 200 Abu Sayyaf fighters." (ANTARA) • Laos finds backing in its plan to host the 2009 Southeast Asian Games from the Chinese government. Si Yi Chen. where a resurgence in unrest is feared after last week's escape from jail by rebel leader Alfredo Reinhado and 56 others. which will construct all key facilities for the regional athletic competition. Cambodia 143th. the Philippines 126th. and Timor-Leste at 174th (IFC) (CNA) (TNA).000 anti-government leaflets on Ho Chi Minh . (CNA) • Indonesia confirms the 47th death from H5N1. with the development blueprints released for public consultation. 2006 (Thursday) • Australia announces it will send a 120-troop infantry company to East Timor. Malaysia 25th. The Garden at Marina Centre is not awarded to any design team so as to allow for greater participation in the design phase from the general public (CNA). (The Age) • Bomb-maker Mohammad Cholily is sentenced to 18 years in prison for his role in in the 2005 Bali bombings. Health Minister Siti Fadillah Supari noted that the confirmation was made without sending samples to the World Health Organization in Hong Kong. • The Singaporean economy tops a list of 175 economies as the most business-friendly economy in the world in a survey conducted by the World Bank's International Finance Corporation. (AP) • Two government soldiers are killed in fighting in Sulu. Vietnam 104th. Laos 159th. September 7. Another militant. The former South Vietnamese Air Force pilot has been held in Thailand since 2000 after he hijacked a small plane and used it to drop 50. (Inq7) • Two design teams are selected to design and build the Gardens at Marina South and Marina East in the Gardens by the Bay.

for demonstrators. 2006 (Sunday) • The alert level is raised on Mount Talang after sensors pick up increased volcanic activity. 2006 (Friday) • o Riau police say protests will not be allowed on Batam during the meetings in neighboring Singapore. One is a 14-year-old female from South Sulawesi who died in June and whose death from the virus was already confirmed by the Indonesian health ministry. 2006 (Saturday) • The World Health Organization confirms two more deaths from H5N1. the other on Wednesday killing one man. (AP) • A woman is killed by a bomb outside her home in Poso. Police say they don't know if the bombings are connected with plans to execute three Christian militants convicted of beheading Muslims. The former premier polled 227 of 476 votes. (FT) o Singapore. (The Nation) September 8. (Australian) . 2005. (IHT) • The Southeast Asian Games Federation announced the hosting of the 2013 Southeast Asian Games in Singapore (CNA). will designate an area inside the meeting venue. (Bloomberg) • Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad is defeated in an election in Kedah in which he sought to be a delegate to the United Malays National Organisation assembly in November. but says he hoped to explain his criticisms of the current government to the UMNO. (Jakarta Post) (CNA) • Singapore 2006 developments: o The IMF and World Bank issue an unprecedented rebuke to Singapore over a ban on activists who had been invited to attend the annual meetings. which has banned any outdoor protests. It is the second blast in Poso in a week. bringing the country's death toll from bird flu to 48. the other is an 8-year-old girl from Banten province who died on July 14. Suntec Singapore International Convention and Exhibition Centre. Airport. Abdullah Ahmad Badawi. September 9. (Reuters) September 10. He denies he wants to unseat his hand-picked successor.

allowing more than 30. (CNA) o Singapore has banned at least 28 activists from entering the country during the meetings. 2006 (Wednesday) • Responsibility for an international police force deployed to crisis-hit East Timor is handed over to the United Nations. (Inq7) • Flooding continues in northern Thailand. ties. (Inq7) • Singapore 2006: o Registration begins. which has caused the Guimaras oil spill. in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. saying they had consensual sex. such as the 1999 World Trade Organization meeting in Seattle. (TNA) September 13. allowing the planned International People's Forum coinciding with the IMF-World Bank meetings to proceed. (ANTARA) . where incessant rain and forest run-off have swollen the Maejam River. with delegates and other participants going through tight security procedures. (CNA) September 11. A road is closed between Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son. The latest denial comes after The New York Times reported that close Osama bin Laden associate Abu Zubaydah had been interrogated and tortured in Thailand by US personnel in 2002. (Standard) • Alert levels on Mayon Volcano are lowered. Police say they are "characters who were involved in disruptive activities" at past meetings. Additionally. 2006 (Tuesday) • Officials plan to siphon out remaining fuel from inside the sunken tanker M/T Solar I. (CNA) • The foreign ministry repeats its denial that Thailand harbors any safe houses or secret prisons used by the United States in its War on Terrorism. 2006 (Monday) • Riau police a reverse a complete ban on protesters on Batam. with the government reporting a total death toll of five: two deaths in Lampang and three in Sukhothai. (The Nation) September 12. a mudslide is reported in southern Thailand. (AFP) • The rape trial of four US Marines resumes in Makati Regional Trial Court. including developments in southern Johor. Daniel Smith denying he raped the 22-year-old Filipina referred to in court as Nicole.000 evacuees from 22 villages to return to their homes after more than a month. with Lance Cpl.

(AP) (Irrawaddy) September 14. 2006 (Thursday) • The ASEAN Secretariat becomes one of six Asia-Europe Meeting's new members. (The Nation) September 17. the other two being Nepal and Russia. according to a report by the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. (Star-Bulletin) • Four people are killed in six bomb blasts at shopping malls and hotels in Hat Yai. The first commercial flights are conducted by Thai Airways International and Jetstar Asia Airways. (Bernama) (the Star) • Evidence gathered from the sunken M/T Solar I in the Guimaras oil spill suggests that the tanker may have been illegally off-loading its oil to another vessel. A triangle-shaped hole is found in the left side of the tanker. and one policeman dead. It is unclear if the 24 year old Constable was killed by friendly fire or accidentialy shot himself.(AP) (The Nation) September 16. 2006 (Friday) • The UN Security Council formally puts Myanmar on its agenda. (AFP) • Conservation International announces the discovery of 50 new species . along with scratches and open valves. Myanmar is also among only three countries in the world still using land mines. 2006 (Monday) • A shooting Incident at the Mentakab Industrial Estate near Temerloh leaves six criminals. • Myanmar makes the most extensive use of land mines of any country in the world. (AFP) • The soft launch of Suvarnabhumi Airport is marred by a technical glitch that cuts power to the check-in counters. (New Straits Times) September 15. including one Malaysian and five Indonesians. 2006 (Saturday) • President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo begins an official visit to Hawaii. 2006 (Sunday) September 18.

" (CNA) o Singapore. (AFP) (The Nation) September 19. where he went for the United Nations General Assembly. but properly managed. where he and President Vaclav Klaus pledge to strengthen ties between the two countries. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo says troops are on the verge of wiping out the Muslim rebel group. (cNA) o Chee Soon Juan and other activists end a protest in Hong Lim Park. Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra declares a state of emergency in a TV broadcast from the United States. There are no injuries. it is a powerful force for the good. (AP) • Thailand coup d'état: o Tanks move into place around government buildings in Bangkok. accusing the United States of fabricating lies and condemning Japan for its change in position on Myanmar. . (Sun. bombers and arsonists strike in south Thailand again overnight in attacks across five districts in Narathiwat. "Globalisation is not without its downsides. Japan had previously sided with China and Russia in blocking the Myanmar issue. Meanwhile. (AFP) • Amid heightened security after fatal bombings on Saturday night in Hat Yai. 2006 (Tuesday) • King Norodom Sihamoni is on an official visit to the Czech Republic. the IMF and the World Bank call for resumption of world trade talks. (Jakarta Post) • Democratic Party leader Chee Soon Juan enters the third day of a standoff with police after he was prevented from marching from a park designated as a free-speech area to the venue of the IMF-World Bank meetings. • Activists mark the end of the International NGO Forum in Batam with a press conference criticizing the lack of transparency of IMF-World Bank policy making and accused the Singaporean government of violating human rights be preventing activists from attending the IMF-World Bank meetings. (AP) • An orial in the state-run New Light of Myanmar reacts angrily to the UN Security Council vote to have Myanmar placed on the council's agenda. calling for good governance in the face of globalisation. (AFP) (NLM) • A military officer is killed and 24 other government troops are injured in two clashes with Abu Sayyaf in Sulu. where they had camped out since Saturday to call attention to what they said were restrictions on free speech and assembly. but the transmission is cut off.Star) (Reuters) • Singapore 2006 events: o Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong addresses the opening of the IMF- World Bank meetings.

42. and to curb risks to global economic growth. (Reuters) (Forbes) (BBC) (ABC News) September 20. 48. also clarified some pointers over the about-turn in the handling of 27 Civil Society Organisation representatives whom the Singaporean authorities originally objected from being allowed entry into the country. they are systematically marginalized" and Singapore must stand up against its two larger neighbors. Bank of Thailand Governor Pridiyathorn Devakula is named as the possible next prime minister. (CNA) • Thailand coup d'état: o Six military and police generals are named to the junta's Administrative Reform Council. The men were accused of . Royal Thai Army troops are stationed at media outlets. while international broadcast channels are blocked. (The Nation) September 21. (The Nation) o The junta promises civilian government in two weeks. State TV stations broadcast messages of loyalty to the King. 2006 (Wednesday) • Singapore 2006: o The 61st International Monetary Fund-World Bank annual meeting ends with an agreement on the need to revive stalled global trade talks. 60. and move to censor the media and ban public gatherings. therefore. Mrs Lim Hwee Hua. are executed by firing squad in direct violation of a government pardon for all those involved in the Poso conflict. Marinus Riwu. 2006 (Thursday) • Lee Kuan Yew claims Chinese in Indonesia and Malaysia "are hardworking and. (The Nation) (The Nation) (The Nation) (BBC) o Deposed premier Thaksin Shinawatra cancels his speech before the UN General Assembly and flies to London. Administrative Reform" with King Bhumibol Adulyadej as head of state had seized power without any resistance. (Businessweek) o The Singapore 2006 organising committee thanks Singaporeans and corporations for helping to make what delegates called the "best and most memorable IMF/World Bank meeting they've had" a success. (The Nation) o Coup leaders declare Wednesday a holiday. and Dominggus da Silva. Fabianus Tibo. with Army Commander-in-Chief Gen. Sondhi Boonyaratkalin named as head. with banks and government offices closed. Minister in Charge of Singapore 2006. (Reuters) • Three Christians. where he is reunited with family and friends who fled Thailand after the coup.

Through a spokesman. (AsiaOne) • Thailand coup d'état: o Deposed prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra issues a press statement in London. Indonesia. (CNA) • The Singapore Changi Airport wins six more awards in September to garner a total of 16 in 2006 so far. is mentioned as a possible interim prime minister. currently secretary-general United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. including the nation's intelligence chief. In addition. (CBS News) • Chua Sock Koong will be the new Chief Executive Officer of Singapore Telecommunications. it wins the World Travel Awards for Asia's Leading Airport and World's Leading Airport. former deputy prime minister Surakiart Sathirathai arrives in Bangkok and thanks the junta for its support in his bid to become United Nations Secretary- General. the junta formally assumes legislative powers. 2006 (Friday) • Thousands riot in Central Sulawesi. Rights workers call the trial a sham. which is a stronghold for Thaksin supporters. (AFP) (The Nation) (The Nation) o In the absence of a parliament. replacing Lee Hsien Yang in April 2007. (AFP) (The Nation) o Former Thaksin cabinet members. (The Nation) o The United States is said to be reviewing its aid to Thailand. following the execution of three Christian militants found guilty of taking part in an attack on a . (AFP) o The junta bans any meetings by political parties. the billionaire ex-premier also says he plans to take a "deserved rest". Also four police generals. (AFP) (The Nation) (The Nation) September 22. police are block roads leading to the prison and guard churches. are transferred to inactive posts. are summoned and held by the junta. including the the Best Airport in the World and Best Airport for Duty Free Shopping award by both Business Traveller (UK/Europe) and Business Traveller (Asia/Pacific). urging the junta to have elections soon. Newin Chidchob and Yongyuth Tiyapairaj. The junta also bans local TV stations from broadcasting SMS messages from viewers. (The Nation)(The Nation) o The junta calls for a ban on expressions of public opinion. (Guardian) (The Nation) (AFP) o In moves to distance himself from Thaksin. o Former Director-General of the World Trade Organization Supachai Panitchpakdi. as is Supreme Administrative Court president Ackaratorn Chularat. Three- hundred community radio stations are shut down in northern Thailand.

The victim is a 9- year-old boy who died in a Jakarta hospital. (AFP) September 25. Another name. who were executed for leading attacks on Muslims in 2000 that killed 70 people. a source says. o The junta prepares to appoint an interim civilian prime minister. Fabianus Tibo. The short list includes UNCTAD director-general Supachai Panitchpakdi. (The Nation) September 23. an 11-year-old boy from East Java. • Thailand coup d'état: o The first public protest against the junta is held. with the Bangkok Post reporting 20 people present and The Nation saying 100. (CDRM). • South Thailand insurgency: Four policemen are injured in an explosion at a bus stop explosion in Pattani. is confirmed. 2006 (Sunday) • Hundreds attend funerals on Sulawesi to mourn the executed Christians. (BBC) • Thailand coup d'état: o Tanks are withdrawn from Sanam Luang though tanks are still in place in other parts of the capital. (BBC) • The 50th fatality from H5N1. is off the list. 2006 (Monday) • King Norodom Sihamoni visits Slovakia. (AP) • The country's 51st death from H5N1 is confirmed. 2006 (Saturday) • Malaysia demands Lee Kuan Yew to clarify his comment on Chinese Malaysians (International Herald Tribute) • Thailand coup d'état: Local newspaper reports of the first public protest against the junta vastly differ. (News24) . (Bangkok Post)(The Nation) o 54 radio stations in northeastern Thailand are shut down by the Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy. (The Nation) September 24. Marianus Riwu and Dominggus da Silva. Supreme Court president Charnchai Likhitchittha and Bank of Thailand governor Pridiyathorn Devakula. Supreme Administrative Court head Akkharathorn Chularat. meeting with Slovak President Ivan Gasparovic and pledging to strengthen ties between their two countries.

the ruling Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy would take on a protective role and be renamed the Council of National Security. Phitsanulok. Additionally. Winai Phattiyakul. including Phichit. Surayud Chulanont emerges as leading candidate for interim prime minister.000 civil servants in the support category – hospital attendants. (Nation) o Gen. says the new constitution has been drafted and that the a long-delayed government budget will also be approved. (The Nation) (IHT) • Northern and central Thailand are hit by flooding. o Under a civilian-led interim government. (Bernama) • Around 200. Tan Dung. (CNA) (Thanh Nien) • Thailand coup d'état: o Supachai Panitchpakdi tentatively accepts the junta's invitation to become interim prime minister. many of whom hadn't been previously notified. He is due to return to Bangkok to hold talks with CDRM leaders. Ang Thong. (Nation) September 26. (NST) (AFP) • Royal Thai Air Force Air Chief Marshal Chalit Pukbhasuk tours Suvarnabhumi Airport and declares it ready for Thursday's official opening. o The junta's secretary-general. is instead named to head the junta's economics advisory panel. four people are killed in late-night attacks: Two are killed in an attack on a police station in Yala. as airline and airport staff prepare for the massive move from the old Don Mueang International Airport. sources say. 2006 (Tuesday) • Malaysia sends two of its astronaut candidates. Sonthi Boonyaratglin says the junta will remain in power and . Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor and Faiz Khaleed for training in Star City. whose name was mentioned as a possible interim prime minister. drivers. Gen. A village headman is fatally shot at his home in Narathiwat and in Pattani a man is fatally shot while riding his motorcycle. (Bangkok Post) o Bank of Thailand Governor Pridiyathorn Devakula. the Council for Democratic Reform under Constitutional Monarchy names several other civilians for advisory panels. Russia for their mission to the International Space Station. (The Nation) • In the South Thailand insurgency. Vietnam seeks stronger business ties with Singapore. gardeners and clerical and administrative staff – who earn basic pay of 480 ringgit (about US$130) per month are demanding a salary hike. Lampang and Nakhon Sawan. (TNA) (IHT) • Thailand coup d'état: o Privy Councillor Gen.

installed "in a day or two". "There are still concerns about security
issues, since we don't know yet what will happen," he says. "We will
not control the cabinet, we will just give them our expertise. I
reaffirm that the junta will not be involved in politics." (AFP)
o The board of MCOT resigns en masse to take responsibility for their
actions on Day 1 of the coup, when MCOT's television station,
Modernnine, was the only Thai TV station to broadcast a state-of-
emergency message from deposed prime minister Thaksin
Shinawatra. (TNA)
• The country's third death this year from H5N1 is confirmed by health
officials. The victim is a 59-year-old farmer from northeast Thailand who
died on August 10. (BBC)

September 27, 2006 (Wednesday)

• Indonesia joins Malaysia in demanding Lee Kuan Yew to clarify
and apologize for his remark on Chinese in Indonesia and Malaysia.
(Reuters)
• Inundated by mudflow from a gas exploration well for the past four
months, Porong district in Sidoarjo, East Java, is declared a disaster area.
Nearly 3,000 families are to be relocated at the expense of oil company PT
Lapindo Brantas. The mud, meanwhile, is being routed towards the sea.
(BBC) (Jakarta Post) (ANTARA)

September 28, 2006 (Thursday)

• The Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts bans the Far
Eastern Economic Review from local circulation for failing to comply with
amended conditions in Section 24 of the Newspaper and Printing Presses
Act. (CNA)
• Forty years in the making, but overshadowed by the coup d'état,
Suvarnabhumi Airport officially opens without fanfare, replacing Don
Mueang as Bangkok's international airport. The first flight is Lufthansa
cargo flight LH 8442 from Frankfurt via Mumbai at 3:02am. Glitches
include lengthy waits for baggage to come through the new system managed
by Thai Airways International. (AFP) (AP) (TNA)

September 29, 2006 (Friday)

• Typhoon Xangsane lashes the Philippines, killing at least 60 people and
causing extensive damage in Manila and several provinces, including

• Thailand coup d'état:
o Surayud Chulanont will be named as the interim prime minister,
several officials say, though his appointment won't be official until it
is ratified over the weekend by King Bhumibol Adulyadej.(Times)
(AFP)
o Responding to criticism and the suspension of aid by the US, junta
spokesman Gen. Winai Phattiyakul asks the US to "understand the
decision of Thailand." The general also appeals to the foreign press
to tone down its negative coverage of the coup and says that "we are
considering lifting (restrictions against the press) very soon." (AP)
o The Council for Democratic Reform announces its annual military
shuffle, removing several pre-Cadet classmates of former prime
minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The junta's secretary-general, Gen.
Winai Phattiyakul, is named permanent secretary for defence.
Deputy Supreme Commander Gen. Boonsang Niampradit is named
supreme commander, replacing Gen. Ruangroj Mahasaranond.
Fourth Army Region command, which is dealing with the south
Thailand insurgency, goes to Lt. Gen. Ongkorn Thongprasom, who
swaps posts with Army adviser, Lt. Gen. Viroj Buacharoon. (TNA)

September 30, 2006 (Saturday)

• The junta detains two dissident leaders, Min Zeya and Pyone Cho, in a
crackdown on the opposition National League for Democracy, which has
been celebrating its 18th anniversary this week. (AP)
• Thailand coup d'état: The Council for Democratic Reform submits an
interim constitution for formal approval to King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
(TNA) (AFP)
• Typhoon Xangsane:
o Relief efforts begin following the worst typhoon to hit metro
Manila in more than a decade. (Inq7) (Reuters)
o Vietnam prepares to evacuate 180,000 people from nine central
provinces before the typhoon hits. (AP)

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games

• The World Confederation of Labour and the International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions merge to form the International Trade Union Confederation,
representing 166 million members.
• Hassan Nasrallah, the Secretary General of Hezbollah, says negotiations are
underway with Israel for exchange of the prisoners taken in July's Zar'it-Shtula
incident.
• China announces the resumption of the six-party talks to find a peaceful
resolution to concerns about North Korea's nuclear weapons program.
• Georgi Parvanov becomes the first democratically re-elected Bulgarian president,
beating Volen Siderov in an election runoff.
• A report by Nicholas Stern (pictured), produced for the British government,
asserts that ongoing climate change could have an economic impact similar to that
of the Great Depression or World War II.

November 1, 2006 (Wednesday)

• The government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army rebels sign a second
truce as negotiations restart in Juba, Sudan. (IRIN)
• An Israel Defense Forces soldier and six Palestinians were killed in an IDF
operation in the northern Gaza town of Beit Hanoun. (Haaretz), (BBC News)
• The Prime Minister of Fiji Laisenia Qarase reportedly meets with his security
chiefs this morning after yesterday trying to sack Fiji's military commander Frank
Bainimarama. Alexander Downer, the Foreign Minister of Australia, has raised
concerns about a coup. (ABC News Australia)
• The World Confederation of Labour and the International Confederation of Free
Trade Unions merge to form the International Trade Union Confederation.
(International Herald Tribune)

October 31, 2006 (Tuesday)

• Esperanza Fire
o California authorities arrest a man who is suspected of intentionally
starting two wildfires this summer and is considered a person of interest in
the Esperanza Fire. (San Francisco Examiner)

after calls by Islamic leaders for revenge for a Pakistani airstrike that destroyed another religious school about 60 miles away. one which will offer amnesty to some of those involved in a 2000 coup led by George Speight. longtime host of the American game show The Price Is Right. (AP via Kiplinger forecasts) • Hassan Nasrallah. the Secretary-General of Hezbollah. 2006 (Monday) • President of Bulgaria Georgi Parvanov is reelected after a run-off election with Volen Siderov in the presidential elections. Frank Bainimarama. California started by arson. (Los Angeles Times) • A United States federal appeals court blocks a landmark judgment against the tobacco industry clearing the way for selling "light" and "low tar" cigarettes until industry appeals can be reviewed. (Reuters) • Galymzhan Zhakiyanov. o A fifth firefighter dies as a result of injuries obtained fighting the Esperanza Fire near Palm Springs. says that it has started negotiating with Israel on prisoner exchange." (stuff) • The Prince of Wales’s controversial visit today to a madrassa in the Pakistani town of Peshawar. (BBC News) • Taliban insurgency: Suspected militants attack a convoy of NATO troops in Afghanistan's eastern province of Nuristan killing three soldiers. a prominent Kazakhstani politician and one of the founders of Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan. Fiji's military chief. The attack has generated protests by religious and tribal leaders in Pakistan. says the Government of Kazakhstan should "look at other circumstances that have harmed Kazakhstan's image" instead of "fighting Borat. bordering Afghanistan has been cancelled over fears for his safety. (The Times) • The Lebanese army issued a statement saying its gunners fired anti-aircraft artillery at Israel Air Force warplanes as they flew over south Lebanon. has threatened to force the Prime Minister of Fiji Laisenia Qarase to resign unless the Prime Minister drops two Bills. (ABC News Australia) • Bob Barker. in a madrassa near the town of . announces he will retire in June 2007 after hosting the program since 1972 October 30. (Reuters) • Bajaur airstrike: Pakistani officials confirm that a strike on a madrassah was based on United States intelligence that senior members of al-Queda were hiding there. (EITB) • 2006 Bajaur airstrike: Pakistani helicopter gunships fired missiles and destroyed an al-Qaeda-linked training facility and killed 80 suspected terrorists in a northwestern tribal area near the Afghan border. (The Washington Post) • Fiji's military stage exercises around the capital Suva and close off the city's army barracks as tensions rose due to fears of a coup d'état. (Haaretz) • China announces the resumption of the stalled six-party talks to find a peaceful resolution to concerns about North Korean nuclear weapons program.

(BBC) • Iraqi insurgency: 17 police officers. 15 of them police trainers. (USA Today) • Specialist Ahmed Qusai al-Taayie. are abducted and murdered in Basra. Muhammed Maccido. a senator. walks out of court after 12 of his requests were rejected. • The Israeli cabinet has approved the addition of the Yisrael Beitenu party into the governing coalition. (AP via Phillyburbs) • Serbian constitutional referendum. a Nigerian Boeing 737 airliner carrying more than 100 passengers. (AP via ABC News America) • Super Typhoon Cimaron. kills at least three people as it makes landfall in Luzon. (CBS). (Reuters). the sultan's son. is reported to have married an Iraqi citizen. President Iajuddin Ahmed . Khalil al-Duleimi. against U. (Reuters) October 29. (The Times) • Saddam Hussein's chief lawyer. which had served as the headquarters for the five-month protest occupation of the city. and Abdulrahman Shehu Shagari. crashes near Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport. are on the list of passengers on board.S. (Reuters). 2006 (Sunday) • Mexican federal police seize the center of Oaxaca. (CNN) • The Attorney-General of Israel delivers a brief to the Supreme Court of Israel arguing that the President of Israel Moshe Katsav should stand aside pending a possible indictment for rape. (CNN) • Fierce political rioting in Bangladesh kills at least 10 people and wounds about 500 as the main political parties fail to agree on a successor after the expiry of Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia's five-year term. but the chief judge immediately appoints other attorneys to defend the deposed President of Iraq. an Iraqi American United States Army soldier currently listed as missing in action in Iraq. the strongest storm to hit the Philippines in eight years. military regulations. officials said. submits a report to the British Government warning of the economic costs and damage to the world that could result from global warming. the former chief economist of the World Bank. (Xinhua) There are six confirmed survivors. (BBC News) • Sir Nicholas Stern. (MSNBC) • A bomb at a Baghdad market kills 31 people and wounds more than 50 others. (AFP via New Sunday Times) • ADC Flight 53. 2006: Serbian voters approve the new constitution. son of former Nigerian President Shehu Shagari. (International Herald Tribune) • President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva wins a second term in a landslide victory with 61 per cent of voters supporting him. (BBC) • 2001-2006 war in Afghanistan: One NATO soldier and about 70 Taliban insurgents were killed in southern Afghanistan when fighting broke out between insurgents and Afghan troops and NATO's International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). (SABC). The Sultan of Sokoto Mohammadu Maccido. Abuja.

the head of the Pentagon's Missile Defense Agency welcomes what he cast as epochal progress toward putting a high-energy laser aboard a modified Boeing 747 to attack ballistic missiles that could be fired by North Korea and Iran. (BBC) • Violence breaks out during street protests in Bangladesh. (Reuters) • NATO apologises for the deaths of Afghan civilians in an air raid on Tuesday. beating the Detroit Tigers 4 games to 1. ambassador that he is Washington's friend but "not America's man in Iraq. voter turnout on day one was low. 2006 (Saturday) • General Henry Obering. as confusion continues over who will take over governing the country from former Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia. October 24. (CNN)." (CBS News) • At least 42 people are killed in a bus crash in Nepal. (Telegraph) October 28. (Reuters) • The genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera has been fully sequenced and analyzed. (BBC) • The Russian political parties Rodina. (BBC) October 27. blaming Taliban insurgents for using the villagers as cover. David Eckstein is named the World Series MVP. (BBC) • Joseph Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba face-off in the presidential run-off election in Democratic Republic of the Congo. (ITAR-TASS). in Kandahar province. (Reuters). (BBC) • Baseball: The St.S. effectively making Sergey Mironov the new leader of the opposition in the Russian legislature. (BBC) • Voting begins on a new Serbian constitution that would make Kosovo officially a part of Serbia. Russia of Justice. (Reuters). the Russian Party of Life and the Russian Pensioners' Party merge to form a new leftist party. (Reuters via ABC News Australia) • Cuban television shows images of convalescing leader Fidel Castro walking and reading the day's newspapers showing that he is recovering from his emergency surgery in July. Louis Cardinals win the 2006 World Series. This is the Cardinals' first title since 1982. winning his second ring. (IHT) • Prime Minister of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki tells the U. Constitution of Bangladesh by appointing himself as head of the interim government. (Nature) • German newspaper Bild publishes photos allegedly showing Bundeswehr troops posing with human remains in Afghanistan while on peacekeeping duties there. (ESPN) . 2006 (Friday) • Australia's senior Muslim cleric Sheikh Taj El-Din Hilaly is barred from preaching for three months after his controversial speech comparing women who did not wear the hijab to "uncovered meat". causing the deaths of at least 9 people.

declares a state of emergency. torture. Russia.-area sniper Lee Boyd Malvo admitted that he and partner John Allen Muhammad were responsible for the 2002 murder of a 60-year-old man on a Tucson golf course. (USA Today) • Four firefighters are killed and one is critically injured as they tried to control the Esperanza Fire that drove hundreds from their homes near Palm Springs. murder and kidnapping in the early years of his regime. An arsonist started the fire. (News24) • A controlled explosion is carried out by an Army Bomb Disposal squad on Dublin's O'Connell Street after a security alert on an Aircoach bus. oxygen and vital spare parts for the International Space Station (ISS) arrived at its orbital destination after a successful rendezvous marred by a last-minute antenna glitch. USA.S. 2006 (Thursday) • George W.(BBC News) • A Russian Progress spacecraft hauling fresh food.-Mexico border. California.(CNN) • Shares in the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China go on sale at the Shanghai Stock Exchange and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in the world's biggest Initial Public Offering (IPO). (ABC News Australia) • Thousands of young Muslim men demonstrate in the Somali capital of Mogadishu in support of a call for a holy war against Ethiopia. • In Australia. (CNN) • Arnold Schwarzenegger. Traffic in the city has been severely affected. from 1973 to 1990. Bush signs into law The Secure Fence Act of 2006 to build a fence along the U. (BBC News) • The National Assembly of Nicaragua passes a law banning all abortions in the run- up to general elections. (CNN) (CBS) • Fifteen people die and 400 are admitted to hospital in Pskov. a possible step in developing nuclear materials. although no explosive material was found. United States.S. (Reuters) . (AP via KPHO) • The Iranian Students' News Agency reports that Iran has injected gas into a second network of centrifuges and has obtained the output. (RTÉ) • The Ford Taurus rolls off the assembly line for the last time. (CNN) • Johannesburg International Airport is renamed to OR Tambo International Airport. state of California. Governor of the U. Sheikh Taj El-Din Hilaly apologizes after a public uproar over his statement comparing women who did not wear the hijab to "uncovered meat". (BBC) • Washington D. The Ford plant in Atlanta.000 is offered for the capture of the arsonist responsible for the wildfires started in the Twin Pines area of the state. and a reward of USD $500.000 employees are all laid off. closes and 2. after consuming alcohol suspected of being tainted with medicinal drugs or chemicals. MSNBC October 26. police claim.C.

(ABC News) • A German minister claims that two Israeli fighter jets fired two shots over a German naval peacekeeping ship near the Lebanese coast. need to be permanently relocated over the next ten years due to rising sea levels caused by global warming.5 billion from $9. (TNZH) • ExxonMobil Corp.92 billion as crude prices rise to an all-time high. Israel denies the jets fired. the world's largest petroleum extracting company. (Bloomberg) • Afghan government officials claim at least 60 civilians were killed in ISAF Operation Medusa in the Panjwayi district of Kandahar province on Tuesday. (Times) • . This is the second highest quarterly profit figure for a United States company.. says its third-quarter net income rose to USD $10.

Notable international news agencies • Agence France-Presse • All Headline News (AHN) • Agencia Internacional de Noticias • ANP (The Netherlands) • ANSA (Italy) • Agenzia Giornalistica Italia (Italy) • Associated Press • Associated Press of Pakistan .g. individuals. Reuters and All Headline News (AHN)). Business Wire and PR Newswire). and then sell them to other news organizations. cooperatives composed of newspapers that share their articles with each other (e.Not associated with AP • Australian Associated Press • BASA-press (the first independent news agency from The Republic of Moldova) • British Broadcasting Corporation • Bloomberg L.P.News agency A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to organizations in the news trade: newspapers. magazines. Market Wire.g." particularly in authoritarian states. as a component of the larger alternative media have emphasized a "non-corporate view. A recent rise in internet-based alternative news agencies like Scoopt. . today they frequently use the Internet). They are also known as wire services or news services. commercial newswire services which charge organizations to distribute their news (e. and many other countries also have government-funded news agencies. Australia. Britain. Corporations. AP)." as being largely independent of the pressures of business media. They provide these articles in bulk electronically through wire services (originally they used telegraphy. News agencies generally prepare hard news stories and feature articles that can be used by other news organizations with little or no modification. and radio and television broadcasters. Governments may also control "news agencies. News agencies can be corporations that sell news (e. analysts and intelligence agencies may also subscribe. like China and the former Soviet Union or non-profit organizations operated by both professionals and volunteers. The business proposition of news agencies might thus be responsible for the current trends in separation of fact based reporting from Op-eds.g. Canada.

China • Yonhap. Independent Television News • Interfax • Inter Press Service Global news agency featuring development news • ITIM . They may send them through telegraph wires like the Philippines News Agency (thus the term wire service) or like Depthnews. Ukraine • Reuters • United Press International • Xinhua News Agency. China • City News Bureau of Chicago • Cox Enterprises • DPA (Germany) • EFE. These are Organisations which gather news and feature stories and send them out to client newspapers. such as columns and features. but many such organizations are completely separate. Korea News agencies are distinct from news syndicates that distribute comic strips and other orial material. Russia • Kyodo News (Japan) • Maghreb Arab Press (Morocco) (aka La MAP) • Nippon News (Japan) • NZPA (New Zealand) • OANA • The Press Association (UK) • Pacific News Service • Petra (Agency) (Jordan) • Power and Interest News Report • Press Trust of India • QHA. • Canadian Press • Canadian University Press • China News Service. Agencia EFE • ITN. Sometimes news agencies have separate arms for such work.Israel • ITAR-TASS. they may mail them out to the client newspapers. and also from PR services that distribute press releases. Commercial newswire services • Asia Corporate News Network • Business Wire • CCN Matthews .

aka InternetWire • New Oceania • Nonprofit Newswire • PR Newswire • PrimeZone Media Network • TransWorldNews • US Newswire • Wireless Flash News • News Agencies in Pakistan Free online newswire services • PRFree • PR Leap • ClickPress • Newsmotto • USPRwire • UKPRwire • Scitech News • CSUWIRE . • CNW Group • Empire Information Services • Eworldwire • Japan Corporate News Network • Korea Newswire • Market Wire.

Sports .Sports journalism Sports journalism is a form of journalism that reports on sports topics and events. They often must be very careful about showing any bias for or against any home-town team. Sports journalism has grown in importance as professional and amateur sports have grown in wealth. and to uphold the same professional and ethical standards. Yet they are expected to use the same tools as news journalists. and the sports journalism industry includes organizations devoted entirely to sports reporting — magazines such as Sports Illustrated and the Sporting News. Within some newspapers at times. allowing them into locker rooms for interviews and providing extensive information support. and sports television networks like ESPN — as well as many other news media that devote personnel and resources to covering sports. Jackie Robinson breaking the color barrier in baseball is an example of this. business. the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs. Sportswriters face much more deadline pressure than most other reporters. etc. Sports journalism still may not be considered the most important product of a news media organization. crime. especially for the Olympic Games. Major League Baseball still gives many print journalists a special role in its baseball games: They are named official scorers and can make judgment calls about certain aspects of the score that do not affect the final disposition of the game. show that sports still can intrude onto the news pages. Sports teams are almost always very accommodating to sports journalists." because sports journalists concern themselves with games rather than 'serious' topics like politics. and the cost to local and national governments to build sports venues and related infrastructure. Modern controversies regarding the compensation of top athletes. the sports department has been sometimes mockingly called the "toy department. Sports stories often transcend the games themselves and take on socio-political significance. even if reporting is unfavorable to them. power and influence as well. all-sports talk radio stations. but it is an essential product. because sporting events tend to occur late in the day and closer to the deadlines many organizations must observe.

verification. production. before coming journalists — or they have least have exhibited talent in writing about science subjects. issues and people that are associated with the non-human world with which humans necessarily interact. which is still just beginning to form. have led to some difficulties. Interaction between the scientific community and news media has been therefore inevitable. . distribution and exhibition of information regarding current events. one must have an understanding of scientific language and practice. but not always.journalists usually must also gather and use voluminous performance statistics for teams and individual athletes in most sports. and often jargon-laden information produced by scientists into a form that the average media purchaser can understand and appreciate. Science journalism Science journalism is a relatively new branch of journalism. Environmental journalism Environmental journalism is the collection. Science journalists often. The first task of a science journalist to render the very detailed. In recent years. medical doctors. the amount of scientific news has grown rapidly with science playing an increasingly central role in society. have advanced training in the particular scientific disciplines that they undergo — they may have been scientists or. The communication of scientific knowledge through mass media requires a special relationship between the world of science and news media. which utilizes the art of reporting to convey the message on science topics to a public forum. specific. despite its complexity. the ability to keep abreast of environmental policy decisions and the work of environmental organizations. a general understanding of current environmental concerns. The differences between the methodologies of these two "pillars" of modern society. while still communicating the information accurately. trends. foremost their distinct ways of developing their realities. for example. and the ability to communicate all of that information to the public in such a way that it can be easily understood. knowledge of historical environmental events. To be an environmental journalist.

and follows tradition up through prominent nature writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau in the late 19th century.Environmental journalism falls within the scope of environmental communication. John Burroughs and John Muir in the early 20th century. The field of environmental journalism was further legitimized by the creation of the Society of Environmental Journalists in 1990. the field of environmental journalism did not begin to take shape until the 1960s and 1970s.” Today. accuracy. believe in objectively reporting environmental news. Grassroots environmental organizations made a booming appearance on the political scene in the 1960s and 1970s. which became a mainstream cultural movement with the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring in 1962 and was further legitimized by the passage of the Wilderness Act in 1964. of environmental journalism While the practice of nature writing has a rich that dates back at least as far as the exploration narratives of Christopher Columbus. and that environmental journalists should not shy away from . raising public awareness of what many considered to be the “environmental crisis. Some. and its roots can be traced to nature writing. The growth of environmental journalism as a profession roughly parallels that of the environmental movement. and visibility of environmental reporting. a prominent figure in the field. including those in the Society of Environmental Journalists. whose mission “is to advance public understanding of environmental issues by improving the quality. like Michael Frome. The mass media has followed and generated public interest on environmental issues ever since. and Aldo Leopold in the 1940s. believe that journalists should only enter the environmental side of the field if saving the planet is a personal passion. academic programs are offered at a number of institutions to train budding journalists in the rigors. One key controversy in environmental journalism is a continuing disagreement over how to distinguish it from its allied genres and disciplines. while others. Debate over advocacy in environmental journalism There exists a minor rift in the community of environmental journalists.” and working to influence environmental policy decisions. complexity and sheer breadth of environmental journalism.

” Also within the scope of environmental communication are the genres of nature writing. science writing. This Incomparable Land: A Guide to American Nature Writing. “the main burden of the writing is to convey pointed instruction in the facts of nature. though not at the expense of clearly relating facts and opinions on all sides of an issue. etc. they are each deserving of their own definition. personal responses to nature.) that are engaged with the social debate about environmental issues and problems. . but with changes in the field of journalism filtering up from new media being used by the general public to produce news. sustainability and biological diversity. In the natural essay. garden essays. In the philosophical interpretation of nature. Thomas J. This debate is not likely to be settled soon. and works advocating environmental preservation. farming essays. ecofeminist works. He suggests that his classifications. mass. the author’s firsthand contact with nature is the frame for the writing. environmental interpretation and environmental advocacy. “In essays of experience. “environmental communication is all of the many forms of communication (interpersonal. group. environmental literature. public. Environmental journalism pulls from the tradition and scope of nature writing.environmental advocacy. writing on environmental justice. organizational. Lyon attempts to use a “taxonomy of nature writing” in order to define the genre. Nature writing Nature is the genre with the longest in environmental communication. suffer a great deal of overlap and intergrading. “but the mode of presentation tends to be more abstract and scholarly” (Lyon 25). too. The Norton Book of Nature Writing adds a few new dimensions to the genre of nature writing. “The literature of nature has three main dimensions to it: natural information. While there is a great deal of overlap among the various genres within environmental communication. the content is similar to that of the natural and personal experience essays. Overlap within environmental communication According to Mark Meisner of the Environmental Communication Network. and philosophical interpretation of nature” (Lyon 20).” such as with the ramble-type nature writing of John Burroughs (Lyon 21). In his book. it seems likely that the field of environmental journalism will lend itself more and more toward reporting points of view akin to environmental advocacy.” as with Edward Abbey’s contemplation of a desert sunset (Lyon 23). including animal narratives.

thus advocating a more thoughtful and ecologically sensitive relationship of man to nature. While environmental journalism is not derived from environmental interpretation. organized (easy to follow and structured so that main points are likely to be remembered) and thematic (the information is related to a specific. environmental literature is understood to espouse care and concern for the environment. often more biocentric worldviews. it can employ interpretive techniques to explain difficult concepts to its audience. Environmental journalism also pulls from the tradition and scope of science writing. Environmental advocacy Environmental advocacy is presenting information on nature and environmental issues that is decidedly opinionated and encourages its audience to adopt more environmentally sensitive attitudes. And it involves doing it in a way that’s entertaining and interesting to these people” (Ham 3). Often. repetitious message) (Ham 8–28). generally translating jargon that is difficult for those outside a particular scientific field to understand into language that is easily digestible. Not all science writing falls within the bounds of environmental communication. particularly as applied to the relationships between man. Environmental journalism is partially derived from environmental literature. Environmental literature Environmental literature is writing that comments intelligently on environmental themes. It “involves translating the technical language of a natural science or related field into terms and ideas that people who aren’t scientists can readily understand. Environmental advocacy can be . society and the environment. Most nature writing and some science writing falls within the scope of environmental literature. only science writing that takes on topics relevant to the environment. relevant (meaningful and personal to the audience so that they have an intrinsic reason to learn more about the topic). Environmental interpretation Environmental interpretation is a particular format for the communication of relevant information.Science writing Science writing is writing that focuses specifically on topics of scientific study. This genre can be narrative or informative. Environmental interpretation is pleasurable (to engage an audience in the topic and inspire them to learn more about it).

Environmental journalism can include. The journalists surveyed were more likely to prioritize specific. Topics The field of environmental journalism covers a wide variety of topics. environmental journalists perceive water concerns as the most important environmental issue. local environmental issues than global environmental concerns. but is not limited to. According to The Reporter’s Environmental Handbook.present in any of the aforementioned genres of environmental communication. followed by atmospheric air pollution concerns.S. endocrine disruptors.-Mexico) • Dioxin • Disposal of Dredged Materials • Endocrine Disruptors (“also called a hormonally active agent. [it] is a chemical that interferes with the functioning of the endocrine system” (172)) • Environmental Justice and Hazardous Waste • Food irradiation • Genetically Modified Crops • Global Climate Change • Groundwater Pollution • Naturally Occurring and Technology-Based Disasters • Occupational Health • Ozone Depletion • Pesticides • Pollution Prevention/Source Reduction • Population Growth . It is currently debated whether environmental journalism should employ techniques of environmental advocacy. some of the following topics: From The Reporter’s Environmental Handbook: • Air Pollution (Indoor) • Air Pollution (Outdoor) • Animal Waste Management • Biodiversity • Brownfields (“former industrial and commercial sites” (104)) • Cancer and Other Disease Cluster Claims • Chemical Emergencies • Chemical weapons (Disarmament) • Children’s Health (Asthma) • Children’s Health (Lead) • Cross-Border Environmental Issues (U. and waste management issues.

• Sprawl and Environmental Health • Surface Water Quality • Water Supply From EnviroLink: • Agriculture • Air Quality • Climate Change • Ecosystems • Energy • Environmental Disasters • Environmental Economics • Environmental Education • Environmental Ethics • Environmental Legislation and Environmental Policy • Forests • Ground Pollution • Habitat conservation • Natural • Outdoor Recreation • Population • Sciences • Social Sciences and Humanities • Sustainable Development • Sustainable Living • Transportation • Urban Issues • Vegetarianism • Waste Management • Water Quality • Wildlife Gotcha journalism Gotcha journalism is a term often used to refer to techniques primarily used in certain versions of broadcast journalism to represent a specific person or group of people in a specifically desired manner through manipulation of images and quotes. or through ing of interviews. the British tabloid newspaper. An early citation indicated . in 1982. when it printed a massive headline reading "GOTCHA!" in reference to an incident in the Falklands War. The phrase gotcha journalism is reported to have been based on a headline in The Sun.

John Q. John Q. in which the reporter narrates.thank goodness it's not!" To discr this expert. Alternatively. Techniques Gotcha journalism generally refers to a method of interviewing or ing of interviews in which the interviewee is made to look foolish or out of touch. "If this were actually happening. The expert may issue a statement such as. how do you respond to that?" Gotcha journalism may also be achieved by misleading an interviewee about which portions of his or her statements will be aired." Manipulation of quotes. "this trend would be alarming. if Dr. if real. Former United States Vice President Dan Quayle reportedly referred to "gotcha journalism" in 1999 during an interview with talk-show host David Letterman. the whole clip may be aired. Most . expert. employment is at a record high in his city. Smith's quote makes the case that the reporter wishes to have made. The effect is often to make the targeted person look uninformed or as if he or she is lying. Spencer in the Los Angeles Times in 1987. especially for news magazines. and asked to comment on what it might mean. The interviewee in this case may be baited with questions that have very obvious answers such as. "The mayor says unemployment is a record low. in which it appears that Dr. and perhaps even an interview in which the person is asked to comment on the mayor's speech. A news outlet may replay that speech and follow up with footage of desperate men and women at the unemployment office. the narration might state. a city's mayor might give a speech in which he claims that during his tenure. an "expert" may be given manufactured statistics that indicate a three-fold increase in drug use is occurring in suburban schools. or misleading the audience about how an expert opinion is acquired. This effect is also achieved by replaying quotes from public speeches and following with hand-picked footage or images that appear to contradict the statement. Smith what he thinks of the increase in drug use and he said. images." followed by the section of the clip in which Smith says. this trend would be alarming . "We asked Dr. For example. To add sensationalism. "We asked Dr. Smith is in denial over drugs in school. and archive footage is typical in the rigorous ing process.it was used by Stuart K. and does not cross over into gotcha journalism until there is a deliberate attempt to mislead an interviewee. or the audience. Smith to comment on drug use in American schools" followed by the clip of this quote. For example. a special feature may be run on drug use in schools.

A number of news outlets aired the statements followed by footage of flooded homes. a number of public officials gave public statements in which they stated that progress was being made. in the weeks following Hurricane Katrina. . abandoned neighborhoods. For example.commonly this manifests by finding footage of exceptions to a generalization given by a speaker or interviewee. and interviews with the many people still affected by the disaster for whom there clearly was no progress yet.

see the article for the type. though the or may take some responsibility for ensuring consistency of style and content • presentations at academic conferences. and working papers issued by individual researchers or research organisations on their own initiative. The significance of books. biological patents and chemical patents) • books wholly written by one or a small number of co-authors • books. they are typically more important . these are sometimes organised into a series The significance of these different components of the literature varies between disciplines and has changed over time. As of 2006. However. journals vary enormously in their prestige and importance. For information about journal article adatabases. pamphlets. The status of working papers and conference proceedings depends on the discipline. see Academic databases and search engines. especially those organized by learned societies • government reports • scientific publications on the World Wide Web • books. For information on particular types. where each chapter is the responsibility of a different author or set of authors. Scientific literature comprises scientific publications that report original empirical and theoretical work in the natural and social sciences. technical reports. and abstract and indexing services in the science. and have the highest prestige.Scientific literature This article talks about the general structure of the production and use of scientific literature. and the value of a published article depends on the journal. and within a scientific field is often abbreviated as the literature. Types of scientific publications Scientific literature can include the following kinds of publications: • scientific articles published in scientific journals • patents specialized for science and technology (for example. also called research monographs depends on the subject. peer-reviewed journal articles remain the predominant publication type. Generally books published by university presses are usually considered more prestigious than those published by commercial presses. Academic publishing is the process of placing the results of one's research into the literature.

and appropriate software is commercially available. and are often kept in duplicate. The quality of content . working papers. it is now an accepted alternative. The purpose is to preserve the evidence for scientific priority. The work on a project is typically published as one or more technical reports. and to furnish subject metadata for indexing services. or [[preprint]s followed by a formal article. preparation of an article The actual day-to-day records of scientific information are kept in research notebooks or logbooks. These are usually kept indefinitely as the basic evidence of the work. such as mathematics or high energy physics. The value of publication as a preprint or scientific report on the web has in the past been low. role in science Scientific literature is where scientific debates are properly carried out and adjudicated. notarized. the notebooks in some data-intensive fields have been kept as database records. or at the end of components of a particularly large one. with preliminary reports. and archived. or articles. The first part is normally an abstract.in the applied sciences. which varies only slightly in different subjects. Articles are usually prepared at the end of a proje3ct. and in particular for priority for obtaining [patent]s. Since the availability of computers. scientific authorship The nature of the content A scientific article has a standardized structure. signed. In some fields both are used. and is intended to serve as a a guide for determining if the articles is pertinent. this is a one-paragraphy summary of the work. but in some subjects. They have also been used in scientific disputes.

Ultimately. and obviously does not apply to mathematcsand related subjects. in such a way that any reader with knowledge of the field can follow the argument and confirm that the conclusions are sound. and the results of the investigation. and there should be an established way of citing the document so that formal reference can be made to them in future scientific publication. it is not the format that is important. 2. or faith. The "quality" being referred to is the scientific quality. acceptance of the conclusions must not depend on personal authority. 1.the content. The lack of an established archival system is one of the hurdles that World Wide Web based scientific publication has had to overcome. and progress is now being made on their interoperability and permanence. The relatively weak peer review often applied to books and chapters in ed books means that their status is doubtful. The lack of peer review is what makes most technical reports and World Wide Web publications unacceptable as contributions to the literature. rather than being in themselves essential to scientific literature. However. a term which also encompasses other means towards the same purpose. The conclusions drawn should be based on previous literature and/or new empirical results. with appropriate knowledge of and experience in the relevant field. This naturally varies between subjects. by citation of relevant documents in the existing literature. and the validity of the conclusions drawn from the data. The content should be presented in the context of previous scientific investigations. The purpose of peer review is quality control. several key formatting requirements need to be met before an outlet can be regarded as forming a part of the literature. unless an author's personal standing is so high that his or her prior career provides an effective guarantee of quality. Empirical techniques. Peer review Peer review and the learned journal format are each convenient ways of ensuring that the above fundamental criteria are met. should be described in such a way that a subsequent scientist. 3. but what lies behind it . in the sense that libraries should be able to store and catalogue the documents and scientists years later should be able to recover any document in order to study and assess it. rhetorical skill. Formal peer review is in flux and likely to change fundamentally owing to the emergence of institutional digital repositories where scholars . That is. Reliable repositories such as arXiv or PubMed Central have been institued. the lack of flaws in the data. 4. The format should be archival. should be able to repeat the observations and know whether he or she has obtained the same result.

and by the major interdisciplinary services such as those marketed by the Institute for Scientific Information. tax records and license records • anonymous sources (for example whistleblowers) • going undercover . fact-finding. tedious analysis of documents.can post their work as it is submitted to a print-based journal. means that the effective criterion for whether a publication format forms part of the literature is whether it is covered by these services. sometimes months or years. Increasing reliance on abstracting services. Most investigative journalism is done by newspapers. scientific analysis. social and legal issues. in particular. An investigative journalist must have an analytical and incisive mind with strong self-motivation to carry on when all doors are closed. whereas a typical daily or weekly news reporter writes items concerning immediately available news. address books. The Investigation The investigation will often require an extensive number of interviews and travel. or some other scandal. An investigative journalist's final report may take the form of an exposé. In short. when facts are being covered up or falsified and so on. Investigative journalism Investigative journalism is a kind of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a topic of interest. phone records. investigative journalism requires a lot of scrutiny of details. especially on those available electronically. by the specialised service for the discipline concerned such as Chemical Abstracts Service. it permits an unreviewed copy into general circulation. wire services and freelance journalists. patent medicine. other instances might call for the reporter to make use of activities such as surveillance techniques. investigations of the performance of any kind of equipment involved in an accident. such as archives. and physical effort. and the like. An investigative journalist may spend a considerable period researching and preparing a report. political corruption. Some of the means reporters can use for their fact-finding: • studying neglected sources. Though this does not prevent peer review. often involving crime.

• Revelation$. changed the color of his skin and traveled in the U. • Thalidomide o The 'Insight' team of The Sunday Times achieved great renown in the 1960s for its exposure of public health scandals. about Clearstream. most notably Thalidomide. • Watergate o The Washington Post's investigation by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led to the resignation of U.S. John Howard Griffin. President Richard Nixon. later writing a series of articles for Sepia magazine and then his famous book.Examples • Black Like Me o In 1959. a caucasian. which has been called the "biggest financial scandal in Luxembourg" and was discovered by ex-Clearstream banker Ernest Backes who co-authored a book about it with French journalist Denis Robert. Bulgaria) investigated the American and Bulgarian governments secret Cold War files. • The Iron Fist o Alexenia Dimitrova of the 24 Hours Daily (Sofia.S. .'s Deep South as an African-American. o Paul Foot used his columns in The Daily Mirror and Private Eye to expose miscarriages of justice.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights indicates: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression.Freedom of the press Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek. and their published reporting. classified or secret and being otherwise protected from disclosure due to relevance of the information to protecting the national interest. some non-governmental organizations use more criteria to judge the level of press freedom around the world.S. and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers" This philosophy is usually accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research (known as scientific freedom). Australians have nothing in their constitution nor a bill or rights that suggests anything to do with Freedom of the Press. a government distinguishes which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public based on classification of information as sensitive. receive. press and printing the depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can go as far down as its constitution. For example. In the U. and processes involved in obtaining information for public distribution. publishing. thereby giving equal treatment to media and individuals. The concept of freedom of speech is often covered by the same laws as freedom of the press. extended to members of news gathering organizations. Not all countries are protected by a bill of rights or the constitution pertaining to Freedom of the Press. freedom of the press implies that all people should have the right to express themselves in writing or in any other way of expression of personal opinion or creativity. Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest. Basic principles and criteria In developed countries. With respect to governmental information. It also extends to news gathering. Reporters Without Borders . this right is guaranteed by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Besides said legal environment.

Other lines of thought later argued in favor of freedom of the press without relying on the controversial issue of natural law. Status of press freedom worldwide Worldwide press freedom index . the first advocates of freedom of the press were the liberal thinkers of the 18th and 19th centuries.They developed their ideas in opposition to the monarchist tradition in general and the divine right of kings in particular. So the concept of independence of the press is one closely linked with the concept of press freedom. Freedom House likewise studies the more general political and economic environments of each nation in order to determine whether there exist relationships of dependence that limit in practice the level of press freedom that might exist in theory. These liberal theorists argued that freedom of expression was a right claimed by the individual and grounded in natural law. but in the Reportpooopers' Gallery yonder. The development of the Western media tradition is rather parallel to the development of democracy in Europe and the United States. as well as the existence of censorship and self- censorship in the media. Freedom of the press was (and still is) assumed by many to be a necessity to any democratic society. On the ideological level.considers the number of journalists murdered. freedom of the press was an integral part of the individual rights promoted by liberal ideology (see the section below). Edmund Burke is quoted to have said: "Three Estates in Parliament. there sat a Fourth estate more important far than they all". expelled or harassed. Thus. and the existence of a state monopoly on TV and radio. freedom of expression began to be regarded as an essential component of the social contract (the agreement between a state and its people regarding the rights and duties that each should have to the other). namely an addition to the legislative. for instance. The media as the fourth branch of government The notion of the press as the fourth branch of government is sometimes used to compare the press (or media) with Montesquieu's three branches of government. the executive and the judiciary branches. and the overall independence of media as well as the difficulties that foreign reporters may face.

followed by New Zealand and Latvia. Nepal. Overwhelmingly. followed by Burma. Iceland. in the modern age. Eritrea. The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. through the use of police. such as pressure on journalists by non- governmental groups. the Netherlands and Norway. military. In 2004. and assassination. kidnapping. more than a third of the world's people live in countries where there is no press freedom. This can range from simple threats to their professional careers (firing. as well as related specialists such as researchers. China. Non-democratic states According to Reporters Without Borders. In 2003. and Iran. Turkmenistan. or intelligence agencies) any significant attempts by the media or individual journalists to challenge the approved "government line" on contentious issues. apart from the above countries.Denmark. Slovakia. torture. and Switzerland were tied at the top of the list. strict control of access to information is critical to the existence of most non-democratic governments and their associated control systems and security apparatus. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom. Saudi Arabia.Every year. The countries with the least degree of press freedom were ranked with North Korea having the worst. these people live in countries where there is no system of democracy or where there are serious deficiencies in the democratic process. and does not measure the quality of journalism. Ireland. In such countries. . the Reporters Without Borders organization establishes a ranking of countries in terms of their freedom of the press. jurists and human rights activists. Vietnam. Freedom of the press is an extremely problematic concept for most non-democratic systems of government since. To this end. journalists operating on the fringes of what is deemed to be acceptable will very often find themselves the subject of considerable intimidation by agents of the state. professional blacklisting) to death threats. The list is based on responses to surveys sent to journalists that are members of partner organisations of the RWB. the countries where press was the most free were Finland. most non-democratic societies employ state- run news organisations to promote the propaganda critical to maintaining an existing political power base and suppress (often very brutally.

Until 1694. above all. John Milton wrote his pamphlet Areopagitica. Having decided to grant some of his basic freedoms in the state of nature (natural rights) to the common good. No publication was allowed without the accompaniment of a government-granted license. good from bad. Gongadze case in Ukraine. England had an elaborate system of licensing. The main theoretical inspirator of Western liberalism was John Locke. Fifty years earlier. Eritrea and China. A social contract was entered into by the people. the individual must have unlimited access to the ideas of his fellow men in “a free . government) was instructed to protect these individual rights on behalf of the people." Although at the time it did little to halt the practice of licensing it would be viewed later a significant milestone in press freedom. e. In order to be able to exercise this ration right. • In Nepal. argues John Locke in his book Two Treatises of Government. but unoffensive books must not stir forth without a visible jailer in their title. 42 journalists lost their lives pursuing their profession and that. England The English revolution of 1688 resulted in the supremacy of Parliament over the Crown and. • The Lira Baysetova case in Kazakhstan. and the Sovereign (i. the individual placed some of his rights in trusteeship with the government. Milton's central argument was that the individual is capable of using reason and distinguishing right from wrong.Reporters Without Borders reports that. 63 journalists and 5 media assistants were killed worldwide. in the same year. writing "when as debtors and delinquents may walk abroad without a keeper. at least 130 journalists were in prison as a result of their occupational activities. the right of revolution. • The Georgiy R. journalists may spend years in jail simply for using the "wrong" word or photo. In 2005. at a time of civil war. in 2003. In this work Milton argued forcefully against this form of government censorship and parodied the idea.

One form of speech that was widely restricted in England was the law of sious libel that made criticizing of the government a crime. From Milton’s writings developed the concept of “the open market place of ideas”: When people argue against each other. Applying these general principles of liberty to freedom of expression. The King was above public criticism and that statements critical of the government were forbidden. and one. the good arguments will prevail. Truth was not a defense to sious libel because the goal was to prevent and punish all condemnation of the government. Anyone involved in the film industry -. than he. due to opinion-changing power Goebbels perceived movies to have. how-to manuals were openly distributed by that same ministry explaining the craft of effective propaganda.from directors to the lowliest assistant -. would be justified in silencing mankind". (Goebbels himself maintained some personal control over every single film made in Nazi Europe.and open encounter”. The good society is one in which the greatest number of persons enjoy the greatest possible amount of happiness. were of one opinion.had to sign an oath of loyalty to the Nazi Party.) Journalists who crossed the Propaganda Ministry were routinely imprisoned or shot as traitors. Nazi Germany Nazi propaganda was used to glorify Adolf Hitler and stifle dissenting viewpoints. issuing orders as to what stories could be run and what stories would be suppressed. and only one person were of the contrary opinion. . The dictatorship of Adolf Hitler largely suppressed freedom of the press through Joseph Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry. The individual freedom of expression is therefore essential to the well-being of society. according to the English Court of the Star Chamber. if he had the power. John Stuart Mill approached the problem of authority versus liberty from the viewpoint of a 19th century utilitarian: The individual has the right of expressing himself so long as he does not harm other individuals. Mill’s application of the general principles of liberty is expressed in his book On Liberty: "If all mankind minus one. we may silence the truth. As the Ministry's name implies. mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person. Mill states that if we silence an opinion. propaganda did not carry the negative connotations that it does today (or did in the Allied countries). The Ministry also acted as a central control-point for all media.

media control by the state was the major constraint on press freedom. Organizations like Tehelka and NDTV have been particularly influential." that is. whereby this freedom can be restricted for reasons of "sovereignty and integrity of India. in relation to contempt of court. .India The Indian Constitution. preserving decency. A few years later. while not mentioning the word "press". The first independent newspaper in the colonies was the New-England Courant. United States Freedom of speech in the United States John Hancock was the first person to write newspapers in the British colonies in North America were published "by authority. private control of media has burgeoned. published weekly beginning in 1704. under license from and as the mouthpiece of the colonial governors. defamation. Under PoTA. preserving morality.. The early colonial publishers were either postmasters or government printers. the security of the State. provides for "the right to freedom of speech and expression" (Article 19(1)a). which became the leading newspaper of the colonial era. but the Official Secrets Act 1923 continues. Franklin's younger brother. public order. The first regularly published newspaper was the Boston News- Letter of John Campbell. e." With the liberalization starting in the 1990s. published in Boston by James Franklin beginning in 1721. Indira Gandhi famously stated in 1975 that All India Radio is "a Government organ. it is going to remain a Government organ. Benjamin. friendly relations with foreign States.g. However this right is subject to restrictions under subclause (2). leading to increasing independence and greater scrutiny of government. or incitement to an offence". in bringing about the resignation of powerful Haryana minister Venod Sharma. person could be detained for upto six months for being in contact with a terrorist or terrorist group.. PoTA was repealed in 2006. For the first half-century of independence. and therefore unlikely to challenge government policies. purchased the Pennsylvania Gazette of Philadelphia. Laws such as the Official Secrets Act and Prevention of Terrorism Act (PoTA) have been used to limit press freedom.

the First Amendment to the United States Constitution restricted Congress from abridging the freedom of the press and the closely associated freedom of speech. Jefferson was a person who himself suffered great calumnies of the press. Despite this. the English and the French schools of thought. Andrew Hamilton. During the American Revolution. John Locke’s ideas had inspired both the French and American revolutions. therefore. "The liberty of the press is essential to the security of freedom in a state: it ought not. newspapers were unlicensed. to be restrained in this commonwealth. the Constitution of Massachusetts (1780) declared. and able freely to publish dissenting views. Thomas Jefferson wanted to unite the two streams of liberalism. he proclaimed that a government that could not stand up under criticism deserved to fall. the press must be free from control by the state. Yet even after this celebrated case. colonial governors and assemblies asserted the power to prosecute and even imprison printers for publishing unapproved views. argued to the jury (contrary to established English law) that there was no libel in publishing the truth. ." Following these examples.S. in his second inaugural address. The notion of "freedom of the press" that later was enshrined in the United States Constitution is generally traced to the sious libel prosecution of John Peter Zenger by the colonial governor of New York in 1735. Zenger was acquitted after his lawyer. a free press was identified by Revolutionary leaders as one of the elements of liberty that they sought to preserve. A U. His goal was to create a government that would provide both security and opportunity for the individual. Postage Stamp commemorating freedom of the press. but were subject to prosecution for libel or even sion if their opinions threatened the government. The Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) proclaimed that "the freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty and can never be restrained but by despotic governments. In order to be able to work freely.During this period." Similarly. An active press was essential as a way of educating the population. In this instance of jury nullification.

Minnesota used the 14th Amendment to apply the freedom of the press to the States. It must also be published with the deliberate intent to ruin someone's reputation. The issue decided in the case was whether a reporter could refuse to "appear and testify before state and Federal grand juries" by claiming such appearance and testimony "abridges the freedom of speech and press guaranteed by the First Amendment. Other notable cases regarding free press are: • New York Times Co. the Court placed limits on the ability of the Press to refuse a subpoena from a Grand Jury by claiming Freedom of the Press. Jefferson. Thomas Jefferson was among those who opposed the Acts. first of all. In 1931. (It was notable that the Sion Act made criticism of Congress. it must be. In Branzburg v. Hayes (1972). Sullivan: The Court decided that in order for written words to be libel. Notable exceptions • In 1798. that man may be governed by reason and truth. Jefferson then pardoned all those convicted under the Acts. Supreme Court decision in Near v. v. and which we trust will end in establishing the fact. not long after the adoption of the Constitution. the governing Federalist Party attempted to stifle criticism by means of the Alien and Sion Acts.S. and of the President. v." The 5-4 decision was that such a protection was not provided by the First Amendment. let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it. United States: The Supreme Court upheld the publication of the Pentagon Papers. Our first object should therefore be." . but not criticism of the Vice-President.) These restrictions on freedom of the press proved very unpopular and worked against the Federalists.Jefferson said: "No experiment can be more interesting than that we are now trying. but only whether they had been charged under the Acts. In his first Inaugural Address in 1801 he reiterated his longstanding commitment to freedom of speech and of the press: "If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form. He made it a principle not to ask what they had done. • New York Times Co. a crime. was Vice-President at the time the Act was passed. false. a non-Federalist. and he was elected President in the election of 1800. to leave open to him all avenues of the truth". the U.

g. and Brandenburg v. disloyal. • The Espionage Act of 1917 and the Sion Act of 1918.. This particularly threatens Internet statements by individuals.. or abusive language about the form of government of the United States or the Constitution of the United States. or the military or naval forces of the United States . which is less restrictive. because of the increased affordability and miniaturisation of satellite technology (e. Kuhlmeier: The Supreme Court upheld that the principal of a school has the right to review and block controversial articles of a school paper funded by the school and published in the school's name. offices. which amended it. A few simple examples of such phenomena include: • Terrestrial television versus satellite television: Whilst terrestrial television is relatively easy to manage and manipulate. interpretation of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act may consider political statements as being the equivalent of campaign donations. profane. • Web-based publishing (e. Web-based publishing systems can be run using ubiquitous and inexpensive equipment and . It carried fines of $10. • In the United States in 2005. • 1988: Hazelwood School District vs. Implications of new technologies Many of the traditional means of delivering information are being slowly superseded by the increasing pace of modern technological advance. This Arabic language media channel operates out of the 'relatively liberal' state of Qatar.. the Supreme Court upheld the laws. printing presses) that can easily be targeted and forced to close down. Congress repealed both laws in 1921. Almost every conventional mode of media and information dissemination has a modern counterpart that offers significant potential advantages to journalists seeking to maintain and enhance their 'freedom of speech'. However.000 and up to 20 years imprisonment for people publishing ". and ambiguous definitions of membership in the press make the possible effects ambiguous. scurrilous. satellite television is much more difficult to control as journalistic content can easily be broadcast from other jurisdictions beyond the control of individual governments. United States (1919)." In Schenck v. the campaign value of statements is not known in advance and a high ultimate value may trigger large fines for violations. dishes and receivers) it is simply not practicable for most states to control popular access to the channel. blogging) vs. traditional publishing: Traditional magazines and newspapers rely on physical resources (e. An example of this in the Middle East is the satellite broadcaster Al Jazeera. Because access to Internet statements are weakly controlled... and often presents views and content that are problematic to a number of governments in the region and beyond.g.g. setting the "Clear and present danger" standard. imposed restrictions on the free press during wartime. Ohio (1969) revised the "Clear and present danger" test to the "Imminent lawless action" test.

. Naturally. modern VOIP technology can employ sophisticated encryption systems to evade central monitoring systems. • Voice over Internet protocol (VOIP) vs. conventional telephony: Although conventional telephony systems are easily tapped and recorded. to get control over web publications. are using Geolocation and Geolocation software. nations and organisations. can operate from any global jurisdiction. governments are responding to the challenges posed by new media technologies by deploying increasingly sophisticated technology of their own (a notable example being China's attempts to impose control of through a state run internet service provider that controls access to the Internet) but it seems that this will becomes an ever increasingly difficult task as nimble. highly motivated journalists continue to find ingenious novel ways to exploit technology and stay one step ahead of the generally slower moving government institutions that they necessarily do battle with. As VOIP and similar technologies become more widespread they are likely to make the effective monitoring of journalists (and their contacts and activities) a very difficult task for governments.

Every news organization has only its credibility and reputation to rely on. for example. broadcast. which boosts the size of the audience it serves." The basic codes and canons commonly appear in statements drafted by both professional journalism associations and individual print. journalism ethics include the principle of "limitation of harm. Historically and currently these principles are most widely known to journalists as their professional "code of ethics" or the "canons of journalism. Upholding professional standards also enhances the reputation of and trust in a news organization. accuracy. fairness and public accountability — as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent reportage to the public. To a large degree. Today. journalists may face dismissal for ethical failures. . and online news organizations. most share common elements including the principles of — truthfulness. objectivity. harm someone's reputation. the codes and canons evolved via observation of and response to past ethical lapses by journalists and publishers. Evolution and purpose of codes of journalism The principles of good journalism are directed toward bringing the highest quality of news reporting to the public. crime victims' names or information not materially related to particular news reports release of which might. impartiality. -Tony Burman. thus fulfilling the mission of timely distribution of information in service of the public interest." This often involves the withholding of certain details from reports such as the names of minor children. Like many broader ethical systems. or-in-chief of CBC News While various existing codes have some differences.Journalism ethics and standards Journalism ethics and standards include principles of ethics and of good practice to address the specific challenges faced by professional journalists. it is common for terms of employment to mandate adherence to such codes equally applicable to both staff and freelance journalists.

but there is a substantial overlap among mainstream publications and societies. The duty of the journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. on the subject of Journalistic Standards and Ethics is the Society of Professional Journalists.. The codes and canons provide journalists a framework for self-monitoring and self-correction as they pursue professional assignments. such as conflicts of interest. truthfulness. • Code of Journalists of the Republic of Slovenia Common elements The primary themes common to most codes of journalistic standards and ethics are the following. • Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: Journalistic Standards and Practices • Al Jazeera: Code of Ethics. The Radio-Television News Directors Association. maintains a code of ethics centering on -.RTDNA publishes a pocket guide (PDF file) to these standards. ..public trust. integrity.The Preamble to its Code of Ethics states: . an organization exclusively centered on electronic journalism. Conscientious journalists from all media and specialties strive to serve the public with thoroughness and honesty. The written codes and practical standards vary somewhat from country to country and organization to organization.Journalistic codes of ethics are designed as guides through numerous difficulties.S. independence and accountability. such codes can be found in news reporting organizations in most countries with freedom of the press.public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. to assist journalists in dealing with ethical dilemmas. One of the leading voices in the U. Examples of journalistic codes of ethics held by international news gathering organizations may be found as follows: • British Broadcasting Corporation: orial Guidelines. Codes of practice While journalists in the United States and European countries have led in formulation and adoption of these standards. fairness. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalist's credibility.

Slander and libel considerations • Reporting the truth is never libel. until conviction.Objectivity • Unequivocal separation between news and opinion. to contextualize the results. • Independent fact-checking by another employee of the publisher is desirable • Corrections are published when errors are discovered • Defendants at trial are treated only as having "allegedly" committed crimes. which makes accuracy and attribution very important. sound. economic or political interests. • Unequivocal separation between advertisements and news. Controversial facts are reported with attribution. Sources • Confidentiality of anonymous sources (see news source). that is. • Events with a single eyewitness are reported with attribution. • Avoidance of anonymous sources when possible. • Pictures. • Interference with reporting by any entity. All advertisements must be clearly identifiable as such. there is serious controversy about wrongful conviction). • Reporter must avoid conflicts of interest — incentives to report a story with a given slant. and artistic imaginings must be clearly labelled as such. and quotations must not be presented in a misleading context (or lack thereof). including estimated error and methodological criticism or flaws. • Persons who are the subject of adverse news stories are allowed a reasonable opportunity to respond to the adverse information before the story is published or broadcast. This includes not taking bribes and not reporting on stories that affect the reporter's personal. and to specify accuracy. alterations. See envelope journalism. including censorship. • Plagiarism is strongly stigmatized and in many cases illegal (see copyright). when their crimes are generally reported as fact (unless. Events with two or more independent eyewitnesses may be reported as fact. Simulations. • Opinion surveys and statistical information deserve special treatment to communicate in precise terms any conclusions. News reporters and orial staff are distinct. • Accurate attribution of statements made by individuals or other news media. • Competing points of view are balanced and fairly characterized. and to seek reliable sources. Accuracy and standards for factual reporting • Reporters are expected to be as accurate as possible given the time allotted to story preparation and the space available. In-house orials and opinion (Op-Ed) pieces are clearly separated from news pieces. . if not avoided entirely. must be disclosed. reenactments.

how should this be done? The principle of limitation of harm means that some weight needs to be given to the negative consequences of full disclosure. • Show good taste. video taping. background checks. Public figures have fewer privacy rights. recording sound. creating a practical and ethical dilemma. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance. • Private persons have privacy rights that must be balanced against the public interest in reporting information about them. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity. • Be judicious about naming criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges. • Publishers vigorously defend libel lawsuits filed against their reporters Harm limitation principle During the normal course of an assignment a reporter might go about — gathering facts and details. Ethical standards should not be confused with common standards of quality of presentation. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects. taking photos. doing research. which is representative of the practical ideals of most professional journalists. influence or attention. • Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Quoting directly: • Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Should he or she report everything learned? If so. The Society of Professional Journalists' code of ethics offers the following advice. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone's privacy. • Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes. Journalism. Presentation News writing. including: • Correctly spoken or written language (often in a widely spoken and formal dialect. • Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power. • Balance a criminal suspect's fair trial rights with the public's right to be informed. conducting interviews. such as Standard English) • Clarity . • Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.

There are also some wider concerns. Minor factual errors are also extremely common. Such a body is capable perhaps of applying fairly consistent standards. but also with regard to cultural and other issues. in part. and yellow journalism As with other ethical codes. . Also. depending on the niche of the publisher) Self-regulation In addition to codes of ethics. • Brevity (or depth. there is perennial concern that the standards of journalism are being ignored. An alternative is a news council. media bias. many news organizations maintain an in-houseOmbudsman whose role is. but may not escape criticisms of being toothless. Sensationalism is also a common complaint. as almost anyone who is familiar with the subject of a particular report will quickly realize. an industry-wide self-regulation body. the rise of news management contributes to the real possibility that news media may be deliberately manipulated. such as the Press Complaints Commission. to foster self-criticism and to encourage adherence to both codified and uncodified ethics and standards. but issues of practical compliance. as well as differences between professional journalists on principles. double standards) are very commonly alleged against newspapers. or guard against. Selective reporting (spiking. and by their nature are forms of bias not easy to establish. and may contribute to a lack of needed context for public understanding. set up by UK newspapers and magazines. The ombudsman is intended to mediate in conflicts stemming from internal and or external pressures. and to maintain accountability to the public for news reported. especially on political issues. as the media continue to change. This section does not address specifics of such matters. One of the most controversial issues in modern reporting is media bias. Ethics and standards in practice See journalism scandals. From outside the profession. to keep news organizations honest and accountable to the public. and of dealing with a higher volume of complaints. for example that the brevity of news reports and use of soundbites has reduced fidelity to the truth.

with brilliant prose. Creative nonfiction and Literary journalism use the power of language and literary devices more akin to fiction to bring insight and depth into often book-length treatment of the subjects about which they write. known in particular for The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer and Frontline Genres and ethics Advocacy journalists — a term of some debate even within the field of journalism — by definition tend to reject "objectivity". . adherence and general quality varies considerably. they venture outside the boundaries of standard news reporting in offering richly detailed accounts. One widely regarded author in genre is Joyce Carol Oates for book on boxer Mike Tyson. digression and other such techniques offer the reader insights not usually found in standard news reportage. which influence its position with the public and within the industry. authors in this branch of journalism still maintain ethical criteria such as factual and historical accuracy as found in standard news reporting. An organization earns and maintains a strong reputation. which supports two news platforms: o National Public Radio (NPR) o Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).Standards and reputation Among the leading news organizations that voluntarily adopt and attempt to uphold the common standards of journalism ethics described herein. However. through a consistent implementation of ethical standards. Yet. while at the same time maintaining many other common standards and ethics. reliability and public accountability of a news organization are three of its most valuable assets. The professionalism. Among the most respected western English-language publications. programs and broadcast networks are: • Washington Post • New York Times • Wall Street Journal • British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) • Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) • The Globe and Mail. Such devices as dialogue. Canada • The Cable News Network (CNN) • Corporation for Public Broadcasting. metaphor. in part.

not for information.New Journalism and Gonzo journalism also reject some of the fundamental ethical traditions and will set aside the technical standards of journalistic prose in order to express themselves and reach a particular audience or market segment. The New York Times. Various other forms of censorship may restrict reporting on issues the government deems sensitive. Supermarket tabloids are often focused on entertainment rather than news. Different organizations may balance speed and accuracy in different ways. The Onion. 24-hour television news networks tend to place much more emphasis on . Very often non-free media are prohibited from criticizing the national government. Tabloid journalists are often accused of sacrificing accuracy and the personal privacy of their subjects in order to boost sales. but may fall far short in practice. Some publications deliberately engage in satire. Some tabloids do purport to maintain common journalistic standards. more detailed. less speculative. humorous articles appearing on April Fool's Day. for example. and local journalistic standards may be tailored to fit. Variations. but especially in broadcast media. and it is not unheard of for other publications to offer the occasional. A few have "news" stories that are so outrageous that they are widely read for entertainment purposes. Relationship with freedom of the press In countries without freedom of the press. and controversies There are a number of finer points of journalistic procedure that foster disagreements in principle and variation in practice among "mainstream" journalists in the free press. but give the publication the design elements of a newspaper. Accuracy is important as a core value and to maintain credibility. tends to print longer. the majority of people who report the news may not follow the above-described standards of journalism. the United Kingdom has a broader definition of libel than does the United States. and in many cases are required to distribute propaganda as if it were news. Others make no such claims. violations. audience share often gravitates toward outlets that are reporting new information first. For example. Laws concerning libel and slander vary from country to country. and more thoroughly verified pieces a day or two later than many other newspapers. for instance.

coarse language. homosexuality. decency and acceptability Audiences have different reactions to depictions of violence. with fierce competition for ratings and a large amount of airtime to fill. Offensive words may be partially obscured or bleeped. Other outlets feel that this information is a vital part of the transparency of the election process. scatological images. there are a variety of common methods for mitigating negative audience reaction. illegal drug use. There is also some concern that such preliminary results are often inaccurate and may be misleading to the public. or from daytime to late evening. official secrets. or to people in any other situation that is unacceptable to or stigmatized by the local culture or laws (such as the consumption of alcohol. Because of the fast turn-around. or even break these regulations. different organizations and even individual reporters have different standards and practices. Taste. . in their decisions about how and whether or not to vote. Advance warning of explicit or disturbing material may allow listeners or readers to avoid content they would rather not be exposed to. Laws with regard to personal privacy. and see no harm (if not considerable benefit) in reporting it. In the United States. These decisions often revolve around what facts are necessary for the audience to know.). graphic detail might be omitted. or who are in western time zones. and media disclosure of names and facts from criminal cases and civil lawsuits differ widely.getting the "scoop. reporters for these networks may be under considerable time pressure. some news organizations feel that it is harmful to the democratic process to report exit poll results or preliminary returns while voting is still open. viewers may switch channels at a moment's notice. etc. nudity. Another example of differences surrounding harm reduction is the reporting of preliminary election results. Such reports may influence people who vote later in the day. Potentially offensive images may be blurred or narrowly cropped. when children are less likely to be ing. Descriptions may be substituted for pictures. Different organizations may have different answers to questions about when it is journalistically acceptable to skirt. fresh material is very valuable. which reduces their ability to verify information. Disturbing content might be moved from a cover to an inside page. and journalistic standards may vary accordingly." Here. Even with similar audiences. When certain distasteful or shocking material is considered important to the story. circumvent.

and can create a perceived conflict of interest. images and graphic descriptions of war are often violent.There is often considerable controversy over these techniques.) Other publications and many broadcast media only publish opinion pieces that are attributed to a particular individual (who may be an in-house analyst) or to an outside entity. and even more if it resorts to covert methods more typical of private detectives or even spying. this practice may cause some people to doubt the political objectivity of the publication's news reporting. This makes certain content disturbing to some audience members. Despite the ostensible separation between orial writing and news gathering. Political endorsements create more opportunities to construe favoritism in reporting. (Though usually unsigned orials are accompanied by a diversity of signed opinions from other perspectives. Where investigative work involves undercover journalism or use of whistleblowers. and which does not serve the public interest. from organization to organization. . and from country to country. and about the policies or circumstances that precipitated the conflict.) Campaigning in the media Many print publications take advantage of their wide readership and print persuasive pieces in the form of unsigned orials that represent the official position of the organization. One particularly controversial question is whether media organizations should endorse political candidates for office. it brings a large extra burden on ethical standards. or are actively being concealed. (See also: Military journalism. shocking and profoundly tragic. Investigative methods Investigative journalism is largely an information-gathering exercise. Some argue that "sanitizing" the depiction of war influences public opinion about the merits of continuing to fight. bloody. looking for facts that are not easy to obtain by simple requests and searches. suppressed or distorted. For example. The amount of explicit violence and mutilation depicted in war coverage varies considerable from time to time. especially concern that obscuring or not reporting certain facts or details is self-censorship that compromises objectivity and fidelity to the truth. but it is precisely these aspects of war that some consider to be the most important to convey.

Anonymous sources are double-edged . The downside is that the condition of anonymity may make it difficult or impossible for the reporter to verify the source's statements. Thus. potential threats. in particular to report information that is later revealed to be unreliable. Science issues The mainstream press is often criticized for poor accuracy in reporting science news. From highly sensitive issues of national security to everyday questions such as accepting a dinner from a source. reporters and publishers or management. or the perspective of a particular group that may fear retribution for expressing certain opinions in the press. reprisals and intimidations of all kinds. and many other such conundrums.) The Washington press has been criticized in recent years for excessive use of anonymous sources. a journalist must make decisions taking into account things such as the public's right to know. Food scares are an example of the need for responsible science journalism. such as classified or confidential information about current events. The Washington Post. The following are illustrations of some of those. (See also: news source. Despite government intervention. context. Technical information is also difficult to contextualize for lay audiences. information about a previously unreported scandal. statements attributed to anonymous sources may carry more weight with the public than they might if they were attributed. Sometimes sources hide their identities from the public because their statements would otherwise quickly be discred. publishing a personal opinion blog. and short-form reporting makes providing background. The use of anonymous sources increased markedly in the period before the 2003 invasion of Iraq. conflicts between ors. and are thus not familiar with the material they are summarizing. and clarification even harder. felt the public interest was more compelling and both published .they often provide especially newsworthy information. Many reporters are not scientists. Examples of ethical dilemmas One of the primary functions of journalism ethics is to aid journalists in dealing with many ethical dilemmas they may encounter. as are stories connected with the safety of medical procedures. personal integrity. • The Pentagon Papers dealt with extremely difficult ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. joined by The New York Times. putting a bumper sticker on one's car.

1998 in Kinshasa." • The Ethics Advice Line [6]. from which they also will be paid. v. "It was no longer a matter of national security. non partisan non-profit organization (French: association sans buit lucratif) founded on November 20." However.S. 403 US 713 [4] • The Washington Post also once published a story about a listening device that the United States had installed over an undersea Soviet cable during the height of the cold war. provides some examples of typical ethical dilemmas reported to their ethical dilemma hotline and are typical of the kinds of questions faced by many professional journalists. the U. according to Bradlee. or take photos of. . the sun rose the next day. Democratic Republic of Congo on the initiative of a group of Congolese journalists for the defence and promotion of the press freedom in the Democratic Republic of Congo.S. And you know what. public service project of Chicago Headline Club Chapterof the Society of Professional Journalists and Loyola University Chicago Center for Ethics and Social Justice [9]. It was a matter of national embarrassment. However. U. The device allowed the United States to learn where Soviet submarines were positioned. according to Bradlee. government still wanted The Washington Post not to run the story on the basis of national security. yet. events with the promise of attempting to get their work on the AP or other news outlets. without informing police in advance of the interview? Is lack of proper attribution plagiarism? Should a reporter write a story about a local priest who confessed to a sex crime if it will cost the newspaper readers and advertisers who are sympathetic to the priest? Is it ethical for a reporter to write a news piece on the same topic on which he or she has written an opinion piece in the same paper? Under what circumstances do you identify a person who was arrested as a relative of a public figure. a joint venture. the Soviets subsequently discovered the device and. (The cases went to the Supreme Court where they were merged and are known as New York Times Co. In that case. such as a local sports star? Freelance journalists and photographers accept cash to write about. A partial listing of questions received by The Ethics Advice Line:[10] Is it ethical to make an appointment to interview an arsonist sought by police. reports. "We ran the story. Post Executive or Ben Bradlee chose not to run the story on national security grounds. Is that ethical? Can a journalist reveal a source of information after guaranteeing confidentiality if the source proves to be unreliable? Journaliste en danger Journaliste en danger (JED). is an independent.

Congo Brazzaville. writers. Rwanda and Chad. Internet users and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to free expression. JED is a member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange. Since May 2003. Equatorial Guinea. but rather a wholly independent and open structure to all those who feel like having a vocation to defend and promote their right to inform and to be informed freely without any restriction. Gabon.JED was founded out of the concern that press freedom was being violated and that journalists had become victims of unfair justice. a global network of non-governmental organisations that monitors freedom of expression worldwide and campaigns to defend journalists. Cameroon. JED is not an association reserved solely for journalists. JED has been active in eight other central African countries: Burundi. . The Central African Republic.

On the right to information over the official documents). the oldest being Sweden's Freedom of the Press Act of 1766. but if the information is not disclosed a valid reason has to be given. all states of the US have access laws as well as the national legislation. dated June 30 1999. not just to the records of them. such laws define a legal process by which government information is available to the public. or to people with a legal need for the information. In many countries. in Albanian) Australia . but usually these are unused unless specific legislation to support them. In many countries there are vague constitutional guarantees for the right of access to information. the legislation supporting this is the Ligj nr. which allows the public access to government meetings. A basic principle behind most freedom of information legislation is that the burden of proof falls on the body asked for information. which sets rules on governmental secrecy. and many regions of countries with national legislation have local laws .for example.Freedom of information legislation Over sixty-one countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation. privacy or data protection laws may be part of the freedom of information legislation. Many more countries are working towards introducing such laws.1999. the constitution of 1998 guarantees the right of access to information. 8503. in some countries. A related concept is open meetings legislation. date 30. This requires public authorities to grant any request for an official document. In general. These laws may also be described as open records or (especially in the United States) sunshine laws (alluding to "letting light shine" on the process). not the person asking for it. Some countries with existing legislation Albania In Albania. (in English. they may only apply to journalists. the concepts are often closely tied together in political discourse. 8503. Per të drejten e informimit per dokument zyrtare (Law no. The requester does not usually have to give an explanation for their request.6.

There is similar legislation in all states and territories: • Australian Capital Territory. Bosnia and Herzegovina In Bosnia and Herzegovina. following a 1996 recommendation from the Constitutional Court to implement such a law. departments and public authorities" of the Commonwealth. the Freedom of Information Act 1989 • Northern Territory. the Freedom of Information Act 1992 • South Australia.passed freedom of information laws in 2001. applying to all "ministers.In Australia. the Access to Public Information Act was passed in 2000. the Freedom of Information Act 1991 • Victoria. Bulgaria In Bulgaria. the Freedom of Information Act 1991 • Tasmania. though a governmental commission noted that "not much use has been made of the Act". the Access to Information Act allows citizens to demand records from federal bodies. both federal entities . Canada In Canada. the Freedom of Access to Information Act for the Republika Srpska and Freedom of Access to Information Act for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina respectively. This is enforced by the Information Commissioner of Canada. though there is no single national-level law. the Information Act 2003 • Queensland.the Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina . the Freedom of Information Act 1989 • New South Wales. the whole of the country is covered. the Freedom of Information Act 1982 was passed at the federal level in 1982. the Freedom of Information Act 1982 • Western Australia. the Freedom of Information Act 1992 Belize In Belize. introduced in 1983. The purpose of the Privacy Act is to extend the present laws of Canada that protect the privacy of individuals with . As such. the Freedom of Information Act was passed in 2000 and is currently in force. There is also a complementary Privacy Act.

In it. Chile In Chile. this is also the provincial privacy legislation. boards and most commissions. for the ordering of the official publicity of the acts and documents) implements this.which reside in the public offices. the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act applies to the province of Ontario's provincial ministries and agencies. In Quebec the Act respecting access to documents held by public bodies and the protection of personal information governs access to government information. Complaints for possible violations of the Act may be reported to the Privacy Commissioner of Canada. Information has to be delivered in 48 hours. For example.653. The various provinces and territories of Canada also have legislation governing access to government information. It is a Crown copyright.respect to personal information about themselves held by a federal government institution and that provide individuals with a right of access to that information. there is a constitutional provision for the freedom of information.Also there is a Law called "estatuto anticorrupcion Ley 190 de 1995" or anticorruption act. the constitution gives a right of access to public information. as well as community colleges and district health councils. Colombia In Colombia. The 51st Article oblies public offices to list in visible area all the contracts and purchases every month. The right provided by the Constitution is regulated in the articles 11 (bis and ter) of Law N° 19. It is slowly becoming to effect. in many cases. The public can request information with the following requirements: it has to be in a written matter and it does not have to be information already available to the public. and the Ley 57 de 1985 Por la cual se ordena la publicidad de los actos y documentos oficiales (Law 57 of 1985. . giving the right of access to documents que reposen en las oficinas públicas . but no Access to Public Information law. Croatia . it is stated that administrative activities in the agencies of the public administration and documents of organizations that work with them are public. which modified Law N° 18.575.

the Zákon č. 106/1999 Sb. Council and Commission documents [4] grants a right of access to documents of the three institutions to any Union citizen and to any natural or legal person residing. the Access to Public Administration Files Act of 1985 applies to most public agencies. the Public Information Act of 2000 extends to all "holders of information". or having its registered office. 106/1999 Coll. "Document" is defined broadly and it is assumed that all documents. Czech Republic In the Czech Republic. Ecuador In Ecuador. Estonia In Estonia. on Free Access to Information) covers the "state agencies. o svobodném přístupu k informacím (Act No. which is clarified as being all government and local government bodies. territorial self-administration authorities and public institutions managing public funds" as well as any body authorised by the law to reach legal decisions relating to the public sector. the Transparency and Access to Information Law of 2004 declares that the right of access to information is guaranteed by the state. European Union Regulation 1049/2001 of the European Parliament and the Council of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament. and an unusual clause extends coverage to most private or public energy suppliers.. . legal persons in public law and legal persons in private law if they are performing public duties (providing health. education etc). Denmark In Denmark.In Croatia. in a Member State. Another 106 Answers to your Questions (With Judgements) is a useful English-language guide to the Act. the Zakon O Pravu Na Pristup Informacijama (Act on the Right of Access to Information) of 2003 extends to all public authorities. to the extend of such authorisation.

Finland In Finland. the General Administrative Code contains a Law on Freedom of Information. social et fiscal (Act No. an independent administrative authority. to oversee the process. This weakness of the law was removed when the law was revised in the 1990's. digitized or other form). the applicant is allowed a confirmatory request.5. The implementing legislation is the Loi n°78-753 du 17 juillet 1978 portant diverses mesures d'amélioration des relations entre l'administration et le public et diverses dispositions d'ordre administratif. The revised law. the Laki viranomaisten toiminnan julkisuudesta 21. also extended the principle of openness to corporations that perform legally mandated public duties. social and fiscal nature). the Laki yleisten asiakirjain julkisuudesta 9. The openness of unsigned draft documents was not mandated. If access is refused. such as pension funds and public utilities. and to computer documents. or by an executive order for specific enumerated reasons such as national security. Georgia In Georgia. . On various measures for improved relations between the Civil Service and the public and on various arrangements of administrative. A complaint against a refusal can be made with the European Ombudsman or an appeal can be brought before the Court of First Instance. France In France. the accountability of public servants is a constitutional right. but up to the consideration of the public official. It sets as a general rule that citizens can demand a copy of any administrative document (in paper. according to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.2.1999/621 (Act on the Openness of Government Activities of 1999). may be subject to right of access unless it falls under one of the exceptions. municipalities. and registered religious communities.1951/83 (Act on the Openness of General Documents of 1951) established the openness of all records and documents in the possession of officials of the state. and establishes the Commission d’Accès aux Documents Administratifs.even if classfied. Exceptions to the basic principle could only be made by law. 78-753 of 17 July 1978.

Hungary In Hungary. However the RTI India has certain weaknesses that hamper implementation. Complaints and contested applications may be appealed to the Data Protection Commissioner. A number of high profile disclosures revealed corruption in various government schemes such scams in Public Distribution Systems (ration stores). Under this law all Government Bodies or Government funded agencies have to designate a Public Information officer (PIO). Schleswig- Holstein. This therefore creates a conflict of interest. the Act on the Protection of Personal Data and Public Access to Data of Public Interest extends a right of access to all data of public interest.have approved individual "Informations-Freiheits- Gesetze" (Freedom of Information laws). Hamburg and Bremen . There have been questions on the lack speedy appeal to non-compliance to requests. Under this law the information has become a fundamental right of the citizen. defined as any information processed by a body performing a governmental function. Nordrhein-Westfalen. Brandenburg. The PIO being an officer of the Govt. The lack of a central PIO makes it difficult to pin-point the correct PIO to approach for requests. institution may have a vested interest in disclosing damaging information on activities of his/her Institution. Karnataka. In the state of Maharastra it was estimated that only 30% of the requests are . The law was inspired by previous legislations from select states (among them Maharastra. It came into effect on 12 Oct 2005. India The Indian Right to Information Act was introduced to the Indian Parliament in July 2000. disaster relief. Delhi etc) that allowed the right to information (to different degrees) to citizens about activities of any State Government body. Goa.Germany In Germany. Six of the sixteen Bundesländer . The law itself has been hailed as a landmark in India's drive towards more openness and accountability. The PIO's responsibility is to ensure that information requested is disclosed to the petitioner within 30 days or within 48 hours in case of information concerning the life and liberty of a person. construction of highways etc.Berlin. the federal government passed a freedom of information law in 2005.

in keeping written records of potentially controversial meeting and avoiding writing memos as a result[5]. However. controls freedom of information. However this practice has fallen out of favour because of the new openness. The law also bares disclosure of information that affects national security. While this information would not often be released. Currently. It defines the bodies subject to the legislation by a set of listed categories . A notable feature is the presumption that anything not restricted by the Act is accessible. Decisions of public bodies in relation to requests for information may be reviewed by the Information Commissioner. which limits the potential for use by the public. supported by the Freedom of Information regulations. the freedom of information regime in Israel is unusual in that it . Also civil and public servants have become more informal. Ireland In Ireland the Freedom of Information Act came into effect in April. and other matters that are deemed of national interest.and provides for the government to publish a list of all affected bodies. and sometimes only under the thirty year rule. 1998. This annotation and signing of documents has often given a paper trail and unique insight as to "what the minister knew" about a controversy or how he or she formed an opinion on a matter. Many public bodies are not obliged to follow the law. 5759-1999. the Freedom of Information Law. In this regard it is a much more liberal Act than the UK Act. The Act has led to a sea-change in the relationship between the citizen. Israel In Israel. most public bodies . 5758-1998. defence. this list does not seem to have been made publicly available. government departments and public bodies. journalists. One particular controversy which has caused concern to journalists and historians is that traditionally government ministers would annotate and sign any major policy or report documents which they had seen. if indeed it was ever compiled.actually realized under the Maharastra Right to Information act.essentially. There are very few restrictions on the information that can be made public. the fact that government ministers now do not annotate and sign documents creates the concerns that while government is open it is not accountable as to who did or saw what or how decision making process works.

the relevant legislation is the Access to Information Act. The law allows any citizen access to public records held by a public body of the federal government including ministries. In many local governments. Jamaica In Jamaica. 2002. councils. has looked into extending the law to cover these institutions. the justice minister. New Zealand In New Zealand. Norway The Freedom of Information Act of 19 June 1970 is the implementation of freedom of information legislation in Norway on a national level. The law was enforced in 2001. Japan In Japan. departments. after a process of several years. it establishes the regulations about information disclosure( ) from the latter half of 1980's. however. Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf promulgated the Freedom of Information Ordinance 2002 in October 2002. Article 100 of the Constitution gives access to public documents. "Law Concerning Access to Information Held by Administrative Organs"( ) was promulgated in 1999. Montenegro A freedom of information law was passed in Montenegro late in 2005. the relevant legislation is the Official Information Act.is the only country where public universities and colleges are not subject to the legislation on a national basis. boards. This implemented a general policy of openness regarding official documents and replaced the Official Secrets Act. courts and .

Islamabad by the Ministry of Law Pakistan on the 28th and 29th of September 2006 for the discussion of the forthcoming legislation: Freedom of Information Act. and request to be destroyed if it founded inaccurate. local government bodies. A 2 day seminar is being held at the Holliday Inn. In 2005. It does not apply to government owned corporations or provincial governments. public powers holders and public service contractors. Stroessner long (1954-1989) dictatorship in order to find info about themselves. Republic of Moldova The Law of the Republic of Moldova on Access to Information Romania Since 2001 there is one law on Freedom of Information and one on transparent decision making processes in public administration (a sunshine law). public agencies. The Act governs the procedure which ensures everyone free access to public information held by state bodies.tribunals. You can find the English versions of these laws in the annexes of the following studies: Access to Public Information: Guide for Citizens and Transparency of Decision-Making in Public Administration . public funds and other entities of public law. Slovenia Slovenia passed the Access to Public Information Act in March 2003. The bodies must respond within 21 days. . Paraguay In Paraguay. efforts had been made to transparet the Government buys. the law protect the "habeas data" that means that any citizen can request a copy of the info related to him in public or private offices. with a system that publish in the Web the requests. as also the results. This was used mainly by old oppositors after the Pdt. the Law on Free Access to Information of Public Importance gives access to documents of public authorities.citizens and administration guide Serbia In Serbia.

investigation of the informer's identity is a criminal offense. Sweden In Sweden. and even then each request for potentially sensitive information must be handled individually. and a refusal is subject to appeal. In Swedish this is known as Offentlighetsprincipen (The Principle of Public Access). the constitution grants the Right to Inform. Trinidad and Tobago In Trinidad and Tobago. the relevant legislation is the Freedom of Information Act. the relevant legislation is the Official Information Act of 1997. Turkey .Information Commissioner's site South Africa South Africa passed the Promotion of Access to Information Act on 2 February 2000. all documents handled by the authorities are public unless legislation explicitly and specifically states otherwise. 1999. meaning that even some (most) types of secret information may be passed on to the press or other media without risk of criminal charges. the Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 granted public access to government documents. Instead. and the first ever piece of freedom of information legislation in the modern sense. Thailand In Thailand. Further. The Principle of Public Access means that the general public are to be guaranteed an unimpeded view of activities pursued by the government and local authorities. It is intended "To give effect to the constitutional right of access to any information held by the State and any information that is held by another person and that is required for the exercise or protection of any rights". and has been valid since. the right of access to privately held information is an interesting feature. It thus became an integral part of the Swedish Constitution. as most freedom of information laws only cover governmental bodies.

there is a constitutional provision for the freedom of information."TURKISH LAW ON THE RIGHT TO INFORMATION" (Law No: 4982)came into force on April 24th. which are covered by the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (2002 asp. 1996. 2004. which requires government meetings to be held publicly. have enacted similar statutes to require disclosures by agencies of the state and of local governments. 13). . The Act applies only to federal agencies. United States Freedom of information in the United States In the United States the Freedom of Information Act was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Countries with pending legislation • In Argentina. However. with the exception of Scottish bodies. • In Azerbaijan. Zimbabwe In Zimbabwe. Johnson on July 4. but as of 2004 it had not come into force pending government plans to replace it. national freedom of information legislation is pending. 1966 and went into effect the following year. though some individual regions have legislation on a local level. • Armenia passed a Law on Freedom of Information in 2003. The Electronic Freedom of Information Act Amendments were signed by President Bill Clinton on October 2. the Access to Information and Privacy Act (AIPPA) was signed by President Mugabe in February 2002. as well as the District of Columbia and some territories. Many combine this with Open Meetings legislation. all of the states. United Kingdom Freedom of information in the United Kingdom The Freedom of Information Act 2000 (2000 c. but no active enabling legislation. though some are significantly broader than others. 36) is the implementation of freedom of information legislation in the United Kingdom on a national level.

as of 2003. but as of 2005 it remained dormant. • In Indonesia. The 1995 Constitution gives an explicit right of access to information. but had not been passed as of January 2005. • In Nauru. the government announced that a bill was expected to be passed in that year. the Freedom of Information Bill was before Parliament in June 2005. the Access and Receipt of Information Bill was before Parliament in 2003-4. • In Mozambique. • In Lesotho. and was then considered likely to pass. . • In Ghana. It is expected to become law within two years. A draft Freedom of Information Bill was circulated in 2000 but derailed by political unrest. there is currently no freedom of information legislation. but this has not yet transpired. but was not passed. with the government taking no action. the government was quoted as saying "The Freedom of Information Bill is not a priority for the new ministry. there appears to be a draft Law on the Guarantee of Access to Information. but the current status of the legislation is unknown • In the Maldives." • In Fiji.• In Botswana. pending a review of the country’s Constitution. the House of Representatives drafted and submitted a freedom of information bill in 2004. • In Uganda. the government has not yet begun work on a second bill. the Freedom of Information Act 2004 was laid before the parliament in that year. the constitution gives a general right of access. though a bill was put before parliament in 2004. but requires Parliament to enact laws governing this right. These laws have not yet been passed. the 2004 draft Freedom of Information Act has been endorsed by both major parties. the government produced a draft Freedom of Information Bill in August 2005. Further work on the legislation is currently being held back. the draft Freedom of Information Act 2005 is currently pending. In 2004. but some activities like information gathering and initial planning will start. • In Nigeria. • In Kenya. • In Jordan. • In Sri Lanka. there is currently no freedom of information legislation. but enabling legislation has not yet been passed. the Freedom of Information Bill was resubmitted to the Cabinet in 2005.

Join a freelance writers association 5. 14. 11. 8. Create a blog. This means that you will do your writing in the early morning or in the evening or whenever you have a spare moment. Subscribe to "The Writer" 4. literary magazine. Be random. You can also offer your services at the writing lab. 17. Write articles for your church bulletin. Be you. don't quit your day job until you are making enough money to sustain your lifestyle. and write articles for the student newspaper. By writing articles for smaller publications. Think of something you'd like to write about. Include the first paragraph of your article and an outline of the rest. . you will establish your credentials and build a portfolio. 9. 12. Start by writing for smaller. 18. 15. then send a query letter to the city/lifestyles/sports or of your local newspaper asking if they are interested in publishing an article on the topic. Think freely. 6. 10. then send a query letter to the or of a pertinent major publication asking if they are interested in publishing an article on the topic. Submit letters to the or of your local newspaper. Consider all thoughts. Go to the reference section of your local bookstore and buy a copy of "The Writer's Market". Be different. Find publishers you'd like to write for. If you are a college or university student. If you plan to write magazine and newpaper articles. The trick is to find the ones that pay. well-written essays for class. and alumni magazine. 13. submit a poem or story to a children's magazine such as Owl . 3. You need that portfolio for established publications to take you seriously and hire you. then read their guidelines. Write articles for your office newsletter or intranet site. Think of something you'd like to write about. Regard this effort as good practice for your future freelance career. Call in two weeks if you don't get a reply. Just write.How to Become a Freelance Writer Hundreds of thousands of writing opportunities exist. 7. If you are a young person. Join a professional organization and write articles for their newsletter.If you are a teenager. Call in four to six weeks if you don't get a reply. Steps 1. 16. Include the first paragraph of your article and an outline of the rest. craft strong. possibly non-paying publications. Write articles for wikiHow. Meet Alot of different people. join your school's yearbook committee and submit articles to the school newspaper. 2.

make sure you read their guidelines. • Keep receipts. . They may not be able to help you directly. • Update your resume every time you have an article published. What do you think? 21. Many of your purchases are tax-deductable. • Always send a query letter to a major publication before submitting a completed article. Start telling all your friends and relatives about your career change to get the word out. Your earnings are taxable. On your tax return. Warnings • Maintain honest financial records. How to Start a Freelance Copywriting Business Launching a freelance copywriting career is not only possible. make sure you hand out multiple business cards.edu/~jlynch/Writing/ • Set aside a room in your house for writing. For help. Listen to creative music Tips • Before submitting anything to a major publication.rutgers. Steps 1. Take a writing or grammar class at your local community college if you are worried about the quality of your writing. see http://andromeda. • Know your grammar. Forget what they think. 3. Consider the impossible 20. claim this space as a business expense. but profitable as well. 19. 2. Here are some steps to get you started. Any time you land a client. Know about your subject 22. but they're bound to know someone else who needs your services. Print business cards with your contact information to hand out at parties or other social gatherings.

where it is comfortable. Tips • Don't be discouraged if your career doesn't immediately take off. 5. And insane is good. How to Become a Better Writer Tips for getting beyond writers block and tapping into your genuine writing self. Always spell-check your work before submitting anything. 5. . 4. Write when you just wake up. 6. Go straight for the throat. grab a stack of books. Continually check online job listings. they can pass it on to you. such as Writer's Market. not paper). Call marketing firms in your area to see if they hire freelance copywriters. Big writing sessoins will come out of it. 8. 2. It may take several months to establish a client base that hires you on a regular basis. Copywriting jobs tend to appear and disappear quickly. You can be insane that way. sometimes that helps. 9. Create a brochure or postcard advertising your services and mail it to local businesses. Accept writing projects from charities or non-paying clients to build up your sample portfolio. Experiment with your different writing moods. so check often. If they have extra work. Type the words out as fast as you can. Instead of big writing sessions. Determine what is good writing and what is not. Try writing with your eyes closed (on a keyboard. 4. Go back to writing with a pen. Switch things up a bit. that lists available writing markets and guidelines. write in little paragraphs or phrases all throughout the day. 3. What can slow you down is constantly correcting your typos. With determination. Write at least a few paragraphs before going back. and read for hours on end. Try to find other freelance copywriters in your area to create a network. The worst thing they can do is say no. Find your literary heros. too. 7. 6. Go to the library or B&N. You can build on this practice. If you can type without looking at the keyboard. there are many here in the current day. While there are many in the past. 10. Read all sorts of things. 7. Steps 1. Buy a book. you will have a steady amount of work and income. Develop a flow. but really take the time to dig into an old fashioned book.

or even wikiHow. if you are writing an article about "Creating PowerPoint Slides. Are you writing for a beginner. Here's how to use that technique to your advantage. wikiHow articles. In the end. When writing for wikiHow. Really learn to perfect your prose. or an advanced audience? For example. internet research and people to talk to. This can include documents. 8. I cannot emphasise this enough. on the other hand." are your readers new to PowerPoint. you may even wish to refer to requested topics for ideas. 6. are often "as long as they need to be and no longer. Teachers. Snatch words or bits of other people’s conversation as you are writing. Steps 1. How well do you know the topic? Is it something you can write easily about with little or no preparation. This will help bring the concept of the article into sharper focus. your teacher." 5. enjoy ing! ing is such a huge part of writing. Compile a list of possible sources for you to consult. Omit the redundant! How to Write Articles Writing articles often requires a session of note taking and research Whether it's for a magazine. Figure out who your audience is. or business people looking for advanced tips? 3. 2. magazines. Write in a public place. 7. Determine your topic. This can be a lot of fun. Write the rough draft of the article as follows: . Exactly what are you going to write about? Brainstorm for ideas if you have to. 9. Write either an outline or a summary of your article. or do you need more information from experts in the field? 4. writing an amazing article whittles down to one widely-adaptable technique. Do your research. and newspapers will often give you a limit. newspaper. Decide on the length of the article. an intermediate.

go ahead and do it. 10. 8. Don't fill your work with fluff. o Read it aloud to yourself to make sure the text flows smoothly. it's customary to introduce yourself and your story in a query or pitch letter. o Check for grammar and spelling errors. In this section you tell them how to choose a theme. if your teacher wants a formal outline. o Eliminate anything that is just taking up space. . For example: ƒ This article explains how to create a PowerPoint slide presentation. This information can be found in the masthead. create a title slide. find the name of the car-section or). If you need to do more research. You learned how to choose a template. • If you're writing for a newspaper or magazine and are new to professional writing. The only time you should have information that doesn't support your topic is if you're doing a "point-counterpoint" piece. a box containing the names of the ors. and creating topic slides. Later.. and how to create topic slides. Turn in your completed article. and how to create topic slides. o Tell your readers what you just told them. This is your introduction. o Tell your readers what you promised to tell them. The point of formatting is to help you. o Tell your readers what you are going to tell them. II. 9.e. The author assumes that you have never used PowerPoint. ƒ The information in this article is written for a beginner. Rewrite the article as often as it takes. Check over your piece for presentation. Tips • Neither the outline nor the summary for your article has to be in traditional I. • By checking grammar and spelling errors last in the ing process. For example: ƒ This article taught you how to create a PowerPoint slide presentation. o Check for faulty information. you won't waste any time by correcting those on something you may delete. III format. creating a title slide. Find the name of the or who will be handling your piece (i. Have you double-checked your facts? o Delete any unnecessary or contradictory information. If you feel you can find your focus by writing a list of incomplete sentences. then go for it. if you're writing an article about cars for a newspaper. how to create a title slide. you can create one from the article itself. It covers the following information: choosing a theme.

Be warned that these publications rarely have the money to pay freelancers anyway. start small. Think obituaries. do not do so for free. but affable and friendly. Your work is valuable. but also you can make contacts in the business by getting to know your professors and fellow writers. Also include a few lines about your experience as a writer. Ask what their freelance fee is beforehand. If you're new to writing. Write a catchy but brief outline of what your story is about and why that publication's readership would be interested in it. Warnings • When writing for a newspaper or magazine. • If you're interested in pursuing a career as a writer. Discussing wages and freelance fees should come after the or has accepted your pitch. Writing for free demeans the profession and makes making a living more difficult for those of us who depend on freelance fees to pay the bills. then you'll be rushing at the last minute to create something that isn't representative of what you can truly do. human-interest stories and simple news articles. The tone of this letter should be professional. • If you have no experience as a professional writer. (But if you're just starting out. • Take some courses in both non-fiction and fiction writing. It will be changed. student publications and trade magazines is a great way to build your portfolio. do not start off pitching columns (opinion pieces). Your pay will usually be calculated on a per-word basis. Being a good freelance writer means knowing how to write and how to network. This will help you to be taken seriously when you start pitching articles for publication. If you don't. volunteering to do some articles for smaller community papers. don't quit your day job. usually found near the front or comment pages of a publication. or for people who have a particular expertise in a field. These sections tend to be understaffed and therefore have a greater budget for freelance writers. It generally takes even the most dedicated writer several years before he can make a living off of the trade. Pulling a temper tantrum is a surefire way to not be invited to work for that publication again. Your work will go through several ors. • Do not be a diva. . fashion. Ease into writing gradually. Columns are generally reserved for people who have either been working at a publication for a very long time. copy-ors and fact checkers before being published. People who make their living as writers generally start to build their portfolio of published work as early as high school. or admit your shortcomings as a professional writer. Not only will they help with your work. Try writing for life. In other words. be realistic. perhaps doing freelance pieces while maintaining a more stable job part-time. arts. cars or travel sections before pitching stories to news. It is not the place to make demands.) • Make sure to give yourself plenty of time to write the article. It's generally easier to start with newspapers than with magazines.

no one will take butterflywings23@hotmail. you can turn your creative desire into concrete writing. the other an 'Inspirational Notebook'. .com seriously. Don't say anything bad about a fellow writer or or. • Literary circles are small and gossipy. Read books. Steps 1. pen and paper. One is a 'Vocabulary Notebook'. In your Vocab Notebook. come clean immediately and apologize profusely. reading a dictionary or thesaurus can also be very useful. If possible. Either go to your bookshelf. Expand your vocabulary. How to Be a Good Writer A fresh page to start your thoughts Here are some tips on how to become a good writer. Things You'll Need • Something to write with: computer. write down new words and their meanings. It takes time. especially newspapers daily. • An email account to pitch and submit stories. the library or find an expert on the topic. • Your reputation as a writer is almost as important as the work you submit. Get 2 notebooks. • Access to a database like Lexus Nexus or factiva. Keep your notes and source lists handy so that your ors can verify your work. a late article is worse than a mediocre one.) • Research materials. 2. If you do make a mistake. You never know who's married to whom. good practical approaches and determination. • Don't miss deadlines. Copying something without attribution is the quickest way to get blacklisted as a writer. ever. Generally speaking. Be sure to see what others have already written on the topic. do not make errors or plagiarize. etc. (Something vaguely professional. perseverance and practice but with patience.

let the words flow out and things will begin to take shape. write more! Reading is also important. Warnings • Have a room or a space to write in. Don't just say: "Then. write as much as you can. In the Inspirational Notebook. Write. If you are going to write a non-fiction one. join in discussions and also help works. Research is incredibly important for non-fiction writing. write. write down bits and pieces from your daily life. Join online or neighbourhood writing groups. 5. but never. what is the plot? Think: o When? o Where? o Why? o Who? o How? 6. Decide on a plot. 7. an elephant came fluttering into my home." 8. 4. 3. Distractions are dangerous to a writer How to Write Effective Press Releases . • Read more. do your research. It is also important for fiction because you want your novel or short story to sound plausible. Finally. Use your imagination! It's perfect alright to have flying elephants in your hometown. Here. write! Tips • Just write! It doesn't matter if it feels blocked or looks like gobbledygook to begin with. Brainstorm before starting a story. ing helps to improve your writing. The end. A lot of inspiration will come from as wide a reading variety as possible. They are going to be really important if you are going to write a fictional story. and also some mnemonics (memory tips). Remember your characters. ever be afraid to set that pen going. Leave for a few days and come back. or a joke a friend told you. and visualize them in your brain. If it is going to be a fictional story. like a fun conversation you overheard in the mall. but be prepared to explain why. Wikihow is already an excellent choice. This can also be a diary/journal. because facts must be true. You will see something in what you have written and be able to start transforming it.

Create a press release about your opening of a new web site. 6. • Your header. How to Get Your Opinion Piece Published Opinion authors may be regular general commentators or specialist commentators (for example. contact information and release date should be at the top of your press release. 9. Write a press release about the new products or services you're offering on your web site. Tips • Keep your press release one page in length. Steps 1. is something that not every internet marketer is availing of. Write a press release about a free e-zine you're publishing. Look for grammar and spelling mistakes. Tell a story and mention your business. 5.Submitting a press release to a number of news wires in the World Wide Web. • Use short sentences and double space your lines. Warnings • Your press release should sound like news. Create a press release about online products or services you're giving away. you may be a regular contributor or . Proofread your press release many times. Submit a press release about an online award your business or web site has won. 4. product or service in the body of the press release. Create a press release about the results of an online survey or poll you have completed. 7. To provide opinion pieces. 2. not an ad. • You should only send your press release to the media related to the topic of your press release. Submit a press release about a trade show or seminar you're hosting. You’ll be surprised by the amount of traffic one good press release will generate for your web site. 8. • Your header and first few sentences should grab the readers attention. politics). 3.

It’s the opinion or’s role to provide balance. 11. Pick a topic you are passionate about. Steps 1. 4. Trust that they want you to produce the best article possible. Do this to meet word limits and deadlines and accept all feedback. 5. It's easier than being a fantastic writer who can write across a variety of subjects and research skills. Or find out what is of perennial interest and become an expert in that area. Regardless. not yours. Get a style guide if you can. Develop relationships with section ors by providing facts for them on your topic when asked. sending Christmas cards and being on time. Keep an eye on current events to be ready for your opportunity. one that will run in their publication. Become familiar with the publications you are targeting. When your topic comes up. Start by emailing them a short biography and identify yourself and your area for future work. hopefully they’ll call you first. You may only have a 48 hour window to write and submit your piece from when the story breaks. You can ‘pitch’ your piece to a publication or they may ‘commission’ or ask you to write on a topic. Remember. you can be certain your topic will come around again soon. Take heart in accelerating news cycles. this is your opinion and you should choose a side and make your point. except writing ability and passion for your subject matter. Work on writing quickly and making your points in a lively and succinct manner. 10. Alternatively. When the opportunity arrives. Don’t get discouraged. something you know about well. helpful and friendly. try widening your targeted publications or your speciality. 6. Some pieces are paid. . This means being both technically proficient and having an engaging writing style. it means you’re one step closer to success. Work with the or when your pitch is accepted. 8. its always best to get someone else to read your article before submitting.provide a single or occasional comment on a story or topic of current interest because of your expertise and knowledge in the area. 3. it’s a start. Find a niche topic and become an expert. Make sure you can write well. Read it everyday for at least two weeks and become familiar with the paper’s ‘style’. Take it. Sometimes an or will only run your piece on-line only. 2. Pitch your story to the opinion or (whom you’ve been cultivating) first if you can and never send an unsolicited completed piece – unless you have lots of time on your hands and are happy to receive frequent rejections. Make sure to provide controversy in your piece through an argument. you can use a proofreader for the former and either a ghost writer or PR hack for the latter. it’s time to juice those media relationships. There are no prerequisites to becoming an opinion writer. If your pitch fails. 7. Accept failures. 12. 9. choose a unique or different angle for your piece to help it get a run.

13. Get blogging. In the meantime, start a blog for practice and send it to on-line
opinion and other on-line news services.

Tips
• The "Opinion Page" is traditionally a section of the paper that is focused on
biased, individual views on topics of the day. The page includes Letters to the or,
which are usually a couple of hundred words each, two to four longer opinion
pieces either submitted or commissioned and the orial, written by the paper’s
managing or.

How to Get a Freelance Job
Get a job directly from the customer.

Steps
1. Get to one of the freelance websites - getafreelancer, freelance, elance etc.
2. Register.
3. Bid for applicable projects.
4. Get selected.

Tips
• Try to provide a demo of the project

How to Freewrite
Do you have writers' block? Did you choose a topic or idea to develop, but find yourself
stuck? Try freewriting! This exercise is used by writers to gather their thoughts and ideas
before they begin a document, with the result being an endless, non-punctuated, and free-
flowing paragraph that'll be immensely helpful in the preliminary writing process.

Steps

1. Set a timer or use the clock on your computer screen to give yourself 5 to 10
minutes to continuously write. This is so you don't need to worry about the time.
2. Select a topic for your freewriting (if you've chosen to do focused freewriting).
Write this topic at the top of your page.
3. Start your timer.
4. Write down whatever comes to mind in relation to your topic (if you have one). If
you are doing unfocused freewriting because you are trying to come up with an
idea or topic, just write down every random thought that crosses your mind as
quickly as possible.
5. Continue writing until the designated time has run out. Do NOT stop until that
point.

o Do not pay attention to grammar or typos.
o If there is an incomplete sentence or a misspelled word, keep going.
o If you run into a dead end or draw a blank, keep writing the same word or
phrase over and over again until something else pops into your mind.
6. When the time has run out, look over what you have written and circle or
underline ideas that you like or that you think might be useful for your project.
7. Group your marked ideas and phrases and decide where they lead you in your
writing process.
8. If you have enough to start your paper or document, then begin working on your
rough draft. If you do not have enough ideas, try another informal invention
technique such as brainstorming or mapping.

Tips
• A good way to avoid wanting to freewriting is to turn off your computer screen
so that you cannot see the words that are being typed.
• A countdown timer with an alarm may be better than just a clock as it will save
you from constantly looking at the clock.
• Use relaxing music to help your mind relax itself.
• If you are having a hard time at the start then use your senses, simply write what
you are feeling directly through your senses: Is it hot or cold or maybe you are
hungry or tired, whatever you are feeling just write it and then the rest will come
to you.

Warnings
• Freewriting is not guaranteed to work for everyone, but it can help to break even
the toughest writer's block

How to Become a Professional Copyor

Copying is a very in-demand skill that can pay fairly well. A college education goes a
long way, but may not be necessary if you can prove your skills. This may be more true
in the newspaper industry than in other, less demanding fields.

Steps
1. A local newspaper may be the best place to start your career. Check the paper's
classified listings to see if any job openings are posted.
2. If your location isn't flexible, get to know someone at the local paper. They'll be
able to tell you if and when a position is open. A good way to get to know a
copyor at your paper may be calling the paper after business hours and asking for
the copy desk chief. Tell them why you're calling and offer to buy them dinner in
exchange for their advice on how to become a copyor. As hokey as it sounds,
most people enjoy being reminded that their job is desirable and sought after.
3. Once you get the interview, you better know your Ps and Qs. To brush up on your
skills, check out "When Words Collide: A Media Writer's Guide to Grammar and
Style" By Laurne Kessler and Duncan McDonald. Also know your AP style: is it
a website or a Web site?
4. Pass the test. Most papers have a copying test that requires you to perform well in
spelling, punctuation, grammar, and general knowledge.
5. Stay informed! Copying isn't just about grammar, it's about fact-checking too. Do
the numbers in that graphic add up? Is that really ragweed, or is it goldenrod in
that photo?
6. Have a dirty mind. Seriously. Copyors have to be aware of pop culture
connotations to avoid embarrasing headlines or worse.
7. Know computers.
8. Know a few programs. Most copyors also layout pages, especially in the
newspaper industry. Learn Adobe InDesign or QuarkXpress if you really want to
make yourself competitive with college grads.

Warnings
• Copying can be a pretty thankless job sometimes. You can work late hours and
may have to make late-night calls to ors or reporters, who often don't like being
awakened. Just a warning.

How to Create a Professional Looking
Newsletter
If you don't want to use the preset templates in your publishing program, here are some
tricks of the trade to help you create professional looking newletters on your computer.

• Don't feel you need to fill every inch of space. 10 point body type begins to look amateurish. words left by themselves at the end of paragraphs or single lines left at the top of columns.5 point line spacing. Contact Info might be all you need. with 10. Proportion the masthead to take up a little less than a third of the depth of the front page. White space allows the eye some rest and contrast. business name. • Control hyphenation by setting your body text style to no more than two consecutive hyphens. with . For example..g. To begin. Subhead. Note that a grid simply organizes your elements. if your copy area is 7. • Use the best photos and clip art (check the web for dozens of free clip art sites) you can find and again. Caption.5" all around. It's usually easiest to do this with ing.g. • Serif types. Bulleted List. and horizontal divisions every 1". resist the temptation to make them too large. such as Times or Garamond are easier to read in text so try starting with a Body text style of 9 point Times. but you can also tweak the character width or tracking.. Tips • Keep your fonts to a minimum.125" gutter. Times family) for body text and captions. • Resist the temptation to make the fonts too large. divides your page into columns. and establishes horizontal lines on which to "hang" your text and pictures.. spell check. Learn to use your style sheets--they'll save a lot of time in the end. . Develop a layout grid which sets page margins. Headline. issue number and date.(This assumes you have a working knowledge of your computer and publishing software. Warnings • Avoid text widows and orphans.) Steps 1. e. newsletter name (try 30 to 36 point type). Set up a template for your newletter starting with page size (letter size is usually best). 2. i. and will better show-off your content. 4.5 wide x 10" deep. Don't go overboard with this though or your text will look inconsistent. Helvetica family) for headlines and subheads. 3. Choose one serif type family (e. 9 point body type is elegant. For example. • Spell check. and one sans serif (e. a simple 4 column grid. Body text. Design a simple masthead with a logo. columns and art can be more than one column wide but don't overdo it.g. a 7. page margins of ..5 x 2" masthead with about an inch of white space below will be about right. keep the number of styles to a minimum. spell check.e.

anything and everything. You can even base your main character on yourself. A drop shadow or other effects." 5. Think about including some hints that suggest what is to happen later in the story/opening. for lack of knowing what to write or from not being descriptive enough. not two. if used appropriatly. For example: "I didn't notice the motorcycle parked in the driveway. you will find it easier to continue writing. 3. For example: "I could taste the salty tang of the sparkling ocean washing around my feet. Brainstorm your ideas on a blank sheet of paper. Plan how you will create suspense and tension. Eventually. Think about the five senses: taste. 6. • Only ONE space between a period and the start of the next sentence. sight. sound. 4. If you do this." Tips . anything! Think of at least one simile and one metaphor to describe them. Write down at least two for each sense. • Don't go overboard with special effects." (Alright. all you need are ideas. setting. their personalities. can give a professional look to your project. but doing too much looks cheap. For example: "A gun barrel emerged from out of the darkness and aimed itself straight at me. however 'un-suspenseful' they sound. you can choose the best ones to put down. or they have difficulty moving it along. smell. odd habits they may have. Brainstorm character names. How to Write a Suspenseful Opening This is a perspective from an amateur author. but it's just an example). 2. just finish writing about that particular idea. A lot of people have problems with either starting a suspenseful tale. Write down whatever ideas come into your head. Don't change your idea halfway through the paragraph and cross everything out. nor did I notice the kitchen window that had been opened. Steps 1. Start writing! Start by describing the setting. You can use maybe 1-2 paragraphs for this. (that sounded slightly weird) write something that would make the reader want to continue reading. Think about your main character. Here are some suggestions for helping your creative flow. personalities. It doesn't matter how messy your paper becomes. so taste and feet don't really fit. For the ending of your opening. touch. Imagine their appearance. if you like. then write about the new one.

Start from something big. like the setting. • You can use what I call the 'zoom effect'. Try to focus on your favorites. 3. it's easiest to write about things you actually have an interest in. If you don't. Since you are starting from scratch you will need to create up to 3 brilliant articles that you don't intend on ever publishing to serve simply as a reference of what you are capable of. Don't expect to be paid for your first few pieces and be sure to communicate that with the people you are contacting. creativity and desire necessary! Steps 1. How to Become a Magazine Writer from Scratch It is possible to become a Freelance Journalist despite your educational background provided you have the skills. Create an extensive database of magazines and their publishers. trade. 8. Become obsessed: Read and collect every magazine you can get your grubby little hands on. Provided you have talent and skill. published clips are like gold so don't ever be bitter about working for free (in the beginning) . eventually someone will bite. Keep approaching Magazines/ors while waiting for responses. Make sure you have natural talent and a creative flair. 2. 6. with determination. through researching online. and 'zoom' in to something small. mail or email ors and be sure to address them by name to show that you are familiar with their publication. fashion. take a course or go back to school. Find your niche: Through the previous step you should be able to determine your favorite type of publication (art. You can gather this information from the masthead or in some instances. 7. etc. Most ors are going to want to see clips or sample pieces. • Never cross out anything unless it's a spelling mistake or something like that! Crossing things out will make you more reluctant to write. drive. Politely ask them for Submission Guidelines and include the sample work you concocted earlier. like the expression on your character's face. 5.) 4. From Information you've gathered from mastheads. 9. For new writers. The pieces you publish will begin your clipbook that will help you acquire paid assignments in the future.

fantasy. start writing. When it does. Develop your characters. 2. Concentrate alone with your thoughts and an idea will pop up all of a sudden. you need some interesting characters. Sit down and think about what a child might think about. or do they include elements of all three? . or mystery. Brainstorm story ideas. animal or fantasy. do not let it go. Consult some of your favorite books (children's or not) for examples. but also the ability to put yourself in the mind of a child. Who is the main character of the story? Is there more than one? Are the characters human. Choose a story that fits your interests and talents.Tips • Start by contacting smaller independant magazines • Learn how to create an excellent query letter • Search postings seeking writers on websites like Craigslist Warnings • When contacting Magazines via internet. That will be taken care of later. and do not worry about spelling or grammar. The story is perhaps the most important aspect of a good children's book. but try to be original. In order to have a good story. Steps 1. Just get the thoughts and ideas out. never mass email. such as action. Send each correspondence individually How to Write a Children's Story Writing a children's story requires not only imagination and creativity.

it is best to make an outline of the characters and how they fit into the story. We all have it. for a start. because younger kids will quickly lose interest.you can find a friend or colleague to help. o Write the climax of the story. and what happens next. Add pictures. A good story usually has some sort of conflict or obstacle that the main character has to resolve. 4. and have the ability. If you enjoy drawing. or use stickers.as long as you're not planning to publish the book . They can add to the interest level of the story and make it easier to follow. it's much easier and more fun to read aloud. o Create a problem/conflict. Here's the breakdown: o Introduce your characters with descriptions of physical and personality traits. which will include the main character(s) coming face to face with the conflict. the Internet. Focus on 'silly' things that will have both the child and the adult reader laughing together. and alliteration: Dr Seuss knows. You can leave the reader wondering what might happen next. Use note cards. play with the standard story formula by leaving the ending open for interpretation (a la J. and those with whom they come in contact. Depending on the age group you are trying to engage. • Please. and of how the characters will interact and evolve. Try including a few funny cartoons or pictures in your story. you don't want to make your story too complex and difficult to follow. their surroundings. Everyone loves pictures. • Make sure your diction (level of word usage) and storyline are audience- appropriate: . an internal conflict. Don't know any visual artists? Cut and paste pictures from magazines. Use made-up words. • If you want to be more daring. PLEASE use humour. This could be between two people. o Show how your character(s) resolves the problem. Make a story outline. This can be especially useful if you are thinking about expanding the story into a series of children's books. illustrate the book yourself. Try to differentiate between different characters by having them react differently to the same situation. draw it in picture form. rhyme. or write a standard outline. middle and end of the story. The important thing is to have a general understanding of the beginning. or one in which the main character overcomes an obstacle in the outside world. show the character's personality through speech and actions. Tips • Keep it simple. • Whenever possible. after which everyone lives "happily ever after". 3. Otherwise . not bland statements like "Sally is selfish".K. Rowling). Before you begin.

Age 3-5 years: Slightly larger storyline. Use bigger words but be careful to explain them. Age 18 months . Everything is BIG at this age. Simple emotions: happy. animal noises and names of animals. so as not to frustrate new readers. Exploring the world: a forest. Learning to spell. Explaining how you feel. they can be introduced to healthy argument resolution. Learning new skills. wanting. play-dough. colours. an ocean. Children's games such as hide-and-seek and peekaboo (which teach children to deal healthily with short-term seperation). a playground. Getting lost and finding your way home. children are becoming aware of others' thoughts and feelings). a preschool. • Do not be tempted to snag artwork from the Internet. Being a friend (this is a very new concept at this age. mommy and daddy. Understanding good reasons to do something and bad reasons to do something. • If you plan on publishing your tale. lonely. Very short sentences. Being a big brother/sister. this is a children's book!). Fighting. Age 0-18 months: very simple words. Knock-knock jokes. Age 5-7 years: overcoming challenges. as you may unintentionally violate copyright law How to Get a Job As an Advertising Copywriter So you think you can do better than those atrocious commercials you see on TV? Here's how to get a job writing ads. How to resolve arguments (though they still need a lot of help at this age. Telling parents if someone hurts you or makes you feel bad. If your work is accepted. especially the idea of sharing and thinking how others feel). More complex sentences explaining the motivation behind actions shown on the page. faces. do not include art work unless you are a talented in this area. Magic. Learning to add. crayons. Learning to wait. Adventures. Creativity: building blocks. Confusion. Being brave in spite of fear. Books long enough to read over two or three nights. simple ideas that are supported visually. the publisher will find the perfect illustrator for your story. Disappointment. Warnings • Avoid using slang words or inappropriate language/situations (remember. sad. Thinking of others before yourself. Bright colours. .3 years: Fuller sentences with some describing words. Learning to use the toilet. Telling the truth. Learning to count. Basic concepts such as growing and sharing which require thought but can still be supported visually.

The question then. (A Creative Strategy is an explanation of how you would sell the product and why. 3. Offer to do lunch. and wants are? These instructions will help guide you. They want to see how you sell concepts and they can't do that online. Go to the public library (or online) and get a directory of all the advertising agencies in your town/state/province/country.Steps 1. Get a bunch of products and do some research on them. There are 12. Tips • Don't bother e-mailing ad execs.) Write campaigns (print. audience analysis is the most important step in planning a target document. 2. How to Conduct Audience Analysis For most technical writers.000 people who would do the job for free. their phone numbers and e-mail addresses. • Take freelance work if it's offered. 5. Write a "Creative Strategy" for each of them. . She'll be ing you to see how you'd sell to a client. Your best ad with your biz card is ideal. Dinner too. • Don't give up. 6. through analyzing your audience and strategizing so that your writing makes as much of an impact as possible. Ad guys love lunch. Call each CD and book an appointment. Don't be a pest but don't give up. needs. Get out your ads and sell them to the CD. You'll get blown off about a million times but don't give up. and its wants. Write some ads. radio. • Forget about showing CD's your poetry or high school essays. If you've got talent you'll get a job. the piece must be aimed toward the intended audience--its knowledge. In order for a writer's final product to be fully successful. Do anything to show CD's you can perform. its needs. If you're offered a job. Make a list of all the Creative Directors of the agencies. They want to know you can write ads. Don't even think of negotiating your salary. online and TV) for each product. If the CD's aren't listed. the writer. its opinions. is how do you come to the conclusion of what the intended audience's knowledge. 8. 7. 4. phone the agency and ask for his/her name. Call the CD every couple of weeks. Leave something behind with your name on it. opinions. take it.

education background etc. motivate.? o Interest.Why are they reading your document? o Environment.What is the audience's knowledge of the subject? o Demographics. 3. 2.What is their age.Steps 1. If a speaker/writer wants to persuade.Who is the audience? o Understanding. Understanding the identity. Tips • Analysis/Understanding: Defining the background of the audience aids the writer in determining what information is already understood and what information needs to be included.Where will this document be sent/viewed? o Needs. excite. This is important because based on what is found out in the audience analysis a writer/speaker can adjust his work to relate to an audience in the best way possible. stories.What are the audience's needs associated with your document topic? o Customization. More information may need to be included so that the audience can understand and reach the conclusion that your document intends. warn or cheer up an audience. It allows a writer/speaker to be able to succeed in their goal of writing or speaking whatever that may be. sex. It allows the writer to come up with a strategy to adapt arguments to best suit an audience. . o Analysis. scare. Know the definition of audience analysis: determining the important characteristics of an audience in order to chose the best style. Follow this acronym and answer the resulting questions. tone. Conducting audience analysis informs a speaker or writer about the people he or she is talking to. Know the purpose of audience analysis: Having knowledge of a specific audience allows the writer or speaker to understand the social situation in which he or she writes. inform. personality and characteristics brought to a situation by the specific type of audience. style and delivery to use when writing or talking to that specific group of people.What does the audience expect to learn from your document? The audience should walk away having their initial questions answered and explained.What specific needs/interests should you the writer address relating to the specific audience? o Expectations. then analyzing those people to which he/she is talking can allow them to pick the best words. format and information/arguments when writing or speaking. Just remember the AUDIENCE.

and political preferences for example. Warnings • Audience analysis is part of the beginning stages of producing a target document. 6. as well as reading Variety or Hollywood Reporter 2. if there is a wide variability in the audience. How to Become a Writer (for Tv) One simple method to become a tv writer Steps 1. Register it in The Television Writers Vault and monitor any reviews or activity by production companies that scout the Tv Writers Vault for new material to produce. 3. Similarly. Age groups. cater to the majority--write to the majority of the people that will be reading the document. gender. • Demographics/Interest/Environment: Demographic characteristics of the audience can help determine the style and content of a document. 4. it is only one step in the formation of a document. Visit The TV Writers Vault and read professional advice on developing and protecting concepts. you can write sections specifically pertaining to the corresponding audiences. How to Write a Fable . • Needs/Customization: If there is more than one audience. It is beneficial to consult other rhetorical strategies that may help guide the writing process even more so. Start to write your concepts as a full synopsis for proposal. References to other sources with alternative information may need to be included to aid the minority of the readers. Sell the project to a production company and begin work as a producer and/or writer on your own project. Start creating general ideas for a show by brainstorming. Whereas audience analysis does help to start off the project and lead the writer in the right direction. or write in one particular fashion that applies across the board. Research the current trends in programming by ing lots of first-run series. areas of residence. are some of the characteristics to focus on. 5. Paying attention to these aspects of the audience can also help sidestep any offensive remarks or topics that the audience would not relate to or appreciate.

then you're on a good track. It is a fun way to write in a community atmosphere. and a moral at the end. Usually. the tortoise was slow. he needs to be able to learn your moral. therefore the moral was 'slow and steady wins the race'. Read some fables to get the general idea of what they are and how they are structured. If they laugh when they're meant to and if they get the meaning of your fable. the knowledge of having finished a 50. They can be a very useful audience to gauge how well you have put across your ideas. Although there are no prizes for winning. 2. For example. How to Participate in NaNoWriMo NaNoWriMo (National Novel Writer's Month) is a competition to write a 50. there are some things you need to know. and then write the story. Think about how your other characters can fit the moral. 6. Write it backwards.000 word novel entirely in the month of November. Work out the basic elements of your fable. Write all your description and dialogue so that it reflects the characters' personalities. 4. Think about what personality your main character should have. 7. a problem to be solved. 5. 3. Make up a situation where your character learns the moral. . Start off with the moral. Read on and create! Steps 1.Animal acting like human being Think of yourself as the next Aesop? If you're thinking of writing a fable. fables have animals acting like human beings.000 word novel in a month in a prize in itself. Tips • Read your stories to young children. in the story of the tortoise and the hare.

Many also prepare specific "writing playlists" of CD's or mp3's to listen to. On November 1st. 7. and even a forum for other writers in your region. 3. . which is about 1700 words per day. and one-handed snacks so they don't have to leave their writing spot while they are writing. This helps get you excited to write. so many writers choose to try and work in as many dares as possible.txt format. Make sure you have planned time to spend writing! 8. NaNoWriMo is all about quantity. Pick up some NaNoWriMo dares! These are from the forum and are just silly (or not-so-silly) plot twists. The competition begins on November 1st. not quality. You can update your word count at any time on your user profile. Plan your novel. Handwritten plot ideas 5. It is perfectly acceptable under the rules of NaNoWriMo to outline your plot before November 1st. but you can sign up any time before the end of the contest. Keep track of your word count.000 word novel. links to online thesauri and dictionaries. 2. 6. ideas to pad your word count. In order to validate your word count. and enter it into a computer after it is finished. Many NaNoWriMo writers title their novel and name their characters before they've even thought of a plot. but you can hand write or use a typewriter. Find a writing spot and prepare it. a shovel that is used to kill or bludgeon characters. and is full of information to make your novel more realistic. your final submission must be in .Steps 1. One of the most popular dares is the Traveling Shovel of Death™. or objects that you try to work into your novel.org and sign up for an account." Writers stock up on energy drinks. soda. Visit Nanowrimo. Buy a supply of notebooks and your favorite pens to carry around for whenever inspiration strikes. Get together your "NaNoWriMo Survival Kit. characters. start writing! You only have 30 days to write your 50. Have a lamp and a comfortable chair - you'll be spending a lot of time there! 4. Check out the NaNoWriMo forums.

you can upload your entire novel for verification. motivations. Steps 1.000 word goal. NaNoWriMo progress Starting November 25th. family. Use logic and desire to create the vision you want. No previously written prose is acceptable. How to Become a Writer The exploration of oneself – thoughts. Warnings • Don't start writing until November 1st! You have to start NaNoWriMo with a blank slate. Share your finished novel! Give copies to friends. which probably means your novel needs a bit of cleanup to be the best it can be. If you've reached the 50. you should have done no ing during the month of November. you'll receive a downloadable certificate and your name will appear on the list of winners! 10. 9. These meetups are a great place to share plot and character ideas. attitudes. In the spirit of NaNoWriMo. . values and goals – is the act and art of writing. Tips • Go to your regional NaNoWriMo meet-ups! You can meet others in your area who are working on their novels. and just to vent your frustration when you get stuck. Use December to finish your novel and it. 11. and other NaNoWriMo authors.

5. instead of what you want to get from writing. Its not hard and everyone can do it just give it a try. You won't get anywhere if all you're after is money. Heed to those needs and then return – renewed. wine…. Warnings • Be aware that if you are writing books they may not sell well How to Write a Good Story Everyone has a story to tell. any action of rejuvenation precedes typing. write. Be prepared to work odd hours -. There are many factors that can inspire a good story. you'll eventually have success. Completely immerse yourself into the world you create. Take advice: never succumb and never doubt. 8. If you succumb and doubt. but not their lives. Don't stop. even if it's the middle of the night. then you have heightened your failure and will likely fail. if you feel comfortable working the way you do. Here are a few tips to release the writer in you. Subscribe to their arts. write.you'll need to write whenever ideas strike. Tips • Unsubscribe to the biographies of other artists. Even if you get dozens of rejection slips. But if you oppose failure. Steps . Do not let typing become mechanical. 4. perhaps. • Be simple and check your thoughts and aspirations. Think about what you want to write. Write. 7. The block may be due to other needs. 2. then your masterpiece will drip underneath your fingers and perhaps change the world. 6. 3. Know that writer’s block isn't a real thing. Love. Find what works for you and stick with it.

Most people know what surfing is. 5.see number 2). See how they act. writing ideas Pick your story ideas based upon what you know (even if just a little bit . if something piques your interest. teens. interview a surfer about the experience. Everyday life can be an inspiration. they've seen it on TV or in reality. Research subjects that you are familiar with but aren't quite experienced with For example. research it. write it down so you won't forget. if you have a surfer character in your story. Once you've established those two factors. 4. you will have a better idea of what to write about. Decide what audience you are writing for. Yada yada. it could be. 3. Dreams evaporate from memory (possibly forever) at an exponential rate. see the world through their eyes. 6. so get it down at once! . but they don't know how to do it. and always have a notebook within hands reach so that the first thing you can do is write the dream down. wherever. 2. let's take surfing. Get inspirations in your everyday life. or even adults.1. write your thoughts in notebook Make sure that you always have a notepad with you. at work. Listen to the news maybe your brain can conjure up a story just waiting to be written. If you know your starting subject then it's easier to branch details from it. So. For example if you want to write a children's book. If you're on the bus. Research the moves. children. and it's so much easier to write about. the techniques. and then write about something that fascinates them. observe children. maybe you could make a story out of one or more of them. A good way to capture dreams is to set your alarm clock about an hour early than when you usually wake up. Write down your dreams.

people don't talk in full sentences. like. when you finish that paragraph and suddenly. They give one word answers. mmhmm. reason that you are telling this story. You know. Otherwise you'll be hanging about for a very long time. Try getting to the action (I know it's there. uhhh. and soon it will come to you. Read through your story and ! Tips • There is no such thing as writer's block. be sure to improve on your wording. Eventually you'll be back on a roll with some good ideas and you can go back and /replace what you just wrote to suit your new ideas. Instead. Warnings • Try not to "drag" the book on. go out for a walk. • Read 100 books before writing one. Give details. • However. maybe that means you've painted yourself into a corner. Is the plot really going the way you want it to? Maybe the scene you're writing isn't necessary. there is a second type of writer's block: the type that kicks you in the teeth just as you're in the middle of writing. After a while go back and try writing again. simply sit down and start writing with whatever comes into your head first (but don't take what you just wrote too seriously at this stage). • You've all seen those little dialogue tags that say things like 'Andrew said' or 'Molly whispered. WHAM: "What am I gonna do next?!" When this happens. • While ing. don't hang about until "inspiration" sets in. Write down the purpose. If you wake up one morning and realise that you don't know what to do for that next chapter.' But without those tags. or listen to some inspiring music. lesson. use lazy words such as "Yeah. have an accent. Rather. Most of the time. How to Submit a Story to a Magazine . could you tell who was talking? Have each character have a unique voice! Maybe they slur their words. There is almost always a better word(almost). and 200 before writing two. happening in your head) a different way. 8." etc. • If you get writer's block. use 'buttercup' instead of just staid 'flower'. it should be known as "Writer's Laziness". • On the other hand don't give so few details that nobody understands what is going on. 7. Make sure that is what you are expressing with the story. but not too many that the reader will be bored. or just take a break. etc.

It's the story that should stand out..000 word stories. Format the manuscript in proper manuscript format. 2. not the paper. including any requirements listed in the magazine guidelines. Record the details of the submission for later reference. • Submit only what the magazine is asking for.You've written a story and want to submit to a magazine.e. Many now have them online. fancy fonts. Identify potential magazines where the story might fit (i. • * Pay attention to the or's name! It is bad form to spell their name wrong. Obtain a copy of the magazine's guidelines. 3. if your story is fantasy. Where do you start? Steps 1. Things You'll Need • Novel and Short Story Writer's Market • Formatting and Submitting Your Manuscript How to Write Romance Novels . then look for magazines that accept fantasy stories). or graphic headings. This is a book that is published each year and lists magazines that specialize in publishing fiction. 5. 6.000 word story to a magazine that only takes 3. Write a letter to the magazine and send your story 7. 4. Read samples of the magazine to get a feel for if your story will fit. If you submit a 5. no matter how good the story is. Tips • Reading several copies of the magazine will help keep you from submitting to magazines that may not be a good match. it's going to get rejected. • Use Courier/Courier New for the submission letter • Always be professional in all correspondence Warnings • Avoid fancy paper. Pick up a copy of the Novel and Short Story Writer's Market.

In that case you will market your books directly to your audience. Follow their formula guidelines strictly. To find out who follows what particular formula you must request the writer's guidelines. Before you begin to write your romance novel. If possible. 6. Purchase or borrow the "Writer's Digest Market for Writers". Don't give up and work on your book regularly. . etc.Most publishing houses who buy romance novels have specific formulas they want their authors to follow.. don't fictionalize the historic components. Your research should be thorough and if you are writing an historical romance novel. try not to tell many others what you are doing until you are well on your way into writing your book. Approach this with discipline and do not let others discourage you. Most credible publishers list themselves in this fantastic reference book. newspapers. 2. If you specialize in a pertinent or specific topic that will have limited appeal to a buying audience. This book lists publishers of books as well as magazine articles. 3. 4. this option might be recommended. This is not usually the case for romance novels.. Tips • Schedule a time to write on a regular basis. send for guidelines. Warnings • Do not submit your books to publishers that are merely printing companies encouraging you to "self publish". and get specifics from each publisher. Steps 1. Research the publishing houses that are most likely to buy your ideas. choose a publishing house that specializes in this genre. You will be able to access contact information. Don't deviate from your schedule. 5. They are just looking for your printing business and you will spend a lot of money if you pursue this.