1

Advance Soil mechanics Advance Soil mechanics
Present by Mr. Sieng PEOU Present by Mr. Sieng PEOU
Master science of geotechnical Master science of geotechnical
engineering engineering
Tel Tel- -011 874 974 011 874 974
email: sieng_2000@yahoo.fr email: sieng_2000@yahoo.fr
Soils particle size Soils particle size
19.5mm>d>4.76mm
.
Gravel
4.76mm>d>0.075mm
Sand
Coarse grained soils
0.075mm>d>0.002mm
Silt
d<0.002mm
Clay
Fine grained soils
Soils
2
Sieve analysis method Sieve analysis method
For coarse For coarse
grained soils grained soils
Retained cumulative Retained cumulative
%R= %R=
% 100
.
. .
×
weight total
cumulative retained weight
Passing cumulative
%P = 100-%R
3
Logarithm scale Logarithm scale
Log d
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
a
If 0.001<d<0.01
X=a.Log(1000d)
If 0.01<d<0.1
X=a.Log(100d)
If 0.1<d<1
X=a.Log(10d)
If 1<d<10
X=a.Log(d)
If 10<d<100
X=a.Log(0.1d)
Hydrometer Hydrometer
analysis analysis
For fine For fine
grained soils grained soils
4
Hydrometer analysis Hydrometer analysis
% 100 * %
S
W
R R
a P
∆ +
=
T
L
K D =
P%-passing cumulative
a- soil factor
R-hydrometer reading
∆R-corrected factor
Ws-weight of dry soil
D-soil diameter
K-hydrometer factor
L-depth of hydrometer in
Solution
Τ− time in minute
Soil particle size curve Uniformity coefficient UC=D60/D10
d10 d60
5
Weight and volume Weight and volume
relationship relationship
V
Va
Vw
Vs
W
Wa=0
Ww
Ws
W=Ws+Ww
V=Va+Vw+Vs
Vv =Va+Vw
V= Vv+Vs
6
Soils sampling Soils sampling
Disturbed sample for determine properties Disturbed sample for determine properties
physics of soils physics of soils
Undisturbed sample for determine Undisturbed sample for determine
properties mechanics of soils, we call properties mechanics of soils, we call
undisturbed when A undisturbed when A
RR
(%)<10% (%)<10%
AA
RR
:Area ratio :Area ratio
D D
oo
: Outside diameter of the sampling tube : Outside diameter of the sampling tube
D D
ii
:Inside diameter of the sampling tube :Inside diameter of the sampling tube
100 (%)
2
2 2
0
×

=
i
i
R
D
D D
A
Soils unit weight Soils unit weight
Natural water content: Natural water content:
Bulk unit weight: Bulk unit weight:γ= γ=
Dry unit weight: Dry unit weight: γγ
dd
==
Unit weight of particle solid: Unit weight of particle solid: γγ
ss
==
w
s
e
e S G
V
W
γ ×
|
¹
|

\
|
+
× +
=
1
s
s
V
W
100
1
ω
γ
+
=
V
W
s
% 100 × =
s
w
W
W
ω
7
Another parameter Another parameter
Void ratio: Void ratio:
Degree of saturation: Degree of saturation:
Saturated unit weight: Saturated unit weight:
Effective unit weight: Effective unit weight:
d
d s
s
v
V
V
e
ρ
ρ ρ −
= =
w
s
v
w
e V
V
S
ρ
ω ρ
×
×
= × = % 100
W
s
sat
e
e G
γ γ ×
|
¹
|

\
|
+
+
=
1
w
s
w sat
e
G
γ γ γ γ ×
|
¹
|

\
|
+

= − =
1
1
'
Another parameters Another parameters
Specific gravity:
Relative density:
Saturated water content:
w s
s
s
V
W
G
γ ×
=
% 100
min max
max
×


=
e e
e e
D
R
% 100
1 1
× ×
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
w
s d
sat
ρ
ρ ρ
ω
8
Typical values of unit weight of soils Typical values of unit weight of soils
Soil type Soil type
γγ
sat sat
(KN/M (KN/M
33
)) γγ
dd
(KN/M (KN/M
33
))
Gravel Gravel 20 to 22 20 to 22 15 to 17 15 to 17
Sand Sand 18 to 20 18 to 20 13 to 16 13 to 16
Silt Silt 18 to 20 18 to 20 14 to 18 14 to 18
Clay Clay 16 to 22 16 to 22 14 to 21 14 to 21
Description based on Description based on
Relative density Relative density
D D
RR
(%) (%) Description Description
0 to 15 0 to 15 Very loose Very loose
15 to 35 15 to 35 Loose Loose
35 to 65 35 to 65 Medium dense Medium dense
65 to 85 65 to 85 Dense Dense
85 to 100 85 to 100 Very dense Very dense
9
Soil consistence Soil consistence
Shrinkage
limit
Ws
Plastic
limit
Wp
Liquid
limit
WL
Atterberg
limit
State of cohesion soils State of cohesion soils
Plastic index Plastic index
I I
P P
==ωω
LL
- -ωω
P P
Liquidity index Liquidity index
I I
LL
==
P
P
I
ω ω −
10
State of cohesion soils State of cohesion soils
If 0< If 0<ωω<<ωω
s s
: State solid : State solid
If If ωω
s s
<<ωω<<ωω
pp
: State semi : State semi- -solid solid
If If ωω
pp
<<ωω<<ωω
LL
: State Plastic : State Plastic
If If ωω>>ωω
L L
: State Liquid : State Liquid
11
CH
MH
CL
ML
CL-ML
12
Soil classification Soil classification
USCS:Unified soil classification system USCS:Unified soil classification system
(ASTM Test Designation D (ASTM Test Designation D- -2487) 2487)
ASTM: American Society for Testing ASTM: American Society for Testing
and Materials and Materials
Proposed by Casagrande in 1942,this Proposed by Casagrande in 1942,this
system was revised in 1952 by U.S system was revised in 1952 by U.S
Bureau of Reclamation. Bureau of Reclamation.
Coarse grained soils Coarse grained soils
%R(4.76mm)>0.5%R(0.075mm)
Gravel
%R(4.76mm)<0.5%R(0.075mm)
Sand
%R(0.075mm)>50%
Coarse grained soils
13
Gravel Gravel
UC<4
Poorly graded Gravel
GP
UC>4
Well graded Gravel
GW
Clean Gravel
%P(0.075mm)<5%
Gravel Gravel
Located CL or CH
Poorly graded
clayey Gravel
GC-GP
Located ML or MH
Poorly graded
silty Gravel
GM-GP
Located CL-ML
Poorly graded clayey
silty Gravel
GC-GM-GP
UC<4
On plastic Chart Casagrand
Located CL or CH
Well graded
clayey Gravel
GC-GW
Located ML or MH
Well graded
silty Gravel
GM-GW
Located CL-ML
Well graded clayey
silty Gravel
GC-GM-GW
UC>4
On plastic Chart Casagrande
Mixed Gravel
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%
14
Gravel Gravel
Located CL or CH
clayey Gravel
GC
Located ML or MH
silty Gravel
GM
Located CL-ML
clayey silty Gravel
GC-GM
Mixed Gravel
%P(0.075mm)>12%
Sand Sand
UC<6
Poorly graded Sand
SP
UC>6
Well graded Sand
SW
Clean Sand
%P(0.075mm)<5%
15
Sand Sand
Located CL or CH
Poorly graded
clayey Sand
SC-SP
Located ML or MH
Poorly graded
silty Sand
SM-SP
Located CL-ML
Poorly graded clayey
silty Sand
SC-SM-SP
UC<6
On plastic Chart Casagrand
Located CL or CH
Well graded
clayey Sand
SC-SW
Located ML or MH
Well graded
silty Sand
SM-SW
Located CL-ML
Well graded clayey
silty Sand
SC-SM-SW
UC>6
On plastic Chart Casagrande
Mixed Sand
5%<%P(0.075mm)<12%
Sand Sand
Located CL or CH
clayey Sand
SC
Located ML or MH
silty Sand
SM
Located CL-ML
clayey silty Sand
SC-SM
Mixed Sand
%P(0.075mm)>12%
16
Fine grained soils Fine grained soils
CL CH
For Clay
ML MH
For Silt
CL-ML
For Silty clay
%R(0.075mm)<50%
Fine grained soils
on plastic Chart Casagrande
Lean Clay(CL) Lean Clay(CL)
%S>%G
Lean Clay
With sand
%S<%G
Lean Clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
lean Clay
%G>15%
Sandy
lean Clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
lean Clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
lean Clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Lean clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
17
Fat Clay(CH) Fat Clay(CH)
%S>%G
Fat Clay
With sand
%S<%G
Fat Clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Fat Clay
%G>15%
Sandy
Fat Clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Fat Clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
Fat Clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Fat clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Silt (ML) Silt (ML)
%S>%G
Silt
With sand
%S<%G
Silt
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Silt
%G>15%
Sandy
Silt
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Silt
%S>15%
Gravelly
Silt
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
18
Elastic Silt (MH) Elastic Silt (MH)
%S>%G
Elastic Silt
With sand
%S<%G
Elastic Silt
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Elastic Silt
%G>15%
Sandy
Elastic Silt
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Elastic Silt
%S>15%
Gravelly
Elastic Silt
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Elastic Silt
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
Silty clay (CL Silty clay (CL- -ML) ML)
%S>%G
Silty clay
With sand
%S<%G
Silty clay
With gravel
15%<%R(0.075mm)<30%
%G<15%
Sandy
Silty clay
%G>15%
Sandy
Silty clay
with gravel
%S>%G
%S<15%
Gravelly
Silty clay
%S>15%
Gravelly
Silty clay
With sand
%S<%G
30%<%R(0.075mm)<50%
If:%R(0.075mm)<15%
Silty clay
If%R(0.075mm)>15%
Look
19
Soil classification Soil classification
AASHTO:Association American for AASHTO:Association American for
State Highway and Transportation State Highway and Transportation
official, was developed 1929 and official, was developed 1929 and
proposed by the committee on proposed by the committee on
Materials for sub grades and Materials for sub grades and
Granularity Type Boards of the Granularity Type Boards of the
Highway Research Road in Highway Research Road in
1945(ASTM Test designation D 1945(ASTM Test designation D- -
3282;AASHTO method M145) 3282;AASHTO method M145)
Granular Materials Granular Materials
%P(0.075mm)<35% %P(0.075mm)<35%
Group Group
classification classification
AA- -11
AA- -33 AA- -22
A1 A1- -aa A1 A1- -bb
A2 A2- -44 A2 A2- -55 A2 A2- -66 A2 A2- -77
%P(2mm) %P(2mm)
<50% <50%
%P(0.425mm) %P(0.425mm)
<30% <30% <50% <50% >51% >51%
%P(0.075mm) %P(0.075mm)
<15% <15% <25% <25% <10% <10%
<35% <35% <35% <35% <35% <35% <35% <35%
WW
L L
<40 <40 >40 >40 <40 <40 >40 >40
I I
P P
<6% <6%
NP NP <10 <10 <10 <10 >10 >10 >10 >10
Usual type of Usual type of
materials materials
Stone Stone
fragment, fragment,
gravel, sand gravel, sand
Fine Fine
sand sand
Silty or clayey gravel and sand Silty or clayey gravel and sand
General sub General sub
grade rating grade rating
Excellence to good Excellence to good
20
Silty Silty - - clay material %P(0.075mm)>35% clay material %P(0.075mm)>35%
Group Group
classification classification
AA- -44 AA- -55 AA- -66 AA- -77
AA- -77- -55
AA- -77- -66
%P(2mm) %P(2mm)
%P(0.425mm) %P(0.425mm)
%P(0.075mm) %P(0.075mm)
>35% >35% >35% >35% >35% >35% >35% >35%
WW
L L
<40 <40 >40 >40 <40 <40 >40 >40
I I
P P
<10 <10 <10 <10 >10 >10 >10 >10
Usual type of Usual type of
materials materials
Silty soils Silty soils Clayey soils Clayey soils
General General
subgrade rating subgrade rating
Fair to poor Fair to poor
For A-7-5: I
P
<W
L
-30 For A-7-6: I
P
>W
L
-30
Group index GI Group index GI
GI=(%P(0.075)-35)[0.2+0.005(W
L
-40)]+0.01(%P(0.075)-15)(I
P
-10)
21
Soil compaction Soil compaction
Standard Proctor test Standard Proctor test
Modified Proctor test Modified Proctor test
Specification for standard Proctor test(based on ASTM test Specification for standard Proctor test(based on ASTM test
designation 698 designation 698- -91) 91)
Item Item Method A Method A Method B Method B Method C Method C
Diameter of mold Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm 152.4mm
Volume of mold Volume of mold 943.3cm 943.3cm
33
943.3cm 943.3cm
33
2124cm 2124cm
33
Weight of hammer Weight of hammer 24.4 N 24.4 N 24.4 N 24.4 N 24.4 N 24.4 N
Height of hammer drop Height of hammer drop 304.8mm 304.8mm 304.8mm 304.8mm 304.8mm 304.8mm
Number of hammer Number of hammer
blows per layer blows per layer
25 25 25 25 56 56
Number of layer of Number of layer of
compaction compaction
33 33 33
Energy of compaction Energy of compaction 591.3KNm/m 591.3KNm/m
33
591.3KNm/m 591.3KNm/m
33
591.3KNm/m 591.3KNm/m
33
Soil to be used Soil to be used %R(4.75)<20% %R(4.75)<20%
Used soil Used soil
%P(4.75) %P(4.75)
%R(4.75)>20% %R(4.75)>20%
%R(9.5)<20% %R(9.5)<20%
Used soil Used soil
%P(9.5) %P(9.5)
%R(9.5)>20% %R(9.5)>20%
%R(19)<30% %R(19)<30%
Used soil Used soil
%P(19) %P(19)
22
Specification for modified Proctor test(based on ASTM test Specification for modified Proctor test(based on ASTM test
designation 1557 designation 1557- -91) 91)
Item Item Method A Method A Method B Method B Method C Method C
Diameter of mold Diameter of mold 101.6mm 101.6mm 101.6mm 101.6mm 152.4mm 152.4mm
Volume of mold Volume of mold 943.3cm 943.3cm
33
943.3cm 943.3cm
33
2124cm 2124cm
33
Weight of hammer Weight of hammer 44.5 N 44.5 N 44.5 N 44.5 N 44.5 N 44.5 N
Height of hammer drop Height of hammer drop 457.2mm 457.2mm 457.2mm 457.2mm 457.2mm 457.2mm
Number of hammer Number of hammer
blows per layer blows per layer
25 25 25 25 56 56
Number of layer of Number of layer of
compaction compaction
55 55 55
Energy of compaction Energy of compaction 2696KNm/m 2696KNm/m
33
2696KNm/m 2696KNm/m
33
2696KNm/m 2696KNm/m
33
Soil to be used Soil to be used %R(4.75)<20% %R(4.75)<20%
Used soil Used soil
%P(4.75) %P(4.75)
%R(4.75)>20% %R(4.75)>20%
%R(9.5)<20% %R(9.5)<20%
Used soil Used soil
%P(9.5) %P(9.5)
%R(9.5)>20% %R(9.5)>20%
%R(19)<30% %R(19)<30%
Used soil Used soil
%P(19) %P(19)
Compaction equipment Compaction equipment
23
Compaction curve Compaction curve
MOISTURE DENSITY RELATIONSHIP CURVE
1.900
2.000
2.100
2.200
0.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00
Moisture content %
D
r
y

D
e
n
s
i
t
y

g
/
m
3
Wopt
ρ
dmax
California Bearing Ratio(CBR) California Bearing Ratio(CBR)
For study the strength of soils after For study the strength of soils after
compacting in optimum state. compacting in optimum state.
11- -Recompaction the soil in optimum state Recompaction the soil in optimum state
22- -Determine CBR in dry condition Determine CBR in dry condition
33- -Saturated the soil under water 4 days Saturated the soil under water 4 days
44- -Determine CBR in soaked condition Determine CBR in soaked condition
CBR= CBR=
% 100
. . standard
. .
×
load unit
load unit Test
24
BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR)
Project: Pochentong Airport Job No.
Location of Project: Pochentong Airport Boring No 2 Sample No.2
Description of Soil:
Tested by: Mr. Men Tharith Date of Testing. 16/05/2002
CBR Test Load Data (soaked)
Mold
Surrcharge
Piston load Load.
Penetration. dial reading kgf/cm
2
mm ( unit )
0.000 0 0
1.00 0.045 2.3077
2.00 0.075 3.8462
3.00 0.11 5.641
4.00 0.145 7.4359
5.00 0.175 8.9744
6.00 0.21 10.769
7.00 0.25 12.821
8.00 0.28 14.359
9.00 0.31 15.897
10.00 0.34 17.436
CBR(2.54)= 7.1429
Acceppted CBR= 7.14
Final water Top 7.9
conten, w% Midle 7.8
(soaked) Bottom 7.99
sample Averagee 7.8967
Wet unit wt. = 2.2952 g/cm
3
Dry unit wt. = 2.13444 g/cm
3
Wet unit wt.(soaked) = 2.303 g/cm
3
Curve CBR Test
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0
Renetration (mm)
L
o
a
d

(
k
g
f
/
c
m
2
)
P2.54
Penetration(mm) Penetration(mm) Standard unit Standard unit
load(Mpa) load(Mpa)
2.5 2.5 6.9 6.9
55 10.3 10.3
7.5 7.5 13 13
10 10 16 16
12.7 12.7 18 18
25
CBR equipment CBR equipment
CBR equipment CBR equipment
26
CBR special for field control CBR special for field control
Compaction the soils in optimum state with Compaction the soils in optimum state with
different energy different energy
11- -Compaction 10 blows per layer and saturated Compaction 10 blows per layer and saturated
the soil under water during 4 days the soil under water during 4 days
22- -Compaction 25 blows per layer and saturated Compaction 25 blows per layer and saturated
the soil under water during 4 days the soil under water during 4 days
33- -Compaction 55 blows per layer and saturated Compaction 55 blows per layer and saturated
the soil under water during 4 days the soil under water during 4 days
44- -Determine CBR in soaked condition for each Determine CBR in soaked condition for each
55- -Plotted values CBR with dry density on chart Plotted values CBR with dry density on chart
CBR chart CBR chart
27
CBR CBR General General
rating rating
Uses Uses Classification system Classification system
USCS USCS AASHTO AASHTO
00- -33 Very poor Very poor Subgrade Subgrade OH,CH,MH,CL OH,CH,MH,CL A5,A6,A7 A5,A6,A7
33- -77 Poor to Poor to
fair fair
Subgrade Subgrade OH,CH,MH,OL OH,CH,MH,OL A4,A5,A6,A7 A4,A5,A6,A7
77- -20 20 Fair Fair Subbase Subbase OL,CL,ML,SC, OL,CL,ML,SC,
SM,SP SM,SP
A2,A4,A6,A7 A2,A4,A6,A7
20 20- -50 50 Good Good Base Base
subbase subbase
GM,GC,SW, GM,GC,SW,
SM,SP,GP SM,SP,GP
A1b,A2 A1b,A2- -5, 5,
A3,A2 A3,A2- -66
>50 >50 Excellent Excellent Base Base GW,GM GW,GM A1 A1- -a,A2 a,A2- -44
A3 A3
Control soils compaction Control soils compaction
%Compaction= %Compaction=
Determine field density by Determine field density by
using: using:
11- -Undisturbed sampling Undisturbed sampling
22- -Sand cone method Sand cone method
33- -Balloon density equipment Balloon density equipment
44- -Nuclear method Nuclear method
max
.
% 100
d
field d
ρ
ρ
×
28
Sand cone method Sand cone method
Control CBR Control CBR
Field CBR Field CBR
By using Dynamic cone penetration test DCP By using Dynamic cone penetration test DCP
11- -Kleyn and Van Heerden(60 Kleyn and Van Heerden(60
00
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.632 cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.632- -1.28Lg.(mm/blow) 1.28Lg.(mm/blow)
22- -Smith and Pratt (30 Smith and Pratt (30
00
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.555 cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.555- -1.145Lg.(mm/blow) 1.145Lg.(mm/blow)
33- -VanVuuren (30 VanVuuren (30
00
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.503 cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.503- -1.15Lg.(mm/blow) 1.15Lg.(mm/blow)
44- -TRRL Road Note 8(60 TRRL Road Note 8(60
00
cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.48 cone) : Lg.(CBR)=2.48- -1.057Lg(mm/blow 1.057Lg(mm/blow))
By using CBR Chart By using CBR Chart
29
CBR control CBR control
Shear strength of soils Shear strength of soils
Total Stress Analysis (TSA) Total Stress Analysis (TSA)
- -for clayey soils with permeability very low, so for clayey soils with permeability very low, so
for short term loading soils and water work for short term loading soils and water work
together. together.
Effective Stress Analysis(ESA) Effective Stress Analysis(ESA)
- -for sandy soils with high permeability,so for for sandy soils with high permeability,so for
short term loading soils work yourself only short term loading soils work yourself only
For analyze soils stability problems(bearing For analyze soils stability problems(bearing
capacity,slope stability,lateral pressure on capacity,slope stability,lateral pressure on
earth earth- -retaining structure) retaining structure)
30
Mohr Mohr- -Coulomb Criteria Coulomb Criteria
The shear stress on the failure plan as The shear stress on the failure plan as
a linear function of the normal stress a linear function of the normal stress
(Coulomb,1776) (Coulomb,1776)
ττ == c c ++ σσ tg tgϕϕ
A material fails because of a critical A material fails because of a critical
combination of normal stress and combination of normal stress and
shear stress, and not from either shear stress, and not from either
maximum normal or shear stress maximum normal or shear stress
alone (Mohr,1900) alone (Mohr,1900)
31
Effective stress in soils Effective stress in soils
mass mass
Total stress Total stress σσ
00
= γ = γ
sat. sat.
ZZ
Effective stress Effective stress σσ’’
00
= γ = γ’’
..
ZZ
Pore water pressure U= Pore water pressure U= γγ
w w
.Z .Z
γγ’= ’= γγ
sat sat--
γγ
w w
γγ
w w
unit weight of water unit weight of water
Failure plan Failure plan
σ
x
τ
σ
y
τ
σ
τ
f
θ
θ= 45+φ/2
32
Mohr Mohr- -Coulomb failure criteria Coulomb failure criteria
τ
σ
C
φ
Line Coulomb’s: τ = σ.tgφ+C
Unconfined compression test Unconfined compression test
Type TSA test Type TSA test
Undisturbed sample with Undisturbed sample with
hh
00
=2d =2d
oo
Speed Speed εε=2%/min =2%/min
εε=2%/min= =2%/min=∆∆h/h h/h
00
*100%/min *100%/min
For determine undrained For determine undrained
cohesion Cu, in this case cohesion Cu, in this case
φφu=0 u=0
33
q
u
Mohr circle Mohr circle
τ
σ
0
q
u
C
u
34
Direct shear test Direct shear test
Type undrained Type undrained
test or drained test or drained
test test
Undisturbed Undisturbed
sample sample
For determine For determine
cohesion of soils cohesion of soils
C C and internal and internal
friction angle of friction angle of
soils soils φ φφ φφ φφ φ
Build by Build by
Casagrande Casagrande
Shear box Shear box
Porous
stone
Shear force
Shear box
Normal force
Porous
stone
Loading plate
τ
τ
Soil sample
35
Determine C & Determine C & φ φφ φφ φφ φ
( )
2 2
) (
i i
i i i i
n
n
tg
σ σ
σ τ σ τ
φ
∑ − ∑
∑ ∑ − ∑
=
n
tg
C
i i
σ φ τ ∑ − ∑
=
τ
σ
C
φ
0
Triaxial test Triaxial test
UU test: Unconsolidated undrained UU test: Unconsolidated undrained
test test
CU test: Consolidated undrained test CU test: Consolidated undrained test
CD test: Consolidated drained test CD test: Consolidated drained test
36
Triaxial equipment Triaxial equipment
37
UU test UU test
τ
σ 0 σ
0
q
u
Cu
General relationship of consistency and General relationship of consistency and
unconfined compression strength of clay unconfined compression strength of clay
Consistency Consistency qq
uu
(KN/m (KN/m
22
))
Very soft Very soft 00- -25 25
Soft Soft 25 25- -50 50
Medium stiff Medium stiff 50 50- -100 100
Stiff Stiff 100 100- -200 200
Very stiff Very stiff 200 200- -400 400
hard hard >400 >400
38
Empirical equation related to Cu and Empirical equation related to Cu and σ σσ σσ σσ σ’’
00
Reference Reference Relationship Relationship Remarks Remarks
Skempton Skempton
(1957) (1957)
Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I
P P
]. ].σσ’’
00
Cu from vane shear test Cu from vane shear test
For normally For normally
consolidated clay consolidated clay
Chandler(1988) Chandler(1988) Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I Cu=[0.11+0.0037.I
P P
]. ].σσ’’
c c
Cu from vane shear test Cu from vane shear test
σσ’’
c c
preconsolidation preconsolidation
pressure pressure
Can be use for Can be use for
over consolidated over consolidated
clay not valid for clay not valid for
sensitive clay sensitive clay
Jamiolkowski et Jamiolkowski et
al (1985) al (1985)
Cu=[0.23 0.04]. Cu=[0.23 0.04].σσ’’
c c
For lightly over For lightly over
consolidated clay consolidated clay
±
CU & CD test CU & CD test
τ
σ
0
φ
C
σ
3
σ
1
39
Typical values of drained Angle of Typical values of drained Angle of
friction for Sand and Silt friction for Sand and Silt
Soil type Soil type
ΦΦ (degree) (degree)
Sand : Rounded grains Sand : Rounded grains
Loose Loose 27 27- -30 30
Medium dense Medium dense 30 30- -35 35
Dense Dense 35 35- -38 38
Sand : Angular grains Sand : Angular grains
Loose Loose 30 30- -35 35
Medium dense Medium dense 35 35- -40 40
Dense Dense 40 40- -45 45
Gravel with some sand Gravel with some sand 34 34- -48 48
Silts Silts 26 26- -35 35
Typical values of drained Angle of Typical values of drained Angle of
friction and Cohesion for Gravel friction and Cohesion for Gravel
USCS USCS
Φ( Φ(degree) degree)
C(KN/m C(KN/m
22
))
GW GW 40 5 40 5 00
GP GP 38 6 38 6 00
GM GM 36 4 36 4 00
GC GC 34 4 34 4 00
GM GM- -ML ML 35 5 35 5 00
GM GM- -GC GC 33 3 33 3 2 2 2 2
GC GC- -CL CL 29 4 29 4 3 3 3 3
GC GC- -CH CH 28 4 28 4 4 4 4 4
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
± ±
± ±
40
Typical values of drained Angle of Typical values of drained Angle of
friction and Cohesion for Sand friction and Cohesion for Sand
USCS USCS
Φ( Φ(degree) degree)
C(KN/m C(KN/m
22
))
SW SW 38 5 38 5 00
SP SP 36 6 36 6 00
SM SM 34 3 34 3 00
SC SC 32 4 32 4 00
SM SM- -ML ML 34 3 34 3 00
SM SM- -SC SC 31 3 31 3 5 5 5 5
SC SC- -CL CL 28 4 28 4 5 5 5 5
SC SC- -CH CH 27 3 27 3 10 10 10 10
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
± ±
± ±
Typical values of drained Angle of Typical values of drained Angle of
friction and Cohesion for Fine grained friction and Cohesion for Fine grained
soils soils
USCS USCS
Φ( Φ(degree) degree)
C(KN/m C(KN/m
22
))
ML ML 33 4 33 4 00
CL CL- -ML ML 30 4 30 4 15 10 15 10
CL CL 27 4 27 4 20 10 20 10
CH CH 22 4 22 4 25 10 25 10
OL OL 25 4 25 4 10 5 10 5
OH OH 22 4 22 4 10 5 10 5
MH MH 24 6 24 6 5 5 5 5
±
±
±
±
±
±
± ±
±
±
±
±
±
41
Stress in soils mass Stress in soils mass
O
M
Z
M
1
Z
Q
2a=L
2b=B
Determine stress in soils mass Determine stress in soils mass
11- -Stress at the center of footing Stress at the center of footing
σσ
vM vM
=4.I =4.I
22
.q = 4.K.q .q = 4.K.q
BL
Q
q =

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ − +
+ +
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
=
1
1 2
1
2
1
1 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
n m n m
n m mn
arctg
n m
n m
n m n m
n m mn
I
π
Z
B
m
2
=
Z
L
n
2
=
a
Z
= ξ
42
Determine stress in soils mass Determine stress in soils mass
22- -Stress at the corner of footing Stress at the corner of footing
σσ
vM1 vM1
=I =I
22
.q = K.q .q = K.q
BL
Q
q =

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ − +
+ +
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ +
=
1
1 2
1
2
1
1 2
4
1
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
n m n m
n m mn
arctg
n m
n m
n m n m
n m mn
I
π
Z
B
m =
Z
L
n =
a
Z
2
= ξ
Determine stress in soil mass Determine stress in soil mass
by using table by using table
b/a

K


0

0.1

0.2

1/3

0.4

0.5

2/3

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

5

10


0
0.000 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250
0.2 0.000 0.137 0.204 0.234 0.240 0.244 0.247 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249 0.249
0.4 0.000 0.076 0.136 0.187 0.202 0.218 0.231 0.240 0.243 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244 0.244
0.5 0.000 0.061 0.113 0.164 0.181 0.200 0.218 0.232 0.238 0.239 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240 0.240
0.6 0.000 0.051 0.096 0.143 0.161 0.182 0.204 0.223 0.231 0.233 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234 0.234
0.8 0.000 0.037 0.071 0.111 0.127 0.148 0.173 0.200 0.214 0.218 0.219 0.220 0.220 0.220 0.220
1 0.000 0.028 0.055 0.087 0.101 0.120 0.145 0.175 0.194 0.200 0.202 0.203 0.204 0.205 0.205
1.2 0.000 0.022 0.043 0.069 0.081 0.098 0.121 0.152 0.173 0.182 0.185 0.187 0.189 0.189 0.189
1.4 0.000 0.018 0.035 0.056 0.066 0.080 0.101 0.131 0.154 0.164 0.169 0.171 0.174 0.174 0.174
1.5 0.000 0.016 0.031 0.051 0.060 0.073 0.092 0.121 0.145 0.156 0.161 0.164 0.166 0.167 0.167
1.6 0.000 0.014 0.028 0.046 0.055 0.067 0.085 0.112 0.136 0.148 0.154 0.157 0.160 0.160 0.160
1.8 0.000 0.012 0.024 0.039 0.046 0.056 0.072 0.097 0.121 0.133 0.140 0.143 0.147 0.148 0.148
2 0.000 0.010 0.020 0.033 0.039 0.048 0.061 0.084 0.107 0.120 0.127 0.131 0.136 0.137 0.137
2.5 0.000 0.007 0.013 0.022 0.027 0.033 0.043 0.060 0.080 0.093 0.101 0.106 0.113 0.115 0.115
3 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.016 0.019 0.024 0.031 0.045 0.061 0.073 0.081 0.087 0.096 0.099 0.099
4 0.000 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.011 0.014 0.019 0.027 0.038 0.048 0.055 0.060 0.071 0.076 0.076
5 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.007 0.009 0.012 0.018 0.026 0.033 0.039 0.043 0.055 0.061 0.062
10 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.009 0.011 0.013 0.020 0.028 0.032
15 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.010 0.016 0.021
20 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.010 0.016






ξ
50 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.002 0.006

43
Consolidation Consolidation
Settlement of soils Settlement of soils
∆hi
S
Ho
S
ho
Before loading
After loading
44
Consolidation curve Consolidation curve
e
Logσ
σ’
p
σ
1
σ
2
σ
3
σ
4
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
Determination parameter of Determination parameter of
consolidation consolidation
Natural void ratio Natural void ratio
Void ratio after consolidation Void ratio after consolidation
Swell index Swell index
Compression index Compression index
0
0 0
H
H h
e

=
0
0 0
H
h H h
e
i
i
∆ − −
=
1 2
2 1
log log σ σ −

=
e e
C
s
3 4
4 3
log log σ σ −

=
e e
C
c
45
Determination parameter of Determination parameter of
consolidation consolidation
Modulus of elasticity Modulus of elasticity
ee and and σ σσ σσ σσ σ located between 100 Kpa to 200KPa located between 100 Kpa to 200KPa
Compression index Compression index
Swell index Swell index
σ β ∆
∆ −
+
=
e
e
m E
k s
0
1
.
Types of soil
.·..·.·. m
k
.····..·«..·...··. e
o
0.45 0.55 0.65 0.75 0.85 0.95 1.05
Sandy silt
Silt
Clay
4.00
5.00
-
4.00
5.00
-
3.50
4.50
6.00
3.00
4.00
6.00
2.00
3.00
5.50
-
2.50
5.00
-
2.00
4.50
46
Soil type ·....
µ
β
Sand ·.·. .···.·.
0.30 0.74
Silt .··...
0.35 0.62
Clay ...
0.42 0.40

Elastic parameter of various soils Elastic parameter of various soils
Type of soils Type of soils Modulus of Modulus of
elasticity Es(Mpa) elasticity Es(Mpa)
Poisson’s ratio Poisson’s ratio µµ
s s
Loose sand Loose sand 10 10- -25 25 0.20 0.20- -0.40 0.40
Medium dense Medium dense
sand sand
15 15- -30 30 0.25 0.25- -0.40 0.40
Dense sand Dense sand 35 35- -55 55 0.30 0.30- -0.45 0.45
Silty sand Silty sand 10 10- -20 20 0.20 0.20- -0.40 0.40
Sand and gravel Sand and gravel 70 70- -170 170 0.15 0.15- -0.35 0.35
Soft clay Soft clay 44- -20 20
0.20 0.20- -0.50 0.50
Medium stiff clay Medium stiff clay 20 20- -40 40
Stiff clay Stiff clay 40 40- -100 100
47
Coefficient of consolidation Coefficient of consolidation
Log t
∆ ∆∆ ∆h
t
1
t
1
/4
t 100
δ100
δ0
δ50
t 50 1min
Determination coefficient of consolidation Determination coefficient of consolidation
Coefficient of consolidation from Casagrande Coefficient of consolidation from Casagrande
method C method C
v v
[m [m
22
/s] /s]
hh
00
- - initial thickness of sample initial thickness of sample
Permeability coefficient Permeability coefficient
Coefficient of compressibility Coefficient of compressibility
Coefficient of volume change Coefficient of volume change
50
2
197 . 0
t
H
C
v
=
2
50 0
δ −
=
h
H
e
a C
K
w v v
+
=
1
. . γ
σ ∆

− =
e
a
v
0
1 e
a
m
v
v
+
=
48
Typical values of coefficient Typical values of coefficient
of consolidation C of consolidation C
vv
[cm [cm
22
/s] /s]
Liquid limit Liquid limit Lower limit of Lower limit of
recompression recompression
Undisturbed Undisturbed
virgin virgin
compression compression
Upper limit Upper limit
remolded remolded
30 30 3.5*10 3.5*10
- -22
5*10 5*10
- -33
1.2*10 1.2*10
- -33
60 60 3.5*10 3.5*10
- -33
1*10 1*10
- -33
3*10 3*10
- -44
100 100 4*10 4*10
- -44
2*10 2*10
- -44
1*10 1*10
- -44
Source U.S Navy 1962
In situ test In situ test
Static cone penetration test Static cone penetration test
Dynamic cone penetration test DCP Dynamic cone penetration test DCP
Standard penetration test Standard penetration test
Shear vane test Shear vane test
Pocked penetration test Pocked penetration test
49
Static cone penetration test Static cone penetration test
K
c
N
q
Cu
0
σ −
=

|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ =
0
'
log 38 . 0 1 . 0
σ
φ
c
q
Arctg
E=2.q
c
q
c
:cone resistance
Nk=20
Dynamic cone penetration test Dynamic cone penetration test
A
H M
M M e
M
q
d
.
.
) ' .( +
=
q
d
:cone resistance
M:weight of hammer
M’:weight of rods
A:cone area
H:height hammer falling
e:penetration for one blow
50
Standard penetration test Standard penetration test
Index SPT Index SPT
N value is amount of blows for penetration split spoon sampler
in soils 30 cm
N=N
1
+N
2
N
cor
= C
N
.N
field
C
N
= 0.77log
D .
2000
γ
Peck1974
0
'
1
78 . 9
σ
=
N
C Liao & Whihman 1986
0
' 01 . 0 1
2
σ +
=
N
C Skempton1986
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
6 . 95
'
log 25 . 1 1
0
σ
N
C Seed 1975
For fine sand or silt saturated with N >15
N
cor
=15+0.5 (N
field
-15)
51
Relationship of SPT and properties Relationship of SPT and properties
mechanics of soils mechanics of soils
20 20 + = N φ Hatanaka & Uchida 1996
2
00054 . 0 3 . 0 1 . 27 N N − + = φ Wolff 1989
15 18 + = N φ For road and Bridges design ····.«.··«
27 36 . 0 + = N φ For building design ··· .·.··
20 45 . 0 + = N φ in general ·····....·
E (KPa) = 766N For sand saturated ····.·..·.·
E (KPa) = 500(N+15) For dense sand ··· ·.·.«·
E (KPa) = 2600N For dense sand ··· ·.·.«·
E (KPa) = 600(N+6) For Gravelly sand (N<15) ··· ·.·.···.·.
E (KPa) = 600(N+6) +2000 For Gravelly sand (N>15) ··· ·.·.···.·.
E (KPa) = 320(N+15) For Clayey Sand ··· ·.·. .··...
E (KPa) = 300(N+6) For Silt,sandy silt,clayey silt ··· ..···.
Relationship of SPT and properties Relationship of SPT and properties
mechanics of soils mechanics of soils
Undrained cohesion Cu=K.N Stroud(1974) Undrained cohesion Cu=K.N Stroud(1974)
3.5KPa <K <6KPa in general we take K=4.4KPa 3.5KPa <K <6KPa in general we take K=4.4KPa
Cu=29.N Cu=29.N
0.72 0.72
Hara et al(1971) Hara et al(1971)
52
Soils type N
blows
D
R
%
φ
degree
γ
KN/m
3
Very loose 0 →4 0 →15 < 28 11 →16
Loose 4 →10 15 →35 28 →30 14 →18
Medium
dense
10 →30 35 →65 30 →36 17 →20
Dense
30 →50 65 →85 36 →41 17 →22
Very dense > 50 85 →100 > 41 20 →23
Soils type N
q
u
KPa
Very soft < 2 < 25
Soft 2 →4 25 →50
Medium 4 →8 50 →100
Stiff 8 →15 100 →200
Very stiff 15 →30 200 →400
Hard > 30 > 400
53
Thank you for your Thank you for your
attention attention
Mr. Sieng PEOU Mr. Sieng PEOU
Master science of Master science of
geotechnical geotechnical
engineering engineering

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