You are on page 1of 9

Constructivist learning perspectives

in the online public relations classroom.
Ann Peru Knabe
University of Wisconsin - Whitewater

still need to consider principles of learning and
Many researchers and educators use teaching in an online environment. The way a
constructivist theory to analyse what works well teacher chooses to design and facilitate an online
in online classrooms. Past research suggests class can greatly affect what students learn.
successful online teaching strategies involve Learning theory, therefore, may play a pivotal
community learning, shared interactions, and role in online course development and outcomes.
meaningful learning experiences. In this study, Constructivism is one of the learning theories
educators who taught public relations online, in frequently embraced by online course developers
either graduate or undergraduate settings, were and teachers in several academic fields.
interviewed using in-depth key informant Currently, literature examining the learning
surveys. Most interviewees reported successful theory behind online public relations course
integration of community learning, shared development and instruction is limited. Although
interactions, peer activities, real-world problem the number of public relations faculty members
analysis, and other activities that reflect who teach online may be less than in other fields,
constructivist learning theory. The majority of there is still a need to examine what strategies
online PR educators described themselves as work best in the online classroom.
‘guides on the side’ or people who facilitate The purpose of the interviews discussed in
learning, such as coaches. None fell into the this paper was to explore current teaching
‘sage on the stage’ category. The findings of this practices in online public relations courses and
study suggest that constructivist learning theory identify successful constructivist learning
is a successful framework for online public principles used within these courses. This is
relations curriculum design. important to the field of public relations teaching,
as the number of online courses will likely
Introduction: An Explosion of Online increase in years to come, and the impact of what
Courses students learn and retain will continue to be
critical to their success.
Many higher education institutions tout
technological capabilities in recruiting materials Applying Constructivist Learning Theory
to lure students to their universities and colleges. to Online Courses
As a result, interactive technologies such as
email, websites, and online discussion forums are Constructivism is one of the most frequently
frequently encouraged in curriculum cited theoretical frameworks applied to online
development. Currently about 75% of colleges course development and teaching.
and universities in the United States have online Constructivism is a learning theory that
courses, and the number “is expected to reach emphasises the student’s construction of reality
90% by 2004” (Rudestam & Schoenholtz-Read, (Driscoll, 2000). Under a constructivist
2002, p. 8). The number of institutions with framework, students are not perceived as vessels
‘web-assisted’ courses (classes supported with, waiting for information to be dumped inside their
but not solely based on, communication and minds. Instead, they are thought to be engaged
coursework completed over the Internet) is even individuals who seek understanding of the world
higher. around them, largely through active learning and
Despite the great pressure to generate online discovery. Constructivists assert that knowledge
courses quickly, course designers and educators is embedded in activity: not professorial lectures

Knabe, A. P. (2004). Constructivist learning perspectives in online public relations 1
classrooms. PRism 2. Available at:

and concepts in a rich exchange students’ experiences as they learn in complex of information. Authentic learning in an online context allows These constructivist recommendations can be instructors to engage guest speakers or experts easily applied to the online classroom. 8). the unique structural courses also allow students to work on projects characteristics of the Internet maximise learning beyond the confines of a traditional campus opportunities that can occur within the setting (Jonassen. 118) when they analysed powerful learning. shared experiences. For constructivist framework. Moallem (2001) examined a traditional ‘virtual’ framework and nonlinear format of course.’ that was moved to an online well with constructivist approaches to learning environment. the integration of social electronic learning environments as a suitable negotiation into the classroom. students with a real-world problem in the form of are the key to developing successful courses for a case. • Encourage ownership in learning Students immersed in authentic learning can • Nurture self-awareness of the knowledge manipulate objects or environments. 1999). realistic and an entire class. McManus. the unique 2 . Jonassen. develop constructivist-based courses that emphasise collaboration and cooperation among Social Negotiation students. relevant environments ‘Authentic learning’ is also an important • Provide for social negotiation as an integral consideration in the first goal of constructivism. for authentic learning. thus allowing more opportunities and teaching (Koyangi. Although learning communities existed Internet provides a format for a complex. ideas. part of learning In an online course. also fits well in an framework for diverse. Learning Environment Online learning communities are united by common goals. constructivist design in technological environments. ‘Instructional Design and Classroom presenting complex information naturally work Evaluation. 382) affecting what and how they learn. authentic learning refers to • Support multiple perspectives and the use of students engaged in meaningful tasks. Online online environment. & Wilson. In an from the field in meaningful discussions. not just multiple modes of representation hitting a space bar to progress to another screen. the support. Kirschner (2001) insists that university education “must change” to help maximise Driscoll’s second constructivist graduates’ success in society (p. post-secondary extending learning and understanding far beyond education is at stake if universities do not the confines of traditional lecture formats. coupled with constructivist design. Students can explore hyper-linked assert that ‘truth’ or knowledge is based on websites. 1996). and these for teachers: visual models can be simultaneously shared with • Embed learning in complex. and mutual As suggested in Driscoll’s first goal. and proposes recommendation. Peck and Wilson of learners and scholars (not bound by distance) (1999) described these social opportunities as where the tenets of constructivism are applied to “cooperative learning” and “learning course design and development to create communities” (p. 2003. realistic. According to Moallem’s Some researchers suggest that online account of the online class. boundaries. unlimited by geographical environments (Koyangi. Its hypermedia example. and relevant learning environment Proponents of this ‘student-centred’ perspective (2000). long before the Internet.or rudimentary memorisation of facts. each lesson provided environments. directly construction process (p. Kirschner (2001) and were encouraged to visualise the activity. integrated communities online context. argues that the future of higher. Peck. Learners also constructed mental images the next generation of students. 2003). The Internet also lends itself to Driscoll (2000) categorised constructivist display of visual models that deepen students’ learning conditions into five recommendations understanding of complex concepts.

and empowerment in the into first-person experience. and healthy applicable to online courses: discourse. 2001). Their findings indicated that successful ‘personal experience’ can be leveraged into online learning was dependent on the interaction powerful and effective online learning tools. The sharing of perspectives can be both team activities and peer assessments. Jonassen et al. observation of online interactions. versions and authentic. The researchers collected qualitative data from learning journal entries. Internet. their personal conceptions with expert participants’ sense of belonging. 40). with successful results in both formats. the integration of multiple negotiation. modes of perspective and multiple modes of peer projects. class discussions have taken place curricula. entire group of online learners (Ip & Naidu. rule-based linked to the unique structural characteristics of simulations and case studies. students have all been successful in promoting discussion and equal opportunities to ‘be heard’. 2001). different perspectives into the online classroom. regardless of collaboration in online classrooms. and other online technologies have presentation. bulletin boards. all factors which could be deliberately (a) utilisation of first-person experiences. (1999) suggest that problem learning. Oliver gave the example of courses in both the social community of practice a popular constructivist activity in which students and individual minds of students. communication formats can be opinions from ‘real-world’ experts. personal Oliver (2000) identified strategies to integrate interviews. According to these The authors suggest that these design tools advocates of constructivism. chat rooms. 121). computer- “consider an idea and formulate an answer” supported. also maximise Sorg and McElhinney (2000). Oliver argued that the Internet empowerment in online classes. as they allow students new freedom. enculturation into the practices of social society” Ip and Naidu (2001) offered several ways that (p. higher levels of enhance the transfer of third-person experience participation. There was no required face-to-face Multiple Perspectives interaction. Collaboration their individual personality attributes and oral has also been encouraged in online courses. Their findings indicated citing the value of mental model development by synchronous computer conferences and students and peers and suggesting students link discussions can increase meaningful learning. In an online class. in social skills. and time. The researchers are required to pair online with experts in the argue that: “learning should be a process of field as the students work on real-world inquiry active individual construction and a process of projects. such as ‘webinars’ and ‘blogs’. traditional classrooms are confined by space. They deemed the following types of ‘stories’ respect for other points of view. thus affecting an conversation process. 3 . New Internet tools. In maximised with guest speaker perspectives and addition.characteristics of the web offer new ways to Online courses also lend themselves to a third develop community learning through social goal of constructivism. of diverse perspectives. 54). with mutual dependency. in many cases without requiring the synchronously and asynchronously over the experts to leave their office. online conversations can be both effective and powerful. distributed the Internet. online course that used a synchronous format for discussions. The value of online discussions has also been (c) web-based role plays. collaborative learning (p. before responding (p. Email. offers greater opportunity for these pedagogical Other researchers focus on the value of tools than traditional classrooms because learning in a social setting over the Internet. aspects that structured to reflect the design of the specific can be fairly easily integrated into online course online course. Hung and Nichani (2001) suggest framing online resources. original versions). fostered to improve learning quality in an online (b) third-person experiences (specially edited course (Hung & Nichani. analysed an the exchange of multiple perspectives and ideas. and reflective journals. and conceptions. online discussions offer students more time to (d) critical-incident-based.

the instructor changed the format based questions about online teaching. all of the participants reported Constructivism in an online setting shifts the successful online teaching experiences. The key informant surveys took place via conscious learning can manifest itself in many email. but none of the faculty members function as ‘a sage on a stage’. Ownership in Learning and Self Awareness Because the number of public relations in Knowledge Construction instructors who teach online is relatively small. teachers often their responses. Students’ personal understanding of concepts deem to be ‘true’. researcher created questionnaires so that online instructors could work closely with their students Results in developing course material that would be beneficial to students and meet their learning Despite using different approaches in teaching goals. occurring in online public relations courses. In a of constructivism could be identified in many of traditional classroom setting. These processes are further enhanced by virtual context. “semantic networks” and “concept maps” (p. In the constructivist tradition. Mental models. the survey also contained open-ended students. presentation software. This allows for layers of negotiation institution and the other five at public between the learner and teacher (Hannafin & institutions. In addition to closed-ended feedback. and take linked media. when online student demographic and online course information debates initially offered little value to the questions. This type of learning strategy goes beyond This study used six key informant surveys. online classes. public relations online with at least 85% of the while sharing it with others in a rich format. 4 . Jonassen et al. students. active learning by ranged from one semester to eight years. based on student participation. After verifying their role as online public different ways. 2002). teaching occurring in a computer-mediated. constructivists encourage ownership in teaching community. memorisation. 1999). this can also be spatially displayed in an online paradigm shifts. facilitating learning as it student’s mind. can be displayed in digital takes place among the students themselves. and other hyper. and online teachers act as a course. as visualised in a ‘guide on the side’. In a constructivist setting. (1999) capture this an active role in monitoring their learning and notion in their discussion of the usefulness of reflecting on their growth. Their online teaching experience Hill. 163) to allow students to organise their ideas Method spatially and convey them to other students in the class. imparting their appeared to base their entire course on perspectives and teaching the class what they constructivist teaching tools. the common themes in the responses. relations instructors. The researcher looked for learning. learning goals. multi-layered websites. One taught at a private process. resulting in a depth queries that further probed various successful learning forum. desktop publishing Learners are routinely responsible for expressing formats. Communication of goals and self. Six of the 12 referrals learning and self-awareness in the learning agreed to participate. For example. followed by in- on input from the students. offering students the opportunity interviewing faculty members who had taught to analyse new information and make sense of it. The goal was to identify whether collaboration with other students on joint concept constructivist approaches to teaching were mapping (Jonassen et al. and conscious. Lusnia (1999) pedagogical issues associated with researched negotiation of student goals in online constructivism. and if so in what forms. the researcher used snowball sampling from As articulated in Driscoll’s recommendations referrals in the United States public relations (2000). Elements role and responsibility of teachers. are more self-directed. the interviewees received a Matuga (2001) describes an online class that query and consent letter requesting their changed throughout the course.

In line with the successful online students. and were “serious about advancing their opportunities offered in the online public careers”. chat rooms.e. interviewees need for motivated. adult student. Public Relations group activities. Public Relations online meetings. citing a of hypermedia for learning. In the survey. the successful online emerged in the surveys was the value of learning learner is a “Focused. All of 5 . independent learners who are maximised learning opportunities by using self-starters and take ownership in learning. the survey constructivist perspective of maximising the use participants all expressed similar views. These students were described as relations classroom useful. level (i. with an emphasis on group work (as Several respondents noted that many opposed to students demonstrating personal successful online public relations students had a competence on an individual basis). (Public Relations Theory. courses). A few had several meetings (hybrid work. engaged students who assess their own learning Online teaching methodologies differed as they proceed). of students for an online class. format requires a synchronous approach”. The number of students in each class attributes of successful online students that are ranged from four to 20. As explained by Jonassen et accommodate their family and work schedules. “In general. This constructivist-based courses. distributed Programmes and Production. and Public Relations collaboration with other students. who juggled indicated success with various teaching jobs and family. Respondents people with very little free time. active. real-time (synchronous) Principles and Issues. multi-user environments that engage Only one educator used ‘guest speakers’ to learners in high-level conversations are useful for add additional depth to the online class. The most common constructivist theme that one instructor stated. When asked to describe depending on the course. but the bulk of learning took place over Many of the instructors described the Internet. As technological tools unique to the Internet. Others where students learned not only from the teacher reported all communication as asynchronous. (1999). without any required ‘virtual’ meeting times. represents authentic learning while connecting participants expressed differing opinions as to students to the ‘real world’. Most of the instructors did not activities are constructivist in nature when they require any face-to-face meetings as part of their focus more on group work than individualised curriculum. One client. Organisational problem learning. Interviewees reported particularly useful in online learning. shared whiteboard. and other tools involving Public Relations. Introduction to Public Relations and Other opportunities for learning in an online Public Relations Writing) and postgraduate level social context included case studies.” al. I believe the students collaboration in a social context. The courses themselves were as diverse as the They cited an asynchronous format as approaches to teaching. All of these Management). with most of the also closely linked to successful constructivist participants reporting 10–15 as an ideal number student characteristics (conscious. Several taught students work together on real-world problems or online courses that included some (or all) situations that benefited an outside group or synchronous communication activities. yet enjoyed the flexibility of methodologies that encouraged peer online courses. in a social setting. Roblyer (2003) describes this This type of learning isn’t for the immature constructivist tenet as collaboration between person which most 18–21 year olds are!” students. Most of the clear focus on the future. All but one interviewee integrated respondent went as far as to say: “a seminar collaborative learning efforts into the classroom. allowing successful online classes at the undergraduate more flexibility for adult students. Another indication of whether synchronous or asynchronous formats authentic learning was one instructor who had were the best way to teach online. debates. who have successful experiences … are career- Online discussions and conversations proved oriented students who work full-time and take to be a popular way to engage students in online courses at night and on weekends to reflective thought. motivated. were professionally interviewees found the community learning oriented. but also from one another.

did not use online One educator from New York cited geographical discussions. zones. Most of the survey participants said respondent differentiated chat rooms from group projects and knowing other students from threaded discussions. communicate with students. classroom. Several instructors multiple perspectives in the online setting. attended a traditional masters program. a notion that electronic environments will increase the constructivists are likely to agree with since richness of student diversity.” Other online instructors used unique An educator from Colorado said their pedagogical tools. share personal experiences in the online some as frequently as several times a day. using chat rooms as an previous courses also fostered a community of optional communication tool. Since students students from Vietnam. some also used All of the respondents encouraged students to phone. some falling into traditional undergraduate class included students from teaching methodologies and others falling into remote areas of Colorado. who taught a ‘self-paced’ their class of working professionals could meet. Several exams fall into the category of traditional interviewees said they taught across several time learning methods. One participant other states including Arizona and Texas. All used real-life scenarios or case studies to but one instructor used chat rooms or threaded generate thoughtful online discussions among discussion to facilitate exchange of ideas. and online learning was the only way that One interviewee. online guest speakers. which reflect traditional learning evident from the faculty responses. All stated that team learning and collaborative group exercises they were flexible. One 6 . as opposed to constructivism. problem-based of the students and stand back and watch the fun. group or team activities. as playing a facilitator role of ‘guide on the side’ Half of the courses made extensive use of as opposed to a ‘sage on a stage’. learning scenarios. team interjecting more questions to keep the dialogue projects. a finding that would support study. Across all the respondents. reported using streaming video reels available Another said online courses allowed more people from book publishers and audio reviews of each access to higher education. This allowed sharing of constructivist perspective. This participant also used a class news student is a 40-year-old female with a couple of page and web resources page. Another instructor kids … she has very little free time. Most responded to email within 48 hours. themselves as “course manager and coach”. Individual The use of multiple perspectives was also activities. One classmates. and online activities being used that could be another said they were a combination of guide interpreted as constructivist tools included online and sage: “I tend to toss the hot rock into the laps debates. or other diversity: “It [online learning] absolutely teaching methodologies that involved increases the diversity of students … I have collaboration with other students. contribution to discussions as part of the class Most of the interviewees described themselves grade. and other group activities in which going. graduate level online course. “Our average terms). but requiring shared learning.the instructors used case studies in their teaching. which was likely to have made and included hyperlinks to additional Internet learning more meaningful and active from a sites and resources. group activities did not mid-career professionals who might have not fit neatly with this curriculum design. One participant said exams did not work Kirschner’s (2001) assertion that integrated well in an online context. plus students from constructivist approaches. Cayman Islands and could sign up at different times and stretch the California … it allows for an excellent mix of course over 18 months. online presentations.” contended that two-way audio was a critical tool All of the instructors used email to in online teaching. Most of the methods. particularly those week’s chapters/lecture (with an outline of key with families or time constraints. included instructors said online public relations classes student essays or online reaction pieces and increased opportunities for diversity in the optional (non-graded) online quizzes for self. classroom. One person described as pedagogical tools.” students learned from each other.

each other. while in reality. knowledge. facilitator type approach as most relations campaign classes and case studies suitable for teaching in the online environment. and alter their classes] tend to be more. perspectives and fostering synergy of discussion pedagogical tools. In contrast. students to participate when they can fit it in their settings for rich learning experiences. saying asynchronous formats allow diverse construction’ of knowledge or virtual group. comments from the respondents who favoured asynchronous learning interviewees indicate a successful online class used the same rationale in defending their choice. fell into both constructivist and class’ at different times of day. A to work in the online classroom. may not necessarily depend on ‘self. which they perceived as among a disparate group of people who ‘come to successful. however. Interestingly. The constructivist oriented. “Most educators who wish to teach online may want to undergraduates see the online courses as an easy consider their own teaching styles when path to a grade. and group learning experiences as critical perhaps from the perspective of the online components of the online learning process. traditional teaching strategies. they [the online developing online curricula. On learner. immediate feedback”. asynchronous and email was the easiest and most practical way to synchronous communication methods both seem maintain communication with students. but most majority of the participants also said they instructors preferred one format over the other. since it was designed to be self-paced for the students as they generate their own students. Some educators were more outside the virtual classroom.” Another respondent contended that online learning experience for students that postgraduate students who worked full-time and 7 . one relations classes online said undergraduate instructor said.” the Internet said they thought online formats The findings suggest public relations were best suited for postgraduate courses. and links to other online participants who taught postgraduate classes over resources). technology supports constructivist approaches in fostering a synergy of discussion. Only a few The importance of community learning and embraced the opportunity to collaborate directly group activities had proponents on each end of with real communities and real-world problems the spectrum. examples. All of the respondents identified Respondents also expressed different opinions themselves more with the ‘guide on the side’ on what courses are best suited for online approach to teaching than with the ‘sage on the formats. All of the participants said According to the respondents. involving groups. In the spirit of constructivism. several journals. allowing for a rich exchange of The participants in this study were divided. developing online courses. the other hand. One respondent did not include This approach to teaching falls into the any group activities or discussion at all in their constructivist framework that places emphasis on course. Some of the respondents claimed Discussion synchronous online meetings were the best form of discussion because all of the students could Whereas the existing literature and current share thoughts in one forum at the same time. Those who taught undergraduate public stage’. approach (if necessary) to better foster a rich demanding. “I believe students should courses were best fitted for the Internet because experience the content on self-discovery based postgraduate courses “required in-person on the parameters I provide them.instructor said that “students appreciate encourages self-discovery and reflection. the online environment). rather than less. I also give seminars” (something they viewed as difficult in them helpful supplemental resources (books. arguing for team projects differences in opinion warrant further research. encouraged email between the students Both formats can be categorised as constructivist themselves as part of the community learning in nature if they focus on students learning from process. one instructor specifically stated All of the public relations educators reported a online courses were not well suited for public more relaxed. busy lives.

At first reading. a non-random sampling in a rich learning environment. V. Public relations educators The key limitations of this exploratory study can be reasonably sure about one thing: the world are the relatively small number of participants of online learning encourages a diverse mix of and snowball sampling method used to recruit students from different geographic. The varied opinions of respondents and their approaches to teaching suggest a rich area for Limitations and Future Research further exploration in the ‘virtual’ public relations classroom. Because of this. and them. online learning research the best ways to foster learning by might not be the answer for all students. or to the classroom actively reflect on their personal characteristics of students themselves (level in learning and assess their learning goals school. Epistemology research in identifying what pedagogical and the design of learning environments. is ultimately up to each probed the perceptions of public relations individual educator. V. best suited for online delivery. Driscoll. Evolving in education and learning theory are not expectations. R. Needham Heights. both student opportunities and course potential.). throughout the process. to maximise self-discipline. tapping into the unique social and collaborative Successful learning under a constructivist opportunities offered in an online environment. & Hill. while offering American public relations educators who teach multiple opportunities for collaborative projects online is relatively small. Psychology of learning for current online successes may result from a instruction. A. teaching tools. theories when they develop online courses. M. ‘virtual classroom’. such as syllabi. it did not directly ask survey participants to identify the learning theories they References use as a pedagogical base in developing curricula. Consistent with existing individual student characteristics. (2002). and teacher literature on other online courses.. & Van Eck. In R. and degree of self-discipline). relations student. Dempsey prerequisites to teach public relations at the (Eds. and did not examine their actual Dempsey. Jonassen et al. motivation. Reiser & J. Because courses Instructional design on-line. (2002). However. P. This study suggests the need for more Hannafin. M. however. ethnic. Upper Saddle River. MA: Allyn & combination of experimentation and ‘luck’. learning styles. as students are often required to concerning which public relations courses are take ownership of their learning. In addition. R. A. 230). How these new of six respondents is still not generalisable to a technological tools are actually used in an online larger population. In R. In other words. (2000). This study raises additional questions cognition skills. educators. NJ: Merrill relations instructors never consider learning Prentice Hall. In spite of the fact that the number of professional backgrounds.balanced families were able to participate more strategies and learning theories work best in the fully in an online class. it is possible that many public and technology. N. Bacon. In a constructivist context. The key informant (1999) describe a culture that fosters meta.. instructors said preferences all work together in determining success in an online class requires motivation and online course outcomes. perspective would also require personal meta. J. 8 . and strategies (both successful and unsuccessful) Additional research will help determine whether involved in learning” (p. while this study course. J. public skills are required for a meaningful learning relations educators may want to continue to experience. J. the findings The respondents were unanimous when asked appear to indicate that there is no single or clear what it takes to be a successful online public approach to teaching online. these issues are related to actual course content students who use meta-cognition in the online and related tasks and objectives. Trends and issues in instructional design college level. survey respondents were divided on whether cognition as a learning environment that online learning is more appropriate for “promotes frequent discussion of the processes undergraduate or postgraduate students.

T. Retrieved January 4. Upper issues in instructional design and technology.html Lusnia. J. Information Center [ERIC]. describing student experiences of learning in a (1999). Learning with technology: A context of synchronous computer-mediated constructivist perspective. Available from the U. Teaching teachers long-distance: A paradigm-shift for the teacher-planner in Mexico. Technology. A.. Minneapolis. B. 2(1). Peck. Upper Saddle River. a. 40(6). Electronic pedagogical practice: The art and science of teaching and learning Educational Technology & Society. K. M. In R. K. A history of instructional design and technology.. M. 2004 from http://www.). (2003). & Nichani. Retrieved January 4. M. Retrieved January 4. & Wilson.. Educational Thousand Oaks. Matuga. Using integrated electronic Department of Education.ils. Upper Saddle River. (2000). (2001). 5–17. Retrieved January 4. MN. and social levels of cognition. (1999). CA: Sage Publications. Saddle River. (2000).). G. Educational Technology & Society. & Naidu. A case study Jonassen. A. Sorg. J.html Oliver. (2002). Methods for developing constructivist learning on the web. Trends and instructional design and technology. 4(3).unc. 41(2). M. (2001). 2004 from http://ifets. Technology.html Moallem. (2002). Trends and issues in 9 . 2004 from http://ifets. Reiser & J. Reiser & J. A. Applying constructivist and objectivist learning theories in the design of a web-based course: Implications for practice. Experienced-based higher education and corporate training. Delivering instruction on the world wide web. NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Kirschner. Handbook of online learning: Innovations in Ip. Reiser. Paper presented at the International Conference on Language Teacher Education. V. document #IR 020 Research Dialogue in Learning and Instruction. (1996). P. K.svsu. Constructivism technology into teaching. pedagogical designs for e-learning. 4(3). (2001). H. S. Roblyer.S.html McManus. 41(5). & Schoenholtz-Read. Dempsey (Eds.. and e-learning: Balancing between the individual NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Educational 1–10. communication in a distance learning NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Putting courses online: Theory and practice. D. J. & McElhinney. Educational Resources environments for collaborative teaching/learning. A. L.. M. E. V Dempsey (Eds. 53– m. (2003). environment. (2001). Koyangi. R. J. NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. K. Educational Rudestam. Upper Saddle River. D. Integrating educational Hung. (2001). 2004 from http://www. 40–44.