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ALUMINIUM

Aluminium occurs in abundance on the surface of earth . It is
available in various forms such as oxides , sulphates , silicates
,phosphates etc but is commercially produced mainly from
bauxite(Al2O3) which is hydrated oxide of aluminium
Aluminum is a lightweight, silvery metal. The atomic weight of
aluminum is 26.9815; the element melts at 660° C (1220° Henri
Sainte-Claire Deville, in France, obtained. In contact with air,
aluminum rapidly becomes covered with a tough, transparent layer
of aluminum oxide that resists further corrosive action. For this
reason, materials made of aluminum do not tarnish or rust.

Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, first isolated aluminum
in 1825, using a chemical process involving potassium amalgam.
Between 1827 and 1845, Friedrich Wöhler, a German chemist,
improved Oersted's process by using metallic potassium. He was
the first to measure the specific gravity of aluminum and show its
lightness.

MANUFACTURING:
The aluminium is extracted from bauxite ores as follows :
 Bauxite is first ground and then purified
 It is then dissolved in fused cryolite which is a double
fluoride of aluminium and sodium AlF3 , 3NaF
 This solution is then taken to an electric furnace and the
aluminium is separated out by electrolysis .

REASONS FOR BEING USED AS A BUILDING MATERIAL:  Air tightness : A well designed aluminium door .PROPERTIES :  It is a very good conductor of heat and electricity.  Its specific gravity is about 2.  It is a non magnetic substance . window . The aluminium is highly suitable for sub zero .  It readily dissolves in hydrochloric acid .  Cryogenics : the science dealing with the effects of very low temperatures on the properties of matter is known as the cryogenics .7 . organic acid or water . it is highly resistant to corrosion . having bright finish which is highly amenable to further finishing as demanded by the application . malleable .  It is rarely attacked by nitric acid .  It is very soft. and ductile .  Appearance : The finished aluminium is generally smooth .  It is light in weight . etc is perfectly airtight and sealed for rain water when closed . this is a very high functional advantage in modern fully air conditioned buildings.  It possesses great toughness and tensile strength .  It is a white silvery metal with bluish tinge and it exhibits bright lusture on a freshly broken surface .

it does not absorb radiant heat and low absorption heat helps in maintaining the surrounding area cool during summer and warm in winter. The aluminium corrugated sheets do not break or crack during or after erection because aluminium is not brittle . extruded. it enjoys a high resale value. the cost of its handling and transport is very low . .  High reflectivity : As aluminium possesses very good reflectivity .  Handling and transport cost : As aluminium is very light . rolled. forged.It can very well withstand humid and hot dry conditions . temperatures. transported and re-erected in different locations.The aluminium alloys can be cast.  High corrosion resistance :aluminium has excellent corrosion resistance and it can resist weathering conditions as well . and welded with relative ease compared to any other metal.  High scrap value: the scrap value of aluminium is very high and as it hardly deteriorates.  Ease in fabrication and assembly: As aluminium is comparatively soft and ductile metal. the fabrication of doors and windows etc can be carried out easily . Any structural steel used at sub zero temperatures will become extremely brittle and give way. An aluminium structure can be easily dismantled .

Forms of aluminium: the aluminium is used in the building industry usually takes one of the following four forms: 1) Casting based 2) Extrusion based 3) Foil and powder based 4) Sheet based . Such a reduction of weight will also help in achieving speed in construction and in the decrease of load on the foundation of a building. the overall weight is considerably reduced. an alumimium building is therefore less affected by external noises as compared to buildings made from other materials.  Maintenance cost: due to high corrosion resistance of aluminium the maintenance cost is negligible and properly treated aluminium sections can withstand both sea coast and industrial atmosphere for more than 25 to 30 years without any maintenance .  Noise control: The aluminium is an excellent reflector of electro-magnetic and sound waves .  High strength to weight ratio: as aluminium possesses very high strength to weight ratio.

The larger aluminium fascia panels and curtain walls can be produced by using interlocking aluminium extrusion iii. Geodesic domes and space grids – a geodesic dome is a vaulted structure of light weight straighten elements that form interlocking polygons iv. Partitions and space dividers . it is sufficiently strong to resist wind loads in accordance with the normal building regulations . North light glazing frames – it provides an easy and quick way to erection and a maintenance free installation vii. Hardware and fittings – the unconventional design of hardware and fittings can be produced in casting process iii. Green houses and roof top gardens v.CASTING BASED: The known applications of this form are as follows: i. Hardware and fittings – Hard ware items like handles curtain rails tower bolts etc can be made vi. Fascia panels and curtain walls – a curtain wall is an external non load bearing wall mainly designed to carry its own weight and at the same time . Security and decorative grills EXTRUSION BASED i. Door and window frames ii. Bluster head –the cast aluminium bluster head add elegance to the interior of building and complicated figures can be developed ii.

Rain water articles – the non corrosive aluminium is a normal choice for the gutter . ridging . Water proofing sheets – the foil based laminates provide a maintenance free barrio for protection of roof against water leakage SHEET BASED i. Ridging and angels of roof – the aluminium is used for all building requirements of corner flashings . Paints – the aluminium powder based paints are useful to grant protection to the buildings against corrosive elements iv. monitor roofs . Cable tray – the aluminum is fast replacing the galvanized iron trays for carrying insulated electric cables in industrial complexes ii. Planer or flat type false ceiling – the use of such type of false ceiling exhibit supreme aesthetic appearance iii.gables –end flashings .FOIL AND POWDER BASED i. spouts etc for the disposal of rain water v. Roofing and siding vi. Decorative laminates ii. Insulative foils – these can be conveniently used for insulating air conditioning ducts iii. Pre fabricated houses – the use of pre fabricated houses can be made for colder and tropical climates it can be sandwiched with poly urethane to form a better material for this type of application iv.

For making aluminium alloys automobile bodies v. Surgical instruments vi. Many gemstones—ruby and . Manufacturing of paint in powder form when thermite (a mixture of powdered iron oxide and aluminum) is heated. It is used in the casting of steel iii. the aluminum rapidly removes the oxygen from the iron.USES OF ALUMINIUM This metal is chiefly used for making:  Parts of aero plane  Cooking utensils  Electric wires  Window frames  Glazing bars  Panels  Balustrades  Bathroom fittings  Structural members i. the heat of the reaction is sufficient to melt the iron. This phenomenon is used in the thermite process for welding iron Anhydrous aluminum chloride is important in the oil and synthetic-chemical industries. Engine parts vii. It is used as reducing agent in the manufacturing of steel ii. Manufacture of electric conductors iv.

pumps rods. Aldural 2.5% Iron…………………………. it acquires hardness .0. it is a substitute for brass. hard.. elastic and malleable yellowish-brown alloy. etc.. 3) Duralumin: it is very important alloy of aluminium. It is very strong.0% Copper…………………. 2) Aluminium bronze: This is in fact copper alloy.…. It consists of 10 to 22 per cent of aluminium and 90 to 78 percent of copper.e.5% Magnesium…………………0.0.5% Silicon………………………0. Aluminium bronze 3..4. Duralumin 4. It possesses the property of age hardening i. for example—consist mainly of crystalline aluminum oxide. It is a corrosion resisting alloy and has many applications for die-casting.0% Manganese………………. ALUMINIUM ALLOYS Following are the important alloys of aluminium: 1. Its composition is as follows: Aluminium…………………94..85.5% It is specific gravity is about 2.sapphire. Y-alloy 1) Aldural: This is also known as the alclade and its is duralumin with a thin coating of pure aluminium the thickness of layer of pure aluminium is about 5% of thickness of core and such o layer prevents corrosion due to salt water...

2. propeller blades. gear boxes. It is used for making piston of engines.1. etc . in surgical and orthopedic implements or gadgets.after 2 to 3 days when quenched in water from 500 C It is quite strong and it has high electric conductance.4.0% nickel…………………………. It is used in aircraft and automobile industries. cylinder heads.. 4)Y-alloy: Following is composition of this alloy: aluminium……………………92. for making electrical cobles.5% This alloy is a good conductor of heat and it possesses high strength at high temperatures.0% magnesium…………………….5% copper………………………….etc.