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TERM PAPER

MANAGEMENT PRACTICE AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR.

TOPIC-CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY-

MS. MARLYN KOUL NEHA TIKOO

ROLL NO.B37

SECTION NO. - RR1904

INDEX

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 INTRODUCTION 3 THE INGREDIENTS OF CONFLICT 4 MANAGING CONFLICT 5 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 6 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES 7 WHAT DO ORGANIZATIONS USE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT FOR? 8 STAGES OF CONFLICT 9 CONFLICT RESOLUTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 1 CONFLICTS BETWEEN RELIANCE 1 EFFECTS OF CONFLICTS 1 SOLUTION TO SOLVE THE CONFLICTS 1 CONCLUSION .

Conflict management is important for the organization to solve issues so that all the employees could come together and work efficiently and effectively for the attainment of the common objective or goal of an organization.Conflict management is solving or sorting out conflicts in an organization. . 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY Executive summary:- The term paper is about conflict management. In an organization Conflicts occur because different people have different point of views and perceptions due to which different people take things or situations differently which results in conflicts. The ways of solving conflicts. the different types of conflicts. the conflict management styles and various other contents of conflict management would be discussed further.

INTRODUCTION .

beliefs. . It encompasses the wide range of conflicts that people experience in organization incompatibility of goals. a source of uncontrolled violence and destruction depending on how they managed. differences over interpretation of facts . They range from the micro level of individual to the macro dimension of international and global concern . disagreement based on behavioural expectations and the like. Conflicts can be a serious problem in an organization. Conflict represents an integral part of human experience and concern both personal and public relationship. Other causes of conflict include trying to negotiate before the timing is right or before needed information is available.They can be a source of positive development and growth or. something that the first party cares about. This definition is purposely broad. values or needs.Definition of Conflict: Conflicts can be define as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negative affect. on the contrary. Conflict is a natural disagreement resulting from individuals or groups that differ in attitudes. It can also originate from past rivalries and personality differences. It can create chaotic conditions that make it nearly impossible for employees to work together. It describes that point in any ongoing activity when an interaction ‘crosses over’ to become interparty conflicts.

terrorism. Be careful not to confuse needs with desires (things we would like. They perceive differences in the severity. Perceptions . Conflict management is the process of identifying and addressing differences that if unmanaged would affect project objectives. feuding. and avoidance. Conflict is not just about simple inaptness.People interpret reality differently. warfare. mediation. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip. . Effective conflict management prevents differences becoming destructive elements in a project. others' perceptions. Conflicts arise when we ignore others' needs. but is often connected to a previous issue. In order resolution for actual conflict to occur. genocide. ridicule. our own needs or the group's needs.CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts.It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances— standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. causes and consequences of problems. law. Misperceptions or differing perceptions may come from: self-perceptions. This also influences how conflict is managed. and tell why the conflict was expressed the way it was. Needs-needs are things that are essential to our well-being. Conflicts can arise when people try to make others change their actions or to gain an unfair advantage. Power . there should be an expression of exclusive patterns.How people define and use power is an important influence on the number and types of conflicts that occur. The contents of conflict. differing perceptions of situations and perceptions of threat. lynching. but are not essential). Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflicts.

it can be healthy when effectively managed. This results in mutual benefits and strengthens the relationship. These steps are: 1. Determine management strategy 3. it can be effectively managed by reaching a consensus that meets both the individual's and society's needs. 1. Conflicts also arise when one party refuses to accept the fact that the other party holds something as a value rather than a preference. Other conflicts occur when feelings and emotions differ over a particular issue. Managing Conflict There are five steps to managing conflict.Values are beliefs or principles we consider to be very important. Healthy conflict can lead to. Negotiation 5. Advantages of Conflict- Conflict is not always negative. In fact. Feelings and emotions . Growth and Innovation 2. Analyze the conflict 2. Serious conflicts arise when people hold incompatible values or when values are not clear. Pre-negotiation 4. Conflicts can also occur because people ignore their own or others' feelings and emotions. The goal is for all to "win" by having at least some of their needs met.Values .New ways of thinking 3. Post-negotiation . Additional management options If the conflict is understood.Many people let their feelings and emotions become a major influence over how they deal with conflict.

This approach helps build commitment and reduce bad feelings.This strategy results from a high concern for your group's own interests along with a moderate concern for the interests of other partners. You may want to actually interview some of the groups involved. the groups involved will need to analyze and select the most appropriate strategy. your partners or local media coverage. Step 2: Determine management strategy. matched with a high concern for the interests of other partners. One drawback is that partners can lose sight of important values and long- . some partners may take advantage of the others' trust and openness." This strategy is generally used when concerns for others are important. The outcome is "win/win. It is also generally the best strategy when society's interest is at stake. Compromise ." This strategy is generally used to achieve temporary solutions. Conflict Management Strategies Collaboration Compromise Competition Accommodation Avoidance Collaboration . you'll find it helpful to ask questions. Generally regarded as the best approach for managing conflict.This results from a high concern for your group's own interests. In some cases it may be necessary to have a neutral facilitator to help move the groups toward consensus. The first step in managing conflict is to analyze the nature and type of conflict. The outcome is "win some/lose some. In addition. Answers may come from your own experience. the objective of collaboration is to reach consensus. Additional information regarding analyzing conflicts can be found in the Guide to Information and Resources. To do this. Once you have a general understanding of the conflict. The drawbacks are that it takes time and energy.Step 1: Analyze the conflict. to avoid destructive power struggles or when time pressures exist.

The outcome is "lose/win. the groundwork must be laid. They should agree on the . Ground rules and agenda . This approach can also distract the partners from the merits of an issue and create a cynical climate. it can cause the conflict to escalate and losers may try to retaliate." This strategy includes most attempts at bargaining. Initiation . The following should occur prior to negotiation.Conditions must be right for negotiation to be successful." This strategy is generally used when the issue is more important to others than to you. You may also lose credibility and future influence. Key players must be identified and invited." This strategy is generally used when the issue is trivial or other issues are more pressing. negotiation and decision making.One partner raises the possibility of negotiation and begins the process. Avoidance -These results from a low concern for your group's own interests coupled with a low concern for the interests of others. Each side must be willing to collaborate with the others.term objectives. Reasonable deadlines and sufficient resources to support the effort must exist. Accommodation .This strategy results from a high concern for your group's own interests with less concern for others. The outcome is "win/lose. The drawbacks are that your own ideas and concerns don't get attention. The outcome is "lose/lose." It is also appropriate when you recognize that you are wrong. It is a "goodwill gesture. Competition . Spokespersons for each group must be identified and involved. It is generally used when basic rights are at stake or to set a precedent.The groups must agree on ground rules for communication. It is also used when confrontation has a high potential for damage or more information is needed. The drawbacks are that important decisions may be made by default. If no one is willing to approach the others to encourage them to reach an agreement.These results from a low concern for your group's own interests combined with a high concern for the interests of other partners. Assessment . To set the stage for effective negotiation. However. a trusted outsider could be brought in as a facilitator. Step 3: Pre-negotiation. Parties need to determine which issues are negotiable and which are not.

rather than stated positions. Agreement is also needed on methods for generating answers to questions. Commitment .Document areas of agreement and disagreement to ensure common understanding.Every partner must be confident that the others will carry out their parts of the agreement. • Use objective criteria for ranking ideas • Make trade-offs among different issues • Combine different options to form acceptable agreement Evaluation .To resolve conflicts. Do not judge ideas or favor any of the options suggested. Discuss and agree upon methods to ensure partners understand and honor their commitments. concerns and motivations underlying positions. Determine together which ideas are best for satisfying various interests. including agreed upon times and places. An agenda of issues to be covered needs to be developed.objectives of the negotiation process. Step 4: Negotiation. Encourage creativity. Written agreement . Joint fact-finding . People must be contacted and encouraged to attend.When negotiating be sure to openly discuss interests. Organization ..Only after the partners have finished listing options. When evaluating options.Meeting logistics must be established. . Satisfaction of interests should be the common goal. Interests include the reasons. Minutes must be taken so that information can be distributed before and after meetings. concentrate on inventing options for satisfying interests.. not commitment. This should include what is known and not known about social and technical issues.The groups must agree on what information is relevant to the conflict. needs. Options . Interests . This helps ensure that agreements can be remembered and communicated clearly. should the options be discussed.

Written agreement . Negotiation is an important skill for coming to an agreement when Evaluation . Step 5: Post-negotiation.Only after the partners have finished listing options. The partnership will need to have a plan to monitor progress. document success. resolve problems.The partners must get support for the agreement from organizations that have a role to play in the agreement. These organizations should be partners and should have been involved in the previous steps.You and your partners' jobs are not done when you've reached agreement.To set the stage for effective negotiation. . Each organization will need to follow its own procedures to review and adopt the agreement. Communication and collaboration should continue as the agreement is carried out. Once negotiation is complete. This helps ensure that agreements can be remembered and communicated clearly. Determine together which ideas are best for satisfying various interests. Implementation . the groundwork must be laid.Document areas of agreement and disagreement to ensure common understanding.Every partner must be confident that the others will carry out their parts of the agreement. Discuss and agree upon methods to ensure partners understand and honor their commitments. The following should occur prior to negotiation. Some key steps include: Ratification . the group will need to implement the decisions made. should the options be discussed. Commitment . Negotiation skills. renegotiate terms and celebrate success.

Disadvantage: • May breed hostility and resentment toward the person using it. Appropriate times to use a Shark style . and uncooperative. • Relationships take on a lower priority • Sharks do not hesitate to use aggressive behavior to resolve conflicts • Sharks can be autocratic. creating win-lose situations. a better decision without compromise can result. Conflict management styles tend to be consistent over time. The Cooperative Shark Sharks use Cooperative Problem Solving management styles • Sharks are highly goal-oriented.Conflict Management Styles A conflict management style is the pattern of behavior an individual develops in response to conflict with others such as differences of opinion. threatening and intimidating • Sharks have a need to win. therefore others must lose. authoritative. Advantage: If the shark's decision is correct. Conflict management is the skill needed to resolve different situations.

Appropriate times to use a Turtle Style:  when the stakes are not high or issue is trivial  when confrontation will hurt a working relationship  when there is little chance of satisfying your wants  when disruption outweighs benefit of conflict resolution  when gathering information is more important than an immediate decision  when others can more effectively resolve the conflict  when time constraints demand a delay The Accommodating Teddy Bear  Organizations use a smoothing or accommodating conflict management style with emphasis on human relationships  People ignore their own goals and resolve conflict by giving into others. . this leads them uncooperative and unassertive  Turtles tend to give up personal goals and display passive behaviour creating lose-lose situations Advantage: may help to maintain relationships that would be hurt by conflict resolution Disadvantage: Conflicts remain unresolved. when decision is vital in crisis  when unpopular decisions need to be implemented The Avoiding Turtle  Turtles adopt an avoiding or withdrawing conflict management style  Turtles would rather hide and ignore conflict than resolve it. overuse of the style leads to others walking over them. unassertive and cooperative creating a win-lose (bear is loser) situation.  when conflict involves personal differences that are difficult to change  when fostering intimate or supportive relationships is not critical  when others are likely to take advantage of noncompetitive behaviour  when conflict resolution is urgent.

concern is for goals and relationships  they are willing to sacrifice some of their goals while persuading others to give up part of theirs  Compromise is assertive and cooperative-result is either win-lose or lose- lose Advantage: relationships are maintained and conflicts are removed Disadvantage: compromise may create less than ideal outcome and game playing can result  Appropriate times to use a Fox Style  when important/complex issues leave no clear or simple solutions  when all conflicting people are equal in power and have strong interests in different solutions  when there are no time restraints The Collaborating Owl  Organizations use a collaborating or problem confronting conflict management style valuing their goals and relationships  they view conflicts as problems to be solved finding solutions agreeable to all sides (win-win) .Advantage: Accommodating maintains relationships  Appropriate times to use a Teddy Bear Style  when maintaining the relationship outweighs other considerations  when suggestions/changes are not important to the accommodator  when minimizing losses in situations where outmatched or losing  when time is limited or when harmony and stability are valued The Compromising Fox  it use a compromising conflict management style.

a business or a government. scientific inventions or outstanding effort in solving a community problem.and of solving problems caused by conflict. This could happen to any organization. politics or work. whether it is an NGO. as well as clear objectives for each team / department and individual. All members of any organization need to have ways of keeping conflict to a minimum . You also need ways of recognizing and resolving conflict amongst people. before conflict becomes a major obstacle to your work.  Advantage:  both sides get what they want and negative feelings eliminated Disadvantage:  takes a great deal of time and effort Appropriate times to use an Owl Style:  when maintaining relationships is important  when time is not a concern  when peer conflict is involved  when trying to gain commitment through consensus building  when learning and trying to merge differing perspectives What do organizations use conflict management for? For any organization to be effective and efficient in achieving its goals. as they strive to be top in their field. community affairs. fair and friendly competition often leads to new sporting achievements. whether in sport. Conflict management is the process of planning to avoid conflict where possible and organizing to resolve conflict where it does happen. a CBO. so that conflict does not become so serious that co-operation is impossible. When . the people in the organization need to have a shared vision of what they are striving to achieve. Difference between conflict and competition "Competition" usually brings out the best in people. as rapidly and smoothly as possible. In fact. a political party.

conflict can arise from the individual differences or ambitions mentioned earlier. and we must be alert to preventing and resolving situations where conflict arises. Common causes of conflict Causes or sources of organizational conflict can be many and varied. etc)  different attitudes. equipment. though. culture. priorities and interests  poor communication  poor or inadequate organizational structure  lack of teamwork  lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities Conflict between individual People have differing styles of communication. facilities. Conflict within a group of people Even within one organization or team. or from rivalry between sub-groups or factions.and this can bring out the worst in people. they tend to emphasize the things that make their group "better than" or "different from" other groups. Conflict between groups of people Whenever people form groups. All leaders and members of the organization need to be alert to group dynamics that can spill over into conflict. political or religious views and different cultural backgrounds. The most common causes are the following:  scarcity of resources (finance. goals. How to identify signs and stages of conflict? "Disputes of right" and "disputes of interest" . values or perceptions  disagreements about needs. conflict can begin . the possibility of these differences leading to conflict between individuals is always there. This happens in the fields of sport. ambitions. religion and the workplace and can sometimes change from healthy competition to destructive conflict.competition becomes unfriendly or bitter. In our diverse society.

at a political rally or in the workplace where there are obvious differences between groups of people. Typical stages include:  Where potential for conflict exists . a dispute of interest will usually be solved through collective bargaining or negotiation. diversity of language or culture may possible result in conflict if people are not sensitive to the diversity. if one person or group perceives itself as being involved in a win-lose situation. better working conditions. etc). where the conflict may be a matter of opinion. In fact the potential may be even greater than before.Especially in the workplace. usually settled by legal decision or arbitration and not by negotiation. legally enforceable matters or unilateral changes in accepted or customary practices. Signs of conflict between individuals . by contract. Stages of conflict The handling of conflict requires awareness of its various developmental stages.in other words where people recognize that lack of resources.  Latent conflict where a competitive situation could easily spill over into conflict . Disputes of right will focus on conflict issues such as employment contracts. two main types of disputes have been noted (although these two types may also happen in other situations). These are: • "Disputes of right".g. A dispute of rights is.  Open conflict – The conflict which can be triggered by an incident and suddenly become real conflict?  Aftermath conflict .e. such as where a person or group is entitled to some resources or privileges (such as access to property. therefore. where people or groups are entitled by law.The situation where a particular problem may have been resolved but the potential for conflict still exists. they can sometimes solve it before it becomes much more serious. Because there is no established law or right. • "Disputes of interest". If leaders in the situation can identify the conflict issue and how far it has developed. by previous agreement or by established practice to certain rights.

It can originate in one person. information. when they affect the whole organization  one group being left out of organizing an event which should include everybody  groups using threatening slogans or symbols to show that their group is right and the others are wrong Conflict Resolution Conflict exists whenever incompatible activities occur (Deutsch. theories. academic controversy facilitates learning in the classroom and decision controversy facilitates high-quality decision making in the school. Controversy: A controversy occurs when one person's ideas. Conflicts in schools can be classified as (Johnson & Johnson. leaders and members can identify latent conflict between groups of people in the organization or the community and plan action before the conflict becomes open and destructive:  cliques or factions meeting to discuss issues separately. so that they can be proactive in reducing or resolving the conflict by getting to the root of the issue. Typical signs may include:  colleagues not speaking to each other or ignoring each other  contradicting and bad-mouthing one another  deliberately undermining or not co-operating with each other. between two or more people. and opinions are incompatible with those of another and the two seek to reach an agreement. blocks. An activity that is incompatible with another is one that prevents. When managed constructively. conclusions. Conceptual Conflict: A person experiences conceptual conflict when incompatible ideas exist simultaneously in his or her mind or when information being received does not seem to fit with what one already knows. or interferes with the occurrence or effectiveness of the second activity. Conflicts are abundant in schools. to the downfall of the team  Signs of conflict between groups of people Similarly. 1973). A conflict can be as small as a disagreement or as large as a war. 2. 1995a): 1.In the organization leaders and members should be alert to signs of conflict between colleagues. An individual experiences conceptual conflict when engaged in . or between two or more groups.

or interfere with another person attempting to maximize personal goals. A CASE REVIEW: INTRODUCTION OF RELIANCE The name Reliance is synonymous with success. Developmental Conflict: Developmental conflict exists when incompatible activities between adult and child based on the opposing forces of stability and change within the child cycles in and out of peak intensity as the child develops cognitively and socially.2 billion and total assets of $18. 3. Reliance is the first and only private sector company from India to feature in the . Common examples among students include control over resources ("I want to use the computer now!"). threats. chemical intermediates and textiles. net worth of $9. cash profit of $2. led by its Chairman and Managing Director Mukesh D. Conflict of Interests: Interpersonal conflict occurs when the actions of one person attempting to maximize his or her goals prevent. a story as unique as its founder Dhirubhai H. not in the cafeteria!"). It is a story of dreams becoming reality.7 billion. 4. starting with oil and gas and continuing on through refining. who built the Reliance Empire from an initial capital of just $300.8 billion. Ambani is India's largest private sector company in all major financial parameters with revenues of $16. or physical aggression ("You are a real jerk!"). of vision igniting passion. net profit of $1. and an Indian enterprise transforming itself into a global conglomerate. Reliance Industries Limited. Ambani. controversy as ideas and arguments are presented that are incongruent with one's original position.7 billion. and a range of relationships issues that often result in name calling. Today. It covers the entire energy value chain. insults. block. petrochemicals.4 billion. preferences over activities ("I want to eat outside on the picnic bench.

2005 Fortune Global 500 list of the 'World's largest Corporations' for the second consecutive year. .

which said the family had arrived at an amicable settlement of all the issues. The announcement sets at rest seven months of intense. This came after an RIL board meeting and a statement on Saturday morning by Kokilaben D Ambani. wrangling between the Ambani brothers that had taken a toll on the group’s stock market performance and had investors. the current chairman and managing director of RIL would “have responsibility” for RIL and Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd (IPCL). was taken on Saturday. The statement added that Mukesh Ambani. one of the main reason is to divide the whole empire between two brothers . There are many reasons behind the conflicts between two brothers or reliance. late Dhirubhai Ambani.The first major step towards a final resolution of the festering conflict between the Ambani brothers Mukesh and Anil. and public. . with a Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) board panel being asked to work out the details of a “reorganisation of Reliance’s businesses”.000 plus crore Reliance Group. the widow of Reliance Group’s founder. Reliance Energy and Reliance Capital. managing director and CEO of ICICI Bank. lenders and the corporate world on tenterhooks. Much of the settlement is widely believed to be the work of K Vaman Kamath. while Anil Ambani would have responsibility for Reliance Infocomm. . both of them wants to earn more profits individually that’s why they wants to divide their business. who has known the Ambani family for decades. who control the Rs 100.

"The only issue in the case was the absence of a bankable agreement. So this brand has now been hit by the ongoing controversy between the two Ambani brothers. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh suggested the warring brothers that they should make serious effort to reach a "middle ground" over the KG gas dispute. increase group cohesion and performance. Conflicts could hinder smooth working or the decision making process. and demonstrate the power or ability of the conflicting parties." RNRL counsel Ram Jethmalani said. counsel for Reliance Natural Resources Ltd (RNRL) told the Supreme Court on Tuesday. stimulate a search for new facts or resolution. They may help diffuse more serious conflicts.There was no ambiguity in the agreed price. The Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group has asked the oil ministry to appoint an expert panel to revaluate the high capital expenses claimed by Mukesh Ambani-led Reliance Industries for the Krishna-Godavari gas basin. It took years to create India as a good brand for investments in its oil and gas sector. continuing with his arguments before the three- judge bench of the Apex court on the high-profile gas dispute case Effects of conflicts between reliance: IMPACT ON INDIAN ECONOMY Indian economy will certainly have a negative impact on the global investment inflow in India’s oil and gas sector. or create competing coalitions or reduce productivity. . tenure and quantity of natural gas to be supplied by Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) from the Krishna-Godavari fields. EFFECTS OF CONFLICTS: Conflict situations result in negative and positive effects.

Performance A C Low level of conflict high Too little conflict causes performance to too much conflict suffer causes performance to suffer .Effect of conflict management in an organization High B Optimum level of conflicts leads to effective decision making Level of Organizational and high performance.

We've all seen situations where different people with different goals and needs have come into conflict. The fact that conflict exists. In many cases. however. effective conflict resolution skills can make the difference between positive and negative outcomes. is not necessarily a bad thing: As long as it is resolved effectively.Positive effects:  Diffuses more serious conflicts  Stimulates a search for new facts or resolutions  Increases group cohesion and performance  Demonstrates measure of power or ability Negative effects:  hinders smooth working  hampers the decision making process  causes the formation of competing SOLUTION TO SOLVE THE CONFLICTS: Conflict in the workplace just seems to be a fact of life. The good news is that by resolving conflict successfully. giving them an insight into how they can achieve their own goals without undermining those of other people. it can lead to personal and professional growth. And we've all seen the often-intense personal animosity that can result. . you can solve many of the problems that it has brought to the surface. as well as getting benefits that you might not at first expect: Increased understanding: The discussion needed to resolve conflict expands people's awareness of the situation.

helping them understand the things that are most important to them. and enhancing their effectiveness. and a renewed faith in their ability to work together. if conflict is not handled effectively. However. and Improved self-knowledge: Conflict pushes individuals to examine their goals in close detail. Talent is wasted as people disengage from their work. And it's easy to end up in a vicious downward spiral of negativity and recrimination. Conflicting goals can quickly turn into personal dislike. . sharpening their focus. you need to stop this downward spiral as soon as you can. Teamwork breaks down. the results can be damaging. If you're to keep your team or organization working effectively.Increased group cohesion: When conflict is resolved effectively. team members can develop stronger mutual respect.

Conclusion FROM THE ABOVE DATA WE CONCLUDE THAT CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IS A RESPONSIBILITY OF ALL EMPLOYEES. ALL STYLES HAVE THEIR PLACE. it is very important for each and every member of an organization to be emotionally stable i. . BUT COLLABORATION IS BEST FOR MOST WORK SITUATIONS.e to have strong control over their emotions because it is the employees who are the most important part of any organization and form the organization. Hence to achieve success. Therefore they should behave in such a manner so that there occurs no conflict amongst them and if any such conflict takes place then the organization should be capable enough to solve these issues becoming hindrance for achieving the goals.

financial express.wikepedia .com Http/www.com Http/www.com/Presentation/ruchira.ku bal-175738-conflict-management-welingkar-ob-2- education-ppt-powerpoint .12th Http/www.com  http://www. Stephen (2009).advanced search. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Robbins. Organizational Behavior.authorstream.