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FACULTEIT INGENIEURSWETENSCHAPPEN

DEPARTEMENT ELEKTROTECHNIEK

Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Leuven (Heverlee)

A

**TRANSMISSION OVER TIME- AND
**

FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE MOBILE WIRELESS

CHANNELS

**Promotor: Proefschrift voorgedragen tot
**

Prof. dr. ir. M. Moonen het behalen van het doctoraat

in de ingenieurswetenschappen

door

Imad BARHUMI

SEPTEMBER 2005

2

**KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN
**

FACULTEIT INGENIEURSWETENSCHAPPEN

DEPARTEMENT ELEKTROTECHNIEK

Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, 3001 Leuven (Heverlee)

A

**TRANSMISSION OVER TIME- AND
**

FREQUENCY-SELECTIVE MOBILE WIRELESS

CHANNELS

**Jury: Proefschrift voorgedragen tot
**

Prof. dr. ir. G. De Roeck, voorzitter het behalen van het doctoraat

Prof. dr. ir. M. Moonen, promotor in de ingenieurswetenschappen

Prof. dr. ir. G. Leus (TU Delft, The Netherlands)

door

Prof. dr. ir. J. Vandewalle

Prof. dr. ir. G. Gielen Imad BARHUMI

Prof. dr. ir. D. Slock (Institut Eurécom, France)

Prof. dr. ir. M. Moeneclaey (U. Gent)

U.D.C. 654.185 SEPTEMBER 2005

c Katholieke Universiteit Leuven – Faculteit Ingenieurswetenschappen

**Arenbergkasteel, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)
**

Alle rechten voorbehouden. Niets uit deze uitgave mag vermenigvuldigd en/of

openbaar gemaakt worden door middel van druk, fotocopie, microfilm, elektro-

nisch of op welke andere wijze ook zonder voorafgaande schriftelijke toestem-

ming van de uitgever.

All rights reserved. No part of the publication may be reproduced in any form

by print, photoprint, microfilm or any other means without written permission

from the publisher.

D/2005/7515/69

ISBN 90-5682-635-2

DEDICATION I dedicate this work to my parents and to my daughter Ahlam i .

ii Dedication .

Nurhan Abujidi. Deepak Tandoor. Thank you for agreeing to be on the board of examiners. Ahmed Alabadelah. To the Palestinian European Academic Cooperation in Education (PEACE) iii . Geert Rombouts. Raphael Cendrillon. Thank you for your support. Gert Cypers. Thomas Klassen. and Prof. Jan Vangorp. Thank you Geert for sharing your knowledge. You have been a great supervisor. Geert Leus. Mahmoud Barham. Ali Jaffari. To the group at the Katholieke Universtiet Leuven: Hilde Vanhaute. support and for his insightful comments. Marc Moonen for giving me the oppor- tunity to join his group. and Matteo Montani. First of all. Mohammad Saleh. for the nice activities and the nice memories we had in Belgium. Guido De Roeck. Thank you for the nice mem- ories we had during my PhD journey. I would also like to thank the jury members: Prof. and the chairman Prof. Geert van Meerbergen. You have been a great friend as well. I have learned a lot from you. Your help made this work possible. and for teaching me many of the algebra and matrix tricks. Georges Geilen. Toon van Waterschoot. Vincent Lenir. for his continuous encouragement. To the Palestinian and Arab friends: Jehad Najjar. Mohammed Benkhedir. Dirk Slock. This work would not have been possible without a close collaboration with Prof. Simon Doclo. and Mazen Al-Shaer. Your comments have added a lot to the final version of the text. Noureddin Moussaif. Olivier Rousseux. Your friendship has made life abroad a lot easier. I would like to thank Prof. for their effort and time they invested in proofreading this text. Paschalis Tsi- aflakis. Thank you also for the nice moments we had together and the nice lunches in via-via. for your constructive comments. Ann Spriet. Koen Van Bleu. I would like to thank the reading committee: Prof Joos Vandewalle.Acknowledgment I would like to thank and express my sincere gratitude to all of those who helped me during the PhD journey. Marc Moeneclay. Geert Ysebeart.

To my parents and to my sister. At last but not least. to my wife.iv Acknowledgment programme for their partial financial support of the first 4 years of my PhD. . thank you for your patience. for your support and for your enthusiasm. thank you for every thing. I love you very much. For your support and the unconditioned love you have given me all over the years.

the time-varying FIR equalizer always exists for any number of receive antennas. due to termi- nal mobility and/or receiver frequency offset the received signal is subject to frequency shifts (Doppler shifts). on the other hand. especially in multi-carrier based transmission techniques. Such an ISI channel is called frequency-selective.Abstract wireless communication industry has experienced rapid growth in THE recent years. On the other hand. Single carrier (SC) transmission techniques and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmis- sion techniques are considered. This approach is shown to unify and extend v . the analog front-end may suffer from an imbalance between the I and Q branch amplitudes and phases as well as from carrier frequency offset. In this thesis. Doppler shift induces time-selectivity char- acteristics. The design criteria considered in this context are the Zero-Forcing (ZF) and the Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) criterion. It is shown that the ZF solution exists when the system has a number of receive antennas equal to the number of transmit antennas plus at least one. The basis expansion model (BEM) is used to approximate the doubly selective channel and to model the time-varying FIR equalizers. Using the MMSE criterion. a set of linear and decision feedback time- varying finite impulse response (FIR) equalizers are proposed to overcome the doubly selective channel effects. In addition to the channel effects. The Doppler effect in conjunction with ISI gives rise to a so-called doubly selective channel (frequency. a complicated time-varying 1-D deconvolution problem is turned into a simpler time-invariant (TI) 2-D deconvolution problem in the TI coefficients of the channel BEM and the time-varying FIR equalizer BEM coefficients. High data rates give rise to intersymbol interference (ISI) due to so-called multipath fading. These analog front-end imperfections then result in an additional and significant degradation in system performance. By doing so. In the context of SC transmission. and digital cellular systems are currently designed to provide high data rates at high terminal speeds. novel channel estimation and equalization techniques are devised to combat the doubly selective channel effects.and time-selective).

the BEM modeling here shows to be efficient to combat the problem of ICI induced due to CFO. One TEQ is applied to the received sequence. . Once again. which is far from practical. Finally. In this context. For OFDM transmission. which in conjunction with the Doppler shift induces severe intercarrier interference (ICI). A frequency-domain PTEQ is then proposed to overcome the problems associated with the analog front-end and to equalize the TI channel. CFO induces ICI. channel estimation and direct equalization techniques are also investigated. The proposed techniques range from pilot symbol assisted modulation based techniques to blind and semi-blind techniques. The PTEQ is obtained here by transferring two TEQ operations to the frequency domain. Doing so the TEQ is capable of restoring orthogo- nality between subcarriers. analog front-end impairments may have a big impact on system’s per- formance. Other analog front-end impairments like phase noise. the so-called cyclic prefix (CP) length is assumed to be shorter than the channel impulse response length. a set of time-domain and frequency domain equaliza- tion techniques are proposed. etc. that optimizes the performance on each subcarrier separately. joint channel equalization and compensation tech- niques are proposed to equalize the channel and compensate for the analog front-end impairments for OFDM transmission over TI channels.vi Abstract the previously proposed equalization techniques for TI channels. The analog front-end impairments treated in this thesis are the in-phase and quadrature- phase (IQ) imbalances and the carrier frequency-offset (CFO). are out of the scope of this thesis. To facilitate practical scenarios. Time-domain equalizers (TEQs) are then needed to shorten the channel to fit within the CP length and to eliminate the channel time-variation. While IQ imbal- ance causes a mirroring effect. can also be obtained by transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency domain. an optimal frequency-domain per-tone equalizer (PTEQ). Each TEQ is implemented as a time-varying FIR and modeled using the BEM. in this approach the doubly selective channel is assumed to be known at the receiver. This assumption introduces in- terblock interference (IBI). In addition to assuming the channel is rapidly time-varying. and the other one is applied to a conjugated version of the received sequence. So far. While the TEQ optimizes the performance on all subcarriers in a joint fashion. nonlinear power amplifiers.

function of the z–transform variable [x]k kth element of vector x A matrix A A(z) matrix A. function of the z–transform variable [A]i.Glossary Mathematical Notation x vector x x(z) vector x.j element on the ith row and jth column of matrix A AT transpose of matrix A A∗ complex conjugate of matrix A AH = (A∗ )T Hermitian transpose of matrix A A−1 inverse of matrix A A† pseudo–inverse of matrix A det A determinant of matrix A tr{A} trace of matrix A kAk Frobenius norm of matrix A diag{x} square diagonal matrix with vector a as diagonal A⊗B Kronecker product of matrix A and B 0M ×N M × N all-zeros matrix 1M ×N M × N all-ones matrix IN N × N Identity matrix F Unitary DFT matrix F (k) (k + 1)st row of the DFT matrix F ĪN N × N anti-diagonal Identity matrix IR the set of real numbers C the set of complex numbers ℜ{x} real part of x ∈ C ℑ{x} imaginary part of x ∈ C x∗ complex conjugate of x x̂ estimate of x ⌊x⌋ largest integer smaller or equal to x ∈ IR ⌈x⌉ smallest integer larger or equal to x ∈ IR |·| absolute value vii .

viii Glossary || · ||2 2–norm E{·} expectation operator σx2 variance of x a≪b a is much smaller than b a≫b a is much larger than b a≈b a is approximately equal to b Fixed Symbols T sampling time W system bandwidth c speed of light fc carrier frequency τmax channel maximum delay spread fmax channel maximum Doppler spread Tc channel coherence time Bc channel coherence bandwidth Nr number of receive antennas x(t) continuous time baseband transmitted signal y (r) (t) continuous time baseband received signal at the rth receive antenna x[n] discrete time baseband transmitted signal y (r) [n] discrete time baseband received signal at the rth receive antenna Sk [i] frequency-domain QAM symbols transmitted on the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM symbol (r) Yk [i] frequency-domain received signal at the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM symbol g (r) (t.l coeficient of the qth basis of the lth tap of the time-varying channel between the transmitter and rth receive antenna (r) wq′ . τ ) continuous time impulse response of the doubly selective channel between the transmitter and the rth receive antenna g (r) [n.l′ coeficient of the q ′ th basis of the l′ th tap of the time-varying FIR feedforward filter at the rth receive antenna bq′′ . θ] BEM approximation of the discrete time impulse response of the doubly selective channel between the transmitter and the rth receive antenna (r) hq.l′′ coeficient of the q ′′ th basis of the l′′ th tap of the time-varying FIR feedback filter N Data symbol block length K The BEM window size (BEM resolution) . θ] discrete time impulse response of the doubly selective channel between the transmitter and the rth receive antenna h(r) [n.

exempli gratia : for example EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution FEQ Frequency–domain EQualizer FFT Fast Fourier Transform FIR Finite Impulse Response filter FM Frequency-Modulation .g. ix L channel order L′ feedforward time-varying FIR equalizer order Q′ feedforward time-varying FIR equalizer number of time-varying basis functions L′′ feedback time-varying FIR equalizer order Q′′ feedback time-varying FIR equalizer number of time-varying basis functions Acronyms and Abbreviations 1-D One Dimensional 2-D Two Dimensional 1G First Generation Mobile Wireless Systems 2G Second Generation Mobile Wireless Systems 3G Third Generation Mobile Wireless Systems 4G Fourth Generation Mobile Wireless Systems A/D Analog–to–Digital converter ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line AMPS Advanced Mobile Phobne Service B3G Beyond Third Generation BDFE Block Decision Feedback Equalizer BEM Basis Expansion Model BLE Block Linear Equalizer BER Bit Error Rate CDMA Code Division Multiple Access CFO Carrier Frequency Offset CP Cyclic Prefix CSI Channel State Information D/A Digital–to–Analog converter D-AMPS Digital-AMPS DAB Digital Audio Broadcasting DFE Decision Feedback Equalizer DFT Discrete Fourier Transform DMT Discrete Multt-Tone DSP Digital Signal Processor DVB Digital Video Broadcasting e.

x Glossary GSM Global System for Mobile communications GPRS General Packet Radio Service HIPERLAN HIgh PErformance Radio LAN Hz Hertz IBI Inter-Block Interference ICI Inter-Carrier Interference IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform i. id est : that is IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform IMT International Mobile Telecommunications IQ In-phase and Quadrature-phase ISI Inter Symbol Interference LMS Least Mean Square adaptive filter LAN Local Area Network LS Least Squares MA Multiply Add MC Multi–Carrier MIMO Multi–Input Multi–Output system ML Maximum Likelihood MLSE ML Sequence Estimator MMSE Minimum Mean-Square Error MRE Mutually Referenced Equalizer MSE Mean-Square Error NMT Nordic Mobile Telephone OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing P/S Parallel–to–Serial converter PDC Pacific Digital Cellular PSAM Pilot Symbol Assisted Modualtion PTEQ Per-Tone EQualizer QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation QPSK Quadrature Phase Shift Keying RLS Recursive Least Squares adaptive filter S/P Serial–to–Parallel converter SDFE Serial DFE SC Single Carrier SIMO Single–Input Multiple–Output SISO Single–Input Single–Output SLE Serial Linear Equalizer SNR Signal–to–Noise Ratio SVD Singular Value Decomposition TACS Total Access Communication System TDMA Time-Division Multiple Access TEQ Time-domain EQualizer TI Time-Invariant TV Telvision .e.

versus W-CDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WGN White Guassian Noise WLAN Wireless LAN WSSUS Wide Sense Stationary US ZF Zero Forcing ZP Zero Padding . xi UEC Unit Energy Constraint UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UNC Unit Norm Constraint US Uncorrelated Scattering VA Viterbi Algorithm vs.

xii Glossary .

. . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Mobile Wireless Channels 13 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Problem Statement . .Contents Dedication i Acknowledgment iii Abstract v Glossary vii Contents xiii 1 Introduction 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . 13 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. . . . 6 1. 16 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Thesis Context . . . . 17 2. . . . . . . . . .4 Outline of the Thesis and Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 System Model . . . . . . . . . . .3 Channel Parameters . . . . . 7 1. . . 24 xiii . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Objectives and Solution Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Channel Models . . . . . . .5 Discrete-Time Channel Model . . . . . 4 1.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Block Decision-Feedback Equalization . . . . . . . . 39 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4. . . . . .8 Conclusions . . . . . .and Frequency- Selective Fading Channels 3 Linear Equalization of SC Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels 37 3. .7 Summary .1 Introduction . . . .2 System model . . . 69 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3. .2 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Basis Expansion Channel Model (BEM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Equalization with Block Transmission Techniques . 85 . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv Contents 2. . . . . . .4 Serial Linear Equalization . . . . . . . . .5 Discussion and Comparison . . . . . .7 Simulations . . . . . 31 I Single Carrier Transmission over Time. . 42 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4. .6 Discussion and Comparisons . . . . . . . . . 71 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Block Linear Equalization . . . 83 5 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques 85 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 67 4. . . . . . . . . 26 2. . . 66 4 Decision-Feedback Equalization of SC Transmission over Dou- bly Selective Channels 67 4. . . . . . . . . .7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction .4 Serial Decision-Feedback Equalization . 40 3. . . . . . . . . .

Contents xv

5.2 PSAM Channel Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

5.3 PSAM Direct Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

5.4 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

5.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

6 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques 99

6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

6.2 Channel estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

6.3 Direct Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

6.4 Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

6.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

**II OFDM Transmission over Time- and Frequency-
**

Selective Fading Channels

7 OFDM Background 117

7.1 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

7.2 Inter-carrier Interference Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

7.3 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

**8 Equalization of OFDM Transmission over Doubly Selective
**

Channels 127

8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

8.2 Time-Domain Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

8.3 Frequency-Domain Per-Tone Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

8.4 Efficient Implementation of the PTEQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

8.5 Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

8.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

xvi Contents

**9 IQ Compensation for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and Car-
**

rier Frequency-Offset 153

9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

9.2 System Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

9.3 Equalization in the Presence of IQ Imbalance . . . . . . . . . . 156

9.4 Equalization in the Presence of IQ and CFO . . . . . . . . . . . 162

9.5 Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

9.6 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

10 Conclusions and Future Research 173

10.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

10.2 Further Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Bibliography 179

Chapter 1

Introduction

**the last decade, the mobile wireless telecommunication industry
**

OVER has undergone tremendous changes and experienced rapid growth.

As a result of this growth the number of subscribers is expected to exceed

2 billion users by the end of the year 2005. The reason behind this growth

is the increasing demand for bandwidth hungry multimedia applications. This

demand for even higher data rates at the user’s terminal is expected to continue

for the coming years as more and more applications are emerging. Therefore,

current cellular systems have been designed to provide date rates that range

from a few megabits per second for stationary or low mobility users to a few

hundred kilobits to high mobility users. This data range is insufficient with

respect to the increasing demand for high date rates to high mobility users.

**Throughout history, the mobile wireless communications has taken on multiple
**

phases/generations depending on the technology used and services provided.

These generations are listed below:

**• First generation (1G) cellular systems: 1G mobile communication sys-
**

tems based on analog frequency-modulation (FM) were first deployed in

the late 1970s early 1980s. They were used mainly for voice applications.

Examples of 1G systems are AMPS in the United States, Nordic mo-

bile telephone system in Scandinavia, TACS in the United Kingdom, and

NAMTS in Japan.

• Second generation (2G) cellular systems: 2G systems were still used

mainly for voice applications but were based on digital technology, in-

cluding digital signal processing techniques. Beside voice applications, 2G

systems provide data communication services at low data rates. Exam-

ples of 2G systems are GSM mainly in Europe, DAMPS, TDMA (IS-54),

CDMA (IS-95) in the United States, and PDC in Japan.

1

2 Introduction

Table 1.1: History of mobile wireless systems

**Technology Services Standard Data Rate
**

1G Analog voice AMPS, NMT, etc. 1.9kbps

2G Digital voice, TDMA, CDMA, 14.4 Kbps

short messages GSM

2.5G Higher Capacity GPRS, EDGE 384 kbps

packetized data

3G Broadband data WCDMA, CDMA2000 2Mbps

4G Multimedia data ? 100 Mbps

**• Third generation (3G) cellular systems: 3G systems are currently de-
**

signed to provide higher quality voice services as well as broadband data

capabilities up to 2Mbps. Examples of 3G systems are UMTS, IMT-2000

and CDMA2000.

• The interim step between 2G and 3G is referred to as 2.5G systems: 2.5G

systems are designed to provide increased capacity on the 2G channels,

and to provide higher data rates for data services up to 384kbps. Exam-

ples of 2.5G systems include GPRS, and EDGE.

• Fourth generation (4G) cellular systems: 4G systems are currently under

development and will be implemented within the coming 5-10 years (2010-

2015). 4G systems are expected to provide high rate multimedia services

like live television, video games, etc.

**A summary of the mobile wireless evolution is presented in Table 1.1. For
**

further details the reader is referred to the excellent overview of the early gen-

erations presented by Hanzo in [51] and references therein, for later generations

the reader is referred to [53, 97]. The data rates indicated in this table are for

stationary users.

**So far, most of the services offered are voice services. With the advent of new
**

generations like 2.5G and 3G systems, new data services have emerged. These

include but are not limited to e-mail, file transfers, radio and TV. The expected

new data services are highly bandwidth consuming. This results in higher data

rate requirements for future systems. In addition to providing high data rate

services to stationary and or to low mobility indoor users, the new technologies

are expected to provide high data rate applications to high mobility outdoor

users.

**Concerning data rates versus mobility, the status of current mobile wireless
**

systems is depicted in Figure 1.1. Third generation (3G) wireless systems

like UMTS provide the following data rates defined according to the degree of

mobility:

Broadcast systems also contribute to the development of the future wireless communication systems. In this thesis we address the problem of robust and reliable transmission tech- niques to provide high data rate applications to high mobility users. These high data rates are necessary to provide/develop services like live video. • Low Mobility: For limited mobility users and stationary indoor envi- ronments. The current data rates of 3G systems for high mobility users are insufficient for the new emerging high data rate applications. http:// www. 3G systems provide data rates up to 144 Kbps. So far. . These systems include digital audio broadcasting (DAB) and digital video broadcasting (DVB). Due 1 Field trials carried out by Motorola Inc.11b/g Bluetooth 0. data rate. etc. and DVB-handheld (DVB-H) standards. 3G systems provide data rates up to 2 Mbps. Currently. mobile games. 3G systems provide data rates up to 384 Kbps. • High Mobility: For high mobility users traveling at speeds more than vehicular speed. these systems have been standardized for stationary users. there are efforts to bring DVB to mo- bile users through the DVB-mobile (DVB-M). • Limited Mobility: For mobile users traveling at speeds less than ve- hicular speed (120Km/hr) (outdoor to indoor pedestrian). and the trend towards mobile users and hand held terminals is in progress.1: User’s mobility vs.1 1 10 100 Data rate (Mbps) Figure 1. 4G and B3G wireless systems are expected to provide up to 100 Mbps for stationary users and up to 20 Mbps for vehicular speed users1 .motorola.com using MIMO OFDM. providing high data rates for high mobility users is the cornerstone of the future beyond third generation (B3G) and 4G wireless systems. 3 Mobility High Speed Train Driving on the motor way B3 G/ 4G G SM 3G Driving in the city Sy /U ste M ms TS Pedestrian GPRS EDGE DECT WLAN Indoor IEEE 802. Therefore.

the user’s mobility introduces time variations.01 0.015 Normalized Doppler Spread fmaxT Figure 1. to user’s mobility the channel is no longer stationary. the underlying communication channel. is that the channel is stationary over a transmission period of a block of symbols and may change independently from block to block.and frequency-selective fading or the so-called doubly selective channels.0125 0. this thesis addresses the problem of transmission over time.2: BER vs. Normalized Doppler spread for SN R = 25dB.0075 0. the channel exhibits time-variant characteristics. As mentioned earlier. becomes more rapidly time-varying. As the user’s mobility increases.0025 0. which characterizes the link between the transmitter and receiver. In short. and so in addition to the frequency-selectivity characteristics caused by multipath propagation.005 0. For mobile . 1. and SN R = 40dB. Under high mobility scenar- ios the assumption that the channel is stationary or block stationary is not valid.1 Problem Statement In order to provide multimedia applications for mobile users advanced signal processing techniques are necessary.4 Introduction 0 10 −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 SNR=25 dB SNR=40 dB Nb=32 Nb=64 Nb=128 −4 10 0 0. What we mean by a block stationary (also referred to as block fading) channel.

where fmax is the maximum Doppler spread (a measure of the channel’s time variation. This threshold value decreases significantly when the block size is increased. Assume that QPSK signaling is used. We ran the simulations for two values of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) SN R = 25 dB and SN R = 40 dB. This degradation is proportional to the block size and the user’s mobility. and the system’s perfor- mance is measured in terms of bit-error rate (BER) versus normalized Doppler spread fmax T . the carrier spacing is 1. the BER curve of SN R = 25 dB coincides with that of SN R = 40 dB.1. The following example gives an overview of the system parameters. Over each block. From this figure we draw the following conclusions.0025 2 . e. Example 1. for vehicular speeds over motorway or high speed trains (300Km/hr) in Europe and Japan. for Nb = 32 and fmax T ≥ 0. for Nb = 64 and fmax T ≥ 0.12kHz.1 DVB uses MC for transmission implemented using OFDM. The max- imum normalized supported Doppler spread decreases by increasing the block size.0075. To explain this we consider the following scenario. The Doppler spread is around 10% of the carrier spacing for speeds of 120Km/hr and around 20% for speeds 2 This corresponds to a vehicular speed of v = 180Km/hr. • For a fixed Normalized Doppler spread fmax T .g. . see Chapter 2 for a definition) and T is the sampling time. • The modeling error (modeling the channel as a block fading over a period of transmitting a block of Nb symbols) becomes more dominant than the system noise as the normalized Doppler spread increases. the BER increases as the block size increases. and considered the following block sizes Nb = 32. For DVB 8K mode with a signal bandwidth of 8MHz over the UHF band from 470-862MHz. and for Nb = 128 and fmax T ≥ 0.2.1.005. Problem Statement 5 users this assumption results in performance degradation. For example. • A target BER of 10−2 (usually used as a benchmark for uncoded trans- mission) can only be achieved for a limited normalized Doppler spread fmax T that varies with the block size and the operating SNR. the channel state information (CSI) at Nb /2 is used to equalize the channel. The simulation results are shown in Figure 1. 64. 128. For demodulation purposes the channel is assumed to be block fading over a period of transmission of Nb symbols. v = 120Km/hr and v = 60Km/hr for GSM carrier fc = 1800MHz and sampling time T = 25µsec. • The system performance experiences significant degradation as the Doppler spread increases. This problem also arises in DVB reception for high speed terminals. Consider transmission over a time-varying flat fading channel (one-tap channel).

Higher data rates result in severe ISI. The CP in conjunc- tion with the IDFT/DFT allows for a very simple equalization technique based on a one-tap frequency-domain equalizer (1-tap FEQ) [25. the high rate data symbols are simultaneously transmitted on lower rate parallel sub-channels.6 Introduction of 300Km/hr. etc. For the 4K and 2K modes.) and satellite communications systems. This can be achieved by the DFT/IDFT and insertion of a cyclic prefix (CP). △ Motivated by the degradation in performance of the above system due to the block fading assumption. 1. we focus on the problem of channel estimation and equalization. EDGE. • Single Carrier Transmission In SC transmission the high rate data is transmitted on a single car- rier. 116]. We consider single carrier (SC) systems as well as multi- carrier (MC) systems implemented by orthogonal frequency division multi- plexing (OFDM). The two modes of transmission (SC and OFDM) are presented below. which mainly happens when the channel delay spread is longer than the dura- tion of one transmitted symbol. Applications that use SC transmission include but not limited to cellu- lar systems (GSM. The pur- pose of the 1-tap FEQ is to correct the channel phase and gain on a . Further. provided that the channel is time-invariant (stationary users).2 Thesis Context In this thesis we address the problem of transmission over time. equalization techniques must be implemented. The bandwidth of each sub-channel is sufficiently narrow so that the frequency response charac- teristics of the sub-channels are nearly flat.and frequency-domain equalizers. the BEM will be used to design time. the basis expansion model (BEM) is used to model (approximate) the doubly selective channel. we show that the proposed techniques unify and extend the previously proposed equalizers for time-invariant (TI) channels. the Doppler spread is less sever due to the wider the carrier spacing. intersymbol interference (ISI) arises. Mainly. By do- ing so. More specif- ically.and frequency- selective channels. To combat the effects of ISI. • OFDM Transmission In OFDM transmission. GPRS. These techniques rely on better channel modeling. which subsumes the block fading case. Due to multipath fading. 88. The CP insertion of length equal to or greater than the channel impulse response length con- verts the linear convolution into a cyclic convolution. new channel estimation and equalization techniques are devised.

Ex- tending the results to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is rather straightforward. wireless local area networks (WLANs). We assume that the channel is mainly characterized as a time-varying multipath fading channel. b) The channel is unknown at the transmitter. The latter case arises due to the use of the cheap Zero-IF receiver which is extensively used and implemented in WLAN systems based on OFDM transmission.1.3. By utilizing the DFT and IDFT at the receiver. The SIMO case subsumes the single-input single- output (SISO) system. CP-based SC transmission systems are equivalent in complexity to OFDM. Objectives and Solution Approach 7 particular sub-channel. feeding back channel estimates mostly results in outdated channel state information (CSI). 1. This assumption is a conse- quence of the first assumption. The channel time-variation results from the Doppler spread arise due to the user’s mobility and/or the carrier frequency offset arises due to the mismatch between the transmitter and receiver local oscillators. Since the channel is rapidly time-varying. In this thesis we aim at developing algorithms that are capable to combat the effects imposed on the system . etc. In this thesis we review several equalization techniques considering the SIMO assumption. It is important to mention that. c) Single-input multiple-output (SIMO) system. • Develop robust channel estimation/tracking techniques. • Time-variation also arises due to carrier frequency-offset even if the un- derlying communication channel is TI. a low complexity frequency-domain equalization can be developed [34].3 Objectives and Solution Approach The main objective of this thesis is to provide reliable communication (trans- mission) over rapidly time-varying multipath fading wireless channels. Throughout this thesis we consider the following scenario: a) The channel is doubly selective. Applications that use OFDM transmission in- clude DAB. DVB. More specifically: • Develop robust channel equalization techniques for SC as well as for OFDM transmission. The SIMO assumption is often necessary for the existence of the zero-forcing (ZF) solution.

For OFDM transmission over doubly selective channels. conventional time- invariant equalization schemes or adaptive schemes. the doubly selective channel is first approximated by the BEM. are beyond the scope of this thesis. 1.e. Future generation wireless systems are required to provide high data rates to high mobility users. The different equalization and channel estimation techniques covered in this thesis range from linear to decision feedback and from blind to pilot symbol assisted modulation techniques. In such scenarios. In this chapter. An overview study of the mobile wireless channel is presented in Chapter 2. we rely on the BEM to design the equalizer which is implemented as a time-varying finite impulse response (FIR) filter. Similarly. i. We mainly focus on channel parameters that are related to the assumption of wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS).8 Introduction due to the analog front-end impairments. The mobile wireless channel may generally be characterized as doubly selective. selective in both time and in frequency. For SC transmission over doubly selective channels. The basis expansion channel model (BEM) and its relationship to the well known Jakes’ channel model is also introduced. the main channel parameters of the underlying wireless channel are introduced. OFDM transmission is also sensitive to analog front-end impairments such as in-phase and quadrature-phase (IQ) imbalance and carrier frequency-offset (CFO). time-domain as well as frequency-domain per-tone equalization techniques are proposed to alleviate the problem of ICI. Multipath propagation results from reflection. Joint equalization and compensation techniques are proposed.4 Outline of the Thesis and Contributions An overview of the thesis and its major contributions is now given. power amplifier nonlinearity. Mobility and/or the carrier frequency offset result in time-selectivity. etc. and scattering of the radiated electromagnetic waves of buildings and other objects that lie in the vicinity of the transmitter and/or the receiver. This thesis consists of two parts. diffraction. suitable for slowly time- . which is shown to accurately approximate the doubly selective channel. especially in OFDM transmis- sion. Multipath propagation results in frequency-selectivity. The first part discusses SC transmission over doubly selective channels and the second part discusses OFDM transmission over doubly selective channels. Other analog front-end impairments like phase noise. Part I of this thesis investigates single carrier transmission over doubly se- lective channels.

which apply one feedforward filter. Unlike linear equalizers. vol. G. Leus and M. Similar to Chapter 3. Barhumi. on Wireless Comm. the design and implementation of the SLEs is done on a block level basis. Speech. 11-15 May. April 6-10. Moonen. • G. G. the second type operates on a sample by sample basis. Leus. in the IEEE 2003 Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM’03). G. I. Baiona. both feedforward and feedback filters are im- plemented using time-varying FIR filters. However. San Francisco. For the SDFE. “Time-Varying FIR Equalization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. CA. In Chapter 3. pp. Leus and M. The channel equalization/estimation schemes related to this part are presented in the following chapters. December 2003. in The IEEE 2003 International Conference on Acoustics. Moonen. The publications that are related to this chapter are: • I. I. Moonen. we focus on block decision feedback equalizers (BDFEs). “Time-Varying FIR Decision Feedback Equalization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. Moonen. Spain. we propose a serial DFE (SDFE). Hong Kong. Moonen. we consider two types of equaliz- ers. Barhumi and M. we focus on decision feedback equalization (DFE) of doubly selective channels. Outline of the Thesis and Contributions 9 varying channels. and M. and serial linear equalizers (SLEs). • G. 2003. AK. “MMSE Time-Varying FIR Equal- ization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. First. Leus. • I. and M. 1. no. The publications that are related to this chapter are: • I.4. 202-214. In Chapter 4. The SLEs are implemented by time-varying finite impulse response (FIR) fil- ters.1. Second. While the first type equalizes a block of received samples. Barhumi. Leus. in the proceedings of the IEEE 2003 In- ternational Conference on Communications (ICC’03). DFEs apply two filters.. namely a feedforward filter and a feedback filter. and Signal Processing (ICASSP’03). are not suitable since the channel may vary significantly from sample to sample. . 4. the block linear equalizers (BLEs). we focus on the problem of linear equalization of doubly selec- tive channels. In this chapter we focus on two categories of linear equal- izers. 2005. 2003. 2003 Anchorage. USA. in Sixth Baiona Workshop on Sig- nal Processing in Communications. Jan. We derive the zero forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square-error (MMSE) equalizers. Barhumi. “Low-Complexity Serial Equal- ization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. “Time-Varying FIR Equalization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. Barhumi. IEEE Trans. September 8-10.

EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Pro- cessing. Leus and M. Time-domain and/or frequency-domain equalization techniques are needed to cope with the problem of ICI. Rousseaux. Barhumi. Similar to the case of SC transmission. Using pure pilot symbols for channel estimation and/or direct equalization can be either skipped resulting in blind techniques or combined with blind techniques resulting in semi-blind techniques as discussed in Chapter 6. Leus. In Chapter 7. EUSIPCO 2005. i. Part II of this thesis investigates OFDM transmission over doubly selec- tive channels as well as over TI channels with analog front-end receiver im- pairments. In this chapter. 2005. ICI analysis is introduced in this chapter. In Chapter 5. “Direct Semi- Blind Design of Serial Linear Equalizers for Doubly-Selective Channels”. we focus on PSAM-based channel estimation. In order to develop equalization techniques. G. Second. in the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2004). by considering that the doubly selective channel is perfectly known at the receiver. linear or decision feed- back. Barhumi. we focus on the problem of channel estimation and equalization based on pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) techniques.e. Therefore.and frequency-domain equalization techniques can not adequately cope with the challenging problem of equalizing the underlying mobile wireless channel. accepted for publication. the energy of a particular subcarrier is leaked to neighboring subcarriers. France. In OFDM transmission. • G. I. The publications that are related to this chapter are: • I. “MMSE Estimation of Basis Expansion Models for Rapidly Time-Varying Channels”. First. conventional time. “Estimation and Direct Equalization of Doubly Selective Channels”. it is important to understand the mechanism of ICI. and M. special issue on ”Reliable Communications over Rapidly Time- Varying Channels”. submitted June. Paris. Moonen. .10 Introduction In the previous two chapters we design the equalizers. the OFDM system model is introduced along with the notation that will be used throughout this part. There the BEM coefficients of the equalizer are obtained directly from the pilot symbols. June 19-24. a brief overview of OFDM transmission is given. The publications that are related to this chapter are: • I. we focus on PSAM-based direct equalization. and M. O. Moonen. Moonen. where the estimated BEM coefficients of the channel are then used to design the equalizer (linear and deci- sion feedback). Barhumi. time-varying channels induce ICI. (Also presented at the SPS-DARTs 2005).

The analog front-end impairments are IQ im- balance and carrier frequency-offset (CFO). Leus. Barhumi. Moonen. • I. CFO results in ICI. “Frequency-domain Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. Barhumi. accepted February. Frequency-domain techniques for joint channel equalization. in the IEEE 2004 International Conference on Acoustics. “Combined Channel Shortening and Equalization of OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. Montreal. we as- sume the CP length is shorter than the channel impulse response. vol. Leus and M. “Time. 2004. • I. Barhumi. G. September 8-10. 2003. Moonen. “Frequency-domain Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. . “Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. 2005. Leus. we propose time-domain and frequency-domain per-tone equal- ization techniques. 19-24 June. In Chapter 9. G. Sig- nal Processing (Elsevier). 2005. Special Sec- tion Signal Processing in Communications.1. such as DVB. In such applications one way to increase transmission throughput is by using a shorter CP length. Moonen. and M. and M. Paris. G. equalization techniques are needed to mitigate ICI and IBI. “IQ Compensation for OFDM in the pres- ence of CFO and IBI”. The publications that are related to this chapter are: • I. and M. submit- ted May. encounter long delay multipath chan- nels. The publications that are related to this chapter are: • I. 84/11. Applications that use OFDM as a transmission technique. 2055-2066. G. but with receiver analog front-end impairments. In addition to the time-variation of the channel. While IQ imbalance results in a mirroring effect.4. Leus and M. Moonen. Outline of the Thesis and Contributions 11 In Chapter 8. Barhumi. Canada. Using a CP of length equal to the channel order results in a significant decrease of throughput. G. Baiona. Speech and Signal Process- ing (ICASSP 2004). Moonen. Leus and M. Barhumi. IQ imbalance and CFO compensation are investigated. (Invited Paper) • I. but also to receiver and/or transmitter analog front-end impairments. Not only is OFDM sensitive to channel variations. Moonen. pp.and Frequency-Domain Per-Tone Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. France. Barhumi. • I. May 17-21. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. in the 2004 IEEE Inter- national Conference on Communications (ICC 2004). in Sixth Baiona Workshop on Signal Processing in Communications. Spain. we study OFDM transmission over a time-invariant channel (in this case). Hence. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. which also introduces inter-block interference (IBI).

I. • I. February 18-21. Switzerland. Moonen. The Netherlands. 1615-1624. no. Moonen. moonen. Barhumi and M. Moonen. to be submitted. G. and M. 11-15 May. Conclusions are drawn and directions for further research are explored in Chap- ter 10. “Optimal Training Design for MIMO OFDM Systems in Mobile Wireless Channels”. October 27-31. Leus.12 Introduction • I. Leus. 6. Access. 51. ProRISC. Transmission. “Per-Tone Equalization for MIMO OFDM Systems”. Networking (IZS02). pp. June 2003. 2002. vol. Leus and M. Moonen. “Optimal Training Sequences for Channel Estimation in MIMO OFDM Systems in Mobile Wireless Channels”. Barhumi and M. 2003 Anchorage. we also published or contributed to the following papers during our PhD research period: • I. USA. in the proceedings of the IEEE 2003 International Con- ference on Communications (ICC’03). . Veldhoven. Zurich. International Zurich Seminar on Broadband Communications. AK. Barhumi. “Optimal Training for Channel Estimation in MIMO OFDM Systems”. • G. ICC. 2001. 2006. Barhumi. Besides the material presented in this thesis. and M. • I. G. “IQ Compensation for OFDM in the pres- ence of CFO and IBI”. IEEE Transac- tions on Signal Processing. Barhumi.

and frequency-selective a. The system model is introduced in Section 2. Mobile channels exhibit frequency selectivity characteristics due to multipath fading.2. The channel parameters are introduced in Section 2. The underlying study of the statistical models of the wireless channel is essential to analyze and design appropriate signal processing algo- rithms as needed to provide reliable communication. Multipath results into spreading of the transmitted signal in time (the so-called inter- symbol interference (ISI)). and scattering of the electromagnetic wave on objects such as buildings. User mobility (or the relative motion between the transmitter and receiver) and/or carrier frequency offset induce time-variation on the channel.3. etc. or doubly-dispersive channel. as well as time-variant characteristics due to the Doppler shift. 13 .Chapter 2 Mobile Wireless Channels 2. while the time-variation of the channel results into frequency spreading (the so-called Doppler spread) [91. Multipath propagation arises due to reflection. This chapter is organized as follows. The different 1 The doubly selective channel may also be referred to as time-dispersive frequency- selective. refraction. 92]. time-varying multipath fading. trees. hills. This results in time.1.k.1 Introduction this chapter.a doubly selective channels1 . In wireless communications the transmitted signal arrives at the receiver along a number of different paths. we will give a brief description of the wireless channel that IN paves the way for further development of the algorithms presented in this dissertation. Hence. that lie in the vicinity of the transmitter and/or receiver. referred to as multipaths as shown in Figure 2. the wireless channel may gen- erally be characterized as a linear.

14 Mobile Wireless Channels Figure 2.4.1) −∞ . The channel is assumed to be doubly selective.6. we summarize in Section 2.1: The user signal experiences multipath propagation. Finally. The basis expansion channel model (BEM) is introduced in Section 2. In Section 2. The baseband equivalent discrete-time system will be treated in a later section. channel models are discussed in Section 2. (2.2. τ )dτ + v (r) (t).7 2.5 we introduce the discrete-time channel model. where Nr receive antennas are used. We assume a single- input multiple-output (SIMO) system.2 System Model In this section we describe the baseband equivalent continuous-time system model. The input-output relationship of the continuous-time linear time-varying channel with additive noise can be written as Z ∞ y (r) (t) = x(t − τ )g (r) (t. The system under consideration is depicted in Figure 2.

and X(f ) as the Fourier transform of the input signal. −∞ We define Y (r) (f ) as the the Fourier transform of the received signal at the rth receive antenna. τ )e−j2πf τ dτ. In the special case when the channel is time-invariant. τ ) can be thought of as the impulse response of the system (the channel linking the transmitter and the rth receive antenna) at a fixed time t. 2. τ ) x(t) v (Nr )(t) y (Nr )(t) g (Nr )(t. τ ) is the impulse response of the doubly selective channel from the transmitter to the rth receive antenna. The output Doppler spread is obtained by the Fourier transform of the time-varying transfer function G(r) (t. y (r) (t) is the received signal at the rth receive antenna. 1. f )e−j2πνt dt. This function represents the frequency response of the time- varying channel at fixed time t. and v (r) (t) is the additive noise at the rth receive antenna. −∞ The time-varying transfer function is obtained by the Fourier transform of F the time-varying channel with respect to the time-delay τ . τ ) Figure 2.2: SIMO system model.2. Time-varying transfer function G(r) (t. g (r) (t. this reduces to the usual frequency response. g (r) (t. f ). τ ) →τ (r) G (t. f ) as Z ∞ (r) G (t. f ) as Z ∞ (r) D (ν. i. To do so we first introduce the following functions which equivalently describe the time-varying channel. The dual input-output relationship in the frequency-domain can also be de- rived.2. g (r) (t. The . where x(t) is the channel input. f ) = g (r) (t. f ) = G(r) (t. System Model 15 v (1)(t) y (1)(t) (1) g (t.e.

t2 .2) 2 Note that we dropped the receive antenna index from the autocorrelation func- tion assuming that the different channels associated with the different receive antennas follow the same statistical model. In addition. λ). ∆f ) is the scattering function S(τ . The channel is then delay US if rh (t1 . −∞ where V (r) (f ) denotes the Fourier transform of the additive noise signal at the rth receive antenna. ∆f ) = E{G(r)∗ (t. The scattering function is a measure of the power spectrum of the channel at time delay τ and frequency offset λ. 2. ∆f )e−j2πλ∆t ej2πτ ∆f d∆t d∆f. the WSSUS channel can be characterized by the following corre- lation function [84]: 1 φ(∆t. The WSSUS model of the wireless channel was first introduced by Bello in [24]. the channel is said to be wide sense stationary (WSS) if rh (t1 . τa )δ(τa − τb ). τb )} (2. An important function that can be derived from the function φ(∆t.16 Mobile Wireless Channels dual input-output relationship in the frequency domain can be then expressed as Z ∞ Y (r) (f ) = D(r) (f − ν. t2 . Equivalently. the autocorrelation function of the WSSUS channel is represented by its correlation function rh (∆t. t2 .3) −∞ −∞ . τa . Hence. λ) = φ(∆t. τ ) = rh (∆t. f + ∆f )}. τ ). The channel is said to be delay uncorrelated scattering (US) if the different paths of the channel are assumed uncorrelated. τa . ν)X(ν)dν + V (r) (f ). τ ). f )G(r) (t + ∆t. τb ) = rh (t1 . τa )g (r) (t2 . t2 . τa . t2 . where ∆t = t2 − t1 . The scattering function is obtained by taking the double Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function as [84]: Z ∞Z ∞ S(τ . τb ) as 1 rh (t1 . τb ) = E{g (r)∗ (t1 . Define the channel autocorrelation function rh (t1 . (2.3 Channel Parameters The time-varying multipath fading channel in wireless communications is often modeled as a wide sense stationary uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) chan- nel. 2 where the delay US is replaced by the frequency US.

4 Channel Models The selection of the channel model is linked to the transmitted signal char- acteristics.e. measuring the channel impulse response becomes extremely difficult if not impossible when the spread factor τmax fmax > 1/2. i. mainly based on the relationship between the transmitted signal bandwidth W and the channel coherence bandwidth Bc or equivalently be- tween the the duration of the transmitted symbol T and the channel coherence time Tc . The channel coherence bandwidth is inversely proportional to the channel maximum delay spread. Channel Models 17 The delay power spectrum can then be obtained by averaging the scattering function over λ: Z ∞ Sτ (τ ) = S(τ . Another important channel parameter is the spread factor defined as the prod- uct τmax fmax . Bc = 1/τmax .1 Frequency Non-Selective Fading Channel Consider the system input-output relationship as in 2.1. λ)dλ. −∞ Similarly. The channel coherence time Tc is inversely proportional to the channel Doppler spread.4.e. the Doppler power spectrum is obtained by averaging the scattering function over τ : Z ∞ Sf (λ) = S(τ . However. Equally important is the channel coherence bandwidth Bc . i. 2. the width of the band of the frequencies which are similarly affected by the channel. The channel coherence bandwidth Bc provides a measure of the channel frequency selectivity. It was shown in [59] that if the spread factor τmax fmax ≪ 1/2. Let X(f ) denote the frequency-domain representation of the transmitted signal. and the maximum Doppler spread fmax is defined as the range of values over which the Doppler power spectrum Sf (λ) is nonzero.4. λ)dτ.2. the channel impulse response can be easily measured. Tc = 1/fmax . In the following we will give a brief description of the different fading types. 2. In the following we briefly discuss the differ- ent channel models that arise due to the different channel parameters discussed above. 0 The maximum delay spread τmax of the channel is then defined as the range of values over which the delay power spectrum Sτ (τ ) is nonzero. The noiseless . The channel coherence time is a measure of how rapidly the channel impulse response varies in time.

In this subsection we will treat the case when the transmitted signal bandwidth is larger than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. (2.e. when W ≫ Bc . The signal echoes arrive at the receiver along a number of different resolvable paths (resolvable by the receiver time resolution 1/W ). for frequency flat fading channels the input-output relationship is reduced to Z ∞ z (r) (t) = G(r) (t. the channel maximum delay spread τmax is much greater than the time resolution of the receiver τmax ≫ 1/W . Contrary to the frequency flat case where the channel consists of one tap. the impulse response of the time-varying frequency-selective . i. we see that the frequency flat fading channel can be viewed as a multiplicative channel. In this case the different frequency components of the transmitted signal X(f ) will experience different gains and phase shifts. Hence. Hence. 0)x(t) (r) = α(r) (t)ejθ (t) x(t). 0) X(f )ej2πf t df −∞ = G(r) (t. Such a channel is called frequency non-selective or frequency flat fading. The multipath components are resolvable if they are separated in delay by 1/W .5) where α(r) (t) represents the time-varying envelop and θ(r) (t) represents the time-varying phase of the channel impulse response. 2.4) −∞ Suppose that the transmitted signal bandwidth W is much smaller than the coherence bandwidth of the channel Bc . From (2. In such a case. τ )x(t − τ )dτ −∞ Z ∞ = G(r) (t. the frequency-selective channel consists of multiple-taps (resolvable multipaths). the channel is called frequency-selective.e.2 Frequency-Selective Fading Channel In the previous subsection we have treated the case when the transmitted signal bandwidth is smaller than the coherence bandwidth of the channel resulting into the so-called frequency non-selective or frequency flat fading channel. W ≪ Bc . i. 1/W can be viewed as the time resolution of the receiver.18 Mobile Wireless Channels received signal z (r) (t) at the rth receive antenna can be written as Z ∞ (r) z (t) = g (r) (t. For frequency-selective fading. and therefore. echoes of the transmitted signal arrive at the receiver causing intersymbol interference (ISI). f )X(f )ej2πf t df (2.5). This means that the channel frequency response is fixed over the transmitted signal bandwidth W . Then all the frequency components of the transmitted signal X(f ) will experience the same attenua- tion and phase shift.4.

Channel Models 19 x(t) ∆ ∆ ∆ g0(t) g1(t) gL (t) P z(t) ∆=1/W Figure 2. the frequency-selective fading channel may be modeled by a tapped delay line with L + 1 uniformly spaced taps. and each tap is characterized by a complex-valued time-varying (r) gain gl (t). The frequency-selective channel reduces to frequency flat if L = 0 or the channel maximum delay spread τmax is much smaller than the time resolution of the receiver. . The tap spacing between adjacent taps is 1/W . In this subsection we will consider the channel’s coherence time Tc and its impact on the channel time selectivity. Therefore. i. (r) The lth resolvable path gl (t) of the multipath fading channel is characterized (r) (r) by its time-varying amplitude αl (t). as shown in Figure 2. and its time-varying phase θl (t) and can be written as (r) (r) (r) gl (t) = αl (t)ejθl (t) .4. Slow Fading In our discussion so far we consider the coherence bandwidth Bc of the channel and its impact on the channel frequency selectivity. and the time resolution of the systems is 1/W .e.3: Tapped delay line model of frequency-selective channels. Since the channel maximum delay spread is τmax . 2. τmax ≪ 1/W .2. the number of multipath components L is obtained as L = ⌊τmax W ⌋. fading channel (or ISI channel) can be written as L X (r) g (r) (t.3 [84]. τ ) = gl (t)δ(t − l/W ). (2.4.3 Fast Fading vs.6) l=0 where L is the number of resolvable multipath components. The channel time selectivity determines whether the channel is slowly or fast fading.

this case . Note that. In Figure 2. BW of signal < BW of channel (W < Bc ) 1. Coherence time > symbol period (Tc > T ) 3. In terms of mobility and data rates. In fast fading.5(a).4 adopted from [86]. characterizing the channel as slow or fast fading does not specify whether the channel is frequency-selective or frequency-flat. the channel impulse response changes at a rate much slower than the symbol period of the transmitted signal. The time coherence of the channel is directly related to the Doppler spread. The different types of fading are shown in Figure 2. The general doubly selective channel is depicted in Figure 2. Coherence time < symbol period (Tc < T ) 2.5. Low Doppler spread 2. In slow fading.5(b) which arises when the channel maximum delay spread τmax ≪ 1/W and the transmitted signal bandwidth satisfies 1/W < Tc . Therefore. the channel impulse response changes rapidly within the symbol period T . the channel’s coherence time is smaller than the symbol period. Channel variations faster than baseband 3. we depict the different types of the mobile wireless channels. BW of signal > BW of channel (W > Bc ) 2. High Doppler spread 1.4: Types of small scale fading [86]. the larger the Doppler spread the smaller the coherence time and the faster the channel changes within the symbol period of the transmitted signal.20 Mobile Wireless Channels Small Scale Fading (Based on multipath time delay spread) Flat Fading Frequency−Selective Fading 1. Channel variations slower than baseband signal variations signal variations Figure 2. In this case the channel may be assumed to be static (invariant) over several symbol periods. In other words. Delay spread > symbol period (τmax > T ) Small Scale Fading (Based on Doppler spread) Fast Fading Slow Fading 1. The time-variation of a one tap channel is depicted in Figure 2. the transmitted signal is said to experience fast fading if 1/W < Tc . the transmitted signal is said to experience slow fading if 1/W > Tc . Hence. Delay spread < symbol period (τmax < T ) 2.

The time-selective channel is finally depicted in Figure 2. Channel Models 21 5 0 −5 −10 |g (t. Channel time-variation results due to the relative motion between the receiver and the transmitter . the channel is said to be time-selective if it is time variant. This case arises in general for stationary or low mobility users with high data rate terminals. The frequency-selective case is depicted in Figure 2.5(d) which arises for high mobility users with low data rate terminals.4. Figure 2. (c) Frequency-selective channel. Similarly.4 Doppler Spread and Time-Selective Fading Chan- nels The channel is said to be time non-selective if it is time-invariant.5: Fading types in mobile wireless channels.4.2. (d) Time-selective channel. arises for high mobility high data rate terminals.τ)| (dB) −15 −20 (r) −25 −30 −35 −40 −45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Time (msec) (a) Time-variation of one tap channel.and frequency-selective chan- nel.5(c). (b) Time. 2.

22 Mobile Wireless Channels and/or the motion of the surrounding which in turn results in a Doppler shift. c is the speed of light. Each resolvable path. and fc is the carrier frequency.µ e l. λ c where λ is the wavelength. For a mobile moving at a constant speed v and an angle of arrival φ. the central limit theorem (CLT) leads to a Gaussian process model for the channel impulse response.µ ej2πfmax cos φl. the channel time-selectivity is determined by the Doppler shift. t + τ ) = E gl (t + τ )gl (t) X X (r)∗ −j2πf cos φ(r) t (r) j2πfmax cos φ(r) (t+τ ) max =E Gl.u′ . Accordingly.µ′ e l.8) When there is a large number of scatterers . the maximum Doppler spread is fmax = 100 Hz.3). c For example. the faster the channel varies over time.u t . the Doppler shift fd is given by v v fd = cos φ = fc cos φ. for a system with carrier frequency fc = 900 M Hz. we can write the lth resolvable path of the multipath channel characterizing the link between the transmitter and the rth receive antenna as (r) X (r) (r) gl (t) = Gl. In multipath communications the transmitted signal arrives at the receiver along multiple resolvable paths. . The time correlation of the multipath channel is often used to characterize how fast the channel changes over time. According to the model described in (2. and a vehicle speed v = 120 Km/hr. Each of these rays is characterized by its own complex gain and frequency-offset.7). and vice versa. the time correlation of the lth tap of the multipath fading channel can be obtained as2 : n o (r) (r)∗ rh (t. consists of a superposition of a large number of scatterers (rays) that arrive at the receiver almost simultaneously with a common propagation delay. however. Hence. µ µ′ (2. the envelope of the channel impulse response 2 The analysis done in this section assumes WSSUS (see Section 2. The Doppler shift is a measure of the relative frequency shift between the transmitted signal and the received signal.u Gl. The higher the Doppler shift.7) µ where the maximum Doppler spread is obtained as v fmax = fc . (2. Assuming a zero-mean Gaussian process.

1 −0. The Doppler power spectrum can therefore be obtained by taking the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function as q Ω2l |f | ≤ fmax f Sf (f ) = 1−( fmax )2 0 |f | > fmax 3 Throughout this thesis we assume a uniform power delay profile.4.02 0 0.µ |2 }δ(µ − µ′ ). t + τ ) = E |Gl.µ τ dφ 2π 0 = Ω2l J0 (2πfmax τ ).5 6 r (τ) S (f) 5 f h 4 0 3 2 1 −0. (b) Doppler power spectrum.2. t + τ ) can be written as X n (r) o rh (t.1 −200 −150 −100 −50 0 50 100 150 200 τ f (Hz) (a) Channel autocorrelation function.06 0. the probability distribution of the random variable R is given according to the Rayleigh probability distribution function: r 2 2 pR (r) = 2 e−r /Ωl r ≥ 0. 2π].02 0.08 −0. Hence. Ωl where Ω2l = E{R2 } represents the average power of the lth tap that may vary from tap to tap according to the power delay profile of the multipath fading channel3 . Figure 2. Channel Models 23 1 10 f =20 Hz fmax=20 Hz max fmax=100 Hz 9 fmax=100 Hz 8 7 0. Define the envelope of the lth tap (r) of the multipath channel as R = |gl (t)|. the autocorrelation function rh (t. . all taps have the same average power.µ |2 E e−j2πfmax cos φl.µ′ } = E{|Gl. (2.e.9) where J0 is the zeroth order Bessel function of the first kind. such (r) (r) (r) that E{Gl.06 −0.04 0. at any time instant has a Rayleigh probability distribution and the phase is uniformly distributed in the interval [0.08 0.6: The channel autocorrelation function and Doppler power spectrum.µ τ µ Z 2π 1 (r) = Ω2l e−j2πfmax cos φl. It is assumed that the different scattering rays are independent.5 0 −0.04 −0. i.µ Gl.

The discretization operation at the receiver is normally referred to as analog-to-digital conversion (A/D). Hence. . (2. Define y (r) [n] = y (r) (nT ). τ ).12) k=−∞ 4 Temporal oversampling is also possible here to obtain a SIMO system. In this thesis we consider the use of multiple receive antennas.5 Discrete-Time Channel Model In digital communication systems. Hence.11) k=−∞ −∞ where ψ(t) is the overall impulse response of the transmit and receive filters ψ(t) = gtr (t) ⋆ grec (t). to some degree. Assuming temporal oversampling.10) k=−∞ where x[k] is the kth transmitted symbol (possibly complex) transmitted at a rate of 1/T symbols/s. 2. we can write the input-output relationship as ∞ X y (r) (t) = x[k]g (r) (t.24 Mobile Wireless Channels The channel autocorrelation and Doppler power spectrum are shown in Figure 2. The received signal is then sampled at the symbol rate T 4 . t − kT ) + v (r) (t) k=−∞ ∞ X Z ∞ (r) x[k] gch (t. and finally filtered with the receive filter grec (t). (2. corrupted by the additive noise v (r) (t). θ)ψ(t − kT − θ)d θ + v (r) (t) (2. where the number of equivalent receive antennas is equal to the oversampling factor. n − k] + v (r) [n]. is equivalent to using multiple receive antennas.6. θ)ψ((n − k)T − θ)d θ + v (r) (nT ) k=−∞ −∞ ∞ X = x[k]g (r) [n. This pulse shaping operation at the transmitter is usu- ally referred to as digital-to-analog conversion (D/A). the discrete-time input-output relationship can be written as X∞ Z ∞ (r) (r) y [n] = x[k] gch (nT . the transmitted signal consists of discrete symbols that are sampled at the symbol rate T and pulse shaped with the transmit filter gtr (t). the baseband transmitted signal can be written as ∞ X x(t) = x[k]gtr (t − kT ). The transmitted signal is then convolved with the time-varying physical channel (r) gch (t.

2. τ )sinc(π(νT − τ )/T )dτ.13) −∞ For large bandwidth channels. ν] = gch (nT . (2. (2.5.16) l=0 On the other hand if L = 0. τ ) −W W T x[n] gtr (t) v (Nr )(t) (N ) y (Nr )[n] gch r (t.7. where v (r) [n] is the discrete-time additive noise at the rth receive antenna. (2. The discrete-time baseband communication systems is shown in Figure 2. then (2. then g (r) [n. νT ). Discrete-Time Channel Model 25 v (1)(t) (1) y (1)[n] gch (t. the input-output relationship (2.17) . (2. ν] is obtained as Z ∞ (r) (r) g [n.15) l=0 (r) Note that if g (r) [n.14) which corresponds to sampling the time-varying physical channel in the time domain as well as in the lag dimension. Assuming an ideal pulse shaping filter ψ(t) = sinc(πt/T ).7: System diagram of the discrete-time baseband equivalent commu- nication system.12) can be written as L X y (r) [n] = g (r) [n. l] = gl ∀n. τ ) −W W T Figure 2. (2. ν] = gch (nT .15) yields a time-invariant frequency- selective channel and the input-output relation becomes: L X (r) y (r) [n] = gl x[n − l] + v (r) [n].13) can be well approximated as (r) g (r) [n. (2. (2. l]x[n − l] + v (r) [n]. For causal doubly selective channels with finite maximum delay spread τmax and order L = ⌊τmax /T ⌋.15) yields a time-selective channel with an input-output relation y (r) [n] = g (r) [n]x[n] + v (r) [n].

26 Mobile Wireless Channels 2. . This is referred to as Jakes’ channel model [56]. Note the relation with Jakes’ channel model with ωq = 2πv/λ cos φq for sufficiently large Q. 79. In the BEM the time-varying channel taps are expressed as a superposition of a finite number complex exponential basis functions. (r) φl.µ is the direction of arrival angle of the µth ray of the lth tap. and is a uniformly distributed random variable in [0. l] = Gl. The obtained coefficients may change from window to window as will be clear later. 46.µ n .l ejωq n (2. In the BEM the lth tap of the time-varying channel between the transmitter and the rth receive antennas at time index n is written as Q/2 X (r) h(r) [n. is obtained by sampling gl (t) in (2.18) µ=0 where: QJ is the number of scatterers. We have shown that the mobile wireless channel can be characterized as a time-varying multipath fading channel.g. and that each resolvable path consists of a superposition of a large number of independent scatterers (rays) that arrive at the receiver almost simultaneously. The BEM makes it feasible to obtain an accurate model of the time-varying channel with a smaller number of parameters by modeling the time-varying channel over a limited time-window. In this model. (2. QJ = 400). l] = hq. however.µ is the complex gain of the µth ray of the lth tap.µ ej2πfmax T cos φl. This motivates us to search for alternative models with fewer parameters and get enough accuracy to model the real world channel.19) q=−Q/2 where Q+1 is the number of complex exponential basis functions with frequen- cies {ωq }. 2π]. which is prohibitive if not impossible in practical systems.6 Basis Expansion Channel Model (BEM) In the previous sections we have given a brief description of the mobile wireless channel. a huge number of parameters need to be identified and/or equalized (e.7) with the symbol period T . In this model the variation of each tap can be simulated as QX J −1 (r) (r) g (r) [n. 89]. (r) This model. A model that satisfies these requirement is the basis expansion model (BEM)[102. (r) Gl.

Under assumptions A1) and A2). (2. θ] for n ∈ {0. A2) The Doppler spread is bounded by fmax . the Doppler res- (r) olution of the model). and K ≥ N is the BEM resolution.L e−j2π 2 K ∆ ∆ ∆ (r) (r) (r) (r) Q n hQ/2. where each tap is expressed as a superposition of complex exponential basis functions with frequencies on a DFT grid. . for l ∈ {0. we use the BEM of [89.8: Block diagram of BEM channel realization. L represents the discrete delay spread (expressed in multiples of T . . In this work. Note that the coefficients hq. In this expansion model.2 h−Q/2. the channel is modeled as a time-varying FIR filter. .2.0 hQ/2. · · · . Basis Expansion Channel Model (BEM) 27 ∆ ∆ ∆ (r) (r) (r) (r) Q n h−Q/2.2 hQ/2. and Q/2 represents the discrete Doppler spread (expressed in multiples of 1/(KT ). and L and Q satisfy the following conditions: C1) LT ≥ τmax . C2) Q/(KT ) ≥ 2fmax .20) q=−Q/2 where N is the period of transmission of concern. Let us first make the following assumptions: A1) The delay spread is bounded by τmax .1 h−Q/2. l] = ej2πqn/K hq. In this BEM (which we simply call the BEM from now on).1 hQ/2.6. . L}.L ej2π 2 K Figure 2. N − 1} as Q/2 X (r) (r) h [n.l remain invariant for . the delay resolution of the model). 77. 1. as described next. it is possible to accurately model the doubly- selective channel g (r) [n.0 h−Q/2. which has been shown to accurately model realistic channels. 69].l .

Jakes’ channel model. K=2N −45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Time (ms) (a) Fitting Jakes’ model with the BEM.45 MSE. .05 0 0 0.001 0.007 0. K=N 0. .01 fdT (b) Channel MSE vs the normalized Doppler spread. 0.15 0. and hence are the BEM coefficients of interest.τ)| (dB) −15 −20 (r) −25 −30 −35 Jakes Channel Model −40 BEM.2 0.006 0.009 0. n ∈ {0.9: BEM vs.8.5 MSE.4 0.28 Mobile Wireless Channels 10 5 0 −5 −10 |g (t. Figure 2.008 0.005 0.3 MSE 0. 1.003 0. K=N BEM. .1 0.004 0.25 0.002 0. N − 1}. Under this BEM the time-varying channel is modeled as shown in Figure 2.35 Target f T max 0. K=2N 0. . .

how accurately can the BEM capture the time variation of realistic channels.l ej2πqn/K x[n − l] + v (r) [n]. • the number of time-varying basis functions Q = 2⌈Kfmax T ⌉. . In this dissertation we will consider the well-known and widely accepted Jakes’ model to simulate realistic channels. Hence. x[N − 1]]T . · · · . In other words. (2. (2. 01×(N −1) ].22) q=−Q/2 (r) where Dq = diag{[1. · · · .0 . and the BEM coefficients are then . · · · .21) on the block level formulation can be written as Q/2 X y(r) = Dq Hq(r) x + v(r) . 01×(N −1) ]T . • realistic channel model according to Jakes’ model with QJ = 400 scat- terers. ej2πq(N −1)/K ]}.21) l=0 q=−Q/2 It is useful to introduce the block version of (2. Jakes Model In this subsection we will examine how accurate the BEM is to approximate the doubly selective channel. N −1}can be written as L Q/2 X X (r) y (r) [n] = hq.L . • the corresponding maximum Doppler frequency fmax = 200Hz. Hq is an N ×(N +L) Toeplitz matrix (r) (r) (r) with first row [hq. v (r) [N − 1]]T . Q = 4 for K = N . Define y(r) = [y (r) [0]. • the BEM resolution K = N and K = 2N . • approximate the realistic channel over a time-window N = 400. · · · .L . . · · · .6. For simplicity we consider the time-variation of a one-tap channel.21). 2. y (r) [N − 1]]T . and Q = 8 for K = 2N . Basis Expansion Channel Model (BEM) 29 The input-output relation under the BEM assumption for n ∈ {0. .2. the input-output relation (2. x = [x[−L]. For our validation process we consider the following channel setup: • sampling time T = 25µsec. and first column [hq. and v(r) = [v (r) [0].1 BEM vs. We assume the time-varying Jakes’ channel is known. hq. • maximum mobile speed v = 120Km/hr. • carrier frequency fc = 1800M Hz (GSM carrier).6. .

· · · .08 0. where LK is an N × (Q + 1) matrix with the (q + Q/2 + 1)th column given by [1. As shown in Figure 2. l] = Gl. the MSE channel estimate is very low as long as fd ≤ fmax .l| |hq.06 0.02 0. In other words. g (r) [N − 1. l] is the lth tap at time index k generated according to Jakes’ model as QX J −1 (r) (r) g (r) [k.l . Assume that the lth tap of the time- (r) varying channel is known gl = [g (r) [0.12 0. Figure 2.µ k . coefficients K = 2N . one realization of the Jakes’ channel model is plotted. · · · .µ ej2πfmax T cos φl. the MSE channel estimate is very small as long as the maximum Doppler spread is lower than the designated Doppler spread. we design the communication system for a target maximum Doppler spread. ej2πq(N −1)/K ]T . and K = 2N . In Figure 2.10: Power Spectrum Density of the BEM coefficients. µ=0 (r) (r) (r) The BEM coefficients of the lth tap hl = [h−Q/2.06 0.03 0.04 2 2 |hq. · · · . In this sense we examine the mean square error (MSE) channel estimate between the BEM and Jakes’ model as a function of the normalized Doppler spread fd T . In general. This MSE channel estimate actually reflects the modeling error between the BEM and Jakes’ model. We also plot the BEM fitting for the case of K = N . obtained by least-squares (LS) fitting.07 0.9(b). From this figure we verify that the BEM accurately approximates the realistic Jakes’ model especially for the case where the BEM resolution is twice the window size (K = 2N ).04 0. l]]T where g (r) [k.9(a).02 0.01 0 0 −1000 −800 −600 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 −1000 −800 −600 −400 −200 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frquency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) (a) Power Spectrum Density of the BEM (b) Power Spectrum Density of the BEM coefficients K = N . l].l| 0.1 0. hQ/2.30 Mobile Wireless Channels 0.05 0. . ej2πq/K .l ]T are then obtained by LS fitting as (r) (r) hl = L†K gl .

The basis expansion channel model (BEM) and its relationship to the well known Jakes’ channel model has also been introduced. Multipath propagation results from reflection.2. • The number of BEM coefficients Q given by Q = 2⌈Kfmax T ⌉ is quite accurate. Summary 31 The power spectrum density (PSD) of the BEM coefficients is shown in Figure 2.10(b) resemble the power spectrum density of Jakes’ model (at discrete frequencies shown in Figure 2. diffraction. . and scattering of the radiated electromagnetic waves of buildings and other objects that lie in the vicinity of the transmitter and/or receiver. From this figure we draw the following observations. In this chapter. Frequency-selectivity is caused by multipath propagation which in- troduces intersymbol interference (ISI). Finally.10. selective in both time and frequency. We have mainly focused on the channel parameters that are related to the assumption of wide sense stationary uncor- related scattering (WSSUS). 2. we have shown that the mobile wireless channel may gen- erally be characterized as doubly selective.7.10(a) and 2. we have concluded with the validation of the BEM compared with the more realistic Jakes’ model. In both figures the power spectrum of coefficients beyond this number is very small and can be neglected. i.6(b)).7 Summary In this chapter.e. the main channel parameters of the underlying wire- less channel have been introduced. • Both Figures 2.

32 Mobile Wireless Channels .

and Frequency-Selective Fading Channels . Part I Single Carrier Transmission over Time.

. In this sense. In this Part of this thesis we investigate single carrier transmission over dou- bly selective channels. 5 ZF means that ISI is completely eliminated. Future generations wireless (B3G and 4G) systems are required to provide high data rates to high mobility users. 39]. Extending polynomial fitting over the whole packet (or using a sliding window approach) to time- varying frequency-selective channels is investigated in [27]. namely as linear or decision feedback equalizers. 72. adaptive algorithms can be invoked in order to provide the equalizer the means of adapting its coefficients. For slowly time-varying channels. In the context of linear equalization of TI channels. 38]. For time-varying multipath fading channels. Utilizing finite impulse response filters for DFEs is investigated in [5]. adaptive algorithms are not fast enough to provide the equalizer the means to adapt its coefficients. for rapidly time-varying chan- nels. to the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm or Kalman filtering algorithm [40. TI equalizers are not adequate to compensate for the problem of ISI.34 In single carrier (SC) transmission data symbols are transmitted using one car- rier over the available bandwidth. Multipath fading can cause echoes from a particular data symbol to interfere with adjacent symbols causing intersymbol interference (ISI). Maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) for data transmission over TI channels with ISI is introduced in [58. when a zero-forcing solution is sought. To combat the problem of ISI. TI equalizers are utilized to compensate for ISI. 124]. Equalizers can be classified according to their structure. or minimum mean-square error (MMSE) when the equalizer optimizes the mean-square error (MSE) of the symbol estimate. The adaptive algorithms range from the least mean-squares (LMS) algorithm [117. where the available bandwidth is divided into narrow band sub-channels. polynomial fitting of the 1-tap time-varying chan- nel is used to predict the channel as proposed in [26]. 63. However. If the multipath fading channel is time-invariant (TI). 23]. Adaptive techniques for channel estimation or equalization are developed to combat the problem of ISI over slowly time-varying channels. For fast flat-fading channels. Decision feedback equalizers (DFE) developed by using previously detected symbols to compensate for ISI are discussed in [80. 64. However. 73]. This is in contrast to multi-carrier (MC) sys- tems. MMSE and ZF equalizers are investigated in [50. Equalizers can also be classified according to the optimization criterion. For such scenarios. equalizers can be classified as zero-forcing (ZF)5 . or maximum likelihood (ML) when the maximum likelihood sequence estimation criterion is utilized. equalizers are needed to recover the transmitted symbols. the ML approach turns out to be very complex to implement. A maximum like- lihood sequence estimation based on the Viterbi algorithm (VA) is studied in [36].

the second type operates on a sample by sample basis. a feedforward filter and a feedback filter. In Chapter 5. In this chapter we will focus on two categories of linear equalizers. we propose a serial DFE (SDFE). resulting into blind techniques. block linear equalizers (BLEs). DFEs apply two filters. . we present channel equalization and estimation schemes as follows. In Chapter 4. First. This material has been published as: [12. Similar to the SLE. we focus on the problem of channel estimation and direct equalization based on pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) techniques. Namely. we focus on the case of decision feedback equalization of doubly selective channels. While the first type equalizes a block of received samples. This material has been published as: [20. we consider two types of equalizers. This material has been published as: [19. 13. the design and implementation of SLEs is done on a block-by-block basis. 18]. 35 conventional TI equalization schemes or adaptive schemes that are suitable for slowly time-varying channels are not suitable since the channel may vary sig- nificantly from sample to sample. 65]. We mainly will derive the ZF and MMSE equalizers. Unlike linear equalizers which apply one feed- forward filter. or combined with blind techniques resulting into semi-blind techniques as discussed in Chapter 6. implemented us- ing time-varying FIR filters. This material has been published as: [18. we focus on block decision feedback equalizers (BDFEs). In Chapter 3 we focus on the problem of linear equalization of doubly selec- tive channels. In chapters 3 and 4 we design the equalizers (linear or decision feedback) assum- ing the doubly selective channel is perfectly known at the receiver. 67]. 66]. and serial linear equalizers (SLEs). However. Using pure pilot symbols for channel estimation and/or direct equalization can actually either be skipped. Similar to Chapter 3. Second. In this part. the feedforward and feedback filter of the SDFE are im- plemented using time-varying FIR filters.

36 .

where both block and serial equalizers are developed. However. equalizers have been extensively studied in literature. for frequency-selective channels generally require at least two receive antennas for the ZF solution to exist. 37 . but allow for a flexible tradeoff between complexity and performance [107. For frequency-selective channels.1 Introduction this chapter we focus on the problem of equalization for single carrier IN (SC) transmission over doubly selective channels. and complex to implement because a multiplication with a large matrix is required. 93]. In terms of the ZF solution existence. the design and implementation complexity can be reduced.Chapter 3 Linear Equalization of SC Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels 3. We namely focus on the type of linear equalization techniques considering the zero-forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. On the other hand. more specifically finite impulse response (FIR) equalizers. However. serial linear equalizers (SLEs). Complex to design because they require an inversion of a large matrix. since a frequency-selective channel can be diagonalized by means of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in conjunction with the in- sertion of a cyclic prefix with proper length. block linear equalizers (BLEs) for frequency-selective channels only require a single receive antenna [116]. they are usually complex to design and to implement. We may distin- guish between these two types as follows. at the cost of a slight decrease in performance.

for doubly selective channels. Section 3. This allows us to turn a complicated equalization problem (a time-varying 1-D deconvolution problem) into an equivalent simpler equalization problem (a TI 2-D decon- volution problem).7. However. As for frequency-selective channels. Finally.3.8. Decision feedback time-varying FIR equalizers will be treated in Chapter 4. since a doubly selective channel cannot be diagonalized by means of a channel independent transformation (such as the DFT). they can not be simplified. we compare through computer simulations the performance of block linear equalizers and time-varying FIR equalizers. a different approach will be developed here. In Section 3. It turns out that time-varying FIR equalizers gener- ally require at least two receive antennas for the ZF solution to exist. which we expect to allow for a flexible tradeoff between complexity and performance. . Equalization for block transmission techniques is discussed in Section 3. we introduce time-varying FIR equalizers for doubly selective channels. Eq. our conclusions are drawn in section 3. This motivates us to look at SLEs.38 Lin. containing only the BEM coefficients of both the doubly selective channel and the time-varying FIR equalizer. of SC Trans. In particular we consider zero padding based and cyclic prefix based block transmission schemes. Serial linear equalizers implemented by time-varying FIR filters are discussed in Sec- tion 3. and hence. this is generally much lower than the number of receive antennas TI FIR equal- izers require. they are always complex to design and implement. We use a basis expansion model (BEM) to approximate the doubly selective channel and to design the time-varying FIR equalizer. BLEs for doubly selective channels only require a single receive antenna for the ZF solution to exist.4. We focus on the MMSE as well as the ZF solution. However. We then introduce block linear equalization in Section 3. equalizers have also been developed for doubly selective channels [75] where TI equalizers are proposed to combat the doubly selective channel. we consider a non-precoded transmission scheme as well as precoded block transmission techniques.6 compares block linear equalization and SLE techniques with respect to the existence of the ZF solution as well as complexity. In this chapter. In Section 3.2. This approach results in the fact that a ZF solution only exists when the number of receive antennas is greater than or equal to the number of basis functions used to accurately approximate the doubly selective channels. This chapter is organized as follows. these schemes usually apply a complex block equalizer at the receiver. over Doubly Selective Channels Recently. In this chapter. more specifically FIR equalizers. However. the system model is re- viewed. These schemes are outside the scope of this thesis.5. Therefore. Note also that more elaborated precoded transmission schemes have recently been developed for doubly selective channels to improve performance [77].

we obtain the following relationship: L Q/2 X X (r) (r) y [n] = ej2πqn/K hq. . .2 System model The system under consideration is depicted Figure 3. ν] y (Nr )[n] Equalizer Nr Figure 3. System model 39 v (1)[n] y (1)[n] g (1)[n. 1. (3. . Our estimate here is subject to some decision delay d.15): L X y (r) [n] = g (r) [n. .2) l=0 q=−Q/2 In the following we will develop the block version of the input-output relation- ships which will be the basis for designing the different equalizers developed in the subsequent sections of this chapter. 3. x[N − 1]]T .1. An estimate of the transmitted symbol is then obtained by combining the outputs of the equalizers on the different receive antennas. l]x[n − l] + v (r) [n]. . . .l x[n − l] + v (r) [n]. .1: Linear Equalizer block diagram. For completeness here we rewrite the input-output relationship (2. Using the BEM to approximate the doubly selective channel g[n.3. N − 1}. The received block at the rth receive antenna y(r) can then be written as: y(r) = H(r) x + v(r) . l] for n ∈ {0. and the N × 1 received sample block at the rth receive antenna as y(r) = [y (r) [0].1) l=0 On each receive antenna we apply an equalizer. (3. We assume a single- input multiple-output (SIMO) system with Nr receive antennas1 . . . ν] Equalizer 1 x[n] x̂[n − d] v (Nr)[n] g (Nr )[n.3) 1 The extension to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is straightforward.2. Block Data Model We define the (N + L) × 1 symbol block as x = [x[−L]. (3. . y (r) [N − 1]]T . . Finally v(r) is similarly defined as y(r) . .

5) l=0 q=−Q/2 Stacking the Nr (number of receive antennas) received sample blocks: y = [y(1)T . as depicted in Figure 3. . 76]. IN . 0l×N ]. This can be done blindly [46.3). H(Nr )T ]T . we finally obtain: y = Hx + v.4) in (3. the true channel is first approximated using the BEM. . we review block linear equalizers (BLEs). The idea is to apply an N × N BLE W(r) on the rth receive antenna. ZF in the sense of eliminating completely ISI is not truly achieved. . over Doubly Selective Channels The block channel matrix characterizing the link between the transmitter and the rth receive antenna H(r) is an N × (N + L) Toeplitz matrix given by: L Q/2 X X (r) (r) H = hq. the channel spread factor does not play any role in our equalizer design. (3. x[N − 1]]T as Nr X x̂∗ = W(r) y(r) r=1 Nr X Nr X (r) (r) = W H x+ W(r) v(r) . 3.2. In the following.l Dq Zl . and Zl is the N × (N + L) Toeplitz matrix defined as Zl = [0(L−l)×N . . which is then used to design the equalizer (block or serial) to equalize the true channel. ej2πq(N −1)/K ]T }. Eq. This generally requires the channel to be under-spread.4) l=0 q=−Q/2 where Dq = diag{[1. .40 Lin. .6) r=1 r=1 2 ISI is completely eliminated in the ZF solution if the underlying communication channel follows perfectly the BEM. .l Dq Zl x + v(r) . (3. We focus on the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) and zero-forcing (ZF) BLEs2 . y(Nr )T ]T . . . Therefore. and H = [H(1)T . In our case. the BEM coefficients have to be estimated. where v is similarly defined as y. we arrive at: L Q/2 X X (r) y(r) = hq. in order to estimate x∗ = [x[0]. · · · . we assume perfect channel knowledge at the receiver. . . the product of the delay spread τmax (or L) and the Doppler spread fmax (or Q/2) to be smaller than 1/2 (or N/2) [59. .3 Block Linear Equalization In this section. Substituting (3. However. 68] or by training [78].. of SC Trans.e. under the assumption of perfect channel knowledge. (3. i. . In practice.

and Rv = E{vv } is the noise covariance matrix. . · · · . and Rv = σs2 IN ).e. Rx̃ = σs2 ZH 0 . ν] S/P W(1) N ×1 x[n] v (Nr )[n] x̂ y (Nr )[n] y(Nr ) g (Nr )[n.3. x̂[N −1]] with x̂[n] an estimate for x[n] for n ∈ {0.7) We will now design BLEs according to the MMSE and ZF criteria.1 Minimum Mean-Square Error BLE The MMSE BLE is determined as WM M SE = arg min E{kx̂∗ − x∗ k2 }. (3. as will be explained later. . −1}) are taken care of either by being estimated in a previous block or by applying a block transmission technique such as zero-padding or cyclic prefix that takes care of the so-called inter-block interference (IBI). assuming the transmitted sequence edges (x[n] for n ∈ {−L.8b) is obtained from (3. .8b) becomes: σn2 WM M SE = Z0 (HH H + IN +L )−1 HH . Note that (3. ν] S/P W(Nr ) N ×1 Figure 3. For a white input source and white noise (i. . Rx̃ = E{xxH H ∗ } . Rx = σs2 IN +L . Block Linear Equalization 41 v (1)[n] y (1)[n] y(1) g (1)[n.8b) where Rx = E{xxH } is the input source symbol covariance matrix. . W which leads to [62] WM M SE = RH H H x̃ H (HRx H + Rv ) −1 (3. (3. we obtain x̂∗ = Wy = WHx + Wv.8a) = RH −1 x̃ Rx R−1 x +H H R−1 v H H H R−1 v . N − 1}. (3. . Defining W = [W(1) . .3.9) σs2 3 ` ´−1 ` ´−1 A − BD−1 C = A−1 + A−1 B D − CA−1 B CA−1 .3. .8a) by applying the matrix inversion lemma 3 . W(Nr ) ]. · · · . 3. (3.2: Block linear equalization where x̂∗ = [x̂[0].

of SC Trans. or equivalently by setting the signal power to infinity in the MMSE solution (see (3.10) Assuming that H is of full column rank4 . In other words we apply a time-varying FIR equalizer 4 A full column rank H is obtained for the SIMO case (N ≥ 2 receive antenna).42 Lin.12) Note that (3. .11) However. The SLE consists of a time-varying FIR filter. this is untrue unless we apply some redundant precoding techniques like zero-padding or cyclic prefix as will be discussed later. ν] x[n] v (Nr )(n) x̂[n − d] y (Nr )[n] g (Nr )[n. (3. Eq.7) an (unbiased) ZF solution is obtained if WH = Z0 . 3.3: Serial linear equalization 3. over Doubly Selective Channels v (1)(n) y (1)[n] g (1)[n. In this section. which is obtained by minimizing the quadratic cost function min WH R−1 v W W subject to (3. ν] w(1)[n.10) (see [60]). ν] Figure 3.8b)).11) in the white noise case. a simple ZF solution is: WZF = Z0 (HH H)−1 HH . However. (3. r for the SISO case.2 Zero-Forcing BLE From (3. this does not necessarily lead to the minimum norm ZF solution.12) reduces to (3. we derive the serial linear equalizer (SLE) considering the ZF and MMSE criterion as well. ν] w(Nr )[n.3. This leads to [62] WZF = Z0 (HH R−1 v H) −1 H −1 H Rv . (3.4 Serial Linear Equalization In the previous section we derived the block version of the equalizer considering the MMSE and ZF criterion.

l′ ej2πq n/K . i. As we explain next. . where the time-variation of each tap is modeled by Q′ + 1 complex exponential basis functions with frequencies on the same DFT grid as for the channel. N − 1} subject to some decision delay d as: Nr X X ∞ x̂[n − d] = w(r) [n. l ] = wq′ .L′ e−j2π 2 K ∆ ∆ ∆ (r) (r) (r) (r) Q′ n wQ′/2. Sec.3.4: Block diagram of BEM realization of the time-varying FIR equal- izer. ν] was approximated by the BEM. Serial Linear Equalization 43 ∆ ∆ ∆ (r) (r) (r) (r) Q′ n w−Q′/2.0 wQ′/2. This approach will allow us to turn a complicated equalizer design problem into an equivalent simpler equalizer design problem. ν] using the BEM.4. it is also convenient to design the time-varying FIR equalizer w(r) [n. but there the authors did not use a model for the time-variation of the different .2 w−Q′/2.e. . ν] on the rth receive antenna.3. ν] for n ∈ {0.B]. .14) q ′ =−Q′ /2 Note that a similar equalizer structure has been proposed in [46.13) r=1 ν=−∞ Since the doubly selective channel g (r) [n. we design each time-varying FIR equalizer w(r) [n. 1.1 wQ′/2. More specifically. it will allow us to convert a complicated time-varying 1-D deconvolution problem into an equivalent simpler TI 2-D deconvolution problem. ν] is modeled at time index n as: Q′ /2 X (r) ′ (r) ′ w [n. We estimate x[n] for n ∈ {0. . N − 1} to have L′ + 1 taps. (3. as depicted in Figure 3.2 wQ′/2. ν]y (r) [n − ν]. w(r) [n. 1. . .1 w−Q′/2. . (3. containing only the BEM coefficients of both the doubly selective channel and the time-varying FIR equalizer. . the time-varying FIR equalizer at the rth receive antenna w(r) [n. V.L′ ej2π 2 K Figure 3.0 w−Q′/2.

Note that due to the fact that the SLE operates on the received sequence in a serial fashion. we redefine x as x = [x[−L−L′ ].l D̄q Z̄l x r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 q=−Q/2 l=0 ′ Nr Q /2 L ′ X X X (r) + wq′ . . (3. Z̄l . .l′ . x̂[N − d − 1]]T . . .14) has the same structure as the BEM channel in (2.4. and the time-varying FIR filter is of order L′ . but now with W(r) constrained to: L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) (r) W = wq′ . . .17) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 with x̂∗ = [x̂[−d].20). On the block level. Instead of continuing to work on the sample level. of SC Trans.l′ Dq′ Zl′ v(r) . (3. . Q. we redefine the matrices Zl′ . . . . . an estimate of x[n] subject to some decision delay d for n ∈ {0. . Using the BEM to design the time-varying FIR filter.44 Lin. This will more clearly reveal the structure we impose on the time-varying FIR filter. x[N − d − 1]]T ) as in (3.15) corresponds to estimating the transmitted block x∗ subject to some decision delay (x∗ = [x[−d]. . I(N +L) . 0(N +L′ )×l ] ′ ′ Dq′ = diag{[1. Dq′ . and v(r) = [v (r) [−L′ ].8 with L. N − 1} can be obtained as: L ′ Q′ /2 X X ′ (r) x̂[n − d] = ej2πq n/K wq′ .16) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 An estimate of x∗ is then obtained as Nr Q′ /2 L ′ Q/2 L X X X (r) X X (r) x̂∗ = wq′ .l′ y (r) [n − l′ ]. . Q′ . ej2πq(N +L −1)/K ]T } . the time-varying FIR filter (r) is designed (realized) as in Figure 2. respectively as shown in Figure 3. it is more convenient to switch to the block level at this point. . . which is different than the definition introduced while discussing the BLEs. . redefined here due to the decision delay d. (r) and wq′ .l′ Dq′ Zl′ hq. Note that the time-varying FIR filter in (3. . 0N ×l′ ] Z̄l = [0(N +L′ )×(L−l) . . Eq. and hq. . .6). (3. over Doubly Selective Channels equalizer taps. .l′ Dq′ Zl′ . . ej2πq (N −1)/K ]T } D̄q = diag{[1. . v (r) [N − 1]]T . . Therefore. . x[N −1]]T .15) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 Note that for this type of equalizers the decision delay is limited to 0 ≤ d ≤ L + L′ + 1. IN . . 1. . Accordingly.l replaced by L′ . (3. and D̄q as follows: Zl′ = [0N ×(L′ −l′ ) .

However. . .21) where w = [w(1)T .4. wQ′ /2. w(r) (r) (r) (r) = [w−Q′ /2.L′ . . . .18) in a matrix-vector form as Nr X T x̂∗ = (f ⊗ IN )Ax + (w(r)T ⊗ IN )B(r) v(r) . B(Nr ) . .l′ Dq′ Zl′ v(r) . . w−Q′ /2. . . when different equalizer orders and delays would be selected for the different receive antennas. . IN .19) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 and Z̃k = [0N ×(L+L′ −k) . f−(Q+Q′ )/2.17) can be rewritten as: (Q+Q′ )/2 L+L′ Nr Q′ /2 L ′ X X X X X (r) x̂∗ = fp.. . . D(Q+Q′ )/2 Z̃L+L′ DQ′ /2 ZL′ Note that B(r) does not depend on r. We can further rewrite (3. (3.L+L′ ]T .L′ ]T and the matrices A and B(r) are defined as D−(Q+Q′ )/2 Z̃0 D−Q′ /2 Z0 . f(Q+Q′ )/2. B = −Q /2 L . (3. .k = e−j2π(p−q )(L −l )/K wq′ . w(Nr )T ]T . . .k Dp Z̃k x + wq′ . D ′ Z ′ . . . . 0N ×k ]. B(r) would depend on r.3. . .20) as x̂∗ = (f T ⊗ IN )Ax + (wT ⊗ IN )Bv. (3. .k−l′ .. (3.. Serial Linear Equalization 45 Defining p = q + q ′ . . (r) A= D −(Q+Q )/2 L+L ′ Z̃ ′ . . k = l + l′ . It will be useful to rewrite (3.20) r=1 where f = [f−(Q+Q′ )/2.. . . (3. . .0 .0 .L+L′ .. and using the following property ′ ′ Zl′ D̄q = ej2πq(L −l )/K Dq Zl′ . and the matrix B is defined as (1) B B= . .l′ hp−q′ .18) p=−(Q+Q′ )/2 k=0 r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 where we have introduced the 2-dimensional function Nr Q′ /2 L ′ X X X ′ ′ ′ (r) (r) fp.

. (3. . . as discussed next. . HQ/2 0 . . (3. .l ). of SC Trans.. Tl.L 0 (r) . Tq.22) Substituting (3.4. 1]T }. the MSE can be written as n o E{kx̂∗ − x∗ k2 } = tr (wT H ⊗ IN )ARx AH (HH w∗ ⊗ IN ) + tr (wT ⊗ IN )BRv BH (w∗ ⊗ IN ) − 2ℜ tr (wT H ⊗ IN )ARx̃ + tr {Rx̃˜ } . . . .L′ +1 (hq.1 Minimum Mean-Square Error SLE The BEM coefficients of the MMSE time-varying FIR filter are determined as wM M SE = arg min E{kx̂∗ − x∗ k2 }..Q′ +1 (Hq(r) ) and defining the matrix H = [H(1)T .24) w Using (3. . ′ and introduce the (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) × (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) block Toeplitz matrix (r) (r) H−Q/2 . .23) Based on this equation. where Ωq = diag{[e−j2πqL /K . . This allows us to derive a linear relationship between f and w. we can then derive from (3. . .46 Lin.0 .. 3. . . Eq.25) . over Doubly Selective Channels The term in fp. (3.Q′ +1 (Hq(r) ) = .19) that: f T = wT H.19)) corresponding to the rth receive antenna is related to a 2-dimensional convolution of the BEM coefficients of the doubly selective channel for the rth receive antenna and the BEM coefficients of the time- varying FIR equalizer for the rth receive antenna. HQ/2 Introducing the notation H(r) = Tq. . we will now design time-varying FIR equalizers accord- ing to the MMSE and ZF criteria.k (see (3.23)..L (r) We then define Hq(r) = Ωq Tl. (r) (r) 0 H−Q/2 . .21) finally leads to x̂∗ = (wT H ⊗ IN )Ax + (wT ⊗ IN )Bv. (3. H(Nr )T ]T .0 .L′ +1 (hq. We first define the (L′ + 1) × (L′ + L + 1) block Toeplitz matrix (r) (r) hq. . . .22) in (3. hq.l ) = . . (r) (r) 0 hq. hq.

27) for an arbitrary k × 1 vector a.3 The p × q matrix subtr{A} is then given by: subtr{A} = tr{A11 } . and (3.. Let us now introduce the following properties: tr{(aT ⊗ IN )V} = aT subtr{V}. where ed is a (Q + Q + 1)(L + L + 1) × 1 unit vector with the 1 in the ((Q + Q′ )(L + L′ + 1)/2 + d + 1)st position. arbitrary kN × N matrix V.28) where rA = subtr{ARx̃ }.4. subtr{·} reduces the row and column dimension by a factor N .4. . which leads to T H H H −1 wM M SE = rA H (HRA H + RB ) (3.. . (3. and RB = subtr{BRv BH }. Serial Linear Equalization 47 where Rx̃˜ = E{x∗ xH ∗ }. . . 3.29a) by applying the matrix inversion −1 lemma. . A1q 5 Let A be the pN × qN matrix: A = 4 .28). .29b) is again obtained from (3. Apq N 2 × N sub-matrix of A.30) Note that we have used the fact that tr{Rx̃˜ } = eTd RA ed . an (unbiased) ZF solution is obtained if (wT H ⊗ IN )A = Z̃d .2 Zero-Forcing SLE From (3. (3. The BEM coefficients of the MMSE time-varying FIR filter are now obtained by solving ∂E{kx̂∗ − x∗ k2 }/∂w = 0. .29c) in (3. RA = subtr{ARx AH }. (3. 7 4 .3..29b) by using the fact that rH A RA = T ′ ′ ed . 5 ij Ap1 ... 5 tr{Ap1 } . where A is the (i.29c) is obtained from (3.31) 2 3 A11 . The MSE can then be written as: E{kx̂∗ − x∗ k2 } = tr {Rx̃˜ } + wT HRA HH w∗ + wT RB w∗ − 2ℜ wT HrA (3. . tr{A1q } 6 ..23).29c) where (3. and arbitrary kN × kN matrix U. . (3. 7. . tr{Apq } .26) T ∗ T ∗ tr{(a ⊗ IN )U(a ⊗ IN )} = a subtr{U}a . . .. subtr{·} splits the matrix up into N × N sub-matrices and replaces each sub-matrix by its trace 5 . . Substituting (3. (3. . j)th 6 .29a) −1 H −1 −1 H −1 = rH A RA (H RB H + R−1 A ) H RB . we can now write the MSE of the MMSE SLE as M SEM M SE = eTd RA − RA HH R−1 H −1 B H(H RB H + RA ) −1 −1 ed H −1 = eTd (R−1 A + H RB H) −1 ed (3. . Hence.29b) = eTd (HH R−1 B H+ R−1 A ) −1 H −1 H RB .

This leads to T wZF = eTd (HH R−1 B H) −1 H −1 H RB .33) By setting the signal power to infinity in (3.48 Lin.5. which is obtained by minimizing the quadratic cost function min wT RB w∗ subject to wT H = eTd . it is more convenient to consider block transmission techniques.30). In this section we focus on block transmission tech- niques for two reasons. (3. a CP or ZP of length ν ≥ L is sufficient to eliminate IBI. In this BEM model. block transmission techniques have been proposed to overcome the edge effect.32) However. In block transmission techniques the transmitted sequence is parsed into blocks of size N each. over Doubly Selective Channels which is equivalent to wT H = eTd . Bearing this in mind we will develop equalization techniques (block and serial) for these types of transmission. A CP or ZP of length ν is appended at the top of each block as explained in Figure 3. i. For channels with order L.e. of SC Trans. a simple ZF is obtained as −1 H T wZF = eTd HH H H .34) 3. (3. in our equalizer design we rely on the BEM to approximate the doubly selective channel and to design the equalizer. we fit the model over a block of symbols.5 Equalization with Block Transmission Tech- niques In our discussion so far we considered serial transmission where no structure is imposed on the transmitted sequence. In this section we will focus on zero-padding (ZP) based block transmission. this does not necessarily lead to the minimum norm ZF solution. Therefore. Therefore. and cyclic-prefix (CP) based block transmission techniques. we obtain the MSE of the ZF time-varying FIR equalizer: M SEZF = eTd (HH R−1 B H) −1 ed (3. and the model coefficients may change from block to block.29c)). w which is again equivalently obtained by setting the signal power equal to infinity in the MMSE solution (see (3. to overcome the problem of IBI. Eq. and therefore inter-block interference (IBI) is typically present. Second. . First.

... 0 . ..5.. . . . .. . . . 0 . . (3. H̄q(r) = q.5: The transmitted sequence for CP/ZP-based block transmission.zp = Rx H̄H (H̄Rx H̄H + Rv )−1 = (H̄H R−1 −1 −1 H −1 v H̄ + Rx ) H̄ Rv .3.. . For this type of trans- mission the input-output relationship is written as: y = H̄x + v.35) where H̄ = [H̄(1)T . . . .8b) reduces to: WM M SE..1 BLE for Block Transmission ZP-Based Block Transmission In ZP-based block transmission trailing zeros of length ν are appended at the top of the transmitted block as explained in Figure 3. . 0 (r) (r) 0 . . H̄(Nr )T ]T . . .8a) and (3. 0 hq.5...0 Hence the MMSE equalizer obtained in (3. . . . ..0 0 ..L .. hq. ..5. (3. . with H̄(r) given by: Q/2 X (r) H̄ = Dq H̄q(r) . 3.. . . . . h(r) ..L ... Equalization with Block Transmission Techniques 49 ν N DATA EXTENSION (CP or ZP) 0ν×1 ZP Block Transmission CP Block Transmission Figure 3. .36) −Q/2 (r) where H̄q is an N × N Toeplitz matrix given by: (r) hq. .

. For time-varying channels. ..0 0 . . .zp = (H̄H H̄ + IN )−1 H̄H σs2 WZF. hq... . which is obtained by setting the signal power to infinity.. the same analysis is applied as the ZP-based block transmission technique except for the definition (r) of the matrix H̄q .zp = (H̄H H̄)−1 H̄H . of SC Trans. . . .. . . the MMSE and ZF equalizers can be written as: σn2 WM M SE.L . and Rv = σn2 I). Eq. .1 . For the TI case the full column rank property is always satisfied. . .L . . It can be easily shown that this solution corresponds to solving the following optimization problem [60]: min WH Rv W subject to WH̄ = IN . . (r) (r) 0 .50 Lin. assuming full column rank H̄.L . CP-Based Block Transmission For the case of CP-based block transmission techniques. W For a white data source and white noise (Rx = σs2 I.. as6 : WZF. which is now defined as: (r) (r) (r) hq. . ... .... H̄q(r) = (r) hq. . .. the full column rank property is violated for TI channels when the TI channel has zeros on the DFT grid (i. . 0 hq. . However.zp = (H̄H R−1 v H̄) −1 H −1 H̄ Rv .. when the channel experiences deep fades). 0 ...L . . . and still under investigation... (r) hq. . over Doubly Selective Channels and the ZF solution can then be obtained. the conditions that violate the full column rank property are not known yet.. 0 hq.e. 6 The full column rank property is achieved here for the case of SISO systems with prob- ability 1.. .. hq.0 The full column rank requirement here happens with probability one for time- varying channels as well as for TI channels.. .

where T̄zp = [IM .l′ Dq′ Zl′ v(r) .l′ hp−q′ . the received sequence at the rth receive antenna can be written as: L Q/2 X X (r) y(r) = hq. p=−(Q+Q′ )/2 k=0 r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 (3.3.l Dq Zl T̄zp x∗ + v(r) .l′ Dq′ Zl′ hq. Equalization with Block Transmission Techniques 51 3. . . we redefine the transmitted block to count for this decision as x = [xT∗ .l′ Dq′ Zl′ v(r) .39) where Nr Q′ /2 L′ X X X ′ ′ (r) (r) fp.38) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 where Rzp = [0M ×d . 0M ×d ]T .38) can be rewritten as (Q+Q′ )/2 L+L′ Nr Q′ /2 L ′ X X X X X (r) x̂∗ = Rzp fp. the time-varying FIR filter is cleared over each block.k = e−j2π(p−q )l /N wq′ . IM ]. This process corresponds to appending L′ zeros at the top of each received block. Taking the decision delay d into account.5. k = l +l′ . 01×(N −l′ −1) ]T . and using the property ′ Zl′ Dq = e−j2πql /N Dq Zl′ . (3. A relation between x and x∗ is obtained as: x = T̄zp x∗ . Hence.40) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 . x[M − 1]]T with M = N − d. In this case the time-varying FIR equalizer at the rth receive antenna is restricted to: L Q′ /2 X X (r) (r) W = wq′ . 01×d ]T . .k−l′ . l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 with Zl′ is an N × N lower triangular Toeplitz matrix with the first column [01×l′ .l Dq Zl T̄zp x∗ r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 q=−Q/2 l=0 Nr Q′ /2 L′ X X X (r) + Rzp wq′ . . (3. 1. (3.5.k Dp Zk T̄zp x∗ +Rzp wq′ . Defining p = q +q ′ .37) l=0 q=−Q/2 An estimate of x∗ is then obtained as Nr Q′ /2 L ′ Q/2 L X X X (r) X X (r) x̂∗ = Rzp wq′ .2 SLE for Block Transmission ZP-Based Block Transmission For the ZP-based block transmission.l′ Dq′ Zl′ . where x∗ = [x[0]. (3.

l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 with Zl′ is an N × N circulant matrix with [Zl ]n. Note here that the decision delay results into a cyclic shift of the received sequence.n′ = δ(n−n′ −l′ ) mod N . The only difference will be in the definitions of Ã and . The corresponding ZF solution is obtained by setting the source power equal to infinity T wZF.41) are Ã = (I(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) ⊗ Rzp )AT̄zp and B̃ = (I(Q′ +1)(L′ +1) ⊗ Rzp )B. of SC Trans. T (3. we can derive a linear relationship between f .zp = eTd (HH (INr ⊗ RB )−1 H)−1 HH (INr ⊗ RB )−1 . the MMSE and ZF solutions can be similarly derived as before. The same expressions as for the ZP case can be obtained for the ZF and MMSE solutions. where rA . The MMSE solution is obtained as −1 H T wM H M SE. which simplifies the expressions. over Doubly Selective Channels Next. w and H as in (3.52 Lin. i. When M ≫ L. Eq. In a similar way. respectively. RA and RB are similarly defined as before but replacing A with Ã and B with B̃.e. In this case the time-varying FIR filter at the rth receive antenna is restricted to: L Q′ /2 X X (r) (r) W = wq′ .39) as Nr X x̂∗ = (f T ⊗ IM )Ãx∗ + (w(r)T ⊗ IM )B̃v(r) r=1 = (f ⊗ IM )Ãx∗ + (wT ⊗ IM )(INr ⊗ B̃)v. Hence.22). and therefore no special structure is required here to count for this delay. CP-Based Block Transmission For the CP-based block transmission a CP of length L′ is added to the top of the received sequence to enforce a cyclic convolution.zp = rA H HRA HH + (INr ⊗ RB ) −1 = eTd HH (INr ⊗ RB )−1 H + R−1 A HH (INr ⊗ RB )−1 . we rewrite (3.l′ Dq′ Zl′ .41) the matrices Ã and B̃ in (3. The same analysis can be done for this case resulting into the same expressions. when the edge effects can be ignored. it can be shown that RA ≈ M I(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) and RB ≈ M I(Q′ +1)(L′ +1) .

5.5. ν] x̂(Nt ) [n − d] y (Nr ) [n] (Nt ) x [n] g (Nr .l D̄q Z̄l x(t) + v(r) . Equalization with Block Transmission Techniques 53 g (1.42) reduces to T wZF.l is the qth bases of the lth tap of the time-varying channel between the rth receive antenna and tth transmit antenna. ν] x(1) [n] y (1) [n] x̂(1) [n − d] g (Nr .1) w [n. ν] Figure 3. (3. or consequently in the definition of RA and RB . where we used the fact that tr{Zl Dp Zl′ } = N δl−l′ . (3.t) y(r) = hq. ν] v (Nr ) [n] g (1.3 Extension to MIMO Systems In this subsection.43) and the ZF solution in (3.1) [n. The system model is shown in Figure 3. ν] v (1) [n] w(1. the BEM coefficients of the MMSE time-varying FIR equalizer reduce to T T H 2 2 −1 H wM M SE. and x(t) is the tth antenna . we will show that the extension to multi-input Multi-output (MIMO) systems is straightforward. B̃. it is easy to show that RA = N I(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) and RB = N INr (Q′ +1)(L′ +1) for K = N .3. (3.t) where hq. ν] w(1. ν] (Nt .1) [n.cp = eTd (HH (INr ⊗ RB )−1 H)−1 HH (INr ⊗ RB )−1 .42) Note here that for white data and noise with variances σs2 and σn2 .44) 3. where Nt transmit antennas and Nr receive antennas are assumed.Nr ) [n. respectively.6. The received block at the rth receive antenna is now written as Nt X L Q/2 X X (r.45) t=1 l=0 q=−Q/2 (r.Nt ) [n. Setting the appropriate definitions the MMSE and ZF solutions can be written as −1 H wMT T M SE.1) [n.cp = eTd (HH H)−1 HH . (3. Hence.Nr ) [n.cp = ed H (INr ⊗ RB ) −1 H + R−1 A HH (INr ⊗ RB )−1 T wZF.Nt ) [n.cp = ed (H H + σn /σs I(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) ) H .6: MIMO system model. ν] w(Nt .

.t) x̂∗ = wq′ . w(a.Nt )T ]T .L+L′ ]T . f(Q+Q′ )/2.l′ Dq′ Zl′ v(r) .t) .. . (3. . of SC Trans.l D̄q Z̄l x(t) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 t=1 q=−Q/2 l=0 ′ Nr Q /2 L ′ X X X (a. . .48) ..54 Lin. (3..Q′ +1 (H(r. At each receive antenna a bank of Nt equalizers is used. .Q′ +1 (H(r.. .l′ is the coefficient of the q ′ th bases of the l′ th tap of the time- varying FIR filter corresponding to the rth receive antenna and the ath transmit antenna. . .r) where wq′ . H(Nt )T ]T . .l ) = . .0 .t) (r.L′ ]T . . HQ/2 0 .k = e−j2π(p−q )(L −l )/K wq′ . . .t) (a. . f (a) (a. . The output of the corresponding filter are combined to estimate the transmitted block on a particular antenna. Tl. w(a. .t) (a. HQ/2 and the definitions H(r. . Eq.t) fp. . define the (L′ + 1) × (L′ + L + 1) block Toeplitz matrix as (r.t) (r.L′ +1 (hq. .t) = Tq.t)q ).r) (r.t) H−Q/2 .t) X X X ′ ′ ′ (a. we can define the 2-dimensional function that corresponds to the ath transmit antenna as Nr Q′ /2 L ′ (a. wQ′ /2. (a) An estimate of x∗ is obtained as: Nr Q′ /2 L ′ Nt Q/2 L (a) X X X (a.Nr )T ]T .1)T . . . we can derive from (3.t) 0 H−Q/2 . Introducing the (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) × (Q + ′ ′ Q + 1)(L + L + 1) block Toeplitz matrix (r..r) = [f (a. over Doubly Selective Channels transmitted block. . . hq.t)T .t) q )= . (r.0 . f−(Q+Q′ )/2. We can derive a relation between f (a) and w(a) as explained next. .t) then define H(r. f (a.t) q = Ωq Tl. (r. . Briefly.L 0 (r.r) = [w−Q′ /2. . (3. . hq.l ).t)T ]T and H = [H(1)T .l′ Dq′ Zl′ hq.L′ +1 (hq.r) + wq′ .L (r.r) (a.r) X X X (r. H(Nr .L+L′ .t) Defining f (a. .1)T . .l′ hp−q′ . H(t) = [H(1. . . .47) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 (a. and finally w(a) = [w(a.t) = [f−(Q+Q′ )/2. .46) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 (a.. .k−l′ . . Tq. First. .t) 0 hq.0 . .t) (r.0 .t) (r. . .47) that f (a)T = w(a)T H.t) hq.

is different when block transmission techniques are used (ZP or CP). The second and third conditions. the matrix H̄ violates the full column rank property when the channel experiences deep fades (i. Nr > Nt . q=−Q/2 C3) H−Q/2 and HQ/2 have full column rank.6.1 The matrix H has full column rank if: C1) Q′ ≥ Q(L + L′ + 1).6. which can always be obtained with a sufficiently large Q′ and L′ if Nr ≥ 2. . which require Nr (L′ + 1) ≥ L + L′ + 1.6 Discussion and Comparisons 3. . when Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) ≥ (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1). i. Q/2}). and of full column rank with probability one for CP-based block transmission. for a TI channel H̄ is always of full column rank for ZP-based block transmission.3. are usually known as the irreducible and column reduced condition. ∞}.. . the ZF solution exists when the matrix H̄ is of full column rank. For block transmission techniques. since we can view H as the channel matrix related to the purely frequency-selective MIMO channel Hq = [H(1)T q . Q/2 P C2) H(z) = Hq z −q has full column rank ∀z ∈ / {0. The following proposition gives a set of sufficient conditions for H to be of full column rank [1]: Theorem 3. Hq(Nr )T ]T of order Q (q ∈ {−Q/2. which happens with probability one regardless of the Nr . On the other hand. Note that. the channel has zeros on the DFT grid).1 Existence of ZF Solution The existence of the ZF BLE in (3. and Q′ and L′ are chosen to satisfy the inequality Nr (Q′ +1)(L′ +1) ≥ Nt (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1). however. the existence of the ZF SLE equalizer requires that H has full column rank.e. respectively. which happens with probability one when H has at least as many rows as columns. .12) requires that H has full col- umn rank. i. Discussion and Comparisons 55 For a ZF solution to exist we require that H is of column rank. which has (L + L + 1) inputs and Nr (L′ + 1) ′ outputs. .e. A more detailed existence result follows from a result for the existence of a ZF TI FIR equalizer of a purely frequency-selective multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel [1]. .11) or (3. . For sufficiently large L′ and Q′ . which requires that the number of receive antennas Nr ≥ 2.e. a necessary condition to have full column rank H is that the number of receive antennas is greater than the number of transmit antenna. 3. For CP-based block transmission. This. . .

where the dots represent the possible solution pairs (Q′ . H has full column rank with probability one when Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) ≥ (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1). (3. This can be easily seen by solving for Q′ for a fixed L′ as Q(L + L′ + 1) Q′ ≥ − 1. which can always be obtained with a sufficiently large Q′ and L′ if Nr ≥ 2. Nr ≥ 2 Q 2.7.50) implies the following necessary (not necessarily sufficient) conditions: 1. Note that existence is not an issue when an MMSE SLE is considered.49) implies the following necessary (not necessarily sufficient) conditions: 1. Eq. it is clear that the performance of the MMSE equalizer will improve when it is designed in such a way that the corresponding ZF equalizer exists. of SC Trans.e. Two types of complexity can be consid- ered: the design complexity and the implementation complexity. Nr ≥ 2 L 2. as said before. the solution region of (3..2 Complexity In this section. L′ ≥ 0.6. the conditions are sufficient and not necessary. L = 3 and Q = 4. we assume that N is large enough such that blind channel estimation performs well or the overhead of the training symbols for training based channel estimation does not decrease the data rate too much. However. Q′ + 1 > Nr −1 For Nr = 2 receive antennas. 3. L′ + 1 > Nr −1 In a similar fashion. L′ ).50) is shown in Figure 3. i.49) (Nr − 1)(L′ + 1) − L (3. Q′ ≥ 0. LQ ≪ N . In any case.49)/(3. (3. The bock size N will play an important role in these complexity types. which basically means that the channel should be far under-spread.56 Lin. In general. we will compare the complexity of the BLE with the complexity of the SLE proposed in this chapter. . However. we can solve for L′ for a fixed Q′ as L(Q + Q′ + 1) L′ ≥ − 1.50) (Nr − 1)(Q′ + 1) − Q (3. over Doubly Selective Channels Note that condition C1 puts a rather tough constraint on Q′ .

and thus the implementation complexity of the SLE is lower than the implementation complexity of the BLE. On the other hand. For the BLE. . Q = 4. to design the SLE. for the SLE. we may assume that (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) is less than the block size N .7: Solution Region for (3. and thus the design complexity of the SLE is lower than the design complexity of the BLE. assuming the channel is far under- spread and L′ and Q′ are not much larger than L and Q. Again. On the other hand. To design the BLE. we may assume that A is less than the block size N .3. Implementation complexity: The implementation complexity (run-time com- plexity) is computed as the number of multiply-add (MA) operations required to estimate the transmitted block.49)/(3. we have to compute the inverse of an N × N matrix. we have to compute the inverse of a A × A matrix. estimating the transmitted block requires N 2 MA operations per receive antenna.6. Note that our simulation results indicate that in order to obtain a performance close to the performance of the BLE. estimating the transmitted block requires N (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) MA operations per receive antenna.49)/(3. Discussion and Comparisons 57 20 18 16 14 Solution of (3. we do not have to take L′ and Q′ much larger than L and Q (at least as far as the practical MMSE case is concerned). where A = (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1). This requires O(A3 ) flops.50) for Q=4 and L=3 12 Q’ 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 L’ Figure 3.50) for L = 3. and Nr = 2 receive antennas Design complexity: The design complexity is the complexity associated with computing the equalizer. This requires O(N 3 ) flops. Assuming the channel is far under-spread and L′ and Q′ are not much larger than L and Q.

4. the existence of the ZF solution requires L′ ≥ ⌈ N r−1 − 1⌉. the existence of Q a ZF solution requires Q′ ≥ ⌈ N r−1 − 1⌉. For the case of ZF SLE. TI FIR equalization of a purely frequency-selective channel (Q = 0 and Q′ = 0) and time-varying 1-tap FIR equalization of a purely time-selective channel (L = 0 and L′ = 0) can be viewed as special cases of our approach. • block size N = 800. while for the case of MMSE SLE. and 4 receive antennas. 3.7 Simulations In our simulations. 3. 2. we consider a single-input single- output (SISO) system as well as a SIMO system with Nr = 2. This result coincides with the result obtained in [75].6. in this case the proposed approach leads to a lower design and implementation complexity.3 Unifying Framework In this subsection. we investigate the performance of the ZF and the MMSE BLEs as well the performance of the ZF and the MMSE SLEs. • a BEM resolution K is considered as K = P N with P = 1. we consider a SIMO system with Nr = 2. and 6 receive antennas. provided enough receive antennas are available. On the other hand. we show that the time-varying FIR equalizer proposed in this chapter unifies and extends many previously proposed serial linear equalization approaches. Eq. It is also worth to note that our framework encompasses equalization of dou- bly selective channels using a TI FIR equalizer or a time-varying 1-tap FIR equalizer. • delay spread τmax = 75 µs.58 Lin. which coincides with the result obtained in [93]. In L the first case. it is possible to perfectly equalize a doubly selective channel with a time-varying 1-tap FIR equalizer (L′ = 0) if we choose Q′ ≥ ⌈ N(L+1)Q r −(L+1) − 1⌉. For Nr > Q + 1 it is possible to perfectly equalize a doubly selective channel with a TI FIR equalizer (Q′ = 0) if we choose L′ ≥ ⌈ N(Q+1)L r −(Q+1) − 1⌉. 3. which is again a novel observation. . which is a novel observation. Other parameters of the system are listed as follows: • Doppler spread fmax = 100 Hz (corresponds to a speed of 120Km/hr over the 900 M Hz GSM band). for Nr > L + 1. First of all. over Doubly Selective Channels As indicated above. In the second case. of SC Trans.

3. We consider ZP-based as well as CP-based block transmission techniques.8: BER as a function of (Q′ . Simulations 59 0 10 ZF TV FIR. correlated in time with a correlation function according to Jakes’ model rh (τ ) = J0 (2πfmax τ ). which can never be obtained in practice. which leads to Q = 4 for K = N and Q = 8 for K = 2N . BEM −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 30 Q′ 25 15 20 15 10 20 5 0 L′ Figure 3. . The doubly selective channel is then approximated by the BEM. BEM −1 10 −2 10 BER ZF BLE. L′ ) for Nr = 2 receive antennas using a ZF time-varying FIR equalizer at an SNR of 16 dB. We use these BEM coefficients to design the BLE as well as the SLE to equalize the true Jakes’ channel model rather than the approximated one.d. • discrete delay spread L = 3. • discrete Doppler spread Q/2 = ⌈fmax KT ⌉. • symbol/sample period T = 25 µs. and not the knowledge of the true Jakes’ channel. where J0 is the zeroth-order Bessel function of the first kind . This channel model is used to generate the channel output sequences.i. We only assume the knowledge of the BEM coefficients of the channel at the receiver.7. The channel taps are first simulated as i. random variables.

BEM −1 10 −2 10 BER −3 10 MMSE BLE. by increasing the equalizer parameters.9. we measure the performance of the SLE for Nr = 2 receive antennas as a function of the time-varying FIR filter design parameters Q′ and L′ at a fixed SNR of 16 dB. QPSK signaling is used and the synchronization delay is ′ chosen as d = ⌊ L+L 2 ⌋ + 1. which is shown to be the case for K = 2N (see Chapter 2). One can also observe that a significant gain can be obtained by increasing the time-varying FIR filter parameters up to a certain threshold value at which point the gradient of the BER surface becomes very small. As shown in Figures 3.60 Lin. Eq. the performance of the ZF and MMSE SLEs comes closer to the performance of the ZF and MMSE BLEs. L′ ) for Nr = 2 receive antennas using an MMSE time-varying FIR equalizer at an SNR of 16 dB. Design parameters: To give a feeling on how to choose the time-varying FIR filter parameters.9: BER as a function of (Q′ . For the ZF case. In all simulations. and . signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). and use the BEM resolution K = 2N to keep the modeling error as small as possible. We consider both the ZF and the MMSE cost function. The performance is measured in terms of bit error rate (BER) vs. of SC Trans. over Doubly Selective Channels 0 10 MMSE TV FIR. this point might be too far away to be practical. We compare the performance of the SLE (ZF and MMSE) with the performance of the BLE (ZF and MMSE) for both case of K = N and K = 2N . BEM −4 10 0 5 10 20 15 15 10 20 5 Q′ 0 L′ Figure 3.8 and 3.

Table 3. K=N ZF−SLE.1.3. K=2N ZF−BLE. K=2N −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 3. For the MMSE case. The time- varying FIR filter parameters used in the simulations for the SLE case are listed in Table 3. Simulations 61 0 10 ZF−SLE. we also observe a performance symmetry in Q′ and L′ . hence we resort to Q′ = L′ = 20 in the simulations for Nr = 2. which means that there is no reason to choose Q′ different from L′ . which is almost symmetric in Q and L. ZF MMSE Nr Q′ L′ Q′ L′ 1 NA NA 20 20 2 20 20 12 12 4 8 8 8 8 6 4 4 . K=N ZF−BLE.1: time-varying FIR equalizer parameters.10: BER vs. Note that for this channel setup. on the other hand.7. SNR for ZF receivers (Nr = 2 receive antennas). which is what we will use in the simulations for Nr = 2. this point is situated around Q′ = L′ = 12. This motivates us to take Q′ = L′ in the sequel.

K=N ZF−SLE.11. and a 7 dB SNR loss when the BEM window size K = N . the ZF-SLE with Q′ = 20 and L′ = 20 is outperformed by the ZF-BLE for both cases K = N and K = 2N . ZF-BLE exhibits an . ZF equalizers: As shown in Figure 3. of SC Trans. Similarly. Eq. For the sake of conciseness we discuss only the ZP-based block transmission results. K=2N −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 3. while.11: BER vs. using Nr = 2 receive antennas. SNR for ZF receivers (Nr = 4 receive antennas). over Doubly Selective Channels 0 10 ZF−SLE. for the case of K = N . ZF-BLE exhibits an error floor at BER = 3 × 10−3 . K=2N ZF−BLE. Note that. the gap is now reduced to 2 dB for the case of a BEM with K = N as well as for the case of a BEM with K = 2N . At a BER of 10−2 . K=N ZF−BLE. At a BER of 10−2 . whereas ZF-SLE exhibits an error floor at BER = 6 × 10−3 . the performance of the ZF-SLE with Q′ = 8 and L′ = 8 comes much closer to the performance of the ZF-BLE.10. For the ZP-based block transmission techniques we consider the ZF as well as the MMSE criterion to design the equalizers. as shown in Figure 3.62 Lin. both serial and block equalizers suffer from an early error floor for K = N . both the ZF-BLE and the ZF-SLE exhibit an error floor. we notice a 4 dB SNR loss when the window size K = 2N . Now. In the following we consider the performance of the proposed equalizers (SLE and BLE) for ZP-based block transmission technique. similar results are obtained considering the CP-based block transmission. using Nr = 4 receive antennas.

whereas the ZF-SLE exhibits an error floor at BER = 7 × 10−4 . which also allows us to equalize the channel using a TI FIR equalizer (see also [75]). K=N ZF−BLE. Simulations 63 0 10 −1 10 −2 10 BER −3 10 ZF TI FIR. MMSE equalizers: In Figure 3. Note that for this case the design complexity of the ZF time-varying FIR equalizer is one fifth of the design complexity of the ZF TI FIR equalizer. K=N −4 ZF TI FIR. and apply the MMSE-SLE with Q′ = 20 and L′ = 20. both the BLE and the SLE suffer from an error floor for the BEM with K = N as well as for the BEM with K = 2N .12: BER vs.7. We can see that the performance loss of the MMSE-SLE compared to the MMSE-BLE is less than 1 dB at a BER of 10−2 for both BEM with K = N and BEM with K = 2N . K=2N 10 ZF time−varying FIR.12. On the other hand. SNR for ZF receivers (Nr = 6 receive antennas). we use Nr = 6 receive antennas. This leads us to conclude that incorporating time variation in the equalizer really pays off.3. We can see that the ZF time-varying FIR equalizer with Q′ = 4 and L′ = 4 significantly outperforms the ZF TI FIR equalizer with Q′ = 0 and L′ = 20. K=N ZF time−varying FIR. K=2N 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 3. For this number of receive antennas. K=2N ZF−BLE. the implementation complexity of the ZF time-varying FIR equalizer is less than a quarter of the implementation complexity of the ZF TI FIR equalizer. In Figure 3.13. For the BEM with . error floor at BER = 4 × 10−4 . we use Nr = 1 receive antenna.

The results corresponding to Nr = 2 and Nr = 4 are shown in Figures 3. where Q′ = 12 and L′ = 12 is used. K = N . 000. the complexity associated with computing and implementing the time- varying FIR equalizer does change with the number of receive antennas. this complexity analysis does not change with the number of receive antennas. over Doubly Selective Channels 0 10 MMSE−SLE. of SC Trans. where N 3 = 512. while the MMSE-SLE exhibits an error floor at BER = 10−3 . where Q′ = 8 and L′ = 8 is used. because . In all cases an error floor is observed for the case of a BEM with K = N . we observe that the performance of the MMSE-SLE almost coincides with that of the MMSE-BLE (for the BEM with K = N as well as for the BEM with K = 2N ).64 Lin. K=N MMSE−SLE. and Nr = 4 receive antennas. SNR for MMSE receivers (Nr = 1 receive antenna). This again stresses the fact that using a BEM with K = N exhibits a modeling error that dominates the BER performance for high SNR. 000. respectively. the MMSE-BLE exhibits an error floor at BER = 2−4 . Eq. Complexity: To compute the BLE we require the number of floating point op- erations to be O(N 3 ) flops. For the BEM with K = 2N . On the other hand. K=N MMSE−BLE.13: BER vs. K=2N −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 3. K=2N MMSE−BLE.15. The implementation complexity associated with the BLE requires N 2 MA op- erations per receive antenna. the BLE and the SLE exhibit an error floor at BER = 10−2 .14 and 3. where N 2 = 640. For Nr = 2 receive antennas. Note that. 000 for this channel setup.

87 4 3. K=N MMSE−BLE. 000 57. 200 78.7. 000.26 64. 800 89.3.87 2 20. . 123. 416 99.2: time-varying FIR equalizer Complexity table.2 for both the ZF and MMSE criterion.07 135.26 64. 800 89.81 352. 796.87 MMSE time-varying FIR Nr Design∗ % red Run-Time† % red 1 216. Simulations 65 0 10 MMSE−SLE. 000 57. ZF time-varying FIR Nr Design∗ % red Run-Time† % red 1 NA NA NA NA 2 216.81 352. 000.87 ∗ in flops (order of magnitude) † in MA operations we consider different values for Q′ and L′ . K=2N MMSE−BLE. K=2N −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 3. 416 99.88 4 3.14: BER vs. SNR for MMSE receivers (Nr = 2 receive antennas). 648 96. 796. These complexities are shown in Table 3. 800 44. Table 3. 800 44. K=N MMSE−SLE.

we have investigated the problem of equalization for SC trans- mission over doubly selective channels.8 Conclusions In this chapter. We proposed a BLE as well as a SLE implemented as a time-varying FIR filter. Moreover. We used the BEM to approximate the doubly selective channel and to design the BLE as well as the SLE. we consider the MMSE as well as the ZF solutions for both the BLE and the SLE. of SC Trans. In our equalizer design. containing only the BEM coefficients of both the doubly selective channel and the time-varying FIR filter. through computer simulations we have shown that the performance of the proposed MMSE-SLE comes close to the performance of the MMSE-BLE. 3. It is shown that a time-varying FIR equalizer generally requires at least two receive antennas for the ZF solution to exist (a ZF solution eliminates ISI completely when the underlying doubly selective channel perfectly follows the BEM channel model). Implementing the SLE using a time-varying FIR filter designed according to the BEM allowed us to turn a complicated time-varying 1-D deconvolution problem into an equivalent simpler TI 2-D deconvolution problem. the proposed SLE implemented by a time-varying FIR filter allows for a flexible tradeoff between complexity and performance. K=N MMSE−SLE. K=2N MMSE−BLE.15: BER vs. In contrast to the BLE. K=N MMSE−BLE. over Doubly Selective Channels 0 10 MMSE−SLE. K=2N −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 3. SNR for MMSE receivers (Nr = 4 receive antennas).66 Lin. . Eq. at a point where the design as well as the implementation complexity are much lower.

First. In this chapter we will focus on the case of decision feedback equalization (DFE) of doubly selective channels. at the cost of only a slightly lower performance. For the SDFE. we treated the case of linear equalization of doubly selective IN channels considering the MMSE and ZF criterion. similar to Chapter 3. but they typically provide better performance.Chapter 4 Decision-Feedback Equalization of SC Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels 4. Unlike linear equalizers which apply one feedforward filter. DFE has been previously proposed in literature for the case of frequency- 67 . Second. we propose a serial DFE (SDFE). On the other hand. We. Their complexity is similar to the complexity of linear equalizers. DFEs usually give a better compromise between complexity and performance. a feedforward filter and a feedback filter. we focus on block decision feedback equalizers (BDFE). consider two types of equalizers. the feedforward and feedback filters are implemented by using time- varying FIR filters. The time-varying FIR filters are designed according to the BEM model. DFEs apply two filters. they are still less complex than the highly complex optimal maximum likelihood (ML) estimator.1 Introduction Chapter 3.

. these works consider a time-invariant frequency-selective channel. However. We assume a single- input multiple-output (SIMO) system. where Nr receive antennas are used. . In this chapter. the input-output relationship on the rth receive antenna can be written as y(r) = H(r) Tzp x + v(r) . 95]. some based on block processing [95. .68 DFE of SC Trans. and the BEM coefficients of the feedforward and feedback time-varying FIR filters. and a decision device.1) where the N × (N + L) Toeplitz matrix H(r) is given by L Q/2 X X (r) H(r) = hq. 4. The proposed SDFE consists of a time-varying FIR feedforward filter. 118] and others based on serial processing by means of finite impulse response (FIR) filters [5]. we show some computer simulations. . a time-varying FIR feedback filter. l=0 q=−Q/2 .6. We use the BEM to model the time-varying FIR feedforward and feedback filters. Finally. The feedforward is then assisted by means of a feedback filter that feeds back previously estimated symbols. . and y(r) = [y (r) [0]. On each receive antenna a feedforward filter is applied. The serial DFE (SDFE) is introduced in Section 4. The system model is described in Section 4.3.2 System Model The system under consideration is depicted in Figure 4. . (4. This chapter is organized as follows. In this chapter. DFE for multiuser detection is proposed in [114] and DFE for multiuser CDMA is proposed in [35]. . . we extend the idea of linear equalization to design DFEs.4. we consider the case of ZP-based block transmission. The CP-based case may be defined similarly. y (r) [N − 1]]T . our conclusions are drawn in Section 4.l Dq Zl . containing only the BEM coeffi- cients of the channel. Define x = [x[0].1. Discussion and com- parison are introduced in Section 4. We also show that this approach extends the results obtained for the case of purely frequency-selective channels. The beauty of using the BEM is that it allows us to turn a large design problem into a small design problem.5. which are shown to give better performance and to be more robust against channel imperfections [118. The block decision feedback equalizer (BDFE) is introduced in Section 4. Block DFE is proposed in [48] in the presence of co-channel in- terference.2.7. over Doubly Selective Channels selective channels. x[N − 1]]T . In Section 4. The DFE consists of feedforward filters and a feedback filter.

3.1: Block diagram of Decision Feedback Equalizer with Dq = diag{[1. . a soft estimate of x is computed as Nr X x̃∗ = W(r) y(r) − Bx̂. (4. 4. and the feedback equalizer represented by the N × N matrix B. Tzp is the zero-padding matrix defined as Tzp = [IN . the decision making device. IN . ej2πq/K . . ej2πq(N −1)/K ]T }. ν] FF(1) + x̂[n − d] x[n] x̃[n − d] v (Nr )[n] − + y (Nr )[n] g (Nr )[n. the input-output relationship (see also (3. . Define the error vector e = x̃ − x (see Figure 4. 0N ×l ]. as shown in Figure 4. r=1 x̂ =Q (x̃) . The BDFE consists of a feedforward equalizer represented by the N × N matrix W(r) on the rth receive antenna. ν] FF(Nr) FB FF: Feedforward filter. (4. . We first focus on the minimum mean- square error BDFE (MMSE-BDFE) and then derive the zero-forcing BDFE (ZF-BDFE). . 0N ×L ]T . y(Nr )T ]T . Stacking the Nr received vectors as y = [y(1)T . Figure 4. FB: Feedback filter.4.35)) can be written as y = H̄x + v. and Zl = [0N ×(L−l) .2.1 MMSE-BDFE The MMSE-BDFE is designed to minimize the error at the decision device. Block Decision-Feedback Equalization 69 v (1)[n] y (1)[n] g (1)[n.3 Block Decision-Feedback Equalization In this section. 4. . . we review BDFEs.3.2) where H̄ = HTzp . Hence.2).3) where Q (·) is the quantizer used by the decision device. and the additive noise v(r) is similarly defined as y(r) . Assuming past decisions are . .

ν] S/P W(Nr ) N ×1 B Figure 4. we can write the MSE cost function J as [95] J = tr{W(H̄Rx H̄H + Rv )WH + (B + IN )Rx (BH + IN )} − 2tr{ℜ{(B + IN )Rx H̄H WH }}. Hence. .5) Define the MSE cost function J = Ekek2 .70 DFE of SC Trans. In a fashion similar to that of the BLE. W(Nr ) ]. .4) r=1 Defining W = [W(1) . the MSE cost function reduces to J = tr{(B + IN ) R−1 ⊥ BH + IN }.9) where R⊥ is given by R⊥ = H̄H R−1 −1 v H̄ + Rx . over Doubly Selective Channels v (1)[n] y (1)[n] y(1) g (1)[n.9) subject to (B + IN ) being an upper triangular matrix. .7). (4.6) The MMSE feedforward BDFE is then obtained by solving ∂J /∂W as −1 WM M SE = (B + IN ) Rx H̄H H̄Rx H̄H + R−1 v (4. Sub- stituting (4. the feedback matrix filter of the BDFE is obtained by minimizing the MSE cost function J in (4. the MMSE-BDFE is obtained by minimizing J subject to the constraint that (B + IN ) is an upper triangular matrix.7) −1 −1 = (B + IN ) H̄H R−1 v H̄ + Rx H̄H R−1 v .8) is obtained by applying the matrix inversion lemma in (4. (4.8) in (4. (4.8) where (4.4) can be written as e = WH̄x + Wv − (B + IN ) x.6). (4. . (4. . ν] S/P W(1) N ×1 + x[n] x̃ x̂ v (Nr )[n] − + y (Nr )[n] y(Nr ) g (Nr )[n. (4.2: Block Decision Feedback Equalizer correct (x̂ = x) we get Nr X e= W(r) H(r) Tzp x + v(r) − (B + IN ) x.

This approach is referred to as serial DFE (SDFE). where L is a lower triangular matrix with unit diagonal. the MMSE feedback BDFE is obtained as BM M SE = LH − IN .10) Substituting (4.4 Serial Decision-Feedback Equalization In this section. Serial Decision-Feedback Equalization 71 Consider the Cholesky factorization of R⊥ as R⊥ = LDLH .4. In the next section.4. Doing this we lower the design and the equalization complexity at the cost of a slightly lower per- formance. we will apply a time-varying FIR feedforward filter w(r) [n.2 ZF-BDFE So far we have considered the MMSE-BDFE. as . develop a DFE equalizer with time-varying FIR feedforward filters and a time-varying FIR feedback filter. (4. we will. ν] on the rth receive antenna and a time-varying FIR feedback filter b[n. 4. Hence.9) we obtain the MMSE cost function as J = tr{D−1 }.10) in (4. the ZF BDFE is ob- tained by setting the source power to infinity as follows: R⊥ = H̄H R−1 v H̄ = LDLH BZF = LH − IN −1 H −1 WZF = (B + IN ) H̄H R−1 v H̄ H̄ Rv .3. (4. therefore. 4. ν]. however. The above approach is rather complex in particular for large N . and D is a diagonal matrix.11) To summarize the above discussion the feedforward and feedback BDFE are obtained as follows: R⊥ = H̄H R−1 v H̄ + Rx −1 = LDLH BM M SE = LH − IN −1 WM M SE = (B + IN ) H̄H R−1 −1 v H̄ + Rx H̄H R−1 v .

13b) l′′ =∆ q ′′ =−Q′′ /2 where ∆ is chosen to be larger than the synchronization delay. There- . Q. respectively. and hq.. ν] and b[n. Similarly we design the time-varying FIR feedback filter b[n. using the BEM. Hence. (4. ν] = δ[ν − l ] wq′ . where the time-variation of each tap is modeled by Q′ + 1 complex exponential basis functions. ν]y (r) [n − ν] − b[n. since we can only feedback the past decisions and not the future ones. i. ν]x̂[n − d − ν].l′′ ).l′ ej2πq n/K . Using the BEM. Hence.3. we can write the time-varying FIR feedforward and feedback filters as L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) ′ (r) ′ w [n. ν] w(Nr )[n. it is also convenient to design the time- varying FIR feedforward and feedback filters. and wq′ . ν] = δ[ν − l ] bq′′ . ν] − δ[n − d] Figure 4. (4.l′ (bq′′ . ∆ ≥ d + 1. over Doubly Selective Channels v (1)[n] y (1)[n] g (1)[n. w(r) [n. ν] b[n. This will allow us to turn a large design problem into an equivalent small design problem.13a) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 L′′X +∆−1 Q′′ /2 X ′′ ′′ b[n. we design the time-varying FIR feedforward filter w(r) [n.e. where the time-variation of each tap is captured by Q′′ + 1 complex exponential basis functions.l′′ ej2πq n/K . ν] was modeled by the BEM.72 DFE of SC Trans. ν] to have L′′ taps.l replaced by L′ (L′′ −1). Q′ (Q′′ ). ν] to have L′ + 1 taps. ν] + x[n] x̃[n − d] x̂[n − d] v (Nr )[n] − + y (Nr )[n] g (Nr )[n. r=1 ν=−∞ ν=−∞ x̂[n − d] =Q (x̃[n − d]) . Since the doubly selective channel g (r) [n.3: time-varying FIR Decision Feedback Equalizer depicted in Figure 4. Note that the time- varying FIR feedforward (feedback) equalizer is designed as in Figure 2.8 with (r) (r) L. ν]. (4.12) where d is some decision delay delay. ν] w(1)[n. containing only the BEM coefficients of the doubly selective channel and the BEM coefficients of the time-varying FIR feedforward and feedback filters. a soft estimate of x[n − d] is computed as Nr X X ∞ ∞ X x̃[n − d] = w(r) [n.

.15) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 L′′X +∆−1 Q′′ /2 X B= bq′′ . 01×(N −l′ −1) ]T .12) is obtained as Q′ /2 L ′ X X (r) ′ x̃[n − d] = wq′ . On the block level. .l′′ Dq′′ Z̄l′′ x̂.14) q ′′ =−Q′′ /2 l′′ =∆ Instead of continuing to work on the sample level. 01×d ]T . Serial Decision-Feedback Equalization 73 fore. and using the property ′ Zl′ Dq = e−j2πql /K Dq Zl′ .17) can be written as (Q+Q′ )/2 L+L′ Nr Q′ /2 L ′ X X X X X (r) x̃ = fp.l′′ ej2πq n/K x̂[n − l′′ ]. Taking the decision delay d into account.l′ Dq′ Z̄l′ v(r) p=−(Q+Q′ )/2 k=0 r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 .k Dp Z̄k x + wq′ .16) l′′ =∆ q ′′ =−Q′′ /2 where Z̄l′ is a lower diagonal Toeplitz matrix with the first column [01×l′ .l′ Dq′ Z̄l′ . we can write the estimated block of useful samples subject to the deci- sion delay d as Nr Q′ /2 L ′ Q/2 L X X X (r) X X (r) x̃ = wq′ . (4. x[M − 1]]T with M = N − d. r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 q ′′ =−Q′′ /2 l′′ =∆ (4. (4. (4.14) corresponds to estimating x as in (4. 0M ×d ]T .l′ Dq′ Z̄l′ v(r) − bq′′ .4. where x∗ = [x[0]. A relation between x and x∗ is obtained as x = T̄zp x∗ . . . (4. it is easier to switch to the block level at this point.4.l Dq Z̄l x r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 q=−Q/2 l=0 ′ Nr Q /2 L ′ Q′′ /2 L′′X +∆−1 X X X (r) X + wq′ . the soft estimate in (4. 1.l′ ej2πq n/K y (r) [n − l′ ] q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 Q′′ /2 L ′′ X X ′′ − bq′′ . where T̄zp = [IM . (4.l′ Dq′ Z̄l′ hq. Hence. This can be achieved by clearing out the feedforward and feed- back filters after processing a block of M samples. we redefine the transmitted block to count for this decision as x = [xT∗ .17) Let us define p = q + q ′ and k = l + l′ (see Section 3.4.3) but with W(r) and B constrained to L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) (r) W = wq′ .l′′ Dq′′ Z̄l′′ .

18) as Nr X x̃ = (f T ⊗ IN )Ax + (w(r)T ⊗ IN )Cv(r) − (b̃T ⊗ IN )Ax̂ r=1 = (f ⊗ IN )Ax + (wT ⊗ IN )(INr ⊗ C)v − (b̃T ⊗ IN )Ax̂. . . D ′ Z̄ ′ . Hence. . . . 01×u . and the augmented vector b̃ = [01×(Q+Q′ −Q′′ )(L+L′ +1)/2 . bT−Q′′ /2 .20) where we have f = [f−Q/2−Q′ /2.. .L+L′ ]T . DQ/2+Q′ /2 Z̄L+L′ DQ′ /2 Z̄L′ The relationship between the feedforward filter coefficients and the f can be obtained similarly as in (3. i..k = e−j2π(p−q )l /K wq′ .1 MMSE-SDFE Assuming past decisions are correct. wQ′ /2. . . w(Nr )T ]T . bTQ′′ /2 . over Doubly Selective Channels Q′′ /2 L′′X +∆−1 X − bq′′ . . . (4. .L′′ +∆−1 ]T . 0∆×1 . we construct b̃ in a way to match f in dimension.L+L′ . A= D −Q/2−Q /2 L+L ′ Z̄ ′ . .∆ . . · · · . (r) (r) (r) w(r) = [w−Q′ /2. . . where Rzp = [0M ×d .21) 4. (4.19) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 We can further rewrite (4. (4. bq′′ . T (4.4.. 01×∆ .22) as f T = wT H. f−Q/2−Q′ /2. (4. . C = −Q /2 L . w = [w(1)T . 01×u . IM ].22) .l′ hp−q′ .k−l′ .L′ ]T . . w−Q′ /2. . we can write the error vector as e = Rzp (f T ⊗IN )AT̄zp x∗ +Rzp (wT ⊗IN )(INr ⊗C)v−Rzp (b̃T ⊗IN )AT̄zp x∗ −x∗ . Defining the matrices A and C as D−Q/2−Q′ /2 Z̄0 D−Q′ /2 Z̄0 . . . where u = L+L′ −L′′ −∆−1 and bq′′ = [bq′′ . . . .l′′ Dq′′ Z̄l′′ x̂. . . . . fQ/2+Q′ /2. 01×(Q+Q′ −Q′′ )(L+L′ +1)/2 ]T ..74 DFE of SC Trans.0 . .L′ .e.18) q ′′ =−Q′′ /2 l′′ =∆ where Nr Q′ /2 L ′ X X X ′ ′ (r) (r) fp. the error at the decision device e consid- ering only the useful symbols: e = Rzp x̃ − x∗ .0 . . .

28) The last line in (4. By solving ∂M SE/∂w = 0. (4. where ed is a (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) × 1 unit vector with the 1 in position (Q + Q′ )(L + L′ + 1)/2 + d + 1.24) with Rx is defined here as Rx = E{x∗ x∗ }.27) where −1 R⊥ = RÃ − RÃ HH HRÃ HH + RC̃ HRÃ −1 = R−1Ã + HH R−1 C̃ H .4.23) are Ã = (I(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) ⊗ Rzp )AT̄zp and C̃ = (I(Q′ +1)(L′ +1) ⊗ Rzp )C. (4. we then obtain the MMSE feedforward time- varying FIR filter coefficients as −1 H −1 wMT M SE = (b̃T + eT d ) H RC̃ H + R−1 Ã HH R−1 C̃ .24) as M SE = wT HRÃ HH + RC̃ w∗ + (b̃T + eTd )RÃ (b̃∗ + ed ) − 2ℜ{wT HRÃ (b̃∗ + ed )}.25) we obtain the following expression for the MSE: M SE = (b̃T + eTd )R⊥ (b̃∗ + ed ).25) where RÃ = subtr{ÃRx ÃH }.28) is obtained by applying the matrix inversion lemma (see page 41). By defining the selection matrix P∆ as . Using the properties introduced in (3. (4.27). we can write (4. (4.4.23) The matrices Ã and C̃ in (4.22) can be written as e = (wT H ⊗ IM )Ãx∗ + (wT ⊗ IM )(INr ⊗ C̃)v − ((b̃ + ed )T ⊗ IM )Ãx∗ . respectively.26) in (4. Now we can write the mean-square error M SE = E{eH e} as M SE = tr{(wT H ⊗ IM )ÃRx ÃH (HH w∗ ⊗ IM )} + tr{(wT ⊗ IM )(INr ⊗ C̃)Rv (INr ⊗ C̃H )(w∗ ⊗ IM )} + tr{((b̃T + eTd ) ⊗ IM )ÃRx ÃH ((b̃∗ + ed ) ⊗ IM ) − 2ℜ{tr{(wT H ⊗ IM )ÃRx ÃH ((b̃∗ + ed ) ⊗ IM )}} (4.26) Substituting (4.26) and (3. (4. and RC̃ = subtr{(INr ⊗ C̃)Rv (INr ⊗ C̃H )}. Serial Decision-Feedback Equalization 75 Substitute for x∗ as x∗ = Rzp (eTd ⊗ IN )AT̄zp x∗ . (4.

.

.

IQ′′ /2 ⊗ P 0 0 .

.

.

P∆ = 0k×v .

.

0 P̄ 0 .

0k×v .

29) . (4.

0 0 IQ′′ /2 ⊗ P .

.

33) R−1 ∆ ex bTM M SE = (4. v = (Q + Q′ − Q′′ )(L + L′ + 1)/2.26) we can solve for the time-varying FIR feedforward equalizer coefficients.31) eTx R−1 ∆ ex where ex is a Q′′ L′′ + 1 unit vector.31) in (4.34) ex R−1 T ∆ ex −1 H −1 T wM M SE = (b̃T + eT d ) H RC̃ H + R−1 Ã HH R−1 C̃ . bT0 . bTQ′′ /2 ] R∆ b∗ .36) R∆ = P∆ RT⊥ PT∆ (4. with the 1 in position (Q′′ L′′ /2 + 1). The formula in (4. IL′′ .4.27) as M SE = [bT−Q′′ /2 . P = [0L′′ ×∆ . 0L′′ ×(L+L′ +1−∆) ] and 01×d 1 01×(L+L′ −d) P̄ = . over Doubly Selective Channels where k = Q′′ L′′ + 1. 0L′′ ×∆ IL′′ 0L′′ ×(L+L′ −L′′ −∆+1) We can write (4.2 ZF-SDFE The ZF-SDFE is then obtained by setting the input source power to infinity resulting into the following: −1 R⊥ = HH R−1 C̃ H (4.76 DFE of SC Trans.39) .38) ex R−1 T ∆ ex −1 T wZF = (bT P∆ + eTd ) HH R−1 C̃ H HH R−1 C̃ (4. · · · .30) | {z } bT where R∆ = P∆ RT⊥ PT∆ . bT−1 .35) 4. To summarize the MMSE feedforward and feedback time-varying FIR DFE filters’ coefficients are obtained as follows: −1 H −1 R⊥ = R−1 Ã + H R C̃ H (4. By substituting (4. 1.37) R−1 ∆ ex bTZF = (4. · · · . (4.32) R∆ = P∆ RT⊥ PT∆ (4.30) is a quadratic form that is minimized by choosing the time-varying FIR feedback filter coefficients as R−1 ∆ ex bM M SE = (4. (4.

Under this assumption.5. For the case of no feedback.2 Complexity Comparison In comparing the two approaches. P∆ | {z } G which is satisfied if the Nr (Q′ +1)(L′ +1)+(Q′′ +1)L′′ +1×(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) matrix G is of full column rank.4) and (4.5 Discussion and Comparison 4. This can always be satisfied. IN under the constraint that B is a lower triangular matrix. unlike the ZF existence condition for the case of SLE. unifies and extends results obtained for the case of purely frequency-selective channels [5]. we can view the DFEs (block and serial) as linear equalizers. 4. It appears from this condition that. . for the case of serial decision feedback equalization.22)).20)): T T H [w − b ] = eTd . 4.4.26) and the feedback time-varying FIR filter coefficients (4.5.5. a ZF-SDFE can exist for the case of SISO systems (Nr = 1). Discussion and Comparison 77 For white noise and a white source with covariance matrices Rv = σn2 I and Rs = σs2 I respectively. we end up with the MMSE-SLE obtained in Chapter 3. a ZF solution for the case of BDFE is obtained if the following is satisfied: H̄ [W − B] = IN .1 Existence of the ZF Solution In deriving the DFEs we assumed that the past decisions are correct (see (4. we consider two types of complexity: design complexity and implementation complexity.31). and M ≫ L it is easy to show that RÃ and RC̃ can be approximated as RÃ ≈ σs2 M I(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) RC̃ ≈ σv2 M INr (Q′ +1)(L′ +1) The solution for the feedforward time-varying FIR filter coefficients (4. BDFE and SDFE. Thus. Similarly. a ZF solution exists if the following is satisfied (see (4.

The implementation complexity is the complexity associated with estimating a block of N samples. The BEM coefficients are used to design the DFE equlaizers block and serial. over Doubly Selective Channels The design complexity is the complexity associated with computing the equal- izer (feedforward and feedback) coefficients. So. In practice. L′ . The chan- nel is assumed to be doubly selective and is approximated with the BEM. we need a matrix inversion of size N × N to compute the feedforward matrix W. we need to compute the inverse of an A × A matrix to obtain the feedforward filter coefficients. Q′′ and L′′ generally satisfy A < N and (Q′′ + 1)L′′ + 1 < N . For this case we can easily show that our approach unifies and extends the FIR DFEs proposed for the case of TI channels (e. For the BDFE. the design complexity of the SDFE is less than the design complexity of the BDFE. the SDFE parameters Q′ . and (Q′′ +1)L′′ is smaller than (N −1)/2. [5]). to estimate a block of N samples.6 Simulations In the simulations. and a Cholesky factorization of an N × N matrix to compute the feedback matrix B. So. instead they can be designed as TI FIRs with Q′ = 0 and Q′′ = 0. Both require about O(N 3 ) flops.g. and we need to compute the inverse of a (Q′′ + 1)L′′ + 1 × (Q′′ + 1)L′′ + 1 matrix to obtain the feedback filter coefficients. • the BEM resolution K = N . the implementation complexity of the SDFE is lower than the implementation complexity of the BDFE. and (N − 1)N/2 MA operations for the feedback part. • symbol period T = 25µsec. On the other hand. The designed equalizers are then used to equalize the real Jakes’ time-varying channel. provided that A and (Q′′ + 1)L′′ + 1 are smaller than M . For the case of TI channels there is no need to design the feedforward and feedback filters as time-varying FIRs. Q′′ and L′′ generally satisfy (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) < N and (Q′′ + 1)L′′ < (N − 1)/2.78 DFE of SC Trans. and K = 2N . we consider a SISO as well as a SIMO system. to design the SDFE. . To design the BDFE. the SDFE parameters Q′ . 4. provided that (Q′ +1)(L′ +1) is smaller than the block size N . L′ . For the simulations we consider the following channel setup: • transmitted block size N = 800. In practice. we require N 2 multiply-add (MA) operations per receive antenna for the feedforward part. To estimate the same block using the SDFE we require N (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) MA operations per receive antenna for the feedforward part and N (Q′′ + 1)L′′ MA operations for the feedback part. where A = (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1).

5 2 −2 −1.5 1.5 0 0 −0.5 −1.5 1 1. which is then obtained as Q = 4 for K = N .5 2 (c) MMSE-SLE for 16QAM K = 2N .5 −0.5 1 1.5 0 0. and Nr = 1.5 −1 −0.5 0. (d) MMSE-SDFE for 16QAM K = 2N .1 and the reasoning for obtaining these parameters as explained .5 0 0 −0. Nr = 1.5 −1 −0.5 −1. • number of basis functions Q = 2⌈fmax KT ⌉.6.5 1 1 0.5 1 1 0.5 −1 −0.5 −2 −2 −2 −1.4.5 0.4: After equalization using MMSE-SLE and MMSE-SDFE for K = 2N and Nr = 1 for QPSK and 16QAM constellations at SN R = 30dB.5 1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 −2 −2 −2 −1.5 1 1. and Nr = 1. the feedforward and feedback time-varying FIRs are as listed in Table 4. For the SDFE. • channel order L = ⌈τmax /T ⌉ = 3.5 2 (a) MMSE-SLE for QPSK K = 2N .5 −1 −1 −1. and Q = 8 for K = 2N . • maximum delay spread τmax = 75µsec.5 0 0.5 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 −2 −1. and (b) MMSE-SDFE for QPSK K = 2N . Simulations 79 2 2 1.1 (see 3.5 −1 −1 −1. Figure 4. and Nr = 1. 2 2 1. • maximum Doppler spread fmax = 100Hz.

5 −1 −1 −1.5 −1.5 −0.5 −2 −2 −2 −1.5 0 0.5 1. Table 4.5 2 −2 −1. (d) DFE-SDFE for 16QAM K = 2N .5: After equalization using MMSE-SLE and MMSE-SDFE for K = 2N and Nr = 2 for QPSK and 16QAM constellations at SN R = 30dB. and Nr = 2.5 −1 −0.5 −1 −0.5 2 (c) MMSE-SLE for 16QAM K = 2N .5 1 1.5 1 1 0.5 1 1.5 0.5 1. 2 2 1. and (b) MMSE-SDFE for QPSK K = 2N .5 0 0 −0.80 DFE of SC Trans.1: Filter coefficients for different receive antennas Feedforward Filter Feedback Filter Nr Q′ L′ Q′′ L′′ 1 20 20 Q 3 2 12 12 Q 3 4 8 8 Q 3 .5 1 1. over Doubly Selective Channels 2 2 1.5 2 −2 −1.5 −1.5 1 1.5 −1 −0. and Nr = 2.5 0 0 −0. Nr = 2.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 0 0.5 −0.5 0. Figure 4.5 −2 −2 −2 −1.5 1 1 0.5 0 0.5 2 (a) MMSE-SLE for QPSK K = 2N . and Nr = 2.5 −1 −1 −1.

the SNR loss for the SDFE com- pared to BDFE is less than 1dB at BER = 10−2 for K = 2N . we require O(N 3 ) flops. K=N MMSE−SLE. K=N MMSE−SDFE. K=2N 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR(dB) Figure 4.4.6. As is clear from these figures. As for a complexity comparison. ′ we consider the decision delay d = ⌊ L+L2 ⌋ + 1 and ∆ = d + 1. We consider the case of a single receive antenna as well as the case of two receive antennas. As shown in Figure 4.6: BER vs.7) for the different number of receive antennas. Simulations 81 0 10 MMSE−SLE. to compute the BDFE. However. the proposed SDFE outperforms the SLE. We first examine the MMSE-SDFE along with the MMSE-SLE proposed in Chapter 3 for different constellations. K=N MMSE−BDFE. The op- erating signal-to-noise ration value is SN R = 30dB. We also consider the BEM resolution K = 2N . the MMSE-SDFE is more successful than the MMSE-SLE in recovering the transmitted signal. For all simulations. where . SNR for N r = 1 in Section 3. and the latter suffers from an early error floor. MMSE-SDFE along with the MMSE-SLE in terms of the BER vs. On the other hand.5 for two receive antennas. for the case of K = N the proposed equalizers all suffer from an early error floor due to large BEM modeling error. From now on we examine the performance of the proposed MMSE-BDFE. In particular QPSK and 16QAM trans- mission. These results are shown in Figures 4.4 for one receive antenna and 4. K=2N MMSE−SDFE. K=2N −1 MMSE−BDFE. SNR con- sidering only QPSK transmission.6 (SISO Nr = 1).

000 for this channel setup. 000.7: BER vs.7 (SIMO Nr = 2). K=N MMSE−SLE. where A3 = 216.5% . 536 for K = 2N for this channel setup. K=2N MMSE−SDFE. and 372. to compute the SDFE we require O(A3 ) MA operations. K=2N 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR(dB) Figure 4. Hence. to compute the SDFE we require O(A3 ) flops. K=N MMSE−BDFE. where A3 = 24137569 for K = N and A3 = 37. whereas. 000. On the other hand. the SDFE requires M (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) + M (Q′′ + 1)L′′ = 363. K=2N −1 MMSE−BDFE. where the BDFE requires N 2 +(N −1)N/2 = 959. On the other hand. 000 for K = N and A3 = 337. the design complexity of the BDFE does not change from the previous example. 933. over Doubly Selective Channels 0 10 MMSE−SLE. K=N MMSE−SDFE. 153. 600 MA operations for this channel setup. This means that the SDFE achieves a 96% reduction in complexity compared to the BDFE for K = N and a 92. A similar observation can be drawn for the im- plementation complexity. we see that the performance of the proposed SDFE almost coincides with that of the BDFE. 056 for K = 2N . the design com- plexity of the SDFE is clearly much lower than the design complexity of the BDFE (∼ 60% reduction in complexity for the case of K = N and ∼ 34% reduc- tion in complexity for K = 2N ). 996 MA operations for K = 2N . 432 MA operations for this channel setup for K = N . In Figure 4. On the other hand. In terms of complexity for this channel setup.82 DFE of SC Trans. whilst it significantly outper- forms the SLE for K = 2N . which also shows around 60% reduction in implementation complexity. due to the large BEM modeling error. SNR for N r = 2 N 3 = 512. the proposed equalizers suffer from an error floor for the case of K = N .

The SDFE consists of feedforward filters and a feedback filter and a decision device. whereas it requires 146. In Figure 4. K=N MMSE−SLE. This means that the SDFE now achieves a reduction of approximately 84% in implementation complexity over the BDFE. We discuss in this chapter a block DFE as well as a serial DFE.8: BER vs.7. 212 MA operations per receive antenna for K = 2N .8 we show only the performance of the MMSE-SDFE and the MMSE-SLE for the case of Nr = 4 receive antennas. we extend the linear equalization techniques proposed in Chap- ter 3 to decision-feedback. Conclusion 83 0 10 MMSE−SLE. Similar observations can be easily drawn for this case in terms of performance and complexity. 4. 648 MA operations per receive antenna for the SDFE for K = N and 156. As we approximate the channel by using the BEM. K=2N MMSE−SDFE. K=2N −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR(dB) Figure 4. 806 MA operations for the BDFE. SNR for N r = 4 reduction in complexity for K = 2N . where the feedforward and feedback filters are implemented . on the other hand.4. K=N MMSE−SDFE. The implementation complexity.7 Conclusion In this chapter. requires 954. we also design the feedforward and feedback filters by the BEM resulting into what we denote as SDFE.

we also show that the SDFE outperforms the SLE.84 DFE of SC Trans. Finally. over Doubly Selective Channels using time-varying FIR filters. . By properly choosing the feedforward and feedback filters’ coef- ficients we can closely approach the performance of the BDFE. We show that the implementation as well as the design complexity of the pro- posed SDFE are much lower than the design and implementation complexity of the BDFE.

and they were obtained by a least squares (LS) fitting of the noiseless real channel. This is. which the receiver utilizes to either estimate the channel or obtain the equalizer coefficients directly. however. The BEM coefficients are then used to design the equalizer (linear or decision feedback). In this chapter. linear and decision feedback equalizers have been de- IN veloped for single carrier transmission over doubly selective channels. Then we derive the conventional BEM channel estimation technique (based on LS fitting). In these chapters. Blind and semi-blind techniques will be treated in the next chapter. PSAM techniques rely on time multiplexing data symbols and known pilot symbols at known positions. 85 . So far.6). it was assumed that the BEM coefficients are perfectly known at the receiver. the time-varying channel was modeled using the basis expan- sion model (BEM).Chapter 5 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques 5. This case corresponds to a critical sampling of the Doppler spectrum. far from realistic.1 Introduction Chapters 3 and 4. In this chapter we will focus on pilot symbol as- sisted modulation (PSAM)-based techniques for channel estimation and direct equalization of rapidly time-varying channels. we first derive the optimal minimum mean-square error (MMSE) interpolation filter based channel estimation technique. It has been shown that the modeling error (between the true channel and the BEM channel model) is quite large for the case when the BEM period equals the time window (see Section 2. A more realistic approach is to either use training symbols to estimate and/or directly equalize the channel or obtain the channel estimate and/or directly equalize the channel blindly.

l ].2. the BEM based PSAM channel estimation is sensitive to noise.5. In addition. . we show that robust PSAM based channel estimation can be obtained by combining the optimal MMSE interpolation based channel estimation with the BEM considering an oversampling rate greater than one (an oversampling rate equal to 2 appears to be sufficient). but the results can be easily extended to a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) system or a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. L. we first derive the PSAM MMSE channel estimation and then the BEM channel estimation is introduced. we first derive the optimal minimum mean-square error (MMSE) PSAM-based channel estimation.86 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques Reducing this modeling error can be achieved by setting the BEM period equal to a multiple of the time window. . Assuming we use P such training clusters where the pilot symbols are located at positions n0 . In [78] the authors treated the first case ignoring the modeling error. This chapter is organized as follows. Focusing on a baseband- equivalent description. Finally. the doubly selective channel of order L can be viewed as L flat fading channels on the part of the received sequence that corresponds to training. when an oversampling of the Doppler spectrum is used. 5.l . In this section. nP −1 . we show that the channel estimation step can be skipped and obtain the equalizer coefficients directly based on the pilot symbols.3.2 PSAM Channel Estimation In this section we assume a single-input single-output (SISO) system.1. n − k] + v[n]. . . . k=−∞ Using the optimal training procedure proposed in [78]. Our simulations for both approaches are shown in Section 5. l]x[np ] + v[np. Here.l ] = g[np. we introduce PSAM-based direct equalization. . . In other words. the input-output relation on the pilot positions can be written as y[np. This is referred to as PSAM-based direct equalization. which leads to the development of the optimal . The data/training multiplexing is shown in Figure 5. where the training part consists of a training symbol surrounded by L zeros on each side. the received signal y[n] can be written as ∞ X y[n] = x[k]g[n.l = np + l for l = 0. . we can reduce the model- ing error by oversampling the Doppler spectrum.4. However. where np. In Section 5. In Section 5. our conclusions are drawn in Section 5. when transmitting a symbol sequence x[n] at rate 1/T .

. l]]T is the channel state information at the lth tap. we need to design a P × N interpolation matrix W such that ĝl = WH ĝt.1) x[np ] where ṽ[np. g[N − 1. (5. l]. P − 1. . . for p = 0. From these noisy estimates we have to reconstruct the channel response for all n ∈ {0.l = [ĝ[n0. which is a vector containing the noisy estimates of the channel on the pilot positions. . In other words. .l ].2. .1: Optimal training for doubly selective channels interpolation filter. . l] − g[n. . PSAM Channel Estimation 87 Training DATA Training DATA 01×L 01×L 01×L 01×L Figure 5. l]|2 } N n=0 1 = E{kWH ĝt. l] = = g[np. . However. MMSE Channel Estimation A noisy estimate of the channel at the pth pilot is easily obtained by y[np. The MMSE interpolation matrix W is then obtained by solving min J W The solution of this problem is obtained as follows [30] −1 W = (Rp + Rṽ ) Rh (5.l ] ĝ[np. . l] an estimate of the lth tap of the true channel at time index n. l]]T . N − 1}. .l − gl k2 }. . with ĝ[n. . (5. .l ]/x[np ]. . (5. Define ĝt. ĝ[nP −1.4) . the PSAM- based estimation of the BEM coefficients is also discussed and combined with PSAM-based MMSE channel estimation to enhance the LS fitting of the true channel and the estimated one.l . . . ĝ[N − 1.l .3) N where gl = [g[0.2) where ĝl = [ĝ[0.5.l ] = v[np. .l . l]]T . l]. l]. . .l . l] + ṽ[np.l . since the BEM coefficients of the TV channels are needed to design the equalizers (linear and decision feedback). The mean square-error (MSE) criterion can be written as N −1 1 X J = E{|ĝ[n.

and K is the BEM period. l] = hq.. we only require the knowledge of the system maximum Doppler shift fmax and the sampling time to obtain these matrices. and white noise with normalized power β.i. . then Rṽ = βIP . and the training is of Kronecker delta form (i. . Q and K should be chosen such that Q/(2KT ) is larger than the maximum Doppler frequency.l ej2πqn/K .e.88 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques where Rp is the channel correlation matrix on the pilots given by rh [0] · · · rh [nP −1 − n0 ] rh [n1 ] · · · rh [nP −1 − n1 ] Rp = . Both Rp and Rh are assumed to be known1 . . . . .d) random variables. There- fore. the lth tap time-varying channel g[n. .d input symbols x[n]. Note that we used the assumption that the channel is wide sense stationary (WSS). Therefore. . l]g ∗ [n − |k|. (5.e. rh [nP −1 ] · · · rh [N − nP −1 − 1] with rh [k] = E{g[n. i.. . Assum- ing i. ν] over a window of size N samples. rh [nP −1 ] ··· rh [0] and Rh is given by rh [n0 ] ··· rh [N − n0 − 1] rh [n1 ] ··· rh [N − n1 − 1] Rh = . In this BEM the lth tap time-varying channel g[n. l]} which is independent of the tap index l assuming that the channel taps are independent identically distributed (i. .1 BEM Channel Estimation As discussed earlier in this chapter.i. Rṽ is the channel estimate error at the pilot positions co- variance matrix. x[np ] = 1 ∀p = 0.. . P − 1). for our equalizer design we require the channel BEM coefficients.. . hq is the coefficient of the qth basis function of the channel. Q/(2KT ) ≥ fmax . l] is modeled for n ∈ {0. · · · . 1 In this thesis we assume the realistic time-varying channel follows Jakes’ model.2. . but may change from block to block.5) q=−Q/2 where Q is the number of basis functions. In other words. . we use the BEM to approximate the time-varying channel g[n.. 5. . N − 1} by a BEM as: Q/2 X h[n. . . l] is expressed as a superposition of complex exponential basis functions with frequencies on a discrete DFT grid (see Chap- ter 2). which is kept invariant over a period of N T seconds..

. Q N −1 Q N −1 e−j2π 2 K . .l − L̃l hl k2 . .. 10].. equispaced pilot symbols. only a few pilot symbols are available for channel estimation..l ]T as the vector containing the BEM coefficients of the lth tap of the channel. 1 e−j2π Q2 K1 .6) is given by hl = L† gl .7) hl where Q n0. Q 1 ej2π 2 K L= . A robust channel estimate can then be obtained by combining the optimal MMSE interpolation based channel estimate obtained in (5. ej2π 2 K L̃l = ... In the ideal case. In practice.5.6) is applied.l Q n0.. (5. PSAM Channel Estimation 89 Define hl = [h−Q/2. However.l Q nP −1. critical sampling of the Doppler spectrum results in an error floor due to the large modeling error. where the TV channel gl is perfectly known at the receiver. ej2π 2 K The solution of (5. oversampling the Doppler spectrum (K = rN . .l e−j2π 2 K .8) It has been shown in [78]. the optimal training strategy consists of inserting equipowered... when (5. Q nP −1. ej2π 2 K The solution of (5. i. .6) as follows: . . As- suming the noisy estimates are obtained as in (5. ...l e−j2π 2 K . that when we critically sample the Doppler spectrum (K = N ) and ignore the modeling error. .l . this channel estimate is sensitive to noise when PSAM channel estimation is used. . .2) with the BEM channel estimate obtained in (5. (5.7) is obtained by † hl = L̃l ĝt (5. hQ/2.1)... . However.. the channel BEM coefficients can be obtained by solving the following LS problem: min kgl − Lhl k2 ..6) hl where 1 . then the channel BEM coefficients can be obtained by solving the following LS problem: min kĝt. .2. On the other hand. with integer r > 1) reduces the modeling error when the ideal case is considered [65.e.

.l′ y (r) [n − l′ ]. (5. Starting from (3.14) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 . . 1. obtain the LS solution of the following problem: min kĝl − Lhl k2 .10) or equivalently in one step as hl = L† WH ĝt. N − 1} to have L′ + 1 taps.9) can be obtained as hl = L† ĝl . ν] for n ∈ {0. (5. little gain is obtained when combining the MMSE interpolation based channel estimate with the critically sampled BEM (K = N ).12) r=1 ν=−∞ We design each time-varying FIR equalizer w(r) [n.11) Even though this applies to critical sampling as well as to the oversampling case. N − 1} after applying the time-varying FIR equalizer w(r) [n. . where the time-varying FIR equalizer coefficients are obtained directly without passing through the channel estimation step. .13) in (5. . ν] = δ[ν − l ] wq′ .13) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 Substituting (5.4. as will be clear in Section 5. .l .13). 5. the estimate of x[n] for n ∈ {0.12) we obtain L ′ Q′ /2 X X ′ (r) x̂[n − d] = ej2πq n/K wq′ . (5. ν] at the rth receive antenna sequence y (r) [n] can be obtained as Nr X X ∞ x̂[n − d] = w(r) [n. obtain the channel estimate ĝl as in (5. (5. .9) hl The solution of (5. For this purpose. (5. (5. .l′ ej2πq n/K . • Second.2). we derive a new input-output relationship that is equivalent to the input-output relationship derived in Chapter 3.90 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques • First. ν]y (r) [n − ν].3 PSAM Direct Equalization In this section we propose a PSAM-based direct equalization of doubly selec- tive channels. where the time-variation of each tap is modeled by Q′ + 1 complex exponential basis functions with frequencies on the same DFT grid as for the channel L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) ′ (r) ′ w [n.

and Y = [Y (1)T . and sampling time T = 25µsec. (r) yQ′ /2. providing that Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) ≥ (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) (see Section 3. .L′ ]T with the q ′ frequency-shifted and l′ time-shifted received sequence related to the rth receive antenna given by (r) yq′ .4. . We define Y t as the collection of columns of Y that corresponds to the training symbol positions subject to some decision delay. the channel order is considered as L = 3. we consider the critically sampled Doppler spectrum K = N . (5. The channel autocorrelation function is given by rh [k] = σh2 J0 (2πfmax kT ). y−Q′ /2. For the BEM. Y (Nr )T ]T . (5. Define [Y]i as the ith column of the matrix Y. where J0 is the zero-th order Bessel function and σh2 = 1 denotes the variance of the channel. 5. .L′ . . . we arrive at −1 w = Y ∗t Y Tt Y ∗t xt . We consider a window size of N = 800 symbols.16) is exactly obtained in the noiseless case if P ≥ Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1). . . Solving for w using LS. . . . . .14) can be written as Nr X x̂T∗ = w(r)T Y (r) r=1 = wT Y.15) where w = [w(1)T . (5. with Zl′ and Dq′ as defined in Section 3. . .4.16) The LS solution in (5. We therefore require to find the time-varying FIR coefficients w such that the following cost function is minimized J (w) = kwT Y t − xTt k2 . . . . . w(Nr )T ]T . with Y (r) is a (r) (r) (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) × (N + L′ ) matrix given by Y (r) = [y−Q′ /2. Assume that we have P pilot symbols as training collected as before in the vector xt .5.6). we evaluate the performance of the proposed PSAM-based channel estimation and direct equalization techniques. and define Y t = [[Y]d+n0 . as well as the . [Y]d+nP −1 ].l′ = Dq′ Zl′ y(r) . We consider a rapidly time-varying channel simulated according to Jakes’ model with fmax = 100 Hz. . .4 Simulation Results In this section.0 . Simulation Results 91 On the block level formulation.

the optimal training consists of P -clusters. K=2N 0 10 MMSE −1 10 MSE channel est.2: MSE vs. This means that the training overhead is P (2L+1) N −d %. BEM with K = 2N . K = 2N ). we consider the normalized channel MSE versus SNR. The number of pilots is then computed as P = ⌊N/M ⌋ + 1. K=N BEM. We consider the case when the spacing between pilot symbols is 160 which corre- sponds to P = 5 pilot symbols dedicated for channel estimation. First. combined BEM and MMSE with K = N . in particular. BEM with K = N . SNR for P = 5. The number of basis functions is.e. combining the critically sampled . com- bined BEM and MMSE with K = 2N . We consider equipowered and equispaced pilot symbols with M the spacing between the pilots. K=2N combined BEM and MMSE.1. and the MMSE channel estimate. chosen to be Q = 4 for the critical sampling case. We evaluate the performance of the different estimation techniques. all the MSE channel estimates suffer from an early error floor. PSAM-Based Channel Estimation: We use PSAM to estimate the channel. K=N combined BEM and MMSE. M = 160 oversampled Doppler spectrum with oversampling rate 2 (i. where the number of BEM coefficients to be estimated is Q + 1 = 5.92 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques 1 10 BEM. therefore. Since we adhere to the optimal training [78]. and each cluster consists of a training symbol and L surrounding zeros on each side as explained in Figure 5. This choice is well suited for the case of K = N . −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 5.2. However. and Q = 8 for the oversampling case. As shown in Figure 5.

K=2N combined BEM and MMSE. K=2N 0 10 MMSE −1 10 MSE channel est. Simulation Results 93 1 10 BEM. However. For the case of MMSE-SDFE. and . the SLE equalizer is designed to have order L′ = 12 and number of time-varying basis functions Q′ = 12. We consider here a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) system with Nr = 2 receive antennas. M = 95 BEM with the MMSE results in a slightly better performance. For the case of MMSE-SLE.3. where a gain of 9 dB at M SE = 10−2 is obtained over the conventional BEM method. We further consider the case when the spacing between the pilot symbols is M = 95 which corresponds to P = 9 pilot symbols dedicated for channel estimation. the estimated channel BEM coefficients are used to design a time- varying FIR equalizer.5. the time-varying FIR feedforward filter is designed to have order L′ = 12 and number of time-varying basis functions Q′ = 12.3: MSE vs. We use MMSE-SLE as well as MMSE- SDFE. which means that increasing the number of pilot symbols does not enhance the channel estimation technique. This case is well suited for the case when K = 2N . Second. As shown in Figure 5. −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 −5 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 5. the perfor- mance of BEM with K = N suffers from an early error floor. SNR for P = 9. Whilst for the case when K = 2N . when the oversampling rate is 2. A significant improvement is obtained when the combined BEM and MMSE method is used. the MSE curves do not suffer from an early error floor. Note also that the performance of the combined BEM and MMSE method when K = 2N coincides with the performance of the MMSE only.4. K=N BEM. the oversampled BEM channel estimate is sensitive to noise. K=N combined BEM and MMSE.

QPSK signaling is assumed. both cases (BEM and combined BEM and MMSE) suffer from an error floor. As shown in Figure 5. We design the system to have a maximum target Doppler frequency of fmax = 100 Hz. and .5 dB for the case of K = 2N compared to the case when perfect channel state information (CSI) is known at BER = 10−2 . K=2N BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 5. and in Section 4. M=165 Channel estimate.6 for the case when P = 5 pilot symbols are used for channel estimation. K=N combined BEM and MMSE. while the SNR loss is reduced to 6 dB for the case of combined BEM and MMSE when K = 2N . We define the SNR as SN R = σh2 (L + 1)Es /σn2 . The SLE coefficients as well as the SDFE coefficients are computed as explained in Section 3. M=95 BEM. The results are shown in Figure 5. we experience an SNR loss of 11.4 for the case of MMSE time-varying FIR SLE.4 for the MMSE-SLE. K=N BEM.94 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques 0 10 Perfect CSI Channel estimate. the time-varying FIR feedback filter to have order L′′ = L and Q′′ = Q. SNR using the MMSE-SLE. The BEM resolution of the time-varying FIR equalizer matches that of the channel. We then examine the performance of the channel estimation techniques for different maximum Doppler frequencies at a fixed signal to noise ratio SN R = 25 dB. where Es is the QPSK symbol power. Finally.4 for the MMSE-SDFE. Similar observations can be made for the case of MMSE time-varying FIR DFE shown in Figure 5. the BER curve experiences an error floor when M = 165 for the different scenarios. K=2N −1 10 combined BEM and MMSE.4: BER vs.5. we measure the MSE of the channel estimation techniques as a function of the maximum Doppler frequency. For K = N . For the case of M = 95.

7 when P = 9 pilot symbols are used. Figure 5.5. K=2N 10 combined BEM and MMSE. In PSAM direct equalization the SNR loss is about 9dB for K = N compared to perfect CSI at BER = 10−2 . i.e. inserting a pilot symbol every second symbol. Simulation Results 95 0 10 Perfect CSI Channel estimate. SNR using the MMSE-SDFE. Due to this modeling error the equalizer based on perfect channel state information suffers from an error floor. The simulation results are shown in Figure 5. the channel estimation techniques maintain a low MSE channel estimate as long as the channel maximum Doppler frequency is less than the target maximum Doppler frequency.8 for window size K = N as well as for window size K = 2N . K=2N BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 5. . K=N −1 BEM. This is due to the fact that the direct equalizer compensate for the noise as well as the modeling error.4. For this setup. where for the ZF solution to exist the training overhead is measured to be 50%. K=N combined BEM and MMSE.5: BER vs. M=95 BEM. PSAM Direct Equalization: We use here the same channel setup. For either case. At high SNRs the PSAM direct equalization for K = N outperforms the case when the perfect channel state information based equalizer for K = N . For the case of window size K = 2N the equalizer fails. M=165 Channel estimate.

M = 160. K=N combined BEM and MMSE.7: MSE vs. K=N BEM. K=2N combinied BEM and MMSE. K=N combined BEM and MMSE. fmax for P = 5.96 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques 0 10 Target fmax −1 10 MSE channel est. K=2N MMSE −3 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 f (Hz) d Figure 5. M = 95. fmax for P = 9.6: MSE vs. K=N BEM. K=2N combinied BEM and MMSE. and SN R = 25 dB 5.5 Conclusions In this chapter. −2 10 BEM. and SN R = 25 dB 0 10 Target f max −1 10 MSE channel est. K=2N MMSE −3 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 fd (Hz) Figure 5. −2 10 BEM. we propose a channel parameter estimation technique for rapidly time-varying channels derived from an interpolation based MMSE es- .

We consider the case when the Doppler spectrum is critically sampled (K = N ) and when it is oversampled (K is a multiple of the window size N ). We also show that the channel estimation step can be skipped to perform direct equalization based on PSAM.8: BER vs SNR for PSAM-based direct equalization. we only require to estimate the time-invariant coefficients. While in the first case. the estimation scheme suffers from an early error floor due to the large modeling error. Direct Equalization K=N K=2N −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 5. Conclusions 97 0 10 Perfect CSI PSAM.5. timation scheme. Using the BEM. We rely on PSAM to estimate the channel. We use the BEM to approximate the time-varying channel.5. the estimation is sensitive to noise in the oversampled case. It has been shown through computer simulations that combining the MMSE interpolation based channel estimate with the oversampled BEM significantly improves the channel estimation. .

98 Pilot Symbol Assisted Modulation Techniques .

deterministic blind identification/equalization techniques are proposed in [46. 106] blind techniques based on linear prediction are proposed for doubly 99 . The idea there is to insert known pilot symbols at known positions. a least-squares based deterministic method is discussed in [120]. 1. better performance and reduced complexity semi-blind techniques can be obtained. Subspace based methods are also proposed for channel identifica- tion/equalization for TI channels [82. However. In this chapter we focus on blind and semi-blind techniques for channel estimation and direct equalization. for our approaches we show that the ZF solution exists for only two sub-channels (receive an- tennas). Determinis- tic mutually referenced equalization is proposed in [87. where for a ZF FIR solution to exist. we discussed PSAM techniques for channel estimation and IN direct equalization. 45]. For TI channels. which the receiver then utilizes to estimate and/or equalize the channel. Due to the poor performance of blind techniques and their high implementation complexity. 47]. In [105. 75]. Semi-blind tech- niques are obtained by combining training-based and blind techniques. For doubly se- lective channels. 101.Chapter 6 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques 6. 2.1 Introduction Chapter 5. 115. the number of sub-channels (receive antennas) is required to be greater than the number of basis functions used for BEM channel modeling. For our blind techniques we focus on deterministic approaches. The training overhead imposed on the system can be completely eliminated by using blind techniques.

Finally. . 6. (6. we summarize in Section 6.5. . However. Blind and semi-blind channel estimation techniques are presented in Section 6.L′ ]T with the q ′ th frequency-shifted and l′ th time-shifted received sequence related to the rth receive antenna given by (r) yq′ . The noise matrix V (r) is similarly defined as Y (r) .k = Dp Z̃k x. x(Q′ +Q)/2. . . Assume that Q′ +1 frequency shifts and L′ +1 time shifts of the received sequence related to the rth receive antenna are stored in an (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) × (r) (r) (r) (N +L′ ) matrix (see Section 5.(L+L′ +1) ]T .0 .(L+L′ +1) . . . In Section 6.1 Blind Channel Estimation In this section we discuss deterministic subspace based blind channel estima- tion [68]. A relationship between Y (r) and the transmitted sequence can be obtained by substituting (3. 6. . . .3. Stacking the Nr resulting matrices Y = [Y (1)T .0 . where xp. This chapter is organized as follows. .4 we show some simulation results of the proposed techniques. these techniques also require the number of receive antennas to be greater than the number of basis functions of the BEM channel.l′ = Dq′ Zl′ y(r) .2 Channel estimation In this section we focus on the problem of channel estimation. blind techniques combined with training based techniques are favorable resulting into semi-blind techniques.3) Y (r) = [y−Q′ /2. In Section 6. In blind methods the channel is estimated up to a scalar ambiguity and computed from the singular value decomposition (eigenvalue decomposition) of a large matrix. .and frequency-shifted versions of the received se- quence. Y (Nr )T ]T .2. . .100 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques selective channels. . We first dis- cuss a deterministic blind channel estimation. where second-order statistics of the data are used. . we obtain: Y = HX + V.2) .1) where X = [x−(Q′ +Q)/2. . .5) in Y (r) resulting into: Y (r) = H(r) X + V (r) (6.L′ . It operates on time. . we present blind and semi-blind direct equalization. x−(Q′ +Q)/2. To resolve the scalar ambiguity.2. y−Q′ /2. . . yQ′ /2.k is obtained as xp.

.0 .0 . 5 Q/2 (r) −Q/2 Q/2 (r) −Q/2 0 Ω1 U i.Q′ /2 Ω2 (r) with U i. I}. .q′ . .Q′ /2 ]T (r) (r) (r) with ui.q′ .3) (1)T (Nr )T T (r) (r)T (r)T Define ui = [ui .. U i. .4). Ω1 U i..4) (r)T (r)T (r) where h = [h(1)T . . . ∀i ∈ {1.−Q′ /2 Ω2 ... .q′ = [ui. .. (6. . .. Let us assume the following: A1) H has full column rank (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) (see Section 3.2.0 .. ej2πL/K ]T } and Ω2 = diag{[1. . . . A2) X has full row rank (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1). . H(Nr )T ]T and V = [V (1)T . ui. hQ/2 ]T where hq = T (r) (r) (1) (N )T (r) [hq. . . . .L′ ]T ..−Q′ /2 .L ]T . Under these assumptions.q′ = .q′ . we compute the I left singular vectors of . U i r ]T . .6. (6. . . ui ] .. .q′ . . .. 7 7. .3) can be equivalently written as UH i h = 01×(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) . hq. .q′ an (L + 1) × (L′ + L + 1) Toeplitz matrix given by: (r) (r) u ′ . . . ui. . ui. ∀i ∈ {1. h(Nr )T ]T with h(r) = [h−Q/2 . . . Stacking the I left singular vectors we obtain U H h = 0I(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1)×1 . .Q′ /2 Ω2 0 Ui (r) 6 =6 . . where U = [U 1 .q . . uI are the I left singular vectors corresponding to the I zero singular values. .6). and define ui = [ui. 4 .0 . . . . . . . . . Then we can write uH i H = 01×(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) . . .−Q′ /2 Ω2 . . .L′ 0 (r) i. . Suppose that u1 . . . . where Ui is defined as (r) Q/2 (r) Q/2 2 −Q/2 −Q/2 3 Ω1 U i. . In (6. I}. (r) (r) 0 ui. (6. . . . . U i = [U i .L′ ′ and Ω1 = diag{[1. . U I ]. . A3) N ≥ Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1). Ω1 U i. ui. . In the presence of noise. . ej2πL /K ]T }. . . . from which h can be computed up to a scalar am- biguity. Channel estimation 101 where H = [H(1)T . . V (Nr )T ]T . the matrix Y has I = Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) − (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) zero singular values in the noiseless case. . . .q′ .

. and the non overlapping part is Nt = Nr (Q + 1)(L + 1) . training symbols are used along with the blind technique resulting into the so-called semi-blind technique.2. the channel is estimated up to a scalar multiplication. . let us consider the channel estimate that relies on known symbols.t yt . .t ) + vt . We denote these vectors as û1 . and the remaining symbols are data symbols.0 . v(Nr )T ]T . Collecting the received symbols that correspond to training in one vector yt . To facilitate channel estimation. . the channel estimate is obtained by minimizing a cost function consist- ing of two parts.l = Dq Zl x. . and the second part corresponds to blind estimation.2 Semi-Blind Channel Estimation In blind methods. ûI . v = [v(1)T . This training overhead can be greatly 1 Actually to have non overlapping data and training the optimal training strategy consists of Nr (Q + 1) clusters of 2L + 1 training symbols. . The first part corresponds to the training. . y(Nr )T ]T . (6. A LS channel estimate ĥtr is then computed based on the training symbols as † ĥtr = INr ⊗ X Tsb. .5) where y = [y(1)T . the training overhead is actually Nr (Q + 1)(2L + 1). We can write the received sequence corresponding to training as ytT = hT (INr ⊗ X sb. Let us assume that Nt symbols are used for training. .102 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques Y corresponding to the I smallest singular values. and the (Q′ +1)(L′ + 1) × N matrix X sb = [xT−Q/2.l given by xq. h The solution is obtained by the singular vector of Û corresponding to the smallest singular value. 6. The channel estimate is then obtained as H min kÛ hk2 . . . . and the training symbols in a matrix X sb. xTQ/2. To resolve the scalar ambiguity. In semi-blind tech- niques. First. To avoid the under-determined case it is required that the number of training symbols is Nt ≥ Nr (Q + 1)(L + 1)1 .t . and obtain the corresponding Û in a similar fashion as we computed U . we write the input-output relationship as yT = hT (INr ⊗ X sb ) + vT . Therefore. . Each cluster consists of a training symbol and L surrounding zeros on each side [78]. .L ] with the qth frequency-shift and lth time-shift of the transmitted sequence xq. . .

8) .and fre- T quency shift. (6.3.k Y = xT Z̃Tk Dp . In MRE the idea is to tune a number of equalizers. These techniques range from stochastic to deter- ministic.and frequency-shifts of the received signal.7) 6.6. due to the fact that we assume the BEM channel model. In (6.6) the first part corresponds to blind estimation while the second part corresponds to training. then the blind method is emphasized.3. A semi-blind algorithm is then obtained by combining the training based LS method and the blind MRE method.3 Direct Equalization In direct equalization the equalizer coefficients are obtained directly without passing through the channel estimation stage. There are many techniques that can be applied to obtain directly the equalizer coefficients for the case of frequency-selective channels. 6. the same idea can be applied. stochastic techniques cannot be applied. Define wp.1 Blind Direct Equalization The idea of blind direct equalization depends on tuning various equalizers as- sociated with reconstructing the transmitted signal subject to a time.t )k2 (6. If α is large. However. whereas the LS training based is emphasized for small α.t ) yt . 47].k as the time-varying FIR equalizer that reconstructs the pth frequency-shifted and kth time-shifted (delayed) version of the received sequence in the noiseless case as: T wp. We first discuss a deterministic blind direct equalization that relies on the so-called mutually referenced equalization (MRE).t X H sb. In this section we will rely on deter- ministic direct equalization techniques. (6. The semi-blind channel estimate can be obtained by using the following cost function: n ∗ T o ĥsb = arg min αhT Û Û h∗ + kytT − hT (INr ⊗ X sb. but taking into account the time.6) h where α > 0 is a weighting factor. Direct Equalization 103 reduced by combining the training with a blind estimation technique resulting in a semi-blind technique. and the fact that the channel BEM coefficients may change from block to block.t ) T (INr ⊗ X H T sb. The solution for the semi-blind channel estimation is then obtained as H −1 ĥsb = αÛ Û + INr ⊗ (X sb. For the case of time-varying channels. MRE is successfully applied to the case of TI channels [87. where the outputs of these tuned equalizers are used to train the other equalizers in a mutual fashion.

8) is satisfied in the noiseless case (i. . .11) .. rank X equals (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) [47]. Y 0.0 .L+L′ ] .k Y p. . . we set x = [01×(L+L′ ) . . . (6. it can be proven that the rank of Y̆ is (Q + Q′ + 1)2 (L + L′ + 1)2 − 1. . . 0 −Y (Q+Q′ )/2.e.. The different wp. (Q + Q′ )/2} and time-shifts (delays) k ∈ {0.0 −Y −(Q+Q′ )/2..104 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques where x = [x[−L − L′ ].e. .0 0 0 Y̆ = 0 −Y −(Q+Q′ )/2. 0M ×(L+L′ −k) ]T . w−(Q+Q ′ )/2.9) In order that (6. . i. . ..k = xT∗ .. . .. which requires at least two receive antennas. w(Q+Q′ )/2. Based on the ZF conditions we obtain the following relation: WH = αI(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) . w−1. x[N − 1]]T . L + L′ }. . a ZF solution exists) we require that: A1) the matrix H is of full column rank (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) (see Chapter 3). .10) where Y 0.0 . IM .0 Y 0. we ar- rive at the following: wT Y̆ = 01×M (Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1) . Define Y p.0 .8) as: T wp..1 . . . Taking the 0th frequency-shift and the 0th time-shift equalizer w0. 0 .L+L′ . .L+L′ Note that in the noiseless case. The different equalizers can be used as rows of a (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) × Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) matrix W.k = YD−p Z̆k . (6. 01×(L+L′ ) ]T . with Z̆k = [0M ×k . (6. xT∗ . . . A2) the inequality Nr (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) ≥ (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) is satisfied. In order to have mutually ref- erenced equalizers training each other for frequency-shifts p ∈ {−(Q + Q′ )/2.1 . . A3) the data length M > (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) A4) the input x[n] is persistently exciting of order at least (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1). . . Hence. . .k ’s are linearly independent and cannot be obtained from each other. w0. .0 as a ref- erence equalizer and collecting the different equalizer coefficients in one vector T T T T T T w = [w0. . . we can write (6. with x∗ a data vector of length M = N − L − L′ . .

In addition. ∀p. For the LS solution we constrain the first entry of w to 1 and solve for the normalized w̄ as: −1 T ¯H¯ ¯H w̄LS = Y̆ Y̆ Y̆ ȳ.k = αxT∗ .d . but here applied to doubly selective channels.0 Y 0.11) the channel can be estimated subject to some scalar ambiguity. The subspace approach is obtained by setting kwk2 = 1 and taking w as the left singular vector corresponding to the minimum singular value of Y̆.d .d INt ]. .12)). the training symbols are used to train all equalizers.k. if channel estimation is required. Note that.12) We can solve (6.9).10) either by using LS or by subspace methods [47]. ¯ where Y̆ is the matrix obtained after removing the first row of Y̆ and ȳ is this row multiplied by −1. (6. . Splitting (6. These two difficulties with the blind MRE can be resolved by combining training with the blind MRE method resulting into so-called semi-blind direct equalization. 47].t INt . . k p 6= 0.k in Y p. Y d ] = [xT∗. we assume that Nt symbols in x∗ are training symbols and the remaining Nd = M − Nt symbols in x∗ are data symbols. The proposed semi-blind approach consists of a combination of the training-based least-squares (LS) method [87] and the blind MRE method [44.6. L + L′ } we arrive at the following: wT [Y t .2 Semi-Blind Direct Equalization The MRE blind algorithm estimates the transmitted signal up to a scalar am- biguity α (see (6. While during training periods. Let us then collect the training symbols of x∗ in x∗. The basic idea is that we consider different SLEs that detect dif- ferent time. k 6= 0. then using (6. .0 = wp.3. both well- known for frequency-selective channels. during data transmission periods. xT∗. .k.9) into its training part and data part and stacking the results for p ∈ {−(Q + Q′ )/2. Let us further collect the corresponding columns of Y p. . . Direct Equalization 105 where α is some scale ambiguity satisfying: T T w0. the blind MRE is very complex. Starting from (6. .t and the data symbols of x∗ in x∗.and frequency-shifted versions of the transmitted sequence (blind MRE part discussed earlier in this chapter). (Q + Q′ )/2} and k ∈ {0. each equalizer output is used to train the other equalizers. respectively.t and Y p. . 6.k Y p.3.

01×Nd R ]k2 }. INd = 11×R ⊗ INd .d INd ]k2 }..and ..14) into (6.d The solution for x∗. (R − 1)Y (Q+Q′ )/2.16) −Y (Q+Q′ )/2. Z d ] − [xT∗.15) w where Z d is given by: (R − 1)Y −(Q+Q′ )/2.L+L′ . So far in our analysis we considered all possible time...d = wT Y d R−1 ITNd .d In this equation. .0. . . .. (6.t . Y d ] − [xT∗..d .d .. we obtain min{kwT [Y t .d Zd = R −1 .13) w. xT∗.d is given by x̂T∗. . Yt = Y −(Q+Q′ )/2. .106 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques where Y t and Y d are defined as Y −(Q+Q′ )/2. we can limit the number of time.L+L′ .L+L′ . Y (Q+Q′ )/2.and frequency-shits which exhibits similar complexity to the blind technique. (6. .14) Substituting (6.d . −Y −(Q+Q′ )/2.t Y −(Q+Q′ )/2.L+L′ . In the noisy case. applied to doubly selective channels. 47]. . .. the left and right part respectively correspond to the training- based LS method [87] and the blind MRE method [44. . we then have to solve min {kwT [Y t ..0. Due to the existence of the training part... (6.L+L′ .13).x∗.t INt .d . Yd = Y −(Q+Q′ )/2. where R = (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1). (6. Y (Q+Q′ )/2.0.t .d and INt = 11×R ⊗ INt .t INt .0.L+L′ .

the mismatch between the BEM channel and its estimate is shown in Figure 6. The number of frequency-shifts considered here is Q′ = 12 and the number of frequency-shifts is L′ = 12. In contrast. . for blind techniques. Considering the BEM channel as the true channel. . For this case. we consider the BEM resolution K = N . . and the case when the Jakes’ channel is the true channel. The complex scalar ambiguity is resolved by means of LS fitting the estimated channel with the true channel. 4 for a BEM resolution K = N . We investigate the performance of blind and semi-blind techniques for channel estimation as well as for direct equalization.and frequency-shifts. 6.6. In other words. K1 } for K1 ≤ (L + L′ ) and frequency-shifts p ∈ {−K2 . we can redo the above analysis for time-shifts k ∈ {0. . and sampling time T = 25 µsec. by the aid of training the number of tuned equalizers can be greatly reduced resulting in a much lower complexity than the blind techniques. we first plot the realization of one of the taps of the true channel and its estimate as a function of time at SN R = 16 dB. • The number of time-varying basis functions are Q = 2. . we require to tune the equalizers corresponding to all possible time. We consider the case when the approximated BEM channel is the true channel. • The channel is doubly selective according to Jakes’ model with order L = 3 and maximum Doppler frequency fmax = 100 Hz. Blind channel estimation: For the case of channel estimation. Channel Estimation For the case of channel estimation we consider the following channel setup: • A SIMO system with Nr = 2 receive antennas. Simulation Results 107 frequency-shifts resulting in a much lower complexity semi-blind technique. . when a ZF solution is to be found. • The channel is approximated using the BEM over a period of N = 800 symbols.4 Simulation Results In this section we show some numerical results for the techniques proposed in this chapter. . K2 } for K2 ≤ (Q + Q′ )/2. Considering the Jakes’ .4. Therefore. .1. and K = 2N respectively.

true BEM channel.5 BEM channel. However. the mismatch is clearly larger when the true channel obeys Jakes’ model. When the true channel obeys the BEM. we see that the mismatch is considerably smaller for this channel setup. channel as the true channel. ν] − g (r) [n. the mismatch between the true channel and its estimate is shown in Figure 6.5 Imaginary part 0 −0.108 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques 1 0. the MSE channel is computed as Nch X Nr N −1 XL 1 X X M SE = |ĥ(r) [n.3. Assuming the true channel obeys the BEM.1: Mismatch between the true BEM channel and its estimate for SN R = 16 dB using blind channel estimation. As shown in Figure 6. approx. the MSE is a monotonically decreasing function in SNR when the true channel obeys the BEM and K = N .2.5 Real part 0 −0.5 −1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (msec) 1 0. −1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (msec) Figure 6. We also consider the MSE of the channel estimate versus SNR. ν]|2 Nch Nr N (L + 1) i=1 r=1 n=0 ν=0 The MSE channel estimate is computed as Nch X Nr N −1 XL 1 X X M SE = |ĥ(r) [n. ν]|2 Nch Nr N (L + 1) i=1 r=1 n=0 ν=0 when the true channel obeys Jakes’ model. Nch is the number of channel realizations. whereas the MSE . ν] − h(r) [n. We consider the case where the true channel obeys the BEM as well as the case where the true channel obeys Jakes’ model.

SNR for the blind channel estimation technique. Simulation Results 109 1 0.5 Imaginary part 0 −0. Jakes’ K=N MSE. −1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (msec) Figure 6.3: MSE vs. true Jakes’ channel. Jakes’ K=2N −3 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 6.6. BEM K=2N MSE. .2: Mismatch between the true Jakes’ channel and its estimate for SN R = 16 dB using blind channel estimation.4.5 Jakes’ channel.5 Real part 0 −0. BEM K=N MSE. 0 10 −1 10 MSE channel estimate −2 10 MSE.5 −1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Time (msec) 1 0. approx.

Jakes.4: MSE vs. We consider the true channel to obey the BEM and the Jakes’ model. The simulation results are shown in Figure 6. the blind technique fails to estimate the channel for either channel models. whereas it shows a slight improvement for K = 2N specially for SN R ≥ 15 dB. K=N MSE. In both cases we consider the BEM resolution K = N as well as K = 2N . The training part consists of two training clusters of L + 1 training symbols each. We consider the case when the approximated BEM channel as the true channel as well as the channel follows Jakes model.110 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques 0 −5 −10 −15 MSE (dB) −20 −25 −30 MSE. First. BEM. while it suffers from an early error floor for K = 2N . channel estimate suffers from an error floor at M SE = 4 × 10−2 when the true channel obeys Jakes’ model and the BEM resolution is taken as K = N . BEM. .1. For K = 2N . K=2N −35 MSE. When the true channel follows Jakes’ model. SNR for the semi-blind channel estimation technique. Jakes. the MSE channel suffers from an error floor for K = N . Semi-Blind channel estimation: For this case we use the same channel setup used before. K=N MSE. For the case when the true channel follows the BEM. we consider the MSE channel estimate versus SN R for a a fixed α = 0.4. K=2N −40 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 SNR (dB) Figure 6. The first one is placed at the beginning of the transmitted block and the other one is placed in the middle of the transmitted block. the MSE channel estimate decreases with increasing the SN R when K = N .

the MSE channel estimate is plotted versus alpha for a fixed value of SN R = 30 dB.4.2 0. K=2N −50 0 0.4 1. BEM channel with K = 2N .5. Simulation Results 111 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 MSE (dB) −25 −30 −35 MSE.5: MSE vs. K=N MSE. α for the semi-blind channel estimation technique at SN R = 30 dB. Jakes’ channel. • The equalizer order L′ = 3 and number of time-varying basis functions Q′ = 2.2 1. BEM.6 0.1. Jakes. and Jakes’ channel with K = 2N ) it is found that the MMSE channel estimate is obtained for α = 0. . K=2N −45 MSE. BEM. with K = N .8 1 1. Direct Equalization Blind direct equalization: For the case of blind equalization and for feasibility and complexity reasons we consider the following channel setup: • A SIMO system with Nr = 2 receive antennas. Jakes. • The channel is doubly selective according to Jakes’ model with order L = 1 and maximum Doppler frequency fmax = 100 Hz. For all cases (BEM channel with K = N .4 0.6. The simulation results are shown in figure 6. Second.6 1.8 2 α Figure 6. K=N −40 MSE.

6. the blind technique retrieves the transmitted symbols subject to a complex scalar ambiguity. Therefore.5 −1. Semi-blind direct equalization: For the semi-blind technique we consider a SIMO system with Nr = 4 receive antennas. • The channel is approximated using the BEM over a period of N = 37. and M = 32 symbols.5 −2 −1. As already mentioned. As shown in Figure 6.5 2 −1.5 0 0. This scalar ambiguity can be resolved by combining the training based technique with the blind technique.5 1 1 0. For this channel setup we can easily prove that the ZF solution exists in the noiseless case. We consider a time-window of N T = 200T . when N T ≤ 1/(2fmax ).5 1 1.112 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques 2 1.5 (a) Before equalization (b) After equalization Figure 6.5 Transmitted Equalized 1.5 0. an accurate channel model can be obtained by taking Q = 2.6: Received and equalized symbols. We use pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) [30] in this work and insert a pilot symbol after every three data symbols. in the noisy case. We assume a doubly selective channel with Doppler spread of fmax = 100 and order L = 3.5 −1 −1 −1. However. and hence the number of time-varying basis functions Q = 2. and sampling time T = 25 µsec.5 0 0 −0. the direct training-based design where the equalizer coefficients are obtained directly based on PSAM .5 0 0. we restrict ourselves to the noiseless case.5 1 1. which is the case here. We consider three SLE designs: ideal design where perfect channel state information is assumed to be known at the receiver (see Chapter 3). in order to obtain good results we require a large Q′ and L′ which entails a high complexity that makes it very difficult to obtain the SVD of Y̆.5 −0.5 −1 −0. We use QPSK signaling. • The BEM resolution K = N .5 −1 −0. We assume the data sequence and the additive noises are mutually uncorrelated and white.

. and the direct semi-blind design proposed in this chapter. .7: Comparison of different SLE designs for doubly selective channels. 6. and frequency-shifts p ∈ {−Q/2. i.6. For the channel estimation part we show through computer simulations that the blind and semi-blind techniques . we consider the time- shifts k ∈ {0. The semi-blind techniques are combinations of the blind and training-based techniques which enables us to to resolve the scalar ambiguity of the blind techniques. For the ideal design. L}. we can observe that the direct semi-blind design clearly outperforms the direct training-based design.29b). and is not too far from the performance of the ideal design.5. Q/2}. . L′ = 3. and use the obtained BEM coefficients to design the BEM coefficients of the SLE as in (3.For the direct semi-blind design we take K1 = L and K2 = Q/2. .5 Conclusions In this chapter we have discussed blind and semi-blind techniques for channel estimation and direct equalization. we first fit a BEM to the true doubly selective channel over the time window of N T = 200T . .7. we assume Q′ = 2. For all designs. Conclusions 113 0 10 SLE ideal SLE training−based SLE semi−blind −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR Figure 6. and d = (L + L′ )/2 = 3. . From Figure 6. . .e. (see Chapter 5).

. and noticeably when the BEM resolution equals the window size. For BEM resolutions larger than the window size the different algorithms fail to identify and/or directly equalize the doubly selective channel.114 Blind and Semi-Blind Techniques perform well when the true channel obeys the BEM channel.

and Frequency-Selective Fading Channels . Part II OFDM Transmission over Time.

In addition to the time-variation of the channel. we assume the CP length is shorter than the channel impulse response. Similar to the case of SC transmission. but with re- ceiver analog front-end impairments. This material has been published in [15. Time- domain and/or frequency-domain equalization techniques are called for to cope with this problem of ICI. In Chapter 8. In such applications one way to increase the transmission throughput is by using a shorter CP length at the cost of compensating for the results by means of equalization. the time-domain equalizer is modeled using the BEM. a brief overview of OFDM transmission is studied. Frequency-domain techniques for joint channel equalization. IQ imbalance and CFO compensation are investigated. In OFDM transmission. In some applications that use OFDM as the transmission technique such as digital video broadcasting (DVB). we study OFDM transmission over time-invariant channels (in this case). 10] OFDM is not only sensitive to channel time-variation. In Chapter 7. 14. which in turn in- troduces inter-block interference (IBI). such long delay multipath channels are indeed encountered. 17. In Chapter 9. This results in combining adjacent subcarriers to mitigate ICI introduced due to the CFO. .e. conventional time. i.116 In this part we investigate OFDM transmission over doubly selective channels as well as over TI channels with receiver analog front-end impairment. the energy of a particular subcarrier is leaked to neighboring subcarriers. While IQ imbalance results in mirroring effect. In a similar manner to the time-varying case.or frequency-domain equal- ization techniques are not adequate to cope with the problems introduced by the underlying challenging mobile wireless communication channel. CFO results in ICI. mainly the so-called IQ imbalance and carrier frequency-offset. we propose time-domain and frequency-domain per-tone equal- ization techniques. 16. The system model and ICI analysis are also covered. 21]. This material has been submitted as [22. Using a CP of length equal to the channel order results in a significant decrease in throughput. time-varying channels induce intercarrier interference. but equally well to the receiver/transmitter analog front-end impairments.

Due to this simple implementation and robustness against frequency-selective propagation. each subcarrier experiences frequency-flat fading. 116]. IDFT. C2) The transmit redundancy (CP length) is greater than or equal to the channel maximum delay spread. where the information symbols are transmitted on multiple subcarriers [33.Chapter 7 OFDM Background Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a ORTHOGONAL multicarrier transmission technique. OFDM has been adopted for digital audio and video broadcasting [37] and chosen by the IEEE 802. and transmit redundancy (through the use of cyclic prefix (CP)) [25] the orthogonality between subcarriers is preserved. and by choosing the number of subcarriers sufficiently large such that the subcarrier spacing is narrow compared to the coherence bandwidth of the channel.1(a). Hence. the channel time-variation over an OFDM symbol period destroys the orthogonality be- tween subcarriers and hence induces intercarrier interference (ICI) [57. 31. OFDM divides the available system bandwidth W into orthogonal parallel overlapping multiple frequency bins as shown in Figure 7. Under C1) and C2). In the case of OFDM transmission over doubly selective channels. By means of the DFT.11 standard [54] as well as by the HIPERLAN-2 standard [52] for wireless LAN (WLAN). 8. The orthog- onality between the different subcarriers is preserved even after propagating through the channel if the following conditions are satisfied: C1) The channel coherence time is much larger than the OFDM symbol period (the channel is not time-selective). 117 . This results in a low complexity one-tap frequency-domain equalizer (FEQ) for each subcarrier.

04 0. fmax }.3.25 Normalized frequency Normalized frequency (a) Orthogonal subcarriers (b) With channel response Figure 7.1 0. the wider the ICI span (see Figure 7.05 0 0.02 0.8 4 0.and frequency-domain equalization techniques. the simple one-tap FEQ is not adequate to restore or- thogonality between subcarriers.4 2 0.1 −0. and therefore. 29.1: Spectrum associated with OFDM signal over TI channels. for time- varying channels.15 −0.05 0. More sophisticated/robust equalization tech- niques are then required to restore orthogonality between subcarriers and so to reduce/eliminate ICI.118 OFDM Background 1 5 0.02 0 0. ICI arises for OFDM trans- mission over TI channels due to the carrier frequency offset (CFO).6 3 |G(f)| 0.08 −0.1 a brief description of the system models is given. . This ICI is similar to the ICI introduced due to channel time-variation.2 −0. the ICI arises due to CFO only will also be analyzed. Finally.08 −0. where ∆f is the CFO.2 0.2(a). This chapter is organized as follows. In this chapter. ICI is a measure of the amount of energy on a specific subcarrier leaked from neighboring subcarriers. The channel time-variation is not the source of ICI.2 −0.2 1 0 0 −0. and as a result ICI arises as shown in Figure 7.2. 28]. In this part of the thesis we are targeting time. In the presence of ICI.15 0. In Section 7. As far as the bit error rate (BER) is concerned ICI results in an error floor limiting the performance of the system even for high signal-to-noise ratios. This energy leakage is proportional to the channel time-variation (Doppler spread). our conclusions are drawn in Section 7. The larger the Doppler spread. Note that. the channel maximum frequency shift is then computed as max{∆f. 28]. ICI analysis will be discussed later in this chapter. ICI analysis is discussed in Section 7.04 −0.2(b). As shown in Figure 7.2(b)) and the higher the BER error floor [71. the subcarriers are no longer orthogonal.06 0.06 −0. the channel time variation resulted from user’s mobility and that resulted from CFO are inseparable.

01 0 0. At the transmitter. t − nT )x[n] + v (r) (t). the received signal y (r) (t) at the rth receive antenna at time t.2 1 −15 0. System Model 119 5 1.8 −20 0.0025 1. The chan- nel is assumed to be time-varying. the incoming bit sequence is parsed into blocks of N frequency-domain QAM symbols. (7.7.0038 max −5 fmaxT=0. is given by: ∞ X y (r) (t) = g (r) (t.6 f T=0. Note that this description includes the transmission of a CP of length ν.05 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Normalized frequency Subcarrier Index (a) No longer orthogonal subcarriers (b) Normalized power leakage from sub- carrier k = 30 to neighboring subcarriers Figure 7.1.4 −30 0.05 −0.3.1 System Model We assume a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) OFDM system with Nr re- ceive antennas as shown in Figure 7.005 Normalized Energy Leakage (dB) 1. Each block is then transformed into a time-domain sequence using an N -point IDFT.04 −0. · · · .8 fmaxT=0. 7. A cyclic prefix (CP) of length ν is inserted at the head of each block.2: Effect of channel time-variation on the OFDM spectrum. x[n] can be written as: N −1 1 X x[n] = √ Sk [i]ej2π(m−ν)k/N .6 −25 0..03 −0.2 −35 0 −40 −0.02 −0.02 0. The time-domain blocks are then serially transmitted over a multipath fading channel.e. N − 1}. N is the total number of subcarriers in the OFDM block) of the ith OFDM block.1) N k=0 where i = ⌊n/(N + ν)⌋ and m = n − i(N + ν).03 0. Focusing only on the baseband-equivalent description.0013 0 fmaxT=0. The results can be easily extended to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems.04 0. n=−∞ Assuming Sk [i] is the QAM symbol transmitted on the kth subcarrier (k ∈ {0. . the conventional OFDM modulation is applied.4 −10 1.01 0. i.

θ]x[n − θ] + v (r) [n]. τ ) A/D Figure 7. This energy leakage is proportional to the channel Doppler spread. 7.1 Time-Varying Channels Assuming the channel delay spread is bounded by τmax . (7. θ] = g (r) (nT . the received sample sequence at the rth receive antenna y (r) [n] = y (r) (nT ). as the frequency response of the received sequence at the rth receive antenna after removing the CP at the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM . (r) Defining Yk [i]. (7.3) l=0 where L = ⌊τmax /T ⌋ is the channel order.2) θ=−∞ where v (r) [n] = v (r) (nT ) and g (r) [n.3: OFDM system diagram Sampling each receive antenna at the symbol period T .2 Inter-carrier Interference Analysis Due to the time-variation of the channel. we will give a brief analysis of the ICI introduced by the time-varying channel and CFO.2. In this section. ICI is the amount of energy on a specific subcarrier leaked from neighboring subcarriers. and hence to develop an ICI suppression technique. can be written as: ∞ X y (r) [n] = g (r) [n.2) can be written as: L X y (r) [n] = g (r) [n. and hence ICI is introduced. This analysis will help us to understand the mechanism of ICI. θT ).120 OFDM Background WGN CP TV Channel N-Point IFFT x[n] y (1)(t) y (1) [n] Sk P/S g (1)(t. 7. τ ) A/D S/P D/A WGN y (Nr )(t) y (Nr )[n] g (Nr )(t. (7. orthogonality between subcarriers is destroyed. l]x[n − l] + v (r) [n].

. . .2. l=0 . l]e−j2πmk/N .. . .5) (r) where Gl. Inter-carrier Interference Analysis 121 block: N −1 (r) 1 X (r) Yk [i] = √ y [n]e−j2πkm/N .k′ −k [i]e−j2πlk /N represents the amount of l=0 interference induced by subcarrier k ′ on subcarrier k when k ′ 6= k.k [i] = g [n. (7.k′ −k [i]e−j2πlk /N + Vk [i] k′ =0 l=0 L X N X −1 L X (r) (r) ′ (r) = Sk [i] Gl. ∀n ∈ {i(N + ν) + ν.0 [i] Gl. . (7. . In (7.−N +1 [i] S0 [i] (r) X L (r) (r) (r) S1 [i] Y1 [i] Gl. = Dl .4) N m=0 Substituting (7.4) we obtain: N X −1 L X (r) (r) ′ (r) Yk [i] = Sk′ [i] Gl.3) in (7. Sk′ [i] Gl.0 [i]e−j2πlk/N + Sk′ [i] Gl. ej2πl(N −1)/N ]T }. . (7. (7. Gl. g (r) [n.6) N m=0 (r) and Vk [i] is the frequency response of the noise at subcarrier k in the ith L P (r) ′ OFDM block. . .7. . (i + 1)(N + ν) − 1}). .N −2 [i] . (r) YN −1 [i] (r) Gl.−1 [i] .−1 [i] Gl. . when the channel is time-invariant for at least one OFDM block (r) (i.. .5).k′ −k [i]e−j2πlk /N + Vk [i].N −1 [i] (r) Gl. .e. (r) Gl.0 [i] SN −1 [i] | {z } (r) Gl [i] (r) V0 [i] (r) V1 [i] + .5) can be written as: (r) (r) (r) (r) Y0 [i] Gl.−N +2 [i] . .8) . Gl.k [i] is given by: N −1 (r) 1 X (r) Gl. ej2πl/N . l] = gl [i].5) can be written as: (r) (r) (r) Yk [i] = Sk [i]Gk [i] + Vk [i]. .1) and (7. . . . . l=0 k′ =0 l=0 k′ 6=k (7.0 [i]. In matrix form representation. . (7.7) .. (7. Note that. . . (r) VN −1 [i] where Dl = diag{[1. .

K determines the BEM frequency-resolution. an approximation of (7. Then. For this case. We will assume that K is an integer multiple of the block size N . (7.l [i]ej2πq(i(N +ν)+ν)/K .e.k [i] = h̃q. K = P N . Hl [i] can be written as: Q/2 . Q is the number of time-varying basis functions.122 OFDM Background (r) where Gk [i] is the frequency response of the channel at the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM block characterizing the link between the transmitter and the rth receive antenna.9) l=0 q=−Q/2 (r) where hq. θ].l [i] = hq.l [i] e−j2πm(k/N −q/K) . Considering h(r) [n. θ] as an approximation for g (r) [n. θ] for n ∈ {i(N + ν) + ν.e. .l [i]ej2πqn/K . and is assumed to be larger than or equal to the number of subcarriers. (i + 1)(N + ν) − 1} as: L Q/2 X X (r) h(r) [n. K ≥ N . i. . θ] = δ[θ − l] hq.l [i] is the coefficient of the lth tap and qth basis function of the channel between the transmitter and rth receive antenna in the ith OFDM block. . The parameter Q should be selected such that Q/(2KT ) ≥ fmax . which is kept invariant over a period of N T . . We use the BEM to approximate the doubly selective channel g (r) [n.10) N m=0 q=−Q/2 (r) (r) where h̃q. i.. (7. where P is an integer greater than (t) or equal to 1.6) can be obtained as follows: Q/2 N −1 (r) 1 X (r) X Hl.. we see that no ICI is present and orthogonality between subcarriers is preserved.

(r) X (r) e−jπφ sinc(φ) .

.

l [i] −jπφ/N (7.11) e sinc(φ/N ) .k [i] = h̃q. Hl.

φ=k−q/P q=−Q/2 where sinc(φ) = sin(πφ)/πφ. . conventional frequency-domain equalization techniques combine a number of neighboring subcarriers to remove the ICI. For P > 1. However. this approach can be generalized as discussed in the forthcoming chapters. the ICI support comes from all subcarriers but the main part is still related to the Q neighboring subcarriers (see Figure 7.4). exactly Q/2 interfering subcarriers on each side). Doing (r) this. (r) (r) (r) This will be more clear by replacing Gl. the ICI support is limited to Q neighboring subcarriers. where we develop novel time-domain and frequency-domain per-tone ICI mitigation techniques.k [i] in G l [i] in (7. For this reason.7). Note that for P = 1.k [i] by Hl. G l [i] becomes a structured banded matrix with bandwidth equal to Q + 1 (i.e.

7.2. Inter-carrier Interference Analysis 123

2 2

4 4

6 6

8 8

10 10

12 12

14 14

16 16

18 18

20 20

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

**(a) BEM approximation ICI matrix K = (b) BEM approximation ICI matrix K =
**

N 2N

Figure 7.4: Visualizing the ICI matrix using the BEM for K = N and K = 2N

7.2.2 CFO

For OFDM transmission over TI channels with CFO ∆f , the received sequence

at the rth receive antenna r(r) [n] can be written as

r(r) [n] = ej2πǫn/N y (r) [n], (7.12)

where ǫ = ∆f T , and y (r) [n] is

L

X (r)

y (r) [n] = x[n − l]gl + v (r) [n].

l=0

**Taking the DFT of the received sequence r(r) [n], the frequency response at
**

subcarrier k in the ith OFDM symbol can be written as

N

X −1

(r)

Rk [i] = r(r) [n]e−j2πmk/N

m=0

N −1 N −1

X 1 X (r) j2πmk′ /N j2πi(N +ν)ǫ/N j2πǫm/N

= Yk′ [i]e e e

m=0

N ′

k =0

N

X −1 N

X −1

(r) ′ (r)

= Gk′ [i]Sk′ [i]ej2πi(N +ν)ǫ/N e−j2πm(k−k +ǫ)/N + Ṽk [i]

k′ =0 m=0

N −1

X (r) sinc(π(k − k ′ + ǫ)) (r)

= ej2πi(N +ν)ǫ/N Gk′ [i]Sk′ [i] + Ṽk [i]

sinc(π(k − k ′ + ǫ)/N )

k′ =0

(7.13)

124 OFDM Background

5

ε=0.1

0 ε=0.2

ε=0.3

ε=0.4

−5

Normalized Energy Leakage (dB)

−10

−15

−20

−25

−30

−35

−40

15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Subcarrier Index

Figure 7.5: Normalized power leakage on subcarrier k = 30 due to CFO

**where Ṽk [i] is some noise related term at subcarrier k at the rth receive antenna.
**

From (7.13) the ICI on subcarrier k is given by:

N −1

X (r) sinc(π(k − k ′ + ǫ))

Ik = ej2πi(N +ν)ǫ/N Gk′ [i]Sk′ [i] . (7.14)

sinc(π(k − k ′ + ǫ)/N )

k′ =0

k′ 6=k

**The ICI power E{|Ik |2 } is given by:
**

N −1

X sinc2 (π(k − k ′ + ǫ))

E{|Ik |2 } = σs2 σh2 .

sinc2 (π(k − k ′ + ǫ)/N )

k′ =0

k′ 6=k

**the normalized power leakage due to CFO is plotted in Figure 7.5. Notice the
**

similarity with Figure 7.2(b).

7.3 Conclusions

**In this chapter, we briefly discussed the OFDM transmission technique. We
**

mainly discuss OFDM transmission over doubly selective channels and over

TI channels with CFO. Due to the fact that the channel is time-varying the

7.3. Conclusions 125

**subcarriers are no longer orthogonal which means that the energy of each sub-
**

carrier leaks to neighboring subcarriers inducing ICI. The larger the Doppler

spread, the more severe the ICI and the wider the ICI span will be. This mo-

tivates us to develop new equalization (ICI mitigation) techniques that restore

orthogonality between subcarriers. In addition to the channel time-variation,

CFO results in ICI. The ICI due to CFO has similar characteristics to that re-

sulting from time-varying channels. This allows to develop similar equalization

techniques that combine neighboring subcarrier to mitigate ICI on a particular

subcarrier. In the following chapter we develop time- and frequency-domain

equalizers that tackle the problem of ICI.

126 OFDM Background

eliminate the channel time-variation to eliminate/reduce ICI. In this chapter. In such applications one way to increase the transmission throughput is to use a shorter CP length at the cost of compensating for the results by means of equalization. implemented by a time-varying FIR filter.1 Introduction mentioned in Chapter 7. Using a CP of length equal to the channel order. 127 . we propose time-domain and frequency-domain equalization techniques. The purpose of the time-domain equalizer (TEQ). In addition to the time-variation of the channel. we assume that the CP length is shorter than the channel impulse response length. shorten the channel to fit within the CP length. and hence to eliminate the IBI. such long delay multipath channels are indeed encountered. which in turn introduces inter-block interference (IBI).Chapter 8 Equalization of OFDM Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels 8. 2. Therefore. equalization techniques are called for to compensate for the doubly selective channel effects. In some applications that use OFDM as the transmission technique such as digital video broadcasting (DVB). is two-fold: 1. results into a significant decrease in throughput. the channel time variation destroys orthogonal- AS ity between subcarriers in OFDM transmission.

8]. resulting in the so-called frequency-domain per-tone equalizer (PTEQ). By doing this. the TEQ is aimed at restoring orthogonality between subcarri- ers by converting the doubly selective channel into a purely frequency-selective channel of order less than or equal to the CP length. ant this will be of no exception in the context of OFDM over doubly selective channels. 29]. Time-domain approaches have been proposed for channel shortening/equalization in the context of digital subscriber lines (DSL). 6. Different approaches for reducing ICI for OFDM over doubly selective channels have already been proposed. In this chapter we only focus on the unit energy and unit norm constraints. Receivers considering the dominant adjacent subcarriers have been presented in [28. Similarly. Along with the time-domain approach we propose a frequency-domain equal- izer to mitigate the problem of ICI/IBI.128 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels In other words. 112]. In [31. including frequency-domain equalization and/or time-domain windowing. A time-domain windowing (linear pre-processing) approach to restrict ICI support in conjunction with iterative MMSE estimation is pre- sented in [90]. we restore orthogonality between subcarriers (eliminate IBI and ICI). which implies a substantial reduction in bandwidth efficiency. To design the TEQ. In this context. a frequency-domain ICI mitigation technique is proposed in [94]. non-triviality constraints are required. For multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) OFDM over doubly selective channels. a frequency-domain equalizer that optimizes the performance on each subcarrier separately can be obtained by transferring the TEQ operations to the frequency-domain. 121. The idea of obtaining the PTEQ from the TEQ was first proposed by [110] for DSL systems. There. least- squares (LS) and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) receivers incorporating all subcarriers. which have shown to yield superior performance in the DSL context. To avoid this rate loss. 57] the authors propose matched-filter. The purpose of this time-domain equalizer (TEQ) is thus to shorten the channel delay-spread to fit within the CP length. As we approximate the channel using the BEM. a time-invariant finite impulse response (TI FIR) filter is applied to the time-domain received samples for OFDM transmission over frequency-selective channels whose delay spread is larger than the CP length [32. An additional one-tap frequency-domain equalizer cor- responding to the TIR is then used to estimate the QAM transmitted symbols. in this chapter we apply a time-varying FIR TEQ to convert the doubly selective channel whose delay-spread is larger than the CP into a purely frequency- selective target impulse response (TIR) with a delay spread that fits within the CP. ICI self-cancellation schemes are proposed in [126. 85]. While the TEQ optimizes the per- formance on all subcarriers in a joint fashion. Channel memory shortening to reduce the complexity of the Viterbi decoder was suggested in [41. partial response en- coding in conjunction with maximum-likelihood sequence detection to mitigate . redundancy is added to enable self-cancellation. we design the time-varying FIR TEQ according to the BEM (similar to the SC case discussed in Part I of this thesis).

the time-varying channel matrix (or an estimated version of it) is required to design the equalizer. We assume a SIMO system as shown in Figure 8. which results in a novel frequency-domain equalization structure. τ ) A/D S/P D/A Ŝk EQUALIZER WGN Time-Domain y (Nr )(t) y (Nr )[n] or g (Nr )(t. we introduce time-domain equalization (TEQ) for OFDM sys- tems over doubly selective channels. The proposed TEQ is presented in Section 8. i. Moreover.. 2. We assume the most general case. Al- though these two principles are related (as in the time-invariant case). assume the channel delay spread fits within the CP. we show through computer simulations the performance of the proposed equalizers. The frequency-domain PTEQ is presented in Section 8.8. in these works.2 Time-Domain Equalization In this section. This in return. The TEQ is implemented by a time-varying FIR filter. such as the choice of the target impulse response and the different constraints one can take to solve the shortening problem. In Section 8. requires a large number of parameters to be identified or tracked. many additional issues pop up. our conclusions are drawn in Section 8.1.2. Time-varying shortening (and not equalization) in the time-domain. The translation and generalization of this time-domain shortener to the frequency-domain. where the time-varying channel delay spread is larger than the CP. at the rth receive antenna. and hence.5.e.6. This chapter is organized as follows. An efficient implementation of the PTEQ is discussed in Section 8.1: System Model. we apply a time-varying FIR TEQ . Finally. It is worth mentioning at this point the differences between the TEQ proposed in this chapter and the time-varying FIR equalizer proposed in Chapter 3.4. all of the above mentioned works.2. ICI in OFDM systems is studied in [125]. However. τ ) A/D Frequency-Domain Figure 8. Time-Domain Equalization 129 WGN CP TV Channel N-Point IFFT x[n] y (1)(t) y (1) [n] Sk P/S g (1)(t. no IBI is present.3. 8. In particular this chapter deals with 1.

we require to design a time-varying FIR TEQ and TIR such that the difference term e[n] is minimized in the mean square error sense. it is conve- nient to also model the time-varying FIR TEQ using the BEM.2. θ] w(Nr )[n. to convert the doubly selective channel of order L > ν and fmax 6= 0 into a target impulse response (TIR) b[θ] that is purely frequency- selective with order L′′ ≤ ν and fmax = 0. θ] to have L′ + 1 taps. we design the time-varying FIR TEQ w(r) [n. The output of the time-varying FIR TEQ at the rth receive antenna subject to some decision delay d. θ] = δ[θ − l ] wq′ . i. The purpose of the TEQ is to convert the doubly se- lective channel into a frequency-selective channel with a delay spread that fits within the CP. θ] for n ∈ {i(N + ν) + ν. In other words. θ]y (r) [n − θ].1) θ=−∞ Since we approximate the doubly selective channel using the BEM. θ] v (Nr )[n] y (Nr )[n] z (Nr )[n] h(Nr )[n.2: TEQ equivalent figure. θ]. Hence.2) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 . · · · . denoted by w(r) [n. θ] w(1)[n. where the time variation of each tap is modeled by Q′ + 1 time-varying complex exponen- tial basis functions. As shown in Figure 8. (8.e. θ] x[n] + e[n] delay − TIR d b[θ] Figure 8. The purpose of the time-varying FIR TEQ is thus to mitigate both IBI and ICI. we can write the time-varying FIR TEQ w(r) [n. (i + 1)(N + ν) − 1} as L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) ′ (r) ′ w [n. (8. subject to some decision delay d.130 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels v (1)[n] TV Channel TEQ (1) y [n] z (1) [n] h(1)[n.l′ [i]ej2πq n/K . can be written as ∞ X (r) z [n − d] = w(r) [n.

. IN . .1) we obtain: L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) ′ (r) z [n − d] = wq′ .l′ [i]hq. ej2πq ((i+1)(N +ν)−1)/K ]T } (note the difference between this definition and the definition in Section 3.l′ [i]ej2πq n/K y (r) [n − l′ ] l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 L ′ Q′ /2 L Q/2 X X X X (r) (r) ′ = wq′ . (8. 0(N +L′ )×l ]. . D̃q [i] = ′ diag{[ej2πq(i(N +ν)+ν−L )/K . ej2πq((i+1)(N +ν)−1)/K ]T }. · · · .l [i]ej2πq n/K ej2πqn/K x[n − l − l′ ] l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l=0 q=−Q/2 L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) ′ + wq′ . . Z̄k = [0N ×(L+L′ −k) .k [i]Dp [i]Z̄k x[i] p=−(Q+Q′ )/2 k=0 Nr X L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) + wq′ . 0N ×l′ ]. IN . · · · . x[(i + 1)(N + ν) − 1]]T and v(r) [i] = [v (r) [i(N + ν) − L′ ].k [i] can be written as Nr Q′ /2 ′ L X X X ′ ′ (r) (r) fp. we can write (8.l′ [i]Dq′ [i]Zl′ v[i].8. v (r) [(i + 1)(N + ν) − 1]]T .4) as (Q+Q′ )/2 L+L′ X X z[i] = fp.6) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l′ =0 . ′ .k−l′ [i].4) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 ′ where the diagonal matrix Dq′ [i] = diag{[ej2πq (i(N +ν)+ν)/K .l′ Dq′ [i]Zl′ v[i]. (8. 0N ×k ].2. · · · . . and finally the ma- trix Z̃l = [0(N +L′ )×(L−l) .3) l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 It is more convenient at this point to switch to a block level formulation. (8.l′ [i]hp−q′ . (8. and fp.l′ [i]hq.l′ [i]ej2πq n/K v (r) [n − l′ ]. Defining z(r) [i] = [z (r) [i(N + ν) + ν − d]. then (8.k [i] = ej2π(p−q )l /K wq′ . z (r) [(i + 1)(N + ν) − d − 1]]T .3) on a block level can be formulated as L ′ Q′ /2 L Q/2 X X X X (r) (r) (r) z [i] = wq′ .4). . Using the property Zl′ D̃q [i] = ′ ′ ej2πq(L −l )/K Dq [i]Zl′ .5) r=1 l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 PNr where z[i] = r=1 z(r) [i]. and defining p = q + q ′ and k = l + l′ .l [i]Dq′ [i]Zl′ D̃q [i]Z̃l x[i] l′ =0 q ′ =−Q′ /2 l=0 q=−Q/2 L ′ Q′ /2 X X (r) + wq′ . Zl′ = [0N ×(L′ −l′ ) . x[i] = [x[i(N + ν) + ν − L − L′ ]. IN +L′ . Time-Domain Equalization 131 Substituting (8. .2) in (8.

HQ/2 [i] 0 . .. · · · . (8. 1]T }.. A[i] = D−(Q+Q′ )/2 [i]Z̄L+L′ .0 [i] . This allows us to derive a linear relationship between f [i] and w[i].l [i]) = .L′ [i]]T .7) (r) (r) where w(r) [i] = [w−Q′ /2. Tq. B[i] = D−Q′ /2 [i]ZL′ . . . . .L′ +1 (hq. . .5) as Nr X z[i] = (f T [i] ⊗ IN )A[i]x[i] + (w(r)T [i] ⊗ IN )B[i]v(r) [i] r=1 = (f T [i] ⊗ IN )A[i]x[i] + (wT [i] ⊗ IN )(INr ⊗ B[i])v[i]. ′ and consequently introduce the (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) × (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1) block Toeplitz matrix (r) (r) H−Q/2 [i] . . (8..0 [i]. . . w(Nr )T [i]]T . . . hq. · · · . . . ..6) that: f T [i] = wT [i]H[i]..Q′ +1 (Hq(r) [i]) and H[i] = [H(1)T [i]. (r) (r) 0 hq. where Ωq = diag{[ej2πqL /K . .8) As already mentioned. We first define the (L′ + 1) × (L′ + L + 1) Toeplitz matrix (r) (r) hq.0 [i] . w[i] = [w(1)T [i]. D(Q+Q′ )/2 [i]Z̄L+L ′ DQ′ /2 [i]ZL′ Note that the term in fp.l [i]). f(Q+Q′ )/2. .132 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels Defining f [i] = [f−(Q+Q′ )/2.L′ +1 (hq.L [i] (r) We define Hq(r) [i] = Ωq Tl. HQ/2 [i] Introducing H(r) [i] = Tq.. . we can finally derive from (8. v[i] = [v(1)T [i]. . hq. . .k [i] corresponding to the rth receive antenna is related to a 2-dimensional convolution of the BEM coefficients of the doubly selective channel for the rth receive antenna and the BEM coefficients of the time- varying FIR TEQ for the rth receive antenna. · · · . . . v(Nr )T [i]]T .L+L′ [i]]T .. wQ′ /2. . . the purpose of the TEQ is to convert the doubly selective channel into a frequency-selective equivalent channel with order less than or . Tl. .0 [i]. . · · · . and A[i] and B[i] are given by D−(Q+Q′ )/2 [i]Z̄0 D−Q′ /2 [i]Z0 . we can further write (8. . .L [i] 0 (r) . H(Nr )T [i]]T ..Q′ +1 (Hq(r) [i]) = . (r) (r) 0 H−Q/2 [i] .

To this aim. Note that X is a square matrix while V is not necessarily square. . Defining e[i] = [e[i(N + ν)]. Time-Domain Equalization 133 equal the CP. . we will now design a TEQ w[i]. Hence. . . . we can write the following cost function J [i] = E eH [i]e[i] = tr (f T [i] ⊗ IN )A[i]Rx AH [i](f ∗ [i] ⊗ IN ) + tr (wT [i] ⊗ IN )(INr ⊗ B[i])Rv (INr ⊗ BH [i])(w∗ [i] ⊗ IN ) n o + tr (b̃T [i] ⊗ IN )A[i]Rx AH [i](b̃∗ [i] ⊗ IN ) n o − 2tr ℜ{(f T [i] ⊗ IN )A[i]Rx AH [i](b̃∗ [i] ⊗ IN )} (8. 0((Q+Q′ )(L+L′ +1)/2−L′′ −d−1)×(L′′ +1) Hence.9) where the augmented vector b̃[i] can be written as b̃[i] = Cb[i] with the selec- tion matrix C given by 0((Q+Q′ )(L+L′ +1)/2+d)×(L′′ +1) C= IL′′ +1 . we define the so called target-impulse response (TIR) denoted by b[θ] and of order L′′ ≤ ν. which can be modeled for n ∈ {i(N + ν) + ν.8. . we can express e[i] as ′′ L X T T e[i] = (f [i] ⊗ IN )A[i]x[i] + (w [i] ⊗ IN )(INr ⊗ B[i])v[i] − bl′′ [i]Z̄l′′ x[i] l′′ =0 = (f T [i] ⊗ IN )A[i]x[i] + (wT [i] ⊗ IN )(INr ⊗ B[i])v[i] − (b̃[i] ⊗ IN )A[i]x[i] (8. .10) Let us now introduce the following properties tr{(xT ⊗ IN )X(x∗ ⊗ IN )} = xT subtr{X}x∗ tr{(xT ⊗ IN )V(y∗ ⊗ IN )} = xT subtr{V}y∗ . . . where subtr{·} splits the matrix up into N × N sub-matrices and replaces each sub-matrix by its trace.2. e[i(N + ν) + N − 1]]T . a TIR b[i] = [b0 [i].10) reduces to J [i] = wT [i] H[i]RÃ [i]HH [i] + RB̃ [i] w∗ [i] + b̃T [i]RÃ [i]b̃∗ [i] . subtr{·} reduces the row and column dimension by a factor N .2. Hence. . l′′ =0 As shown in Figure 8. bL′′ [i]]T and a synchronization delay d such that the difference be- tween the outputs of the upper branch and the lower branch is minimized. (i + 1)(N + ν) − 1} as ′′ L X b[θ] = δ[θ − l′′ ]bl′′ [i]. the cost function in (8. . .

kb[i]k2 = 1 or kw[i]k2 = 1.g. or a unit-energy constraint.11) H where RÃ [i] = subtr{A[i]R x A [i]}. and is found to be of no exception here).t w[i] and b[i]. a unit-norm constraint. w[i]. A TEQ for the MIMO case is proposed in [3].b[i] The solution to this problem is given by −1 wT [i] = b̃T [i] HH [i]R−1 B̃ [i]H[i] + R−1 Ã [i] HH [i]R−1 B̃ [i]. bH [i]RÃ [i]b[i] = 1 or wH [i]RB̃ [i]w[i] = 1. In order to avoid the trivial solution (zero vector w[i] and zero vector b[i]). b0 [i] = 1. b[i] = eigmax (R̃⊥ [i]). 111]. More details about these constraints for TI channels can be found in [4] and [6] for the unit-tap and unit-norm constraints. .b[i] The solution to this optimization problem is given by −1 wT [i] = b̃T [i] HH [i]R−1 B̃ [i]H[i] + R−1 Ã [i] HH [i]R−1 B̃ [i]. e. and in [121] for the unit-energy constraint. Unit norm constraint on TIR In this case we have the following optimization problem min J [i] such that kb[i]k2 = 1. (8. where R⊥ [i] is given by −1 R⊥ [i] = CT HH [i]R−1 B̃ [i]H[i] + R−1 Ã [i] C Unit energy constraint on TIR In this case we have the following optimization problem: min J [i] such that b̃H [i]RÃ [i]b̃[i] = 1. w[i].. and RB̃ [i] = H subtr (INr ⊗ B[i])Rv (INr ⊗ B [i]) . An extensive study of the different constraints and their application for DMT-based systems are given in [122.r. b[i] = eigmin (R⊥ [i]). This cost function is now to be optimized w. a unit tap constraint. In this chapter we only consider the unit norm constraint (UNC) on the TIR and the unit energy constraint (UEC) on the TIR for their superior performance compared to the other constraint (this is proven to be the case in DMT systems. non-triviality constraints have to be added.134 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels − 2ℜ{wT [i]H[i]RÃ [i]b̃∗ [i]}.

. These are discussed in more details in Chapter 3 (see also [20]). and y(r) [i] = [y (r) [i(N + ν) + ν − L′ ]. with first column [wq′ . Time-Domain Equalization 135 WGN CP TV Channel N-Point IFFT y (1)(t) y (1)[n] Sk P/S D/A g (1)(t. It is clear that we need at least two receive antennas. (8. Nr ≥ 2 and this can be fulfilled for sufficiently large Q′ and L′ . 01×(N −1) ]T and first row (r) (r) [wq′ . . This justi- fies our assumption of SIMO systems. dk [i] is the frequency response of the TIR on the kth subcarrier of the ith OFDM block (1/dk [i] represents the 1-tap FEQ). Conditions like column reducedness and irreducibility can be deduced from the MIMO time-invariant FIR case. . . The existence of a perfect shortening TEQ (a TEQ that completely eliminates IBI/ICI in the noiseless case) requires that H is of full column rank. wq′ . where R̃⊥ [i] is given by −1 R̃⊥ [i] = CT HH [i]R−1 B̃ [i]H[i] + R−1 Ã [i] HH R−1 B̃ [i]HRÃ [i]C. A nec- essary condition for H to have full column rank is that N r(Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) ≥ (Q + Q′ + 1)(L + L′ + 1).2. Define Ŝk [i] as the estimate of the transmitted QAM symbol on the kth subcarrier of the ith OFDM symbol.3 as Nr Q′ /2 1 X X (r) Ŝk [i] = F (k) Dq′ [i]Wq′ [i]y(r) [i]. i.8.3: TEQ. Note that eigmin (A) (eigmax (A)) is the eigenvector corresponding to the mini- mum (maximum) eigenvalue of the matrix A. a one-tap FEQ applied to the filtered received sequence in the frequency-domain is still necessary to fully recover the transmitted QAM symbols.0 [i]. τ ) A/D w (1)[n.L′ [i]. τ ) A/D w (Nr)[n.e. . ν] S/P CP FEQ N-Point FFT WGN S/P Ŝk y (Nr )(t) y (Nr )[n] g (Nr )(t. .L′ [i]. . . Wq′ [i] is an N × (r) (N + L′ ) Toeplitz matrix.12) dk [i] r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 (r) where F (k) is the (k + 1)st row of the FFT matrix F . y (r) [(i + 1)(N + ν) − 1]]T . This estimate is then obtained by applying a 1-tap FEQ to the TEQ output after the DFT- demodulation as shown in Figure 8. 01×(N −1) ]. ν] e[n] ∆ b[ν] Figure 8. . In conjunction with the designed TEQ.

. (r. . w̃Q′ /2 [i] . wq′ .k) originally between w̃q′ [i]. The proposed TEQ optimizes the performance on all subcarriers in a joint fashion. a time-domain equalizer is proposed to combat the effect of the propagation channel. .k)T w̃−Q′ /2 [i].13a) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 Nr Q′ /2 X X (r) = F (k) Dq′ [i]Y(r) [i]D̂∗q′ D̂q′ wq′ [i]/dk [i] (8. .0 [i]. . .136 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels 8. . the estimate of the transmitted QAM symbol on the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM block is then obtained as Nr Q′ /2 X X (r) Ŝk [i] = F (k) Dq′ [i]Y(r) [i]wq′ [i]/dk [i] (8. . .13b). and D̂q′ = diag{[1.3 Frequency-Domain Per-Tone Equalization In Section 8. . . ej2πq L /K ]T }. wq′ [i]. and dk [i].2. (8. (8. . An optimal frequency-domain per-tone equalizer (PTEQ) can then be obtained by transferring the TEQ operations to the frequency-domain. .14). which will simplify the analysis and implementation. (8. we obtain: Nr X Ŝk [i] = w̃(r.13b) is done here to restore the Toeplitz structure in Yq′ [i] = Dq′ Y(r) [i].13b) reduces to: Nr X Ŝk [i] = F (k) Ỹ(r) [i]w̃(r.k)T [i]F(k) [i]y(r) [i]. .L′ [i]]T . The purpose of the proposed TEQ is to convert the doubly selective channel into a purely frequency-selective channel of order that fits within the CP length. . D̃TQ′ /2 [i] . . h i (r) (r) Defining Ỹ(r) [i] = Ỹ−Q′ /2 [i]. . .k) This allows us to optimize the equalizer coefficients w̃q′ [i] for each subcarrier k separately. . Hence. we can see that each subcarrier has its own (L′ + 1)-tap FEQ. From (8.k)T (r.14) r=1 Transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency-domain by interchanging the TEQ with the DFT in (8.k) [i]. .k) Ỹq′ [i] w̃q′ [i] where Y(r) [i] is an N ×(L′ +1) Toeplitz matrix.k) (r. ỸQ′ /2 [i] and w̃(r. as will become clear later. .13b) r=1 q ′ =−Q′ /2 | {z }| {z } (r) (r. . . y (r) [i(N +ν)+ (r) (r) (r) ′ ′ ν −L′ ]]. and F̃ is given . with first column [y (r) [i(N +ν)+ ν]. .15) r=1 (k) h iT (k) where F(k) [i] = IQ′ +1 ⊗ F̃ D̃T−Q′ /2 [i]. without taking into account the specific relation that existed (r. Note that the right multiplication of Y(r) [i] with the diagonal matrix D̂q′ in (r) (8. . .k) [i] = h iT (r. . wq′ [i] = [wq′ . y (r) [(i+1)(N +ν)−1]]T and first row [y (r) [i(N +ν)+ν]. .

which can be implemented more cheaply as a sliding FFT. y(Nr )T [i]]T .17) (r) where O 1 = 0(N +L′ )×(N +2ν−L−L′ ) . hq.L [i].k)T [i]. F (k) 0 ··· 0 which corresponds to a sliding DFT operation. . .15). 0 0 F̃ = . . In Section 8. . Defining w̃(k) [i] = [w̃(1. . . Hq [i] is an (N + (r) L′ )×(N +L′ +L) Toeplitz matrix with first column [hq. O 2 (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H s[i] +v(r) [i]. .. . . we will show how the PTEQ coefficients can be com- puted in order to minimize the mean square error (MSE). q=−Q/2 s[i + 1] | {z } | {z } G(r) [i] s̃ (8.0 [i]. 0 0 . i.16) At this point we may introduce a model for the received sequence on the rth receive antenna y(r) [i] as Q/2 X h i s[i − 1] y(r) [i] = D̃q [i] O 1 .. and P is the CP insertion matrix given by: 0 Iν P = ν×(N −ν) .k)T [i]]T and y[i] = [y(1)T [i]. (8. we require (Q′ + 1) sliding FFTs per receive antenna.. IN . .8. . The removed sliding FFTs are compensated for by combining the PTEQ outputs of neighboring subcarriers on the remaining sliding FFTs. This results in a complexity of (Q′ +1)(L′ +1) multiply-add (MA) operations per receive antenna per subcarrier.4. Hq(r) [i].e. the number of which is entirely independent of Q′ but rather depends on the BEM frequency resolution K. . Frequency-Domain Per-Tone Equalization 137 by: 0 ··· 0 F (k) . To compute (8.15) can be written as Ŝk [i] = w̃kT [i] INr ⊗ F(k) [i] y[i]. w̃(Nr .L [i]. 01×(N +L′ −L−1) ]. F (k) (k) .4. 01×(N +L′ −1) ]T and (r) (r) first row [hq. Each sliding FFT is applied to a modulated version of the sequence received on a particular antenna. we show how we can further reduce the complexity of the proposed PTEQ by replacing the Q′ + 1 sliding FFTs by only a few sliding FFTs..3. . In the following. . To estimate the transmitted QAM symbol on the kth subcarrier we then have to combine the outputs of the Nr (Q′ +1) PTEQs corresponding to the kth subcarrier. . . . (8. . O 2 = 0(N +L′ )×(N +ν−d) . Nr N (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) MA operations for a block of N symbols. The q ′ th sliding FFT on the rth receive antenna is shown in Figure 8.

.L′ ∆ ↓N +ν 0000 1111 0000 1111 ′ ej2πq n/K ∆ 0000 1111 tone N − 11111 0000 0000 1111 0000 1111 0 ↓N +ν (r.L′ Multiply-Add cell b a + b.L′ ∆ Sliding N-Point FFT ↓N +ν 0000 1111 0000 1111 N + L′ 0000 1111 tone k 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0 N (r.4: Sliding FFT of the q ′ th modulated version of the received sequence y (r) [n]. which reduces to: −1 (k)T w̃M M SE [i] = INr ⊗ F(k) [i] G[i]Rs̃ GH [i] + Rv INr ⊗ F(k)H [i] × INr ⊗ F(k) [i] G[i]Rs̃ e(k) .0) (r. the MMSE PTEQ coefficients for the kth subcarrier are given by: (k) w̃M M SE [i] = arg min J [i] (8.0) w̃q′ . we define the following mean-square error (MSE) cost function: 2 (k)T (k) J [i] = E Sk [i] − w̃ [i] INr ⊗ F [i] y[i] Hence.L′ −1 w̃q′ .0 w̃q′ .0 w̃q′ . (8.L′ −1 w̃q′ .k) (r.c a c Figure 8.19) where G[i] = [G(1)T [i]. .138 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels 000 111 tone 0 111 000 000 111 ↓N +ν 000 111 000 111 0 (r.L′ −1 w̃q′ .18) w̃(k) [i] The solution of (8. .18) is obtained by solving ∂J [i]/∂ w̃(k) [i] = 0. .0 w̃q′ . G(Nr )T [i]]T and e(k) is the unit vector with a 1 in the N + kth position.N −1) y (r)[n] w̃q′ . .N −1) (r.k) (r.0) (r. To obtain the PTEQ coefficients for the kth subcarrier.k) w̃q′ .N −1) (r.

k) where lp = pP . (8. ỹp [(i + 1)(N + ν) − 1]]T . ]T .k)T Defining w̄p [i] = [. We will assume that K is an integer multiple of the FFT size. Note that (8. . and wp. where the BEM resolution of the channel model and the BEM resolution of the time-varying FIR TEQ are assumed to be the same.lp [i].8. we basically require (Q′ + 1) sliding FFTs.20b) r=1 p=0 qp ∈Qp q −p (r. . in contrast to the time-domain approach. . .20b) splits the Q′ + 1 different terms of (8..k) = F (k−lp ) Ỹp(r) [i]w̄p. Q′ /2}.4 Efficient Implementation of the PTEQ In Section 8. the BEM frequency resolution K is greater than or equal to the DFT size N .14) can be written as Nr P X X −1 X (r.14) into P different groups.21) r=1 p=0 qp ∈Qp | {z } (r) ỹp [i] (r) (r) (r) Note that ỹp [i] = [ỹp [i(N + ν) + ν − L′ ].k)T (k−lp ) Ŝk [i] = w̄p. (8.k)T (r. P −1. . . with the pth group containing |Qp | terms.4. i.−1 [i].e. . we have shown that to implement the proposed PTEQ. We start by defining Q = {−Q′ /2. and Qp = {q ∈ Q | q mod P = p}.21) can now .lp [i] Nr P X X −1 X (r. . with (r) ỹp [n] = ej2πpn/K y (r) [n] is the pth modulated version of the received sequence. .k) Ỹp [i] w̄p.k) Ŝk [i] = F (k−lp ) Dp [i]Y(r) [i]D̂∗p D̂p wp.1 [i]. Efficient Implementation of the PTEQ 139 Note that.13b)). Based on these definitions. (r.20a) r=1 p=0 qp ∈Qp | {z }| {z } (r) (r. Our complexity reduction will proceed in two steps: Step 1: In general.k) (r.k)T (r. w̄p. . . w̄p. K = P N . .13b) and (8.3. .0 [i]. where P is an integer greater than or equal to 1 (P ∈ Z+ ).lp [i]F̃ D̃p [i]y(r) [i] (8.lp [i]/dk [i] (8. . Transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency-domain. we show how we can reduce the complexity of the proposed PTEQ by further exploiting the special (r) structure of Ỹq′ [i] (see (8. we obtain: Nr P X X −1 X (r. . . w̄p. (8. the BEM resolution of the channel model and the BEM resolution of the PTEQ can be different. In this section. . . 8.lp [i] = wqp [i]. where |Qp | denotes the cardinality of the set Qp for p = 0.k) (r.

.k)T (r. .k)T [i]. w̄P −1 [i]]T and w̄(k) [i] = [w̄(1.22) can finally be written as Ŝk [i] = w̄(k)T [i](INr ⊗ F̃(k) )ỹ[i] (8.k)T [i]F̃(k) (r) p ỹp [i] (8. F̃ .24) The solution of (8. . .18).. . . . we require P sliding FFTs per receive antenna rather than Q′ +1 sliding FFTs per receive antenna as in Section 8. (8. ỹp [(i + 1)(N + ν) − 1]]T as the frequency . ỹ(Nr )T [i]]T . .k)T [w̄0 [i]. . Similar to (8. To explain this. Notice here that apart from the reduction in the number of sliding FFTs. Each sliding FFT is applied to a modulated version of the received sequence. . Further defining w̄(r.24) is: −1 (k)T w̄M M SE [i] = INr ⊗ F̃(k) [i] G[i]Rs̃ GH [i] + Rv INr ⊗ F̃(k)H [i] × INr ⊗ F̃(k) [i] G[i]Rs̃ e(k) .22). we will consider only one sliding FFT.19). we can construct the MSE cost function as 2 (k)T (k) J [i] = E Sk [i] − w̄ [i] INr ⊗ F̃ ỹ[i] (8. the implementation complexity remains the same as in Section 8. . ỹ [i] = [ỹ0 [i].140 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels be written as Nr P X X −1 Ŝk [i] = w̄p(r. i. ỹP −1 [i]]T (r) and ỹ[i] = [ỹ(1)T [i]. . Let us (k) (r) consider the kth subcarrier of the pth sliding FFT. Let us now de- (k)T (k)T (r)T (r)T fine F̃(k) = diag F̃0 .k) [i] = (r. .25) which is equivalent to the one obtained in (8. .e. ]T . .23) To implement (8. . . . Define (r.22) r=1 p=0 (k) (k−1)T (k)T (k+1)T where F̃p = [. . F̃P −1 . . Step 2: We can further simplify the computational complexity associated with the proposed PTEQ by replacing each sliding FFT by only one full FFT and L′ difference terms that are common to all subcarriers similar to the proce- dure in [42]. ..k) (r) (r) Ỹp = F (k) [ỹp [i(N + ν) + ν].3. typically P = 1 or P = 2). w̄(Nr .k)T [i]]T .e. .3 (in practice and in our simulations P ≪ Q′ +1. (8. . . Nr N (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) MA operations for a block of N symbols. . F̃ ỹp [i].n. F̃ . . F̃ o . . i. . . This reduction in the number of sliding FFTs per receive antenna is compensated for by combining |Qp | neighboring subcarriers on the pth sliding FFT.

8. .lp [i]T(k+lp ) and also define the following |Qp |(L′ + 1) × (|Qp | + L′ ) selec- tion matrix: " # 1 01×(|Qp |+L′ ) Sp = Ĩ ⊗ + ˜Ĩ ⊗ 1|Qp | .1 [i]. (8. The difference terms ∆ỹp [i] are given by: (r) (r) ỹp [i(N + ν) + ν − 1] − ỹp [(i + 1)(N + ν) − 1] ∆ỹp(r) [i] = . . We first define up..k) (k) Ỹp l1 ×1 F̃ ỹp(r) [i] = T(k) . (8. .k)T (r. .k)T [i] (r. and ˜Ĩ con- (r. Ỹp [i] x Nr P −1 (r.23) can then be written as .k)T (r.k)T [. . up. (8.23) can then be written as follows. .k+1) Ŝk [i] = y Ỹp [i] r=1 p=0 . 0L′ ×1 where Ĩ contains the first |Qp | rows of the matrix I|Qp |+L′ . . (r) (r) ỹp [i(N + ν) + ν − L′ ] − ỹp [(i + 1)(N + ν) − L′ − 1] In a similar fashion. .lp [i] = (r. 0 ′ β kL ··· β k 1 (r) with β = e−j2π/N . T(k) = .k)T estimate (8.26) (r) ∆ỹp [i] l L′ × 1 where T(k) is an (L′ + 1) × (L′ + 1) lower triangular Toeplitz matrix given by: 1 0 ··· 0 k .. .27) . we can obtain an expression for the neighboring subcar- riers on the same sliding FFT by replacing the subcarrier index. It can then be shown that: " # (r.. up..k)T tains the last L′ rows of the matrix I|Qp |+L′ .k)T (r.k−1) ... β . . ]T and vp [i] = up [i]Sp . Introducing up [i] = (r.k) X X Ỹp [i] |Qp | × 1 vp(r.−1 [i]. .4.0 [i]. . up. (r) ∆ỹp [i] l L′ × 1 . Efficient Implementation of the PTEQ 141 response on the kth subcarrier of the pth modulated version of the received sequence on the rth receive antenna.k)T w̄p. . (r.k)T (r. ... .. . . The symbol (r. .

..28) 01×L′ F (k+1) r=1 p=0 . (8. . .3. compared to (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) per receive antenna per subcarrier in Section 8. v(Nr . .29) Note that.k) [vp ]x+1 ej2πpn/K ∆ y[n] ↓N +ν Figure 8. .. Defining (r. . . (8.5: Low complexity PTEQ on the pth branch.k)T [i]]T and F̃ = diag{F̃T0 . . .142 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels ∆ ∆ ↓N +ν ↓N +ν ∆ ↓N +ν ∆ subcarrier k − 1 ↓N +ν 0 (r.k)T v(r. will not reduce the implementation complexity. .28) can finally be written as Ŝk = v(k)T [i](INr ⊗ F̃(k) )ỹ[i]. (8. . due to the fact that the difference terms are common to all subcarriers in a particular sliding FFT.k) [i] = [v0 [i]. . In Figure 8.5. vP −1 [i]]T . . . v(k) [i] = [v(1.k)T [i].k) [vp ]x N Point FFT subcarrier k + 1 0 Ŝk (r..k) [vp ]x−1 subcarrier k 0 (r. . . 01×L′ F (k−1) Nr P −1 X X 01×L′ F (k) (r) = vp(r. . F̃TP }. This is due to the fact that we only consider a single subcarrier output for each . . . . the implementation complexity is P (L′ + 1) + Q′ + 1 MA operations per receive antenna per subcarrier.3.k)T [i] ỹp [i]. ĪL′ 0L′ ×(N −L′ ) −ĪL′ | {z } (k) F̃p where ĪL′ is the anti-diagonal identity matrix of size L′ × L′ .29) can be realized for the pth sliding FFT on the rth re- ceive antenna. we show how (8.k)T (r. Note that replacing the sliding FFT with one full DFT and L′ difference terms in Section 8.

and P = 1: the proposed PTEQ corresponds to the FEQ proposed in [29]. L′ = 0. time-varying Channels (Q′ 6= 0): a) ν ≥ L. for the case of TI as well as time-varying channels as follows: 1. We can easily show that the design of the TEQ requires O (Q + Q′ + 1)3 (L + L′ + 1)3 multiply-add (MA) operations. Unifying Framework We finally note that our approach unifies and extends many existing frequency- domain approaches. 1 These figures do not take into account the BEM channel coefficients estima- tion/computation. the design complexity of the PTEQ is higher than the design complexity of the TEQ.5) P (L′ + 1) + Q′ + 1 P FFTs sliding FFT to estimate a particular symbol. Efficient Implementation of the PTEQ 143 Table 8. L′ = 0. On the other hand. 2. while it requires O ((Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1)N ) MA operations per subcarrier to design the PTEQs..8. The implementation complexity of the TEQ and the different configurations of the PTEQ is summarized in Table 8.1: Implementation Complexity Comparison MA/tone/rx FFT/rx TEQ (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) + 1 1 PTEQ (Figure 8. b) ν < L. for DSL modems). and L′ = 0: the proposed PTEQ corresponds to the 1-tap MMSE FEQ as in [116]. . and hence Q′ = 0): a) ν ≥ L.11 . b) ν ≥ L. and L′ 6= 0: the proposed PTEQ corresponds to the per-tone equalizer proposed in [110] for DMT-based transmission (e. and P ≥ 1: the proposed PTEQ corresponds to the FEQ proposed in [10]. TI Channels (Q = 0. The complexity associated ′′ ′′ with computing the max (min) eigenvector of an (L + 1) × (L + 1) matrix. is negligible compared to the above matrix inversion.g. which requires O (L′′ + 1)2 MA operations [49].4.4) (Q′ + 1)(L′ + 1) (Q′ + 1) sliding FFTs PTEQ (Figure 8. The design complexity of the TEQ is mainly due to a matrix inversion of size (Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1)×(Q+Q′ +1)(L+L′ +1).

. where the channel impulse response fits within the CP. We use a BEM to approximate the channel. Hence. and the unit norm constraint (UNC). We measure the performance in terms of the BER vs. We assume that the BEM coeffi- cients are known at the receiver (obtained through an LS fit of the true channel in the noiseless case). and P = 2 as in [15]. we consider the case of OFDM transmission over purely . These equalizers. we consider a PTEQ resulting from: • a purely time-selective TEQ with Q′ = 10 and L′ = 0.5 Simulations In this section. we show some simulation results for the proposed IBI/ICI mit- igation techniques. we consider a SISO system. L′ = 14 and P = 2. l2 ]} = σh2 J0 (2πfmax T (n1 − n2 ))δ[l1 − l2 ]δ[r − r′ ]. we use different scenarios.e.i. As a benchmark. The BEM resolution is determined by K = P N with P is chosen as P = 1. • a doubly selective TEQ with Q′ = 10 and L′ = 6. For the PTEQ. and P = 1 as in [15]. • a doubly selective TEQ with Q′ = 10 and L′ = 6. the total OFDM symbol duration is 6. which is suitable for applications like mobile multimedia. where Es is the QPSK symbol power.. The sampling time is T = 50µsec which corresponds to a data rate of 40kbps. and Q = 4 for P = 2. We consider the unit energy constraint (UEC). which results into Q = 2 for P = 1. l1 ]g (r )∗ [n2 . i. The normalized Doppler frequency is then obtained as fmax T = 0. The decision delay d is always chosen as d = ⌊(L + L′ )/2⌋ + 1. correlated in time with a correlation function according to Jakes’ ′ model E{g (r) [n1 .7 msec. The channel taps are sim- ulated as i. The number of time-varying basis functions of the channel is chosen such that Q/(2KT ) ≥ fmax is satisfied. ν = L. and P = 2. We consider a SISO system as well as a SIMO system with Nr = 2 receive antennas.144 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels 8. More specifically. We consider a TEQ with Q′ = 14. SNR. The BEM coefficients of the approximated channel are used to design the time-domain and the frequency-domain per-tone equalizers. however. We define the SNR as SN R = σh2 (L + 1)Es /σn2 . are used to equalize the true channel (Jakes’ model). The channel is assumed to be doubly selective of order L = 6 with a maximum Doppler frequency of fmax = 100Hz (corresponds to a speed of 120Km/hr on the GSM band of 900M Hz). and P = 1. and QPSK signaling. We consider an OFDM transmission with N = 128 subcarriers.005. • a purely time-selective TEQ with Q′ = 10 and L′ = 0. 2.d. • First. where J0 is the zeroth-order Bessel function of the first kind and σh2 denotes the variance of the channel.

and coincides with the performance of the block MMSE equalizer for OFDM over time-varying channels.5. UEC TEQ. As shown in Figure 8. For P = 2 with L′ = 0. The block MMSE equalizer for OFDM used here is similar to the block MMSE proposed in [20] designed for single carrier (SC) transmission with CP. ν is chosen to be ν = 3. P=2 PTEQ. We con- sider the case where the cyclic prefix ν is shorter than the channel order. P=2 10 Block MMSE. TI BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 8. with an SNR gain of 2 dB at BER = 10−2 .6. • Second. UNC PTEQ. the perfor- mance of the TEQ suffers from an early error floor for both UEC and UNC. The OFDM symbol duration is then 6. L’=6. P=1 Block MMSE. L’=0. P=1 PTEQ. L’=6. However. L’=0. as well as OFDM transmission over doubly selective (time- varying) channels with a block MMSE equalizer. the performance of the PTEQ is significantly improved when P = 2. and it experiences a 3 dB loss in SNR compared to the block MMSE for OFDM over time-varying channels. we see that the PTEQ slightly outperforms the 1-tap MMSE equalizer for OFDM over TI channels for low SNR (SN R ≤ 20 dB). Simulations 145 0 10 TEQ. the PTEQ outperforms the conventional 1-tap MMSE FEQ of OFDM over TI channels.6: BER vs. The PTEQ exhibits a similar performance when P = 1 for both L′ = 0 and L′ = 6. Nr = 1 receive antenna. On the other hand. We .8. when P = 2 with L′ = 6.55 msec. we consider a SIMO system with Nr = 2 receive antennas. frequency-selective (TI) channels where the equalizer is the conventional 1- tap MMSE FEQ. SNR for TEQ and PTEQ. P=2 FEQ. P=1 −1 PTEQ.

7: BER vs.8. the performance of the PTEQ approach is a much smoother function of the synchronization delay than the performance . As shown in Figure 8. P=1 TEQ. P=1 TEQ.7. P=2 TEQ. both the TEQ and the PTEQ suffer from an early error floor when P = 1. We consider the case when P = 1 and P = 2. The PTEQ significantly out- performs the TEQ. The performance is significantly improved when P = 2 for both the TEQ and the PTEQ. A PTEQ is then obtained by trans- ferring this TEQ to the frequency-domain. UEC. P=1 −1 PTEQ. we examine the effect of the decision delay d on the BER performance for the TEQ considering the UEC and UNC. TI BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 8. where the former exhibits an error floor at BER = 4 × 10−2 and SN R = 20 dB and the latter exhibits an error floor at BER = 10−2 and SN R = 20 dB. SNR for TEQ and PTEQ. P=1 Block MMSE. • Third. The TEQ experiences a 4 dB loss in SNR compared to the 1-tap MMSE FEQ for OFDM over TI channels. As shown in Figure 8. UNC. where we can see a 6 dB gain in SNR for the PTEQ over the TEQ at BER = 10−2 . Nr = 2 receive antennas. UNC. and the PTEQ. and 6 dB loss in SNR compared to the PTEQ which coincides with the block MMSE for OFDM over time-varying channels.146 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels 0 10 TEQ. consider a TEQ with Q′ = 8 and L′ = 8. UEC. P=2 10 Block MMSE. We examine the performance at SN R = 15 dB. P=2 FEQ. We consider again the cases P = 1 and P = 2 for a SIMO system with Nr = 2 receive antennas and the same equalizer parameters as before. P=2 PTEQ.

8: BER vs.e. P=1 TEQ. Note that.. the PTEQ with P = 2 outperforms the PTEQ with P = 1 for the same . We consider a SISO system as well as a SIMO system with Nr = 2 receive antennas. UNC. For both cases we consider an OFDM transmission with N = 128 subcarriers and a cyclic prefix of length ν = 3. of the TEQ approach. The channel is assumed to be a doubly selective channel with maximum Doppler frequency fmax = 100 Hz. P=1 TEQ. Nr = 2 receive antennas at SN R = 15 dB. P=2 PTEQ. the equalizer parameters are chosen as Q′ = 2 and L′ = 8 for P = 1 and Q′ = 4 and L′ = 8 for P = 2. P=2 TEQ. we consider the performance of the PTEQ when the true channel is used for equalizer designs as well as for the evaluation. Hence.8. UEC. As shown in Figure 8. the approximated chan- nel) to design the PTEQ. UNC. The channel or- der is assumed to be L = 6. We examine the performance of the PTEQ for P = 1 and P = 2. For the SISO system. the Q′ for P = 2 is chosen to be twice as large as the Q′ for P = 1.9. and sampling time T = 50 µsec. decision delay d for TEQ and PTEQ. Here. the equalizer parameters are chosen as Q′ = 4 and L′ = 10 for P = 1 and Q′ = 8 and L′ = 10 for P = 2. for the PTEQ approach the synchronization delay setting is less critical than for the TEQ approach. in order to keep the same subcarrier span. • In our setup so far we use the BEM coefficients (i. P=2 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 d Figure 8. Simulations 147 0 10 TEQ. P=1 −1 PTEQ.5. For the SIMO system. UEC.

1 we consider the following set up: • We consider OFDM transmission over time-invariant (TI) as well as time- varying channels. For the SISO case. • The channel is considered to be Rayleigh fading. The TI channel corresponds to zero Doppler frequency. an SNR gain of 2 dB is obtained for the PTEQ with P = 2 over the PTEQ with P = 1 at BER = 10−2 for the SIMO case. subcarrier span. • Referring to Example 1. . an SNR gain of 4 dB is obtained for the PTEQ with P = 2 over the PTEQ with P = 1 at BER = 10−2 . • The channel taps adhere with the Nokia 6 tap model.148 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels 0 10 Nr=1 Nr=2 P=1 P=2 −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 8. • We consider uncoded transmission. Similarly. SNR for the PTEQ. when the true channel is used to design the equalizer. • For the time-varying case we consider a Doppler frequency fmax = 300 Hz.9: BER vs.

• The channel is time-varying: In this case we consider the channel to be time-varying and approximated by a TI one. This corresponds to taking a basis expansion model fit for the channel of order zero. • The Doppler effect can be corrected by using a PTEQ with Q′ = 4. For this case. no oversampling is considered. From this figure we draw the following conclusions/observations: • For the case of time-varying channels. From this figure we can draw the following conclusions: • The Doppler effect is more severe than that for the 2k mode. the BEM resolution K is taken as K = N . The error floor is observed now at BER = 5 × 102 . The span of neighbor- ing subcarriers is determined by Q′ .e. The performance of the equalizer almost coincides with that of the TI case with zero Doppler shift. Time-varying frequency-domain per-tone equalizer (PTEQ).11. Simulations 149 In the simulations we consider the 2k (2048 subcarriers are used) and 8k (8192 subcarriers are used) modes. 2.8. Time-invariant (TI) equalizer: • The channel is TI. The maximum Doppler shift is fmax = 300 Hz. for complexity reasons. and hence a 1-tap frequency-domain equalizer is used. An SNR gain of 3dB at BER = 10−2 is observed com- pared to the case of the TI 1-tap frequency-domain equalizer for the time-varying channel of Doppler spread fmax = 300 Hz. Assuming a TI channel results into a much earlier error floor compared to the 2k mode. • An SNR loss of 2dB at BER = 10−2 is observed compared to the TI case with zero Doppler shift. The frequency-domain PTEQ combines neighboring subcarriers to estimate the transmitted symbol on a specific subcarrier. 8k mode The results considering the 8k mode are shown in Figure 8. the channel time average is used to design the equalizer. We consider two types of equalizers: 1. . i. and accordingly we use a 1-tap frequency-domain equalizer.10. • The Doppler effect can be compensated for by using a PTEQ with ICI span Q′ = 4. using a TI 1-tap frequency-domain equalizer results into an error floor at BER = 4 × 10−3 . 2k mode The results concerning the 2k mode are shown in Figure 8.5.

We have considered the most general case where the channel delay spread is larger than the CP. f =0 max −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 SNR (dB) Figure 8. f =300 max TI 2K mode.6 Conclusions In this chapter. . The PTEQ is then obtained by transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency-domain. f =300 max TV 2K mode.10: BER vs SNR for DVB-H 2k mode • Increasing the equalizer order from Q′ = 4 to Q′ = 6. 8. Q’=4. The TEQ is implemented as a time-varying FIR filter. We use a BEM to model the time-varying FIR TEQ. The time-varying channel is approximated using the BEM.150 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels 0 10 TI 2K mode. Comparing the TEQ to the PTEQ we arrive at the following conclusions2 : • While the TEQ optimizes the performance on all subcarriers in a joint 2 Note that some of these conclusions are analogous to the results obtained for the time- invariant case. we have proposed time-domain (TEQ) and a frequency-domain per-tone equalizer (PTEQ) for OFDM over doubly selective channels. slightly enhances the performance especially at high SNR values.

Q’=4. Conclusions 151 0 10 TI 8K mode. fmax=0 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 −4 10 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 SNR (dB) Figure 8. leading to improved performance. the PTEQ optimizes the performance on each subcarrier sepa- rately. f =300 max −1 TI 8K mode. • The PTEQ is less sensitive to the choice of the decision delay. . Q’=6. • A key parameter in the performance of the TEQ and PTEQ is the BEM frequency resolution. f =300 max TV 8K mode. f =300 max TV 8K mode. • The implementation complexity of the PTEQ is comparable to the im- plementation complexity of the TEQ (apart from the fact that the PTEQ may require additional FFTs). • The design complexity of the PTEQ is higher than the design complexity of the TEQ. We show that a BEM resolution equal to twice the DFT resolution (the DFT size) is enough to get an acceptable perfor- mance. From the simulations we arrive at the following conclusions: • The PTEQ always outperforms the TEQ.11: BER vs SNR for DVB-H 8k mode fashion.8. • The PTEQ outperforms the conventional 1-tap FEQ for OFDM over TI channels.6.

.152 Equalization of OFDM over DS Channels • The PTEQ approaches the performance of the block MMSE equalizer for OFDM over doubly selective channels. • Oversampling the received sequence while keeping the same ICI span gives an additional performance improvement.

and moreover.Chapter 9 IQ Compensation for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and Carrier Frequency-Offset 9. Extending this work to time-varying channels is rather straightforward. in particular the amplitude and phase imbalance (IQ imbalance) and carrier frequency-offset (CFO). the CP length is larger than the channel impulse response length. We assume that the OFDM receiver suffers from analog front-end impairments. In the previous chapter we tackled the problem of OFDM transmission over time-varying channels assuming ideal transmitter/receiver conditions.11 standard [54] as well as by the HIPERLAN-2 standard [52] for wireless LAN (WLAN) transmission. Note that CFO and the channel time-variation induce ICI almost in the same manner. yet it significantly complicates the analysis. we assume that the CP length is shorter than the channel impulse response length. In this chapter we tackle the problem of OFDM transmission over TI channels for the case of a non-ideal receiver. This motivates us to 153 . This is due to its robustness against multipath fading and its rela- tively simple implementation.1 Introduction has been adopted for several applications like digital audio and OFDM video broadcasting [37] and chosen by the IEEE 802. More- over. These properties are valid given that the channel is time-invariant and the OFDM receiver does not suffer from analog front-end impairments.

in practice this assumption is far from true. 98] assuming zero CFO. for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO apply here a similar analysis as in the previous chapter in order to mitigate ICI and in addition to compensate for the IQ imbalance. The presence of IQ imbalance and CFO and the fact that the channel impulse response length may be larger than the CP length cause a severe degradation in performance of OFDM systems. In our analysis we are aiming at developing a PTEQ assuming perfect knowledge of the IQ parameters and the channel impulse response which paves the way for developing the RLS-based direct equalizer. In [81] a training based-technique for CFO estimation is proposed assuming perfect IQ balance. A maximum likelihood (ML) CFO estimation is proposed in [123]. and that the IQ imbalance parameters can be estimated correctly in the presence of CFO. Note that here under the assumption that the IQ parameters and the channel impulse response are perfectly known at the receiver. 74. The IQ imbalance only problem is treated in [103. the cyclic prefix (CP) is consistently assumed to be longer than or equal to the channel impulse response length. The proposed PTEQ is first designed assuming perfect knowledge of the channel as well as the IQ imbalance parameters and the CFO or assuming they can be accurately estimated. however.154 IQ Comp. The purpose of the TEQ is to shorten the channel to fit within the CP and eliminate the effect of the IQ imbalance. In [43]. in the above mentioned works. In [104] it is assumed that the CFO is corrected based on perfect knowledge of the IQ imbalance parameters. 43]. This motivates us to search for alternative equalization techniques that are robust against these imperfections. On the other hand. Joint compensation of IQ imbalance and CFO is treated in [104. To avoid the intermediate stage of parameters estimation. a training-based RLS-type initialization scheme is proposed for such per-tone equalization. and then extend the analysis to the case of IQ imbalance and non-zero CFO. also assuming perfect IQ balance. We devise a frequency-domain per-tone equalization technique to combat the channel effect as well as the imperfection of the analog front-end. Different approaches have been proposed to overcome the analog front-end problems for OFDM transmission. We first treat the case of IQ imbalance and zero CFO. However. since the channel estimate in the presence of IQ imbalance and/or CFO is typically not sufficiently accurate. nulled subcarriers are used to estimate the CFO by maximizing the energy on the designated subcarrier and its image and it is done by invoking an exhaustive search algorithm. The per-tone equalizer is obtained by transferring a time-domain equalizer (TEQ) to the frequency-domain. then IQ compensation can be easily done in time-domain. The assumption here is valid for small CFO and small IQ imbalance parameters. knowing the IQ parameters and CFO and the . far from practical. However. This is. when CFO is present. and furthermore IQ imbalance and CFO are present. In this chapter we consider the case where the CP is shorter than the channel impulse response length.

The front-end impairments we discuss in this chapter are IQ imbalance and CFO. We assume a single-input single-output (SISO) system. In the ideal case where neither IQ imbalance nor CFO are present. A cyclic prefix (CP) of length ν is added to the head of each block. We.5. develop a frequency-domain PTEQ assuming perfect knowledge of the different system parameters and then again develop a training-based RLS direct equalizer.3. The per-tone equalizer for the IQ only case is introduced in Section 9. The time domain blocks are then serially transmitted over the channel. therefore. x[n] can be written as N −1 1 X x[n] = √ Sk [i]ej2π(m−ν)k/N . In Section 9.2. System Model 155 channel impulse response does not lead to a simple time-domain equalizer.2 System Model We consider OFDM transmission over time-invariant frequency-selective chan- nels. the discrete time-domain baseband equivalent description of the received signal at time index n is given by: L X y[n] = hl x[n − l] + v[n]. our conclusions are drawn in Section 9. and x[n] is the discrete time-domain sequence transmitted at a rate of 1/T symbols per second. Simulation results are introduced in Section 9. we introduce the system model. The equivalent system model under consideration is depicted in Figure 9. Assuming Sk [i] is the QAM symbol transmitted on the kth subcarrier of the ith OFDM block. v[n] is the baseband equivalent noise.9. This chapter is organized as follows. At the transmitter the information-bearing symbols are parsed into blocks of N frequency-domain QAM symbols. the per-tone equalizer is extended to the case of IQ imbal- ance and CFO.4. Each block is then transformed to the time-domain by an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT). N k=0 where i = ⌊n/(N + ν)⌋ and m = n − i(N + ν). but the results can be easily extended to single-input multiple-output (SIMO) or multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. In this chapter we focus on OFDM transmission over TI channels with receiver front-end impairments. l=0 where hl is the lth tap of the multipath fading channel.1. 9. The channel is assumed to be time-invariant for a burst of OFDM symbols and may change independently from burst to burst.6. Note that this description includes the transmission of a CP of length ν. In Section 9. .2. Finally.

In this section we assume zero CFO.4. IQ imbalance is characterized by two parameters: the amplitude imbalance ∆a and the phase mismatch ∆φ.1: Block diagram of OFDM transmission over TI channel with Rx front-end impairments. 9. time- domain filtering may be used to shorten the channel such that it fits within the CP. The discrete-time base- band received sequence in the presence of IQ imbalance at time index n can be written as r[n] = γy[n] + δy ∗ [n] (9.1) where the parameters γ and δ are given by [109] γ = cos(∆φ) + ∆a sin(∆φ) δ = ∆a cos(∆φ) − sin(∆φ) We further consider that the CP length is smaller than the channel order. which means that interlock interference (IBI) is present. To eliminate such IBI.156 IQ Comp. The equalization problem in conjunction with IQ imbalance and CFO will be treated in Section 9. It is well-known that the presence of IQ imbalance results in the reception on subcarrier k of a mixture of the symbol transmitted on subcarrier k and the symbol transmitted on the mirror subcarrier N − k (referred to as the image . for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO CP WGN TI Channel N-Point IFFT Sk x[n] L P/S D/A g(τ ) = P hl δ(τ − lT ) S/P l=0 cos(2πfct) ℜ{y(t)ej2πfct} AGC LPF A/D I 1 + ∆a ∆φ 2 cos(2π(fc + ∆f )t) IQ and CFO compensation Ŝk + Channel Equalization 90 − ∆φ AGC Q LPF A/D 1 − ∆a Figure 9.3 Equalization in the Presence of IQ Imbal- ance In this section we tackle the problem of channel equalization for OFDM in the presence of IQ imbalance and IBI.

This estimate is then obtained as 1 (k) H Ŝk [i] = F W1 r[i] + F (k) W2H r∗ [i] . Define Ŝk [i] as the estimate of the transmitted QAM symbol on the kth subcarrier of the ith OFDM symbol. signal). it will be shown that two TEQs can be used. (9. . as will become clear later. .2) l′ =0 l′ =0 On a block level formulation. and Wp (for p = 1.9.l ′ r[n + d − l ] + w2.0 . The second TEQ is necessary here to compensate for the image symbol. where one is applied to the received signal and the other is applied to the conjugated version of the received sequence. (9. . . 01×(N −1) ]T and first row [wp. .L′ . For this reason the conventional time-domain shortening where one time-domain equalizer (TEQ) is applied to the received signal is not sufficient.4) dk .3. . However. Equalization in the Presence of IQ Imbalance 157 ↓N +ν Ŝ0 [i] ∆ d0 N-Point F F T r[n] d w1∗ [θ] ∆ delay ŜN −1 [i] ∗ ↓N +ν (·) dN −1 w2∗[θ] TEQ Figure 9.L′ . r[(i + 1)(N + ν) + d − 1]]T . . . (9. 01×(N −1) ]. 2) is an (N + L′ ) × N Toeplitz matrix with first column [wp. . z[(i + 1)(N + ν) − 1]]T . . The output of the TEQs subject to some decision delay d can be written as ′ ′ L X L X ∗ ′ ∗ ∗ ′ z[n] = w1. as shown in Figure 9.2: Time-domain equalizer block diagram. In conjunction with the time-domain filtering. . r[i] = [r[i(N + ν) + ν + d − L′ ].2.3) where z[i] = [z[i(N + ν) + ν. wp.l ′ r [n + d − l ] (9.2) can be written as z[i] = W1H r[i] + W2H r∗ [i]. a one-tap FEQ is applied to the received sequence in the frequency-domain to recover the transmitted QAM symbols. .

5) can be significantly reduced by replacing the sliding DFT with one FFT and the remaining FFTs are compensated for by L′ difference terms as explained in the following properties: (k) (k) R [i] l 1 × 1 F̃ r[i] = T(k) . r[(i + 1)(N + ν) + d − 1]]T . (9... . . .. (9.6a) ∆r[i] l L′ × 1 and (N −k)∗ (k) ∗ (k) R [i] l 1 × 1 F̃ r [i] = T . 0 ′ β kL · · · β k 1 with β = e−j2π/N . (9. (9. . .158 IQ Comp.. . .5) (k) (k) where w̃p = [wp. .5) can be written as (k)H R(k) [i] (k)H R(N −k)∗ [i] Ŝk [i] = v1 + v2 . . and F̃ is given by: 0 ··· 0 F (k) . F (k) (k) . . and v2 = w̃2 T(k) . . The imple- mentation of (9. formula (9. Transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency domain we obtain (k)H (k) (k)H (k) ∗ Ŝk [i] = w̃1 F̃ r[i] + w̃2 F̃ r [i]. . . . which corresponds to performing L′ + 1 DFTs. . k (k) β . . The difference terms ∆r[i] are given by: r[i(N + ν) + ν + d − 1] − r[(i + 1)(N + ν) + d − 1] ∆r[i] = . wp. .6b) ∆r∗ [i] l L′ × 1 where R(k) [i] = F (k) [r[i(N + ν) + ν + d]. . .7) . (9. 0 0 F̃ = .. 0 . F (k) 0 ··· 0 Note that the above matrix corresponds to performing a sliding DFT on the received sequence.8) ∆r[i] ∆r∗ [i] . for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO where dk is the 1-tap FEQ operating on the kth subcarrier. .. . ...1 . . . and F (k) is the (k + 1)st row of the DFT matrix F .. T(k) is an (L′ + 1) × (L′ + 1) lower triangular Toeplitz matrix given by: 1 0 ··· 0 .L′ ]T /dk . . 0 . r[i(N + ν) + ν + d − L′ ] − r[(i + 1)(N + ν) + d − L′ − 1] (k)H (k)H (k)H (k)H By defining v1 = w̃1 T(k) . T = .

Note that due to the IQ imbalance the quantity R(k) [i] contains information about Sk [i] as well as SN −k [i] for k ∈ {1. .9. Equalization in the Presence of IQ Imbalance 159 + − ∆ ∆ ↓N +ν ↓N +ν ↓N +ν ∆ ↓N +ν N-Point FFT tone k 0 (k) (k) (k) [v1 ]1 [v1 ]2 [v1 ]L′+1 Ŝk [i] (·)∗ (·)∗ tone N − k (·)∗ 0 ∆ (k) (k) (k) [v2 ]1 [v2 ]2 [v2 ]L′+1 r[n] ↓N +ν Figure 9.3. The relation between .10) ∗ ŜN −k [i] v2 v1 R(N −k)∗ [i] | {z } | {z } ∆r∗ [i] s̃k [i] H Vk | {z } r̃k [i] The implementation of (9. .9) we arrive at " # R(k) [i] (k)H (k)H Ŝk [i] v1 v2 ∆r[i] = (N −k)T (N −k)T (9. The same holds for the quantity R(N −k) [i].3. . Hence.10) is shown in Figure 9. (9.3: PTEQ for OFDM with IQ imbalance. N/2 − 1}. .9) ∆r[i] ∆r∗ [i] Combining (9. A proper equalizer should then consider the estimation of the transmitted QAM symbol on the kth subcarrier and the transmitted QAM symbol on the (N − k)th subcarrier in a joint fashion. we can write the estimate of the transmitted QAM symbol on the (N − k)th subcarrier as (N −k)H R(N −k) [i] (N −k)H R(k)∗ [i] ŜN −k [i] = v1 + v2 .8) and (9.

. H. y[i] can be written as s[i − 1] y[i] = [O 1 . and P is the CP insertion matrix given by: 0 I P = ν×(N −ν) ν . SN −1 [i]]T .160 IQ Comp. IN and the transmitted vector of QAM symbols transmitted on the ith OFDM block s[i] = [S0 [i].10)) and the received sequence can be drawn as (k) F 0 r[i] r̃k [i] = (9. At this point we may introduce a model for the received sequence r[i]. . . Define y[i] = [y[i(N + ν) + ν + d − L′ ]. (9. Hence. .11) 0 F(N −k)∗ r∗ [i] | {z } F̃k (k) where F is given by: 01×L′ F (k) F(k) = ĪL′ 0L′ ×(N −L′ ) −ĪL′ with ĪL′ the anti-diagonal identity matrix of size L′ × L′ . . . .. 01×(N +L′ −L−1) ]. 01×(N +L′ −1) ]T and first row [hL . (9. for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO r̃k [i] (defined in (9. we can write the received sequence and its conjugate as γ H̃ (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H δ H̃∗ (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H r[i] = r∗ [i] δ ∗ H̃ (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H γ ∗ H̃∗ (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H | {z } G s[i − 1] s[i] s[i + 1] × + ṽ[i].13) Z1 s∗ [i − 1] Z1 s∗ [i] Z1 s∗ [i + 1] where Z1 is an N × N matrix defined as 1 0 ··· 0 0 Z1 = .12) | {z } s[i + 1] H̃ where O 1 = 0(N +L′ )×(N +2ν+d−L−L′ ) . h0 . O 2 = 0(N +L′ )×(N +ν−d) . . y[(i + 1)(N + ν) + d − 1]]T . . . H is an (N + L′ ) × (N + L′ + L) Toeplitz matrix with first column [hL . . O 2 ] (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H s[i] + v[i]. Ī N −1 0 . . . .

e.16) with " # (k) (N −k)∗ V V2 Vk = 1(k) V2 V1 (N − k)∗ and R(k) [i] r̃k [i] = (N −k)∗ R [i] For this case the received symbol at the k subcarrier in the ith OFDM block R(k) [i] can be written as R(k) [i] = γHk Sk [i] + δHN ∗ ∗ −k SN −k [i] + Ξ̃k [i]. and the noise covariance matrix respectively. For the case of OFDM transmission over TI channel with a CP length that is larger than the channel impulse response length. (9. The minimum MSE (MMSE) solution can be then obtained as Vk = arg min J . Hence.e.18) V2 (k) V1 (N −k)∗ δ ∗ Hk∗ γ ∗ HN ∗ −k ∗ SN −k [i] Ξ̃N −k [i] In the noiseless case perfect symbol estimation (i.9. (9. we define the following mean-square error (MSE) cost function: n 2 o J = E s̃k − VkH r̃k .3. Equalization in the Presence of IQ Imbalance 161 To obtain the PTEQ coefficients for the k and N − k subcarriers (i. and ek′ is a 6N long unity vector with a 1 in the k ′ th position.14) is obtained by solving ∂J /∂Vk = 0 and equals: −1 Vk = F̃k GRs GH + Rṽ F̃H k F̃k GRs [e3N +k+1 e4N +k+1 ].10) becomes as follows (see also [98]) s̃k [i] = VkH r̃k [i] (9.17) where Hk is the channel frequency response at the kth subcarrier and Ξ̃k [i] is the noise on the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM block.e. we can write (9.15) where Rs and Rṽ are the transmitted symbols covariance matrix. d = 0).14) Vk The solution of (9. solve for Vk ).16) as " # (k) (N −k)∗ V1 V2 γHk δHN −k Sk [i] Ξ̃k [i] s̃k [i] = + ∗ (9. The estimate of s̃k [i] in (9. (9. zero-forcing (ZF) equal- ization) is possible as long as the channel does not experience deep fades on . we can consider a TEQ of order L′ = 0 and the decision delay that does not have to be different from zero (i.

In practice. 119]: r[n] = γej2πǫn/N y[n] + δe−j2πǫn/N y ∗ [n]. since it is hard to obtain the IQ and the channel impulse response sufficiently accurate. In the following we discuss a training-based recursive least squares (RLS) initialization scheme for direct equalization. for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO subcarrier k and subcarrier N − k simultaneously. In this section. While. The previous analysis was however essential to de- fine a proper equalizer structure.19) Vk Vk i=0 The problem in (9.3 we tackled the problem of per-tone equalization for OFDM in the presence of IQ imbalance and zero CFO. However. Due to the CFO.1. the ZF solution does not exist. RLS Initialization In our discussion so far in developing our PTEQ. which leads to a much simpler solution. 9. In this subsection. we assume that the receiver analog front-end suffers from CFO due to drift in the local oscil- lator. the MMSE solution always exists.19) can be solved recursively. Equation (9. Assuming that the local oscillator exhibits a CFO of ǫ = ∆f T .15) requires that the channel and the IQ imbalance parameters are known at the receiver. The RLS algorithm for finding the PTEQ coefficients is listed in Algorithm 9. we have assumed that the channel and the IQ imbalance parameters are known at the receiver. the base-band equivalent received sequence at time index n is given by [104. the optimal Vk for the kth subcarrier can be computed as K−1 X min J (Vk ) = min s̃k [i] − VkH r̃k [i] 2 (9. Note that with only one TEQ.20) .1) [103]. (9. it can be easily shown that the MMSE solution with one TEQ has a very poor performance. If the IQ imbalance parameters are known then prob- ably it is better to do a time-domain IQ-compensation based on (9.4 Equalization in the Presence of IQ and CFO In Section 9. the orthogonality between subcarriers is destroyed. In addition we again assume that the analog front-end suffers from an IQ imbal- ance and the CP length is smaller than the channel impulse response length. Assume that I OFDM symbols are dedicated for training. we will derive a training-based RLS algorithm for direct equalizer design without passing through the intermediate stage of channel and IQ im- balance parameters estimation.162 IQ Comp. we look for direct initialization schemes. and then a per-tone equalization. which indeed skip the estimation stage.

one is applied to the received sequence and the other one is applied to a conjugated version of the received sequence. ej2π(N +L −1)ǫ/N ]T }. the output of the TEQs in the ith OFDM block can be written as z[i] = W1H [i]r[i] + W2H [i]r∗ [i]. Hence. · · · . On a block level formulation. to restore the orthogonality between subcarriers that was destroyed by IBI/ICI and compensate for the mirroring effect induced by the IQ imbalance. Similar to (9. (9. and Dǫ = ′ diag{[1. .4.3). we are targeting frequency-domain per- tone equalizers. .20) can be written as r[i] = γαi Dǫ y[i] + δαi∗ D∗ǫ y∗ [i]. In this section. In other words.9. and hence. the TEQs may change from block to block. Equalization in the Presence of IQ and CFO 163 Algorithm 9. the TEQs are time varying. as will become clear later. .22) Note that unlike (9. (9. .3). (9. N/2 − 1} do −1 −1 −1 −1 Rk [i−1]r̃k [i]r̃H k k [i]Rr̃ [i−1] Rkr̃ [i] ← Rkr̃ [i − 1] − r̃ k−1 [i−1]r̃ [i] 1+r̃H k [i]R r̃ k e[i] = s̃k [i] − VkH [i − 1]r̃k [i] −1 Rr̃k [i−1]r̃k [i] Vk [i] ← Vk [i − 1] + k−1 [i−1]r̃ [i] e[i]H 1+r̃H k [i]Rr̃ k end for end for where κ is a small positive constant. Designing and optimizing the performance of the TEQ is beyond the scope of this chapter. . . The time variance here stems from the fact that the presence of CFO also imposes time-variations on the system. In the time-domain we apply two TEQs. The purpose of the TEQs is to eliminate IBI and ICI and to compensate for the IQ imbalance and CFO.21) ′ where αi = ej2π(i(N +ν)+ν+d−L )ǫ/N . . . which are obtained by transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency-domain. we start from the time-domain equal- ization. the TEQ is required to shorten the channel into a target impulse response which length fits within the CP and to eliminate ICI (eliminate the time-variations imposed on the system due to CFO).1 RLS Direct Equalization for k ∈ {1. Similar to the case of IQ imbalance only. It was shown in Chapter 8 that modeling the TEQ using the basis expansion model (BEM) is an efficient way to tackle the problem of IBI/ICI for OFDM . N/2 − 1} do initialize Rkr̃ [−1] = κ−1 I initialize Vk [−1] = 02(L′ +1)×2 end for for i = 0 to I do for k ∈ {1.

q [i]r [i] dk q=−Q/2 q=−Q/2 Q/2 Q/2 1 X X = F (k−q) W1. .q.−Q/2 [i].q [i]D̃∗q .25) can now be written as Q/2 Q/2 X (k)H R(k−q) [i] X (k)H R(N −k+q)∗ [i] Ŝk [i] = v1.6a) and (9.24) dk q=−Q/2 q=−Q/2 A PTEQ is then obtained by transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency- domain.0 [i]. Doing so we obtain the estimate of the transmitted QAM symbol at the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM symbol as Q/2 Q/2 X (k)H (k−q) X (k)H (k−q) ∗ Ŝk [i] = w̃1. . for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO transmission over doubly selective channels. .q. . .q. In conjunction with the time-domain filtering.q [i] is an (N + L′ ) × N Toeplitz matrix with first column [wp.q [i] = [wp. .q [i]F̃ r [i] (9.q H [i]r[i] + F (k−q) W2.q [i] ∆r[i] ∆r∗ [i] q=−Q/2 q=−Q/2 (9. 2.qH [i]r∗ [i] (9.25) q=−Q/2 q=−Q/2 (k) (k) (k) where w̃p. · · · .23) q=−Q/2 where D̃q = diag{[1. for p = 1. . Using the properties (k)H (k)H introduced in (9. and Wp.L′ [i].q. Hence. .0 [i].−Q/2 [i].q [i]T(k−q) and (k)H (k)H v2.6b) and defining v1. .q [i]F̃ r[i] + w̃2. wp.q [i]r[i] + F D̃q W2.L′ [i]. .Q/2 [i]]T . 2. . an estimate of the QAM symbol transmitted on the kth subcarrier in the ith OFDM block can be written as Q/2 Q/2 1 (k) X H (k) X H ∗ Ŝk [i] = F D̃q W1. (9. . v1.q [i] = w̃2.q [i] + v2. v2. 01×(N −1) ].q [i]T(k−q) .q [i] = w̃1. . Using the BEM to model the TEQs. a 1- tap FEQ is applied in the frequency-domain to recover the transmitted QAM symbols. 0L′ ×(Q+1)(L′ +1) 1TQ+1 ⊗ ˜ĨL′ +1 .Q/2 [i]]T and v2 [i] = (k)T (k)T [v2. . ej2πq(N −1)/N ]T }. 01×(N −1) ]T and first row [wp. .26) (k) (k)T (k)T (k) Define v1 [i] = [v1. (9.164 IQ Comp. W1 [i] and W2 [i] can be written as Q/2 X Wp [i] = Wp. .q. Define the selection matrix J as " # IQ+1 ⊗ ĨL′ +1 0(Q+1)×(Q+1)(L′ +1) J= + . wp.L′ [i]]T /dk for p = 1.

9.4. Equalization in the Presence of IQ and CFO 165

**where ĨL′ +1 is the first row of the matrix IL′ +1 and ˜ĨL′ +1 is the matrix con-
**

(k) (k)

sisting of the last L′ rows of the matrix IL′ +1 . Finally, define u1 [i] = Jv1 [i]

(k) (k)

and u2 [i] = Jv2 [i], formula (9.26) can now be written as

(k+Q/2) (N −k−Q/2)∗

R [i] R [i]

.. ..

(k)H . (k)H .

Ŝk [i] = u1 [i] + u2 [i] (9.27)

R (k−Q/2) (N −k+Q/2)∗

[i] R [i]

∆r[i] ∆r∗ [i]

Due to the IQ imbalance the mirroring effect arises, and hence a proper equal-

izer takes into account this effect by estimating the transmitted symbol on

subcarrier k and its mirror subcarrier N − k in a joint fashion. Writing a

similar equation for the estimated symbol on the (N − k)th subcarrier and

combining it with (9.27) we arrive at

R(k+Q/2) [i]

..

.

(k−Q/2)

" (k)H # R

[i]

(k)H

Ŝk [i] u1 [i] u2 [i] ∆r[i]

∗ = (N −k)T (N −k)T

(N −k−Q/2)∗

. (9.28)

ŜN −k [i] u2 [i] u1 [i] R

[i]

| {z } | {z } ..

s̃k [i] UHk [i]

.

R(N −k+Q/2)∗ [i]

∆r∗ [i]

| {z }

r̃k [i]

**From (9.28) the estimate of the QAM transmitted symbols can be obtained by
**

applying a time-varying PTEQ that varies from block to block. However, the

implementation/computation of the time-varying PTEQ UH k [i] can be signifi-

cantly reduced by splitting the PTEQ into two parts: a time-invariant part that

is fixed as long as the channel is stationary and a time-varying part that can

be compensated for by means of a complex rotation applied to all subcarriers

in the same OFDM block, as will become clear later on.

**Note that r̃k [i] defined in (9.28) can now be written as
**

(k)

F 0 r[i]

r̃k [i] = (9.29)

0 F(N −k)∗ r∗ [i]

| {z }

F̃k

where F(k) is given by:

01×L′ F (k+Q/2)

..

F(k) =

.

01×L′ F (k−Q/2)

ĪL′ 0L′ ×(N −L′ ) −ĪL′

166 IQ Comp. for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO

**We can also write the received sequence and its conjugate as
**

H ∗ ∗ H

r[i] γD ǫ H̃ (I 3 ⊗ P) I 3 ⊗ F δD ǫ H̃ (I 3 ⊗ P) I 3 ⊗ F

=

r∗ [i] ∗

δ Dǫ H̃ (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H

γ Dǫ H̃ (I3 ⊗ P) I3 ⊗ F H

∗ ∗ ∗

| {z }

G

s[i − 1]

s[i]

αi I3N 03N ×3N s[i + 1]

× + ṽ[i], (9.30)

03N ×3N αi∗ I3N Z1 s∗

[i − 1]

| {z } Z s∗ [i]

1

Λ[i]

Z1 s∗ [i + 1]

**To solve for Uk [i], we define the following MMSE cost function:
**

J (Uk [i]) = E ks̃k [i] − UH

k [i]r̃k [i]k

2

.

Hence, the MMSE solution of Uk [i] can be obtained by setting

∂J (Uk [i])/∂Uk [i] = 0, and equals:

−1

Uk [i] = F̃k GΛ[i]Rs ΛH [i]GH + Rṽ F̃H

k F̃k GΛ[i]Rs [ek ek ]. (9.31)

**For a white source Rs = σs2 I, formula (9.31) can be written as
**

−1

Uk [i] = F̃k GGH + σs−2 Rṽ F̃H k F̃k GΛ[i][eN +k+1 e4N +k+1 ]

H −2

H −1 αi 0

= F̃k GG + σs Rṽ F̃k F̃k G[eN +k+1 e4N +k+1 ] ∗

| {z } | 0 {zαi }

Qk

Λ̃[i]

(9.32)

**The MMSE PTEQ obtained in (9.32) for the case of a white input source
**

consists of two parts. A time-invariant part denoted by Qk and a time-varying

part captured by the complex rotation matrix Λ̃[i]. The time-invariant part

is fixed as long as the channel, the IQ imbalance parameters and the CFO

are fixed. The complex rotation, on the other hand, changes from block to

block. Note that, the complex rotation within the same OFDM block is fixed

over all subcarriers. Exploiting this structure we can significantly reduce the

computational complexity by computing the time-invariant part of the PTEQ

and compensating for the time-variations by means of the complex rotation

afterwards. On the implementation level, the PTEQ is explained in Figure

9.4. The implementation complexity associated with estimating a block of N

symbols is (N − 2)((Q + L′ ) + 5) MA operations 1 .

1 Note here due to the IQ imbalance the symbols transmitted on the 0th and the N/2th

subcarriers are not estimated.

9.4. Equalization in the Presence of IQ and CFO 167

+

−

∆

∆ ↓N +ν ↓N +ν

↓N +ν

∆

tone k − Q/2

↓N +ν 0

QH

k 1,Q+1

tone k

0

tone k + Q/2

0

N-Point FFT

QH

k 1,1

αi∗

Ŝk [i]

tone N − k − Q/2 (·)∗

0 (·)∗ (·)∗

QH

k 1,Q+L′ +1

tone N − k (·)∗

0

∆

r[n] tone N − k + Q/2 (·)∗

0

↓N +ν

QH

k 1,2Q+L′ +1

Figure 9.4: PTEQ for OFDM with IQ imbalance and CFO.

**Contrary to the IQ imbalance only case, knowing the IQ imbalance parameters
**

and CFO, will not help in developing time-domain separate compensation of

CFO and IQ imbalance. Only joint algorithms are possible.

**A Note on Time-Varying Channels with IQ Imbalance
**

So far we have treated the case of OFDM transmission over TI channels with

IQ imbalance in the absence as well as in the presence of CFO. As mentioned

earlier, in the presence of CFO (viewed as a source of time-variation and hence

as a source of ICI) the PTEQ is split into two parts; a time-invariant part that

can be incorporated in the equalizer and a time-varying part than can be com-

pensated for by means of a time-varying complex rotation. For time-varying

channels, the channel time variation caused by the Doppler effect (user’s mo-

bility) and that caused by CFO are inseparable. Therefore, the problems of

OFDM transmission over time-varying channel with IQ imbalance in the pres-

ence of CFO or in the absence of CFO are equal. Hence, for the case of a

BEM resolution of K = N , the PTEQ equalizer is similar to the one developed

in Figure 9.4 except for the fact that the PTEQ is time-varying and can not

be split into time-invariant and time-varying parts. For a BEM resolution of

K = rN with r integer r > 1 (when a better BEM fit is sought) the PTEQ

structure is slightly different than that proposed in Figure 9.4. In addition

168 IQ Comp. for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO

**to taking into account the modulation on the pth branch, a −pth modulated
**

version is also required. This is still under further investigation.

RLS Initialization

In order to obtain the PTEQ (9.32), the channel as well as the IQ param-

eters and the CFO must be known/estimated. In this section, we devise a

training-based RLS direct equalization/estimation of the time-invariant part

of the PTEQ assuming that only the CFO is known at the receiver. In a simi-

lar fashion to the RLS algorithm devised in Section 9.3, assuming that I OFDM

symbols are available for training, the optimal Qk for the kth subcarrier can

be computed as

I−1

X
2

Λ̃[i]s̃k [i] − QH

min J (Qk ) = min k r̃k [i]
(9.33)

Qk Qk

i=0

**The RLS algorithm to compute the time-invariant part of the PTEQ is listed
**

in Algorithm 9.2.

**Algorithm 9.2 RLS Direct Equalization with CFO
**

for k ∈ {1, . . . , N/2 − 1} do

initialize Rkr̃ [−1] = κ−1 I

initialize Qk [−1] = 02(L′ +1)(Q+1)×2

end for

for i = 0 to I − 1 do

for k ∈ {1, . . . , N/2 − 1} do

−1 −1

−1 −1 Rk [i−1]r̃k [i]r̃H k

k [i]Rr̃ [i−1]

Rkr̃ [i] ← Rkr̃ [i − 1] − r̃

k−1 [i−1]r̃ [i]

1+r̃H

k [i]Rr̃ k

e[i] = s̃k [i] − QH

k [i − 1]r̃k [i]

−1

Rk [i−1]r̃k [i]

Qk [i] ← Qk [i − 1] + r̃

k−1 [i−1]r̃ [i]

e[i]H

1+r̃H

k [i]Rr̃ k

end for

end for

Qk = Qk [I − 1]

9.5 Simulations

**In this section we present some of the simulation results of the proposed equal-
**

ization technique for OFDM transmission over time-invariant channels. We

consider an OFDM system with N = 64 subcarriers. The time-invariant chan-

nel is of order L = 6. The channel taps are simulated as i.i.d complex Gaussian

9.5. Simulations 169

0

10

No IQ ν=6, L’=0

IQ w/ comp ν=3, L’=5

IQ w comp ν=3, L’=5

IQ w comp ν=3, L’=10

−1

10

BER

−2

10

−3

10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

SNR (dB)

Figure 9.5: IQ compensation

**random variables. The channel is kept fixed over a burst of transmission, and
**

may change from burst to burst independently. The analog front-end of the

OFDM receiver suffers from IQ imbalance and CFO.

**First, we consider the case of IQ imbalance only (i.e. zero CFO). We consider
**

an OFDM receiver with IQ phase imbalance ∆φ = 10o and IQ amplitude

imbalance ∆a = 0.1. We focus on the frequency-domain PTEQ obtained by

transferring a TEQ operation to the frequency-domain.

**In the first setup we assume that the channel and the IQ imbalance parameters
**

(∆a and ∆φ) are known at the receiver. In Figure 9.5 we consider the following

different scenarios:

**• No IQ imbalance, no IBI (ν = L), and L′ = 0. This case corresponds
**

to an ideal OFDM transmission over TI channels with perfect analog

front-end. This case will serve as a benchmark for our equalizer.

• IQ imbalance and IBI with ν = 3 are present. To evaluate the effect of the

IQ imbalance on the system performance we design an equalizer that takes

into account the IBI but not the IQ imbalance (no IQ compensation). A

PTEQ of order L′ = 5 is considered.

170 IQ Comp. for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO

0

10

IQ w comp, ν=3, L’=10, perf. CSI

IQ w comp, ν=3, L’=10, RLS 150

IQ w comp, ν=3, L’=10, RLS 250

−1

10

BER

−2

10

−3

10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

SNR (dB)

Figure 9.6: IQ RLS direct Equalization

**• IQ imbalance and IBI with ν = 3 are present. We design an equalizer
**

that takes into account IBI and compensates for the IQ imbalance. The

filter order is chosen to be L′ = 5.

**• This case is similar to the previous one, but the PTEQ order is chosen
**

to be L′ = 10.

**As shown in Figure 9.5 the IQ imbalance degrades the performance significantly,
**

where the BER curve suffers from an early error floor at BER = 9 × 10−1 .

IQ compensation enhances the performance significantly. A PTEQ with IQ

compensation allows to approach the performance of the ideal OFDM system.

For a PTEQ of order L′ = 5, the BER error floor has been significantly reduced

to 9 × 10−2 . For L′ = 10 the performance is slightly improved and the error

floor is reduced to 1 × 10−3 .

**In the second setup, we assume that the channel and the IQ imbalance pa-
**

rameters are unknown at the receiver. In this case the training-based RLS

type direct equalization listed as Algorithm 9.1 is considered. We consider an

RLS scheme with I = 150 and I = 250 OFDM symbols available for train-

ing/initialization. We compare the obtained results with the case of perfect

L’=10. we consider that the channel. we consider that the OFDM receiver suffers from an IQ imbalance and CFO. ν=3.7. CSI IQ and CFO comp.5. the RLS scheme with I = 150 experiences a 1 dB loss in SNR compared to the perfect knowledge case. The number of basis functions reflects the span of the ICI that is considered in the equalization process (which is in this case 4 neighboring subcarriers on each side). The PTEQ is designed according to the BEM of order L′ = 10 and the number of basis functions is Q = 8. RLS 150 IQ and CFO comp. The IQ imbalance parameters are assumed to be equal to the ones used before. perf. Simulations 171 0 10 NO IQ. L’=10. ν=6.6. As shown in Figure 9. Q=8. L’=0 IQ and CFO comp. In the first setup. The CFO is assumed to be ǫ = 0. while the performance of the RLS scheme with I = 250 coincides with the perfect knowledge case. IQ phase imbalance ∆φ = 10o and IQ amplitude imbalance ∆a = 0. ν=3.e. Second. the proposed PTEQ approaches the performance of ideal OFDM transmission over TI chan- . Q=8. Again we focus on the frequency-domain PTEQ obtained by transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency-domain.2 (we consider the non-integer part of the CFO). As shown in Figure 9. Q=8. NO CFO.9.7: IQ and CFO direct Equalization knowledge of the channel and the IQ parameters. since the integer part of the CFO results into a cyclic shift and does not contribute to the ICI. i. L’=10. RLS 250 −1 10 BER −2 10 −3 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SNR (dB) Figure 9.1. ν=3. the IQ imbalance parameters and the CFO are known at the receiver.

This error floor results from the fact that there is residual ICI not compensated for. For the RLS algorithm we consider that I = 150 and I = 250 OFDM symbols are available for training. A more realistic scenario is either to estimate these parameters or to obtain the equalizer coefficients directly. only the CFO is assumed to be known at the receiver. and a time-varying part captured by means of complex rotation. A slight enhancement is obtained for the RLS with I = 250 over the case when perfect knowledge of the system parameters is assumed. However. which is not exact even under the assumption of white noise due to the IQ imbalance. . it was shown that if CFO is known the time-varying equalizer can be split into two parts assuming the input data source is white. The RLS algorithm appears to utilize the exact noise covariance matrix. the RLS based direct equalization suffers from an error floor at BER = 9 × 10−1 for I = 150. However. In all cases a training-based RLS scheme can be used to design the time-invariant part of the PTEQ.7. We have shown that analog front-end imperfections degrade the performance significantly. which means that IBI is also present. As shown in Figure 9. while the performance coincides with the performance when perfect knowledge is assumed for I = 250. and therefore equalization and analog front-end imperfection compensation are crucial. In this sense we have developed a training- based RLS initialization scheme. and suffers from an error floor at BER = 2 × 10−3 . The training-based RLS type direct equalization listed as 9. For the case of IQ imbalance only we devised a PTEQ to compensate for the channel and IQ imbalance un- der the assumption of knowing the channel and the IQ imbalance parameters. For the case of IQ imbalance and CFO. The CP length is assumed to be smaller than the channel order. the resulting PTEQ is time-varying. the error floor in this case is not that severe. This is due to the fact that for the case of perfect knowledge we approximate the noise covariance matrix as Rṽ = σn2 I. In the second setup.172 IQ Comp. A time-invariant part.6 Conclusions In this chapter we have proposed a frequency-domain PTEQ for OFDM trans- mission over time-invariant channels with imperfect analog front-end receivers. for OFDM in the Presence of IBI and CFO nels for low SNR values.2 is invoked to obtain the time-invariant part of the PTEQ. 9.

the main channel parameters of the underlying wireless channel were studied mainly under the WSSUS assumption.1 Conclusions The goal of this thesis was to develop reliable transmission techniques over time. It was shown that the mobile wireless channel is generally characterized as dou- bly selective in time and in frequency due to multipath propagation and user’s mobility. An overview study of the mobile wireless channel was presented in Chapter 2. and the second part was concerned with OFDM transmission over time. The basis expansion chan- nel model and its relationship to the well known Jakes’ channel model was also 173 . 10. Multipath propagation was shown to result in frequency-selectivity which in turn was shown to introduce ISI in time-domain.1.and frequency-selective channels as well as joint channel equalization analog front-end compensation for OFDM transmission over TI channels. the first part was concerned with reliable SC transmission over doubly selective channels.and frequency-selective channels.2. diffraction. The thesis was divided into two parts. While user’s mobil- ity was shown to introduce time-variation which in turn was shown to induce ICI in the frequency-domain. Multipath propagation results from reflection. and di- rections for further research in Section 10. In this chapter.Chapter 10 Conclusions and Future Research In t his chapter we highlight the main conclusions in Section 10. and scattering of the radiated electromagnetic waves of buildings and other objects that lie in the vicinity of the transmitter and/or receiver.

Similar to Chapter 3. two types of equalizers were considered. How- ever. it was shown that a ZF solution for the SLE existed for sufficiently large Q′ and L′ when at least 2 receive antennas are used. It was also shown that the SLEs can approach the performance of the BLES by judiciously choosing the equalizer’s parameters but keeping the complexity of designing and imple- menting the SLEs much lower. It was also shown that judiciously choosing the feedforward and feedback filter coefficients. the second type operated on a sample by sample basis. and serial linear equalizers (SLEs). While the first type equalized a block of received samples. Using a BEM window of size K = 2N was shown to be enough to eliminate the BER error floor. block decision feedback equalizers (BDFEs) and serial decision feedback equalizers (SDFEs). the design and implementation of the SLEs was done on a block level basis. State of the art equalizers. For such scenarios. the performance of the BDFE can be approached. In addition to this.174 Conclusions and Future Research introduced. SDFEs were designed to consist of feedforward and feedback filters. we showed that using the BEM window size K = 2N is sufficient to eliminate the modeling error and consequently the resulting error floor in BER performance. As far as the ZF solution was concerned. By this way. since the channel may vary significantly from sample to sample. Implementing the SLE using time-varying FIR filters modeled using a BEM was shown to turn a complicated 1-D time-varying deconvolution prob- lem into a simpler TI 2-D deconvolution problem. The feedforward and feedback filters were implemented using time-varying FIR filters modeled using the BEM. It was also shown the the proposed equalization techniques unify and extend many existing techniques for TI as will as for time-selective frequency flat channels. it was shown that a complicated 1-D time-varying deconvolution problem can be turned into a simpler TI 2-D deconvolution problem. In this chapter we focused on two categories of linear equalizers. In Chapter 4 we investigated decision feedback equalization of doubly selective channels. required at least Q + 1 receive antennas for the ZF solution to exist. Future generations wireless systems are required to provide high data rates to high mobility users. In Chapter 3 we focused on the problem of linear equalization for SC trans- mission over doubly selective channels. In general decision feedback equalizers (DFEs) consist of feedforward and feedback equalizers. conventional time- invariant equalization schemes or adaptive schemes that are suitable for slowly time-varying channels are inadequate to cope with the mobile wireless channel. In this part we presented channel equalization and estimation schemes as follows. We mainly derived the zero forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square-error (MMSE) equalizers. block linear equalizers (BLEs). Part I of this thesis investigated single carrier transmission over doubly se- lective channels. In Chapters 3 and 4 the equalizers (linear or decision feedback) were de- .

In Chapter 7.10. time-varying channels were shown to induce ICI. In OFDM transmission. A BEM window size of length K = P N . Error floor and noise sensitivity were shown to be greatly eliminated by combining the MMSE Wiener solution and the LS technique. with P ∈ Z+ was shown to correspond to frequency-oversampling in the frequency- domain with the oversampling rate equal to P . Conclusions 175 signed given that perfect channel state information was available at the receiver. The error floor due to the channel modeling error and residual ICI were shown to be greatly reduced by using a BEM window size greater than the block length.1. the CP length was assumed to be shorter than the channel impulse response. Therefore. Similar to the case of SC transmission. In Chapter 8. In this chapter we showed that blind and semi-blind techniques can be applied to the case of doubly selective channels. Part II of this thesis investigated OFDM transmission over doubly selective channels and OFDM over TI channels with analog front-end impairments at the receiver side. the channel BEM coefficients were then obtained by LS fitting of the true channel.e. PSAM-based channel estimation techniques were shown to suffer from an error floor for BEM window size K = N . which in turn showed to introduce inter-block interference (IBI). These results obtained there showed to extend results obtained for the case of TI channels. conventional time- or frequency-domain equalization techniques were not adequate to cope with the problems introduced due to the challenging problem of the underlying mo- bile wireless communication channel. Time-domain and/or frequency-domain equalization techniques were designed to cope with the problem of ICI. the energy of a particular subcarrier is leaked to neighboring subcarriers. i. An oversampling rate of P = 2 was shown to improve the performance significantly and to be sufficient to . a brief overview of OFDM transmission was given. In addition to the time-variation of the channel. In contrast to PSAM channel estimation. System model and ICI analysis were also covered. and to be sensitive to system noise for K = 2N . Using pure pilot symbols for channel estimation and/or direct equalization can be actually either skipped resulting in blind techniques or combined with blind techniques resulting in semi-blind techniques as discussed in Chapter 6. It was shown that PTEQs combine adjacent subcarriers to estimate the QAM symbol transmitted on a particular subcarrier. PSAM direct equalization performed better for K = N than for K = 2N . an optimal per- tone equalizer was obtained through transferring the TEQ operation to the frequency-domain resulting in per-tone equalizers (PTEQ). we proposed a time-domain and frequency-domain per-tone equalization techniques. In Chapter 5 we investigated the problem of channel es- timation and direct equalization based on pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) techniques. While TEQs optimized the performance on all subcarriers in a joint fashion. Non triviality con- straints were necessary to design the time-domain equalizers.

In this figure. the diversity order is measured by the slope of the BER curve. Exploiting the time. As it is clear from this figure. It was also shown that.2 Further Research This thesis is just a first step in developing reliable communications over time- and frequency-selective channels. the time-varying equalizer can be split into two parts. the diversity order is proportional to the normalized Doppler spread fmax T . which showed to be very complex. The higher the slope the higher the diversity order. IQ imbalance and CFO were considered. The proposed equalization schemes were based on approximating the doubly selective channel and designing the time-varying FIR using the BEM.176 Conclusions and Future Research overcome the channel modeling error and ICI problem.1. Joint frequency-domain channel equalization and digi- tal compensation schemes were considered. low complexity joint 1 Also corresponds to the matched filter bound for OFDM transmission over doubly selec- tive channels . Mainly. The proposed equaliza- tion scheme is for uncoded transmission.and frequency diversity of the doubly selective channel can be achieved by linearly pre-coding the transmitted signal. 10. The following are interesting directions for further research. The potential time-diversity of a time-varying frequency-flat fading channel1 is shown in Figure 10. it was shown that combining adjacent subcarriers to a particular subcarrier and its mirror is effective to recover the transmitted symbol on that particular subcarrier. A training-based RLS direct equalization was shown to be able to obtain the PTEQ coefficients given that CFO is known. Alternative to ML schemes. Exploiting the time-varying Channel Diversity In spite of the fact that time.and frequency-selective channels introduce ISI in time-domain and ICI in frequency-domain. It was shown that IQ imbalance results in a mirroring effect while CFO induces ICI. In this thesis we proposed an alternative equalization techniques based on time- varying FIR filters for SC as well as for OFDM transmission. they provide multipath diversity as well as Doppler diversity. a TI part and a time-varying part captured by means of a complex rotation. Applying these schemes to linearly pre-coded transmissions will not be able to exploit the diversity offered by the doubly selective channel. Maximum diversity is then guaranteed when the optimal maximum likelihood decoder is invoked at the receiver. For the case of CFO. Chapter 9 investigated the problem of OFDM transmission over TI channels with receiver analog front-end impairments.

2.025 −2 10 BER −3 10 −4 10 −5 10 −6 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 SNR (dB) Figure 10.0013 max −1 10 fmaxT=0. Little. 70] for MIMO systems. For the case of TI channels.10. Optimal channel estimation schemes (PSAM based. a pilot-based opti- mal training design for OFDM transmission was investigated in [83] for SISO systems.0025 fmaxT=0. and in [108. 11. Further Research 177 0 10 fmaxT=0 f T=0. 9.1: Diversity of time-varying flat fading channels equalization and decoding schemes are an interesting direction for further re- search. Channel Estimation and Tracking Channel estimation and tracking are of crucial importance in system perfor- mance for both SC and OFDM transmission over doubly selective channels. blind and semi-blind tech- niques) are interesting directions for further investigation especially for OFDM transmission. Part I of this thesis investigated channel estimation for SC trans- mission. is known about optimal training design for doubly selective channel estimation. The extension to doubly selective channels requires further investigation. .0075 fmaxT=0. however.

Extending the results to doubly selective channels is not straightforward and requires extensive investigations. We show there that OFDM is sensitive to analog front-end impairments. 100. . Broadband MIMO OFDM is a strong candidate for fu- ture WLAN systems [96] (SM or STC). MIMO systems can be either used for spatial multi- plexing (SM) based transmission schemes or space time coding (STC) based transmission schemes. For TI channels this problem was extensively studied for example in [61. 7]. and thus joint channel equalization and analog front-end impairments compensation is necessary. 127. Multiuser detection based on CDMA or MC-CDMA implemented using OFDM are strong candidates for future wireless systems. 113]. Digital Compensation for MIMO OFDM with Transmitter and Receiver Analog Front-End Imperfection MIMO systems promise a huge increase in data rates over conventional SISO systems [55. Early work is this area considering only IQ imbalance is studied in [99]. Studying the effect of IQ imbalance and CFO on MIMO OFDM is timely and of great importance con- sidering SM MIMO OFDM and STC MIMO OFDM.178 Conclusions and Future Research Multiuser Detection Multiuser detection for transmission over doubly selective channels is another open issue. In Chapter 9 we assume SISO OFDM transmission over TI channels.

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84/11. “Estimation and Direct Equaliza- tion of Doubly Selective Channels”. and M. Leus. pp. 1.and Frequency-Domain Per-Tone Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. submit- ted May. Barhumi. Leus. Barhumi. IEEE Transac- tions on Signal Processing. 6. “IQ Compensation for OFDM in the pres- ence of CFO and IBI”. “Time Varying FIR Equalization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. EURASIP Journal on Applied Sig- nal Processing. G. Moonen. 2004. to be submitted. Moonen. 1615-1624. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. “IQ Compensation for OFDM in the pres- ence of CFO and IBI”. 2005. I. “Time. 51.. NO. Moonen. NO. VOL. Sig- nal Processing. G. I. vol. Leus. June 2003. Moonen. Special Section Signal Processing in Communications. and M. Leus. Moonen.List of Publications Journals 1. 2005. Barhumi. G. “Optimal Training Design for MIMO OFDM Systems in Mobile Wireless Channels”. I. 202-214. and M. Barhumi. IEEE Trans. accepted January. 191 . and M. 2005. I. pp. G. Conferences 1. pp. 2. submitted June. I. Leus. special issue on ”Reliable Communications over Rapidly Time-Varying Channels”. Barhumi. Jan. 4. “Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. on Wireless Comm. and M. Barhumi. 2005. ICC. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. Moonen. 3. G. 2005. I. and M. I. VOL. Barhumi. 4. 6. 5. 2055-2066. Moonen. and M.

CA. Speech. I. Moonen. Moonen. Moonen. “Time-Varying FIR Equalization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. Barhumi. Paris. “ ”Direct Semi- Blind Design of Serial Linear Equalizers for Doubly-Selective Channels”. Leus and M. Barhumi and M. I. and M. I. 11-15 May. and M. I. Barhumi. in the proceedings of the IEEE 2003 In- ternational Conference on Communications (ICC’03). Leus. Barhumi. Barhumi and M. 6. Moonen. 11-15 May. 8. (Invited Paper) 4. I. Barhumi. Spain. G. I. Moonen. 2003 Anchorage. Barhumi. “MMSE Time-Varying FIR Equalization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. April 6-10. I. 3. 5. I. in IEEE 2003 Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM’03). June 19-24. EUSIPCO 2005. G. in The IEEE 2003 In- ternational Conference on Acoustics. in the proceedings of the IEEE 2003 International Con- ference on Communications (ICC’03). G. 20-24 June. G. G. in Sixth Baiona Workshop on Sig- nal Processing in Communications. Canada. in the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2004). G. Moonen. AK. Barhumi. I. USA 10. 2003. September 8-10. Leus and M. accepted. Paris. AK. “Low-Complexity Serial Equal- ization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. Leus. Barhumi. “Per-Tone Equalization for MIMO OFDM Systems”. Leus and M. Moonen. G. Speech and Signal Process- ing (ICASSP 2004). O. Leus and M. Montreal. “Frequency-domain Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. Baiona. G. France. in Sixth Baiona Workshop on Signal Processing in Communications. 2003 Anchorage. Leus. 11. Leus and M. Barhumi. and Signal Processing (ICASSP’03). Moonen. USA . 2003. “MMSE Estimation of Basis Expansion Models for Rapidly Time-Varying Channels”. San Francisco. Leus. 9. Moonen. in the 2004 IEEE Inter- national Conference on Communications (ICC 2004). “Combined Channel Shortening and Equalization of OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. I. G. in the IEEE 2004 International Conference on Acoustics. Baiona. 2003. “Frequency-domain Equalization for OFDM over Doubly-Selective Channels”. September 8-10. “Time Varying FIR Decision Feed- back Equalization of Doubly-Selective Channels”. France . De- cember 2003. Leus and M. Rousseaux. G. Spain. May 17-21.Hong Kong. 7. Moonen.192 Bibliography 2.

“Optimal Training for Channel Estimation in MIMO OFDM Systems”. October 27-31. Switzerland. Access. I. 13. International Zurich Seminar on Broadband Communications. February 18-21. 2002. Veldhoven. 2001. Zurich. Networking (IZS02). . ProRISC. Barhumi and M. Transmission. “Optimal Training Sequences for Channel Estimation in MIMO OFDM Systems in Mobile Wireless Channels”. I. Leus and M. 193 12. Moonen. Moonen. Barhumi. G. The Netherlands.

194 Bibliography .

specifically.Curriculum Vitae Imad Barhumi was born in Kafr Zeibadd. he was with the Electrical En- gineering department at Birzeit University. 195 .Sc. he was with Palestine Telecommunications Company (PAL- TEL) as a network engineer. Birzeit. Amman. in Telecommunications from University of Jordan. Pales- tine in 1996. Marc Moonen.Sc. channel estimation and equalization for mobile wireless communication systems. under the supervision of Prof. Palestine in 1972. Belgium. His research interests are in the area of signal processing for telecommunications. He received the B. and the M. degree in Electrical Engineering from Birzeit University. Since 2001 he has been pursuing a PhD at the Elec- trical Engineering Department (ESAT) of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. During his PhD he was partially funded by the Palestinian European Academic Coopera- tion in Education (PEACE) programme. From 1998-2000. Palestine as a lecturer. From 1996-1997. Jordan in 1999.

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