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Floating Offshore Gas

Andy Alderson
Manager - Offshore Oil & Gas

Offshore Gas Developments
Regas

Offshore Regas - RV

• Energy Bridge – Exmar/Excelerate
• Neptune LNG – GdF Hoegh
– Conventional Loading
– Ship to Ship Transfer with hoses
– Onboard Re-gas
– Send out via STL or conventional manifold

Offshore Regas

Fixed Floating Terminal

• Brazil FSRU Projects – Petrobras/Golar
• Dubai FSRU - Shell
– Permanently moored to jetty
– LNG Loading via conventional loading
arm
– Send out via manifold
– NO direct ship to ship transfer

Fixed Floating Terminal .

Fixed Offshore GBS • Adriatic LNG (Rovigo) – Gravity Based Storage and Regas – Offshore loading using loading arms – Send out via pipeline .

Fixed GBS .

GBS .Adriatic .

Fixed Offshore Floating • OLT Livorno • Triton LNG – True Floating Storage & Regas vessel – Loading Offshore ship to ship transfer with hard arms – Send out through STL or Fixed turret system .

Triton LNG Livorno OLT .

New Challenges .Loading .

OLT .FMC Loading Arms .

New Challenges .Mooring .

Relative Motions .

000m3 147.000m3 125. Summary Brazil – 1 Brazil -2 Livorno OLT Dubai Rovigo Neptune Triton Port Dolphin Regasification 2.000m3 Location Existing Pier New Pier Offshore New Pier GBS Offshore Offshore Offshore Offshore LNG Transfer Over jetty / Over Jetty / Side by Side / Side by Side / Side by Side / No Transfer Side by Side / No Transfer loading arms Loading arms Loading arms Loading arms Loading arms LNGRV used Loading arms LNGRV used on jetty on FSRU on FSRU on FSRU on GBS on FSRU Gas Transfer HP Arms on HP Arms on Riser to HP Arms on Pipeline HP Pipe via HP Pipe via HP Pipe via Jetty Jetty subsea p/l Jetty STL STL STL Vaporization Closed Loop Closed/Open Open Loop Open Loop Loop Mooring Conventional Conventional Turret Conventional GBS Fixed STL Mooring STL Mooring STL Mooring System Mooring Flexibility LNGC LNGC .0bcm/yr Storage 129.000m3 147.1 bcm/yr 5.000m3 147.000m3 137. LNGC .5 bcm/yr 5. LNGC LNGC LNGC .1 bcm/yr 4.000m3 138.

• Experience will help to ease this process. • Class & Regulatory Bodies need to be consulted at a very early stage. Rules & Regulations • Floating Units fall between traditional marine and onshore regulations. • The scope of each may vary depending upon location. • One Solution will not fit all. .

Key Areas of Consideration • Applicable Rules & Regulations • Application of Novel Technologies • Design Criteria & Processes • Construction Process • Commissioning Process • Start-Up Process .

. International Regulations • Typically – SOLAS – MARPOL – IGC – STCW (depending on location) As none of these rules have been written with offshore gas in mind they need to be carefully studied to determine what is applicable based upon the specific project.

. Regional Regulations • European Union (EU) Directives – Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) – Marine Equipment Directive (MED) • EN1474-2 for flexible hoses • EN1474-3 for offshore transfer systems.

Construction and Installation of Steel Offshore Single Point Moorings • RINA Rules for the Classification of ships • Applicable International Rules. depending on the intended operation (e. Storage and Offloading of Liquid Hydrocarbons or intended for Storage. RINA Rules • RINA Rules for the Classification of Floating Units intended for Production.g. IMO IGC Code) . Off- loading and Regasification of Liquefied Gases • RINA Guide for the Design.

Application Ships or other floating units. moored to the seabed and intended for:  production and/or storage and off-loading of liquid hydrocarbons  Storage and/or unloading and/or re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) FPSO Production. Storage and/or regasification of liquefied natural gases C X [Hull] X [Mach] [FPSO] [FPO] [FSO] [FSRU] Operating area notation – Additional Class Notations . storage and off-loading of liquid hydrocarbons FPO Production and off-loading of liquid hydrocarbons FSO Storage and off-loading of liquid hydrocarbons FSRU Off-loading.

Case Study ITALY .

Monfalcone: GBS offshore regasification plant • Fiamma 2000. Offshore hiload system . Montalto di Castro: LNG carriers @ offshore platform • Nuove Energie. Falconara: oil refinery and LNG regasification plant • ENEL. Rovigo: GBS offshore regasification plant • API.Italian LNG Projects • Adriatic LNG. Priolo: onshore LNG regasification plant • Terminal Alpi Adriatico. Livorno: LNG carriers STS @ SPM • Sorgenia-Iride. Porto Empedocle: onshore LNG regasification plant • OLT. Gioia Tauro: onshore LNG regasification plant • Ionio Gas. Ardea: offshore GPL receiving terminal @ conventional multiple buoy system • Sorgenia TORP.

. Permitting Process (Italy) • APPROVAL TO INSTALL AND OPERATE AN OFFSHORE TERMINAL IN ITALY(Major Permits): • Environment Impact Assessment (onshore & offshore) • Nulla Osta di Fattibilità (Safety Risk Assessment) • MAP Decree Authorization to construct and operate • Maritime Concession • Others include Public Interest Concessions. etc.

8 Law 340/00 – Allows Company to build and run the terminal • Maritime Concession Based on Italian Navigation Code . Sveso Ter or CEE 105/2003 – Preliminary and Final Safety Reports. 6. (Regional Technical Committee) • MAP Decree Authorization to construct and operate Based on art.220/92 Law n.152/2006 – Analysis of the Environment Impact Study • Nulla Osta di Fattibilità (Safety Risk Assessment) Based on Seveso Directive. Testing Commission.T. Allows Company to occupy a certain water area in open sea for installing and running the terminal and the pipeline to shore . Law n. 349/86.Issued by Coast Guard/Harbour Master after a Ministry of Transport Decree.R. National Regulations • Environment Impact Assessment (onshore & offshore) Based on art. Law n. Competent authority is the C.

.

Technical Queries .

. National Regulations • Currently there are no ‘set’ national rules as there is limited experience. • RINA with the experienced gained can work with national authorities to gain approvals and permitting case by case.

. PED (EU Directive 97/23/EC) etc. MED (EU Directive 2001/53/ EC). e. Flag and Coastal states) • Certification services for additional legislative issues.g. Summary Rules Services • Classification according to IMO and RINA Rules (including ISM.) • Inspections and testing of equipment • Type approvals • Materials/certifications • Assistance for compliance with the applicable requirements of governmental authorities (typically. ISPS etc.

Current Projects Risk-Based Services • Technology Qualification • FMECA • HAZOP • Risk-based maintenance strategies (Reliability-Centered Maintenance. Condition-Based Maintenance) • Risk-Based Inspections • Assistance in drafting Safety Cases .

Novel Technologies • Why do we need ‘Technology Qualification’ • The main reason is the banks. • Secondly permitting (Safety) • The technology qualification by independent 3rd party reduces this risk . In the current credit crisis the new technology or new uses of existing technology is seen as high risk.

Novel Technologies • The Process consists of 4 deliverables – Technology Assessment – Qualification Plan – Qualification Report – Approval .

loads. Assessment Process • Define Qualification Basis – System Description • Capacities. Environmental data of operation. tests etc. . installation. etc – Inherent uncertainties • Dynamic responses.

Assessment Process • Failure Mode Identification & Risk Ranking – Failure Causes – Functional Elements – Interfacing .

Assessment Process • Maintenance & Modification (Concept Improvement) – Failure mode screening – Maintainability Analysis – Maintenance Planning – Cost benefit analysis – Maintenance Costs .

Design Process .

. Assessment Process • Select Qualification Methods – FAT Procedures • Success Evaluation – Define criteria for Evaluation • Data Collection • Functionality Assessment.

and classification of the technology in degree of newness to focus the effort where the related uncertainty is most significant. Process Summary • Establish an overall plan for the qualification. This is a continuous process and needs updating after each step using the available knowledge on the status of the qualification. Define the functionality and limiting parameters for the new technology. . • Screening the technology based on identification of failure modes and their risk. • Establish a qualification basis comprising: requirements. specification and description.

The data is used to analyse the risk for not meeting the specifications through: experience. numerical analysis and tests. . and thereby the risk of the failure modes related to the functional requirements of the new technology. Process Summary • Assess maintenance. condition monitoring and possible modification effects to reduce the risk. • Plan and execute reliability data collection. • Analyse the reliability of the new technology.

to define the operating envelope on the site • Loading arms: FMECA of functional aspects comprehensive of operating issues . TQ For Livorno FSRU • Tools being used for TQ: • Tri-Ex Vaporizers: Structural finite element analysis to investigate fatigue and CFD to verify efficiency of thermal exchange in presence of ship motions • Side-by-side mooring: seakeeping analysis supported by extensive tank tests.

Novel Technology • Case Study – Cargo Transfer – Areas to consider • Transfer System – Loading Arms • Mooring arrangements .

Novel Technologies • Loading Arms – Well proven for transfer between ship and shore for LNG – Never used in open water between two moving objects – The following to be investigated • Operating envelope • Reliability (maintenance) • Operations connection/disconnection • Availability • Failure modes – Design out problems and demonstrate this .

Novel Technologies • Mooring Arrangements – Ships motions – (model testing & verification) – Verify mooring system • Operating limits • Operations (mooring/unmooring) • Reliability • Availability of vessel. • Failure modes .

. HAZOP • RINA offers its clients experienced personnel and customized recording tools to facilitate HAZOP. • This service will enable operators and designers to satisfy the regulatory and corporate requirements for hazard identification of new or existing facilities.

Typical Hazop Workshop .

Typical Hazop Worksheet .

– The results of an FMECA study are ideal for further use in the development of reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) programmes or for risk management purposes. FMECA • Failure Mode Effect & Criticality Analysis (FMECA) – RINA’s Failure Mode Effect & Criticality Analysis (FMECA) service will systematically address all possible failure modes of a technical system and the specific effects of certain failures. .

Project Supervision MANAGER GAS PROJECTS Business Area Project Manager Customer Manager Project 1 Manager Genoa Office Genoa Office Local Office Local Plan RIND MARINE MARINE Approval Team Leader Team Leader Team Leader Meteo Marine Specialist Support Plan Approval Technical Support Site Manager* Services Services Sevices Permitting Risk Assessment STRT* HULS Process Equip PRMT* LNG Operations* EATS Machinery Cryogenic Hull Surveyor EIC Surveyor Terminal Surveyor Surveyor* Mooring CSST MACS* Support* Training PPVT SAFS Site Team ENVT *LNG Experience required Head Office Team (Virtual Team) .

– RINA Team skills to assist • LNG operations. master. . chief engineer. offshore operations. • Experienced staff. – Involvement required from the initial concept stage. – Evaluation and Verification throughout the design and construction process. ship to ship transfer. Design Process • RINA’s Role – Independent Evaluation by a third party with experience. mooring. superintendent.

RINA Services Approved Configuration Authority Engineering Optimised Configuration Cost-to-Benefit Analyses Risk & Environmental Assessment Logistic Studies Mooring & Operability Studies Sea-keeping Studies Ship Handling Studies Meteo-marine Study Project Target & Boundary Conditions .

RINA Offshore Gas references Adriatic LNG Livorno OLT .

RINA Offshore References Saipem 7000 Scarabeo 5 Scarabeo 3 .

RINA FPSO References FPSO “VEGA OIL” (“Single anchor leg system”) FPSO “FIRENZE” (Anchor and chain moored turret) FPSO “ALBA MARINA” (Chain moored floating turret) FPSO “LIGURIA” (“Single anchor leg system”) FPSO “ACQUA BLU” (Ship moored to a chain anchored buoy) .

Triton Project Update • Vessel to be Italian Flag in Service • Vessel to be Dual Class RINA + (BV or DNV) • Invitation to Bid – 3 Korean Yards and issued End of May 2009. .