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# 494 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 15, NO.

2, APRIL 2000

A Precise Calculation of Power System
Frequency and Phasor
Jun-Zhe Yang and Chih-Wen Liu

Abstract—A series of precise digital algorithms based on the advantages that it can obtain exact solution in the presence
Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) to calculate the frequency and of harmonics and frequency deviation from nominal frequency.
phasor in real-time are proposed. These algorithms that we called The organization of this paper is as follows: We describe basic
the Smart Discrete Fourier Transforms (SDFT) family not only
keep all of the advantages of DFT but also smartly take frequency principle of SDFT in section II. DFT, Prony method and SDFT
deviation, and harmonics into consideration. These make the are tested by four examples in section III. Finally, we give a
SDFT family more accurate than the other methods. Besides, conclusion in section IV.
SDFT family is recursive and very easy to implement, so it is very
suitable for use in real-time. We provide the simulation results
II. THE PROPOSED DIGITAL ALGORITHM
compared with conventional DFT method and second-order Prony
method to validate the claimed benefits of SDFT. This section presents the algorithm of the basic SDFT that es-
Index Terms—Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT), Frequency timates the frequency and phasor from a voltage/current signal.
estimation, phasor measurement. Consider a sinusoidal input signal of frequency ! = 2f as fol-
lows:
I. INTRODUCTION x(t) = X cos(!t + ) (1)

F REQUENCY and phasor are the most important quanti-
ties in power system operation because they can reflect
the whole power system situation. Frequency can show the dy-
where
X : the amplitude of the voltage/current signal,
: the phase angle of the voltage/current signal
Suppose that x(t) is sampled with a sampling rate (603 N ) Hz
namic energy balance between load and generating power, while
phasor can constitute the state of system. So frequency and
waveform to produce the sample set fx(k)g
phasor are regarded as indices for the operating power systems  k

k = 0; 1; 2; 1 1 1 ; N 0 1:
in practice.
x(k) = X cos ! +
However, utilities have difficulty in calculating those quanti- 60N
ties precisely. There are many devices, such as power electronic (2)
equipment and arc furnaces, etc. generating lots of harmonics The signal x(t) is conventionally represented by a phasor (a
and noise in modem power systems. It is therefore essential for complex number) x
utilities to seek and develop a reliable method that can measure x = Xej = X cos  + jX sin : (3)
frequency and phasor in presence of harmonics and noise.
With the advent of the microprocessor, more and more Then x(t) can be expressed as
microprocessor-based equipments have been extensively used xej!t + x3 e0j!t
in power systems. Using such equipment is known to provide x(t) = (4)
2
accurate, fast responding, economic, and flexible solutions to where 3 denotes complex conjugate.
measurement problems [1]. Therefore, all we have to do is to Moreover, the fundamental frequency (60Hz) component of
find the best algorithm and implement it. There have been many DFT of fx(k)g is given by
digital algorithms applied to calculating frequency or phasor N 01
2 X
x(k + r)e0j N :
during recent years, for example Modified Zero Crossing 2k
x^r = (5)
Technique [2], Level Crossing Technique [3], Least Squares N k=0
Error Technique [4]–[6], Newton method [7], Kalman Filter
Combing Eq. (4) and Eq. (5) and taking frequency deviation
[8], [9], Prony Method [10], and Discrete Fourier Transform
(DFT) [11], etc. For real-time use, most of the aforementioned
( = 2 (60 + 1 ))
!  f into consideration, at last, we obtain:

x sin 2
methods have trade-off between accuracy and speed [12]. N 1
^r = N ej 60N (1f (2r+N01)+120r)

Unlike other methods, a series of precise digital algorithms, x
namely Smart Discrete Fourier Transform (SDFT) family, are sin 2
1
presented and tries to meet the real-time use. SDFT family has
N 2
x3 sin 2
+N e0j 60N (1f (2r+N01)+120(r+N01))


sin 22
The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National
Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Publisher Item Identifier S 0885-8977(00)03461-0. (6)