CHAPTER ONE 1.

1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY The first five years of life are the most crucial to the physical and intellectual development of children and can determine their potential to learn and thrive for a lifetime. For young children, every single day counts. “The name of the child is today, tomorrow may be too late.” The challenges that we face regarding the health of Nigerian children cannot be put off, and they are not

insurmountable. We have the tools, resources, and knowledge to address our nation’s most critical child survival problems and build on the considerable achievements that have been made since the World Summit for Children in 1990. What is needed is urgent action and greater national priority placed on children’s issues so that significant gaps and the growing disparity in child health and survival do not reverse the progress already made. Immunization is a proven tool for controlling and eliminating life threatening infectious diseases and is estimated to' avert over 2 million deaths each year (Encarta, 2008). It is one of the most cost-effective health
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By exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way. When an immune system is expose to molecules that are foreign to the body.investments. World Health Organization. with proven strategies that make it accessible to even 'the most hard-to-reach and vulnerable populations. Immunization is however defined as the process by which individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (Known as immunogen). Vol. 2. but it can also develop the' ability to quickly respond to a subsequent encounter (through immunological memory). The European Union. It has clearly defined target groups. its body can learn to protect itself (WHO 2006) Journal. This adaptive immune system. United Nation Children 2 |Page is a function of the . For this reason. it will orchestrate an immune response.11) In African as a continent child immunization is a medical practice that is evitable as we have so many vectors in the tropical region that can be responsible for various infections. it can be delivered effectively through outreach activities and vaccination.

this hand of partnership is also extended to us as a nation and a sub-division at every state level within the country. yellow fever.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3 |Page . chicken pox. In Nigeria.Emergency Fund (UNICEF) to mention a few are international organizations that have been in partnership with African countries to help facilitate child immunization in Africa. bee n taken car e of in developed soci 1. meningitis. 11). Polio which is the most child threatening ailment recently have received great attention from the world as the “kick polio” initiative is working effectively well. The stud y of child im muniz atio n is charged as a de ve loping nation since mos ve ry seriously t of t hese ailment s have et ies. (Euprime Journal 2009 Vol. and hepatitis to mention but few. Among others we have measles. 3. Delta state is not left out as elimination of mortality rate among children is also on the top list of the Government agenda.

as well as Ughelli Local Government area of the state. To X -ray t he accep tability of childhoo d i mmuniza tion 4 |Page . 2.Child immunization is still at the “Below belt” level in Nigeria. The reasons for child mortality points to the fact that the process of acceptance of immunization at the grass root level (i.3 OBJECTIVES ·OF THE STUDY The prim ary object 1. 1. Delta state specifically. likewise its acceptability at the urban areas not also to effective.e. The introduction of Pre-Natal Care and Post-Natal Care in our h ospital s howe ver has cont ribut ed mu ch in campaign of childhood immunization but neglig som e grounds not far from religion or tr the ence on adi tion hav e not helped th is missi on to at tai n the envis age d su ccess. This is also true of Ughelli Local Government Area of Delta State. To examine ives of t hi s s tudy is chi ldho od immu ni zation the effect of programm e i n Ughelli north local government area of Del ta s tate. rural areas) is very slow.

government area of Del 1. They . In fact. research. hypotheses are useful guides to effective. To c ompare th e acc ep tabilit y of t he proj ect b etween rur al and urban vari abl e. 4. The formulation of an appropriate hypothesis goes hand in hand with the selection of a research problem. Therefore the hypothesis for this research will be related to the research problem and objectives of the study.pro gramme i n D elta sta te. 2001).4 HYPOTHESES RESEARCH Hypotheses are conjectural statements of relationships between two (2) are guides for the investigation in the entire process of research on the main line of this study. 5 |Page or more variables (Osuala. To areas with in the state and take its s uggest po siti ve se nsitization fo rmu las and solutions to red uce child m ort ality in Ughelli north local ta s tate. 3.

H is used to refer to the alternative hypothesis.Two (2) classes of hypothesis are important for this research. H1: Childhood immunization programmes in north local government area of Del yielded desired results in the state. The hypotheses of the study are stated in null and alternate forms as follows: H0: Childhood immunization programmes in north local government area of Del yielded desired results in the state. This represents a true difference between two populations and means that it can be determined whether a difference possibly exists between the population mean. they are H0 and H 1. H 0 mean the hypothesis which asserts that there are no two differences between two populations and whatever 1 difference found is therefore accidental. and H0: The sensitization approach to introduce immunization programme in Ugelli North local Government Area of Delta state by Government has 6 |Page ughelli ta s tate has not ughelli ta s tate has .

7 |Page . This is the range which a particular study will cover.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of the study reveals the problem of immunization programme. 1. its impact on Ughelli people and Ughelli local government area of the state in general. H1: The sensitization approach to introduce immunization programme in Ughelli North local Government Area of Delta state by Government has been effective. the study will serve as an academic exercise aimed at informing subsequent researchers from unknown to known about childhood immunization in Ughelli local government area of Delta state. 1. It is obvious that this study will add to the knowledge on the importance of immunization programmes to Ughelli people and to existing literature on state immunization programmes in Delta state. In addition.not been effective.

This is further elaborated in the research methodology of the study. Little reliance will be placed on secondary data to get statistics on the subject matter. hence the following limitations: 1. As with every research work. there are some limits that impair the realization of an otherwise perfect objective. 1.This study will cover the entire government area of Del zone of the state. This is not an exception to this study. This study will only be able to concentrate on a sample( Ughelli LGA) and not the entire population( Delta state). Time and resource insufficiency will affect production 8 |Page . Ughelli North local ta s tate in the north senatorial For the purpose of data collection. 2. Difference in language understood and spoken in the area will affect data collection and pace of the study 3.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Like everything else. there are limitations. the researcher will use the direct observation of primary method of collecting data.

efers to di ffi cultie s fa ced du ring tas k List of Abbreviations ADB: African Development Bank AFP: acute flaccid paralysis ANC: Antenatal care ARCH: Applied Research on Child Health ARI: acute respiratory infections BASICS: Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival BCG: Bacille Calmette Guerin 9 |Page . 2. 1. Imp air: N egat ive Influence of a f ac tor . Insufficient secondary data. 4.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Mort ality Rate: This refe rs to Deat h rate. C onstraints: This r pe rformanc e. 3.of data sheets and materials. Im muno ge n: This ref ers to forti fied I mmun e bod y in the sys tem. 4.

BI: birth interval CBR: crude birth rate CDD: control of diarrhoeal diseases CEDPA: Centre for Development and Population Activities CMR: child mortality rate CPH: Community Partnerships for Health CRC: Child Rights Convention CS: child survival CSM: Cerebro.Spinal Meningitis DCD: Department of Child Development DFID: Department for International Development EPI: Expanded Programme on Immunisation FHI: Family Health International FMOH: Federal Ministry of Health FMWA&YD: Development FOS: Federal Office of Statistics GAVI: Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation IMR: infant mortality rate MCH: maternal and child health 10 | P a g e Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Youth .

S. Agency for International Development 11 | P a g e .MTCT: mother-to-child transmission NCFN :National Committee for Food and Nutrition NCWC: National Child Welfare Committee NCRIC: National Child Rights Implementation Committee NIDs: National Immunisation Days NIGEP: Nigeria Guinea Worm Eradication Programme NIMR: Nigerian Institute of Medical Research NPA: National Plan of Action for Children NPHCDA: National Primary Health Care Development Agency NPI: National Programme on Immunisation OPV: oral polio vaccines PEI :Polio Eradication Initiative RBM: Roll Back Malaria RDA: recommended dietary allowance RI: routine immunisation UNDP: United Nation’s Development Project UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNICEF: United Nations Children’s Fund USAID: U.

9 OUTLINE OF THE STUDY This study was divided into five chapters for clarity and easy understanding as follows: Chapter 1: This consists of the introduction. background to the study. historical background and theories postulated on childhood immunization programme in child care and welfare of children in Ughelli LGA of Delta state. Chapter 2: This is the literature review. problem statement. 12 | P a g e .U5MR: under-5 mortality rate VAD : vitamin-A deficiency VPD: vaccine preventable diseases WB: World Bank WHO: World Health Organization WSC: World Summit for Children 1. research questions. and limitation of the study. statement of hypothesis. It synthesizes previous works on the topic. and justification for the study. objectives of the study scope of the study.

vaccines and biologicals. Chapter 5: This presents the summary of the findings of the study. Immunization. Centre for Global Development.World Health Organization (WHO). It also evaluates and analyze the various data used for the study.int/immunization/en/ 2. Making Markets for vaccines: from ideas to actions. Available from URL http://www. This will also involve the method of data collection and the technique used in analyzing the data. 2005: Washington DC.Chapter 3: This is the research methodology. recommendations and conclusion. REFERENCES 1. Chapter 4: This presents empirical results of model estimation and interpretation. 13 | P a g e .who. Centre for Global Development. [Accessed 2007 October 26].

Encarta (2005. immunization and its many intricacies. Matsumura T.D.3. Measles vaccine coverage and factors related to uncompleted vaccination among 18-month-old and 36-month-old children in Nigeria. BMC Public Health 2005. Bakare N. 369: 1277-85 6. 5: 59. T Amadi. BMC Public Health 2006. 14 | P a g e . Vaccination coverage and reasons for nonvaccination in a Delta state. 2006. Ito H. 2008). Ananda S. Lancet 2007. 4. Nakayama T. Torun S. Okamoto S. 5. Health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries: an econometric analysis. 6: 125.

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