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CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The first five years of life are the most crucial to the physical and

intellectual development of children and can determine their

potential to learn and thrive for a lifetime. For young children, every

single day counts. “The name of the child is today, tomorrow may

be too late.” The challenges that we face regarding the health of

Nigerian children cannot be put off, and they are not

insurmountable. We have the tools, resources, and knowledge to

address our nation’s most critical child survival problems and build

on the considerable achievements that have been made since the

World Summit for Children in 1990. What is needed is urgent action

and greater national priority placed on children’s issues so that

significant gaps and the growing disparity in child health and

survival do not reverse the progress already made.

Immunization is a proven tool for controlling and

eliminating life threatening infectious diseases and is

estimated to' avert over 2 million deaths each year

(Encarta, 2008). It is one of the most cost-effective health
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it can be delivered effectively through outreach activities and vaccination. For this reason. Vol. 2. with proven strategies that make it accessible to even 'the most hard-to-reach and vulnerable populations.11) In African as a continent child immunization is a medical practice that is evitable as we have so many vectors in the tropical region that can be responsible for various infections. it will orchestrate an immune response. The European Union. Immunization is however defined as the process by which individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (Known as immunogen). its body can learn to protect itself (WHO 2006) Journal. By exposing an animal to an immunogen in a controlled way. This is a function of the adaptive immune system. but it can also develop the' ability to quickly respond to a subsequent encounter (through immunological memory). World Health Organization.investments. It has clearly defined target groups. United Nation Children 2 |Page . When an immune system is expose to molecules that are foreign to the body.

11). 3. (Euprime Journal 2009 Vol.Emergency Fund (UNICEF) to mention a few are international organizations that have been in partnership with African countries to help facilitate child immunization in Africa. Delta state is not left out as elimination of mortality rate among children is also on the top list of the Government agenda. yellow fever. chicken pox. Polio which is the most child threatening ailment recently have received great attention from the world as the “kick polio” initiative is working effectively well. meningitis.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3 |Page . The stud y of child im muniz atio n is charged ve ry seriously as a de ve loping nation since mos t of t hese ailment s have bee n taken car e of in developed soci et ies. 1. and hepatitis to mention but few. Among others we have measles. this hand of partnership is also extended to us as a nation and a sub-division at every state level within the country. In Nigeria.

To examine the effect of chi ldho od immu ni zation programm e i n Ughelli north local government area of Del ta s tate. This is also true of Ughelli Local Government Area of Delta State.3 OBJECTIVES ·OF THE STUDY The primary object ives of t hi s s tudy is 1. rural areas) is very slow. The introduction of Pre-Natal Care and Post-Natal Care in our h ospital s howe ver has cont ribut ed mu ch in the campaign of childhood immunization but neglig ence on som e grounds not far from religion or tr adi tion hav e not helped th is missi on to at tai n the envis age d su ccess.e. 2. The reasons for child mortality points to the fact that the process of acceptance of immunization at the grass root level (i. likewise its acceptability at the urban areas not also to effective. 1.Child immunization is still at the “Below belt” level in Nigeria. Delta state specifically. To X -ray t he accep tability of childhoo d i mmuniza tion 4 |Page . as well as Ughelli Local Government area of the state.

To s uggest po siti ve se nsitization fo rmu las and solutions to red uce child m ort ality in Ughelli north local government area of Del ta s tate. 2001). The formulation of an appropriate hypothesis goes hand in hand with the selection of a research problem. 1. In fact. research. pro gramme i n D elta sta te. hypotheses are useful guides to effective. Therefore the hypothesis for this research will be related to the research problem and objectives of the study. 3. 4. 5 |Page . To c ompare th e acc ep tabilit y of t he proj ect b etween rur al and urban areas with in the state and take its vari abl e. They are guides for the investigation in the entire process of research on the main line of this study.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES Hypotheses are conjectural statements of relationships between two (2) or more variables (Osuala.

H 1 is used to refer to the alternative hypothesis. H1: Childhood immunization programmes in ughelli north local government area of Del ta s tate has yielded desired results in the state. and H0: The sensitization approach to introduce immunization programme in Ugelli North local Government Area of Delta state by Government has 6 |Page . This represents a true difference between two populations and means that it can be determined whether a difference possibly exists between the population mean. they are H0 and H 1. H 0 mean the hypothesis which asserts that there are no two differences between two populations and whatever difference found is therefore accidental. The hypotheses of the study are stated in null and alternate forms as follows: H0: Childhood immunization programmes in ughelli north local government area of Del ta s tate has not yielded desired results in the state.Two (2) classes of hypothesis are important for this research.

1. 1. H1: The sensitization approach to introduce immunization programme in Ughelli North local Government Area of Delta state by Government has been effective. It is obvious that this study will add to the knowledge on the importance of immunization programmes to Ughelli people and to existing literature on state immunization programmes in Delta state. not been effective. its impact on Ughelli people and Ughelli local government area of the state in general.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significance of the study reveals the problem of immunization programme. 7 |Page . In addition. This is the range which a particular study will cover. the study will serve as an academic exercise aimed at informing subsequent researchers from unknown to known about childhood immunization in Ughelli local government area of Delta state.

there are some limits that impair the realization of an otherwise perfect objective. This is not an exception to this study. This study will only be able to concentrate on a sample( Ughelli LGA) and not the entire population( Delta state). Time and resource insufficiency will affect production 8 |Page . This is further elaborated in the research methodology of the study. Difference in language understood and spoken in the area will affect data collection and pace of the study 3. 1. the researcher will use the direct observation of primary method of collecting data.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Like everything else. As with every research work. Little reliance will be placed on secondary data to get statistics on the subject matter.This study will cover the entire Ughelli North local government area of Del ta s tate in the north senatorial zone of the state. For the purpose of data collection. hence the following limitations: 1. there are limitations. 2.

2. Mort ality Rate: This refe rs to Deat h rate. Imp air: N egat ive Influence of a f ac tor . 1. of data sheets and materials. Im muno ge n: This ref ers to forti fied I mmun e bod y in the sys tem. 4. C onstraints: This r efers to di ffi cultie s fa ced du ring tas k pe rformanc e. Insufficient secondary data. List of Abbreviations ADB: African Development Bank AFP: acute flaccid paralysis ANC: Antenatal care ARCH: Applied Research on Child Health ARI: acute respiratory infections BASICS: Basic Support for Institutionalizing Child Survival BCG: Bacille Calmette Guerin 9 |Page . 4. 3.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1.

BI: birth interval CBR: crude birth rate CDD: control of diarrhoeal diseases CEDPA: Centre for Development and Population Activities CMR: child mortality rate CPH: Community Partnerships for Health CRC: Child Rights Convention CS: child survival CSM: Cerebro.Spinal Meningitis DCD: Department of Child Development DFID: Department for International Development EPI: Expanded Programme on Immunisation FHI: Family Health International FMOH: Federal Ministry of Health FMWA&YD: Federal Ministry of Women Affairs and Youth Development FOS: Federal Office of Statistics GAVI: Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation IMR: infant mortality rate MCH: maternal and child health 10 | P a g e .

S. Agency for International Development 11 | P a g e .MTCT: mother-to-child transmission NCFN :National Committee for Food and Nutrition NCWC: National Child Welfare Committee NCRIC: National Child Rights Implementation Committee NIDs: National Immunisation Days NIGEP: Nigeria Guinea Worm Eradication Programme NIMR: Nigerian Institute of Medical Research NPA: National Plan of Action for Children NPHCDA: National Primary Health Care Development Agency NPI: National Programme on Immunisation OPV: oral polio vaccines PEI :Polio Eradication Initiative RBM: Roll Back Malaria RDA: recommended dietary allowance RI: routine immunisation UNDP: United Nation’s Development Project UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNICEF: United Nations Children’s Fund USAID: U.

9 OUTLINE OF THE STUDY This study was divided into five chapters for clarity and easy understanding as follows: Chapter 1: This consists of the introduction. statement of hypothesis. and limitation of the study. 12 | P a g e . problem statement. background to the study. and justification for the study.U5MR: under-5 mortality rate VAD : vitamin-A deficiency VPD: vaccine preventable diseases WB: World Bank WHO: World Health Organization WSC: World Summit for Children 1. Chapter 2: This is the literature review. It synthesizes previous works on the topic. research questions. historical background and theories postulated on childhood immunization programme in child care and welfare of children in Ughelli LGA of Delta state. objectives of the study scope of the study.

World Health Organization (WHO). [Accessed 2007 October 26]. Chapter 4: This presents empirical results of model estimation and interpretation.int/immunization/en/ 2. Immunization. Centre for Global Development. Centre for Global Development. 13 | P a g e . Making Markets for vaccines: from ideas to actions. vaccines and biologicals. REFERENCES 1. This will also involve the method of data collection and the technique used in analyzing the data.Chapter 3: This is the research methodology. Available from URL http://www.who. recommendations and conclusion. Chapter 5: This presents the summary of the findings of the study. 2005: Washington DC. It also evaluates and analyze the various data used for the study.

Ito H. Torun S. 14 | P a g e . BMC Public Health 2005. Health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries: an econometric analysis. Ananda S. Matsumura T. Encarta (2005. 6: 125.D. immunization and its many intricacies. 4. BMC Public Health 2006.3. Lancet 2007. 5. 369: 1277-85 6. 2008). Bakare N. 2006. Okamoto S. Vaccination coverage and reasons for non- vaccination in a Delta state. Measles vaccine coverage and factors related to uncompleted vaccination among 18-month-old and 36-month-old children in Nigeria. 5: 59. Nakayama T. T Amadi.