You are on page 1of 12

c

c

c
c
TERM PAPER

OF

SIGNAL AND SYSTEM (ECE 209)

TOPIC: c  
c

cc .

c c c m .

 m    ! | |  " m .

 #.

$    .

  .

  .

p LE E ET „                .

              .

  .

.

         .

 .

        .

      .

  .

 Head of the department   .

   .

  .

      .

   .

           .

 °  |   .

   .

  .

      .

          .

  .

                 .

        .

     .

    .

       .

         .

   .

         .

 .

      .

      .

  .

        .

    .

onclusions 13. Basic evelopment of LT 4. ppplication Examples 1 . roperties of L T 7. efinition of Laplace Transform 5. eferences . estoration process of a power network 1 . TET 1. equential energization of transmission lion 11. nverse umerical Laplace Transform . ntroduction . Historical review of LT 3. egion of onvergence 6. irect umerical Laplace Transform 8.

INTRODUCTION c   )c  c  c  c .

cc c  c c  c c c   c  c   c  c c   i i c  c y i  .

c  c  c  c .

c  c   c i c .

c  c  c .

 c  .

c .

c .

c .

c  c .

c  c  c .

 c .

 c  c .

.

c .

c  c .

c .

c  c c c  c c   c .

c .

  cc .

 .

c .

c c  c  c .

 c .

c  c i .

 c c.

.

c.

c c c y  cL l T c c   c   c  c i i li i c  c *.

 c    c  c c .

c  c .

c  c  c  c  c   c .

.

 c  c    c .

c  c  .

 .

 c c  c  .

c   c  c  c .

.

 c  c c  .

 c .

c  c .

 c.

.

c .

c  c .

c cc    c .

c  c     c cc.

 c .

c c c  c  cc  .

c c c  .

c .

.

  .

c   c  c   c  c   c c  .

c c  c  c  c .

c .

c  c !   c  c .

 c .

c   .

c   c  c   c .

.

c  c  c  c   c.

.

 c    .

 .

  c   c  c .

c .

c c  c.

 c  .

  c c   c    c  c c .

 c  c  c  .

c  c  c .

c  c.

c  .

c c .

c ! c .

 c  .

c .

c c   c  c .

c  .

c  .

 c c  c c c  c  c .

c  c  .

c .

c  c  .

c  c .

 c .

c .

c .

.

 c  .

+ .

c .

c .

  c  cc .

c  .

 cc  .

c .

c c  c !  .

 c  c c  c   .

  c  c  c .

c  .

c  c   c c c c.

  c.

c c c c  .

c  c   c .

c .

 c  c .

c c c .

.    c  c  c  c !.

c c    c c .

 c.

c*-.c*.

 c   c    c c  c   c .

c     c    c   ..

c  c .

  c  c .

c .

c c "  c   c  c   c .

 c  c   c .

.

c .

c   % c  cc  c .

c .

 c    c  c .

c .

.

 c.

c  c  c   c    c  .

c .

c ! c   c   c c   c    c  c c   c  c  c   .

c   c  c  .

c  c .

 c   c  c c  c  c  c   c c  c c  .

.

c.

c c" .

 c c  c .

 c  .

c /c .

  c c   c  c .

 c c  .

c .

c c .

c  c  c .

c .

.

c   c .

c  c  c! " .

 c  c  c c   c  c c 0( c c  c  c .

c    c  c .

 c c  .

c .

c.

#c c  c .

 c .

 .

#.

c  c c !  c  c  cc  c c $ c c .

c .

c .

c  c   c  c  c ! c c  c .

c  .

c  .

c   c c.

 c  c  c! c .

c  c  c .

c .

c .

c c  c  c c .

 c  .

  c  c  .

c .

  c  c  c  .

c  .

   .

 .

.

 .

   .

c c.

 c  c c.

 c.

c ! c   c   c  c c    c  % c  c  .

c .

c  c  c .

c  c  cc  .

 c c  cc! c c    % c c c  c   c .

c c c .

c .

 c  .

c .

 c  c .

c  .

  .

c #c   c .

.

 c   c .

 c  c  .

.

.

c   c .

c c ! c .

 c  .

c c  c c c & .

 c cc cc c .

.

c.

c  .

c  c  c    c  c c  .

cc .

 c  c c c c  c .

 c  c c .

 c  .

c  c    c .

c .

c  c .

c  ccc'c (c  c  .

 c c .

c c  c.

c  .

c c c  c c .

#c c i i l i NLT  c c   c  .

.

c  c c   c c.

c  c .

c .

c  c .

c  c c  .

 c c  c .

c    .

.

 c .

c  c .

.

c .

c .

        .

                       (  .

           .

   .     .

       ()   .

   .

   '          * "#    .

      ")#         „  .

      .

      .

 .

              .

 .

         .

         .

     1        .

        .

  .

  i°            „             .     .

  * "#  "1#    .

           .

    -.

.

   .

                 .

 -   .

   ! "-#         .

 .

       „   - $    "#  "#       .

 .

   -i°                .

       .

     ï"°#"°# i  .

.

    „      ï"°# +     $  .

  .

     .

                 "#    .

     .

            -   .

 .

   $ .

             "#  "1# %.

         . "#  "#.       !  .

  &    .

     .

    „  -           .

      „ && %  i°     .

 .

              .

   .      .

       -  .

  .

 .

    .

 .

  .

                            .

 %.

           .

 .

         Truncation errors  .

   .

  .

        .

   „   .

      *)      .

 .

                      .

  )   .

   .

 .  %    .

   "#       +        Basic evelopment of the LT  /.

 "#        ï"°#   .

     .

  "#      .

   '            &  .

  "#  "&#+     .

 +  ["°#           .

" # .

   + ) $  "#  ")# .

    .

 .

  .

    E.atawindows .

  ï"°#    .

     $     ï"°#  .

  i    .

 " #  $ .

                    .

  ["°#     .

      '  i° .

  .

      .

 "  #    0                       &  .

     .

    .

   +   .)1- -     .

   .

   +  "1 + #     .

      .

   .         .

   .

         .

  .

 )           „    .

iscretizationerrors  /.  TpBLE . efining equations of data windows.

 "#             .

           '  .

     .

        + 1 ›" #  '     .

  +           "1#        .

   + E 1.   2  . onvolution ofïÔ andÔ .

      ï"°#     .

.

      .

 ï"°#           .

  '   "°#+     & ("# /.

 "&#     ï"°#               / "#  .

  ï"°#             "  #  ï"° 3 # ï"° 3 )#                 .

        .

       " #          .

  .

 ï"°#        "°#   "#    ï"°#   0  °   .

 ï"°#  .

    ï"°#     °  ("#             "°#  .

    ï"°#   5   .

  .

      .

        .

       .

 2 .

      .

    "# *    6           "°# .

          .

                   7  7      .

  ï"°#        .

           /.

 "#     .

   .

   '            "#            .

 4"#     .

.     + ("#   .)1.

          "#          .

          4"#                  ) (" # 2 ")#        .

     .

    Theegionof onvergence  efinition LaplaceTransform       .

                     .

.

 „           "895#  .

  "#  .

.

 Ôt   .

                 .

     895  .

       (" # /4$-./+  5     "a  # ("#   / "#         "#  .

 +"#  / "#               "#    .

.

    "#        4"#      ("#   .

   8" M  Ú   8"# Ú   .

.

  895          8"# Ú                       /.

           8"# *   „                                 0   3.

hiftinginthes-omain                     „ YropertiesoftheLaplaceTransform  .                  /.

                   Linearit      .

Time.     " # f 4.

         .              . .caling   „                .

 /           .

                           2.

       .

       +/    895         " # 895  4"#) "# 895  /.

                 .

            :     .

      895  .    4": #  „: .

ifferentiationintheTimeomain  .       + 5.Time.

hifting  „ „   .

/.

                  .

        )         895   .

   .

   0 *   )              *   - ")#            ' .

ntegrationintheTimeomain  nversenumericalLaplaceTransform  „           .    6.ifferentiationinthes-omain  "'#+ „ ))   ) 7.

     "1#       )1   .

   .

  ")1#   /.

                             .

    #  *  .        .

         ")1#    +                  8<      .   l/s.

       s *    .

   : ) /.

 ")#         8. onvolution  „ ' .

 .    "„'#+   ) E 3.

uperposition of ïÔ  and its timedisplacedversions   .

               .

.

 „  irectnumericalLaplacetransform  5 ï"°#      .

  .

 ircuitforexample     .  E4.

            .- "#          .

prrangementoftheconductors  forexample ppplicationExamples   „   . „28/  1     5    E5.

   .

   %  )                 )& + .

   0            )                       5   /-'5 $. /.

 "))#  ")#     .

   -  5       "  .

   #      .

    %     .

     .

equentialenergization of a Transmissionline TpBLE .Effect of increasing  in  E T  $ 1 1           1   .

           =.

   0              $ .  5    0 .

  '   -     .  %           /-'5           .

  .

           .

   /-'5 .

   .

      %      )1 ")#   /-'5      )1  ù)1      .

  TpBLE. .indingdata.

   „„„ $ .

    .

ne-linediagramforexample E 7.     $ E .Voltageatphasepoftheopen endofthelineL.inding representation using linesegments E1 .

amenumberofsamples forLTandpTY E 8.Voltage at node B of the winding. „            5         *ù)1  /-'5   „„       %  /-'5 .

    .

Voltageatphasepoftheopen        ù)1    end of the line L.      > „       .        „ E11.umber of samples for          pTY15timesgreaterthanwithLT.

    .

  /-'5    .      .

    %  . &                      .

   .

 .

       -  5   "-5#  $    ast transient overvoltage in machine      .

    winding   -5 .

            .

  $      .

             .

 .

            .

              .

     .   .).

.

witching transients related to the ) =         restorationprocessofapowernetwork        %    .

 .

        „    0                     0  .

     .

     %         %     .

           .

   .

          /                       .

        .

 .

      .

  .

   0                  .

  $.   0        .

  eferences   0        i           .

  %%& ''((( ).

*& .

+*)% ).

'-' *)&*..'/    .

0.      & )* .

...&1     .

  $. .

     .

 -   -22  -    .  .

           345 =5+$2-<= 92„%/= 9 $                $       )   0          .  =    =  .

    $.  % .

  *)1&    .

2 $            . .

 +.     +  .

2 #     .'      5       1 1)))  1 ".#=„%$= ? =2=/-=     $ . .  5       1  ")& .

  .

      .

    $  19        $        .

78 6%    *)1& .      4 m 6.

      $.      .

          .

 = +  %      .

  .

  %%& ''(((  1 ).    $.

*) 9 ..'& 0 ' .* .

0. & )* %.

/ „         5$-.. & 0 & & onclusions  1.9= %. 9-/@ @$-98$%9 $%' $ 28„.

             .

                              %  .

 0  +       .

  .

                 .