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1st TRIUMVIRATE The Triumvirate proceeded to make

further arrangements for it. The senate
History awarded Caesar, as a snub to his dealings
in the Triumvirate, "the woods and paths
Crassus and Pompey had been colleagues of Italy" as his proconsul territory. Caesar
in the consulship in 70 BC, when they had passed, through a tribune, his own ruling
legislated the full restoration of the on the matter, and became proconsul of
tribunate of the people (the dictator Lucius both Gauls (Gallia Cisalpina and Gallia
Cornelius Sulla had stripped the office of Transalpina) and of Illyricum, with
all its powers except the ius auxiliandi, the command of four legions, for five years;
right to rescue a plebeian from the Caesar's new father-in-law, Lucius
clutches of a patrician magistrate). Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, was made
However, since that time, the two men consul for 58 BC, and Pompey and Crassus
had entertained considerable antipathy for shared a second consulate in 55 BC.
one another, each believing the other to Pompey and Crassus then extended
have gone out of his way to increase his Caesar's proconsular government in the
own reputation at his colleague's expense. Gauls for another five years and secured
for themselves as proconsuls the
government of both Hispanias (Hispania
Caesar contrived to reconcile the two Citerior and Hispania Ulterior) and of
men, and then combined their clout with Syria, respectively, for five-year terms.
his own to have himself elected consul in
59 BC; he and Crassus were already amici
(modern consensus as to the beginning of The alliance had allowed the Triumvirs to
the friendship to be as early as 65 where a dominate Roman politics completely, but it
young Caesar supported Crassus' proposal would not last indefinitely due to the
to make Egypt tributary to Rome), and he ambitions, egos, and jealousies of the
solidified his alliance with Pompey by three; Caesar and Crassus were implicitly
giving him his own daughter, Julia, in hand-in-glove, but Pompey disliked
marriage. The alliance combined Caesar's Crassus and grew increasingly envious of
enormous popularity and legal reputation Caesar's spectacular successes in the
with Crassus' fantastic wealth and Gallic War, whereby he annexed the whole
influence within the plutocratic Equestrian of the Three Gauls to Rome.
order (ordo equester) and Pompey's
equally spectacular wealth and military Death of Crassus and Pompey
Julia's death during childbirth and
The Triumvirate was kept secret until the Crassus's ignominious defeat and death at
Senate obstructed Caesar's proposed Carrhae at the hands of the Parthians in
agrarian law establishing colonies of 53 BC effectively undermined the alliance.
Roman citizens and distributing portions of Pompey remained in Rome – he governed
the public lands (ager publicus). He his Spanish provinces through lieutenants
promptly brought the law before the – and remained in virtual control of the
Council of the People in a speech which city throughout that time. He gradually
found him flanked by Crassus and drifted further and further from his
Pompey, thus revealing the alliance. alliance with Caesar, eventually marrying
Caesar's agrarian law was carried through, the daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus
and the Triumviri then proceeded to allow Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica, one of the
the demagogue Publius Clodius Pulcher's boni ("Good Men"), an archconservative
election as tribune of the people, faction of the Senate steadfastly opposed
successfully ridding themselves both of to Caesar. Pompey was elected consul
Marcus Tullius Cicero and Cato the without colleague in 52 BC, and took part
Younger, both adamant opponents of the in the politicking which led to Caesar's
Triumviri. crossing of the Rubicon in 49 BC, starting
the Civil War. Pompey was made
commander-in-chief of the war by the

Senate. covering the period 43 BC victim. in 42 BC. Pompey's contradiction between holding a subsequent murder in Egypt in an inept supraconsular office and the consulate political intrigue left Caesar sole master of itself simultaneously (Lepidus was consul the Roman world. The Vibius Pansa Caetronianus. As had The Caesarean background of the been the case with both Sulla and Julius Triumvirs made it no surprise that Caesar during their dictatorships. the adoption of As all three had been partisans of which marked the end of the Roman Caesar. the immediately after the conclusion of the . despite his youth had 2nd TRIUMVIRATE extorted his way to having been named suffect consul (consul suffectus) for 43 BC. came as no surprise. was that of Caesar's legate Lucius Iulius Caesar. opposed Caesar and excoriated Antony in his Philippics. In order to refill the treasury. imperium maius outranked that of all Perhaps the most shocking proscription other magistrates. The only other appointment of a second pair of suffect office which had ever been qualified "for consuls (the original consuls for the year. The most notable five-year terms. Caesar's first cousin once History removed (and Antony's uncle) and one of Caesar's closest friends. abolished the dictatorship and expunged it from the Republic's constitutions.[5] but the proscription established institution. who as consul in 44 BC BC). a three-man the Triumvirate's two terms. Octavian. had died only limit on the powers of the Triumvirate fighting on the Senate's side of the first was the five-year term set by law. Marcus year and agreed to unite and seize power. Antony in 34 BC. there were 42 consuls in office. legally of both triumvirates. [4] enactment of the Lex Titia. The Triumvirate was legally established in 43 BC as the Triumviri Rei Publicae Octavian's colleague in the consulate that Constituendae Consulari Potestate year. their choices of targets were Republic. The Triumvirate existed for two somewhat peculiar. died before the with Consular Power". who. and Octavian in 33 BC). invariably proscriptions got underway. confirming the Republic" was the Caesar's legate Aulus Hirtius and Gaius dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. that between the Senate and Mark Antony A historical oddity of the Triumvirate is himself). the formed on 26 November 43 BC with the Triumvirs decided to resort to proscription. and was defeated by his former members of the Triumvirate saw no ally Caesar at Pharsalus. rather had obtained a lex Antonia which had than the expected 20. Marcus Tullius Cicero. Octavian abbreviated as "III VIR RPC"). in effect. during the directorate with dictatorial powers which ten years of the Triumvirate (43 BC – 33 included Antony. ("Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic Quintus Pedius. his cousin and nephew of Caesar. The Second Triumvirate is the name had been warring with Antony and Lepidus historians give to the official political in upper Italia when they met near alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Bononia (now Bologna[2]) in October that (later known as Augustus). civil war to follow Caesar's death. whose of Caesar's legate Quintus Tullius Cicero overwhelming power in the Roman state (Marcus Tullius Cicero's younger brother) was given full legal sanction and whose seems to be motivated by pure spite. It possessed himself resigned shortly after. a Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate. nor did the proscription of Marcus Favonius. including the consuls. [3] Aemilius Lepidus. and Mark Antony. the follower of Cato and a constant opponent Second Triumvirate was an official. This became a broad pattern of that it was. allowing the supreme political authority. who had – 33 BC.

Asia Despite having married Octavia. Antony continued to use the title the divinity") after Caesar's deification as Triumvir. which culminated in victory in 36 successor as Pharaoh). the complete defeat of Antony and the marginalisation of Lepidus. and Brundisium (Brundisium Agreement) instructed that his body should be shipped in September 40 BC. Antony openly Philippi. lived in Alexandria with Cleopatra VII of Egypt. to Alexandria for burial. With a second five-year term. in 40 BC (Octavian had Antony set out to war. refrained from using styled himself simply "Imperator Caesar" it. Octavian — who had the Triumvirate's second term expired in begun calling himself "Divi filius" ("son of 33 BC. Antony of the in July 32 BC. the Triumvirs agreed to master of propaganda. Octavian unilaterally expelled Lepidus from the . second: Caesar's murderers Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus had War between Octavian and Antony usurped control of most of the Eastern provinces. When spheres of influence. Octavian illegally obtained Antony's will — took control of the West. Consequently. Like the First Triumvirate. chasing them to Egypt in 30 BC. While Antony cemented his hold in the East and reformed the provincial Octavian's forces decisively defeated administration (like Sulla's provincial those of Antony and Cleopatra at the reforms. tightened his grip on the West and Both Antony and Cleopatra committed nominally oversaw a campaign against the suicide in Alexandria. Lepidus cooperated in Octavian's campaign against Pompeius (son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) but foolishly attempted to seize control of Octavian's victorious legions. and the Senate declared war. Octavian and spent most of his time in the East. despite having succeeded Caesar as Pontifex Maximus in 43 BC. Octavian. A conspiracy BC. public: it promised substantial legacies to This pact was enacted by the Treaty of Antony's children by Cleopatra. Octavian turned divide the provinces of the Republic into public opinion against his colleague. Octavian 31 BC. even siring children with her. Antony cordially detested the first Roman "emperor". defeating Brutus married Antony's stepdaughter Clodia and Cassius in two battles fought at Pulchra three years earlier). Caesar's had been quietly Battle of Actium in Greece in September ignored after his death). Minor. while Lepidus favoured Antony but felt himself obscured by both his colleagues. Rome was outraged. opting to distance Divus Iulius ("the Divine Julius") and now himself from Antony. A After the Battle. but allowed him to retain his they immediately set about prosecuting a Pontificate. In 42 BC. was Triumvirate was ultimately unstable and left sole master of the Roman world. and exposed it to the Roman East. including Macedonia. and Lepidus of Hispania and Africa. and Syria. and could not withstand internal jealousies and proceeded to establish the Principate as ambitions. Octavian and Octavian's sister. the Second having restyled himself "Augustus".first civil war of the post-Caesar period. Agrippa had been consul in 37 BC and organised by Lepidus's son was crushed had secured the Triumvirate's renewal for by Octavian's ally Gaius Maecenas. and Octavian pirate commander Sextus Pompeius (the personally took control of Egypt and campaign was actually commanded by Alexandria (Egyptian chronologies Octavian's lieutenant. Octavian. Triumvirate. Marcus Vipsanius consider Octavian as Cleopatra's Agrippa).