You are on page 1of 5

The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 1, №3, 2010

ISSN: 1920-2989 © All rights reserved RJGG

Where in India
Akper Aliev
did the Aryans arrive?
Three answers to one question

Returning to the printed

To this day, the problem of the origin of the Aryans is one of the most popular subjects of pseudo scientific
speculation. However, the problem is not solved, and in spite of this, some scientific assumptions are made from
different ethnic groups trying to prove their geopolitical significance by attributing the origin of the Aryans to their
own geographical area, as if it were to propose their nation as the cultural hegemon, something that is not only
scientifically unprovable up to this point but pushes the boundaries of bad science. It is only now, utilizing the
scientific basis of DNA genealogy that we are able to address some of these pertinent issues and glance into the
past. The authors of this article have briefly tried to bring together an overall algorithm with a set of mandatory
conditions for solving the problem of the origin of the Aryans by utilizing Y-DNA data.

Amendments to the original publication
from that original ancient language.
In a previous paper the authors, based on the
Anatolian hypothesis of Indo-European ancestral The gene pool of the modern Indo-Aryan
homeland expounded the hypothesis of the ap- peoples can be preserved in the Aryan haplo-
pearance of haplogroup J2 in India as a result of groups – the first speakers of the Old Indic lan-
the Aryan invasion [1]. A number of criticisms guage, ancestors of all modern Indo-Aryan lan-
[2], as well as new additional information led the guages. The assortment of haplogroups of the
authors to revise some of their findings and writ- modern Indo-Aryan peoples is mixed: R1a1a
ings of this article. (M17), R2 (M124), J2 (M172), H1 (M69, M52), L
(M11) [3, 4, 5].

What will be discussed? To determine the estimated haplogroups of
Aryans, our assumptions are based upon the un-
Studying the history of the appearance of the derstanding that the «Aryan» haplogroup must
Aryans in India has long been an object of study attend a sizeable percentage with the remaining
of linguists, historians, archaeologists, and others Indo-European peoples. These haplogroups are
in the scientific field. Most recently, this study of only R1a1a and to a lesser level J2.
information has attracted the attention of the
DNA genealogists, based on the assumption that Coincidentally, some haplogroups of modern
haplogroups of original speakers of an ancient Europeans and Indo-Aryans do not mean that
language could at least partially be preserved in these same haplogroups are among the ancient
modern speakers of those dialects, descending Aryans. To fully understand this, it is necessary
to understand the related subjects - history and
Received: August 19 2010; accepted: August 19 2010;
published: August 20 2010

R1a1a5 (PK5) and R1a1a6 (M434). 11]. 1). who used a The authors of [9]. the Kurgan pearance of the Aryans in India – The Kurgan hy. at the latest II mil- and theory with estimated ages of haplogroups lennium BC. Let’s compare these hypotheses Eastern Europe to South Asia. based on these ages. 2010 ISSN: 1920-2989 http://ru. Eastern European subclades R1a1a7 in India. South Asian origin of this haplogroup. show only the general age R1a1a* in Western 2 .3 thousand years. So far.5 thousand years ago on the territory of Pun. Ac- [9. Kurgan hypothesis: constructed on the ancient source – Rig-Veda Aryans invaded India [6]. Map of R1a1a (M17) frequencies [9]. its age in India should Urals in Afghanistan with their subsequent reset- significantly exceed 3. ar- method [10] age of Eastern European subclades gue that there were no ancient migrations from R1a1a7 is 10. The age of South cording to this view. but in South Asia we are pre. This same rope we are presented with R1a1a* and R1a1a7 assumption was expressed by other authors [4.The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 1. 9] (Fig.8 thousand years. This means that whatever haplogroup was Aryans from the East European Plain through the found among the Aryans. In the aspect of DNA genealogy. Supplementary Table S4]. tlement in the historical habitat [7]. 1. (M458) subclades. According to his research in Eu. The first answer. According to the authors [9]. however they ancient migration of R1a1a from Asia to Europe. Fig. and suggests the Peter Underhill. The possibility of this scenario indi- R1a1a and J2 and thereby answer the question cates a high percentage of haplogroup R1a1a «Where in India did the Aryans arrive?» both in Eastern Europe and in India [8. However. 5. Analysis of the Rig-Veda shows that the from the East European Plain Aryans were a group of tribes that lived about 3. №3. we can speak only about the Asian subclades are not specified. and the overall Eastern Europe to © All rights reserved RJGG The early history of the Indo-Aryan was re.7 thousand years. sented R1a1a*.rjgg. because there are no age of R1a1a* in Europe – 11. this model has been criticized by India – 15. three main hypotheses explain the ap. The Kurgan hypothesis suggests migration of jab.5 thousand years. hypothesis can be best represented as the migra- pothesis. Anatolian hypothesis and the «Out of tion of the carriers of haplogroup R1a1a from India» theory.

Aryans invaded India from Asia Minor The age of subclade R1a1a7 according to According to the Anatolian hypothesis.rjgg. can be found in India. but «younger» subclades 3 . If the same. it is not yet clear to accept or re- there is no common point of view concerning the ject the Kurgan hypothesis – it requires the iden- age of haplogroup R1a1a and its downstream tification of new subclades R1a1a* and the subclades. using the 67-marker haplotypes from the Polish where the Aryans migrated further to the east to DNA Project [14] is within error of 3-4 thousand India [15. despite the logic of this as. Therefore As we see. it can serve as a confirma- sumption. It is indicated by yet unidentified downstream subclades. there are other methods. search for a uniform method of estimating their ages. the obtained results of estimates of ages are di- rectly dependent on the method used. Some European and In. and in India [18] (Fig. №3. are with later than the II millennium BC. 2). Perhaps the frequency of haplogroup J2 in the Near East in the future in Europe there will be found sub. Indo- Kenneth Nordtvedt’s method and linear methods Europeans originated in the area of Anatolia. The difference in estimates nearly tripled. let us not jump to conclusions . J2 (M172) [17] from West Asia to South Asia no dian haplotypes designated as R1a1a*. In the aspect of DNA genealogy the Anatolian This calculation indicates that the subclades hypothesis allows to advance on the migration of R1a1a7 emerged in Eastern Europe after the Aryans as carriers of the Middle East haplogroup Aryan invasion of India. originated no later than III millen- nium BC. years. 16]. linear Adamov’s me. For example. Kenneth The second answer. clades R1a1a. etc. Except for the aforementioned method of es- timating the ages of subclades [10]. Anatolian hypothesis: thod [13]. Nordtvedt’s method [12].in fact.The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol © All rights reserved RJGG Nevertheless. 2010 ISSN: 1920-2989 http://ru. tion of the Kurgan hypothesis.

21] are far millennium BC it spread to Europe. of India [22. Obviously. one can easily accept the idea about the quivocally accept or reject the Anatolian hypothe. ance of J2 in India. However. (less than 10 © All rights reserved RJGG Fig. More than likely. guages. of haplotypes will help to answer this question. №3. The third answer. 23]. theses. this theory Aryans are the indigenous population types as of August 2010). Indo-Aryans in India are unquestionable invaders. L27) and J2b2 (M241) Indian subcontinent. Perhaps in the future the increased number logroup in India. all Indo-European languages would have the age of the typical Indian subclades could be some influence of Dravidian and/or Munda lan- assessed an approximate period of the appear. Knowing in India. «Out of India theory» suggests that the But South Asian haplotypes of deeper sub. 2. but this is not observed [24]. cism. ing the presence of J2a4 and J2b2 in India there were origin downstream subclades. 4 . to justify this model. aboriginal origin of Indo-Aryans and of that hap- sis. and not later than the IV-V available in open DNA projects [20. The difficulty lies in the fact that about half Aryans are aboriginal people of South Asia of all J2 is classified as J2*. dur. 2010 ISSN: 1920-2989 http://ru. According to too few for proper analysis. These subclades presumably can be theory»: if Indo-European homeland were located attributed J2a4c (M68) and J2b2d (P84). cessary to estimate the ages of Indian subclades «Out of India theory»: of J2. In the viewpoint of the two previous hypo- fied. Map of the frequencies of haplogroups J2a (a) [4] and J2b (b) [19]. it is also ne. if you only based your assumptions But the small number of haplotypes did not on an ancient age in India and «younger» age of permit a serious estimation of the age of J2a4 European R1a1a and reject the linguistic criti- and J2b2 in India. now it is difficult to une. typical only Linguists flatly reject the «Out of India for India. because their down- stream SNP-mutations have not yet been identi.J2a4 (L26/S57. So.The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 1. Proto-Indo-European language originated in the clades .rjgg.

which will more clearly Indian R1a1a and J2. Thomas V. Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution 15. Renfrew. 2003. The Russian Journal of Genetic Geneal. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup Indo-European Origins. 2009. ford University Press. 2000. For a definitive answer to the question «Where in In- To clarify the situation will help identify new dia did the Aryans arrive?» requires accurate da- subclades of R1a1a and the estimate of their ta of the subclades and the age of European and ages in India and Europe.6. with application to human population-divergence Aditya Prakashan. The home of the Aryans. The effec. its age in ject so it shall remain inconclusive. References 1. 74:1023–1034. No. Anatolian ing the ancient presence of R1a1a. one of the three hypotheses (Kurgan. of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the 2009. Vol 1. Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of 21. PNAS. AJHG. ISKCON 10. Bryant. Origin. Oxford: Ox. Ivanov. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Mediterranean Area. The authors hope that the identify the direction and approximate age of future development of DNA genealogy would de- their ancient migrations. 20. J. and Differentiation mins and the caste system. 19. Ken Nordtvedt’s Interclade age estimation method. and Myth. 8. piens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome J2b2d) Perspective. In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language. The Russian Journal of Genetic © All rights reserved RJGG There is a paradoxical situation: it is unclear Concluding the interview what is more important . indicat. Ornella Semino et al. №3. genous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Ge. London. 2005. Harvard University and the Rise of Agriculture. finitively answer the question about the origin of the Indo-Aryans and Indo-Europeans in general. Sharma et al. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers of the Aryan language. J2b2c. 12. Том 2. chever haplogroup was among Aryans. 16. Communications Journal. Адамов Д. 110-116. J2b2a. R1a1(*) substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brah.The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy: Vol 1. 2010 год. 2004. J2b1. линии для «чайников». 23. 5 . India should significantly exceed 3500 years. pp. Scientific American. The Russian Journal of Genetic Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. Pimlico. vol. Расчет возраста общего предка по мужской ogy (Русская версия): Том 2. 54 (1): 47–55. Sanghamitra Sahoo et al. tive mutation rate at Y-chromosome short tandem re. 1989. J2b2. 18. No 1 (2010). The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sa. Archaeology and Language: The Puzzle of 5. somes: Evaluating demic diffusion scenarios.5-16. American Journal of Human Genetics Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate. 2. p. Gamkrelidze and V. Elst K. 1999. №2.rjgg. онной генетики. Sengupta et al. Therefore. Y-DNA Haplogroup J. March 1990. Mallory J. Polish FamilyTree DNA Project 4. Semino et al. 14. 17. Kerala Project European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup 22. Michael Witzel. A. Alexander Smirnov.the linguistic factor. Mark Lechner. M102+ Project (J2b. Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. Kivisild et al. Genealogy. tory of Indo-European Languages. But whi- India theory» is not yet possible to accept or re. Hum. time. Zhivotovsky LA.C.1 June 1998. New Delhi: peats. London: Thames & Hudson. netic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. Genealogy (Русская версия). we can only view the «Out of Aryans formally claim R1a1a and J2. Klaus Klostermaier. The Early His- Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indi. Y-haplogroups of carriers 11. Questioning the Aryan Invasion R1a. Cinnioğlu C et al. Жаксылык Сабитов. 2010 г. 13. The Fertile Crescent 7. Edwin (2001). Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the 6. at and «Out of India theory») the haplogroup of this point of time. 1987. О методологии истории и популяци. which denies the autochthonous nature of the In conclusion: We can now say that based on Indo-Aryans in India or the Y-DNA data. 24. Theory and Revising Ancient Indian History. Am J Hum Genet. 2004. Underhill et al. J2b2b. Diffusion. 2006. Akper Aliev. 2010 ISSN: 1920-2989 http://ru. A prehistory of Indian Y chromo. Archaeology. Underhill PA. European Journal of Human Genetics. India DNA Project 9. V.Genet. №1.