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In optics and radio communications (indeed, in any situation


involving the radiation of waves, which includes electrodynamics,
acoustics, and gravitational radiation), a 


, named for
physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel, is one of a (theoretically infinite)
number of concentric ellipsoids which define volumes in the radiation
pattern of a (usually) circular aperture. Fresnel zones result from
diffraction by the circular aperture.[1]

The cross section of the first (innermost) Fresnel zone is circular.


Subsequent Fresnel zones are annular (doughnut-shaped) in cross
section, and concentric with the first.

To maximize receiver strength, one needs to minimize the effect of


the out-of-phase signals by removing obstacles from the radio
frequency line of sight (RF LoS). The strongest signals are on the
direct line between transmitter and receiver and always lie in the first
Fresnel zone.

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rLimit of seismic resolution´ usually makes us wonder, how thin a


bed can we see? Yet seismic data is subect to a horizontal as well as a
vertical dimension of resolution.

The horizontal dimension of seismic resolution is described by the


rFresnel Zone.´

Huygen¶s principle states that each part of a wavefront is the source


of a new wave. If you¶ve watched waves in a lake pass by a solid
seawall utting into the lake, you know that the waves fill in the water
behind the seawall. Seismic waves behave in a similar manner when
being reflected from a subsurface reflector with an anomaly on it.

The area where the waves interfere with each other constructively is
our area of concern, called the rFirst Fresnel Zone.´ The anomaly will
be seen throughout this region, and this has caused dry holes to be
drilled on anomalies that were off to the side of the seismic line.

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Figure1 ± Within a Fresnel Zone reflection contributions arrive coherently and thus reinforce.
Outside peaks and troughs tend to cancel each other and thus make little net contribution.

Figure 2 ± The Pythagorean theorem allows one to calculate the radius of the Fresnel Zone.
Figure 3 ± Nomogram for determining Fresnel Zone radius. A straight line connecting the
two-way time and frequency intersects the central line at the same point as a line connecting
the average velocity and the Fresnel Zone radius. For example, a 20-Hz reflection at 2.0
seconds and velocity of 3.0 kms has a Fresnel Zone radius of 470 m.

Figure 4 ± Three-dimensional migration collapses the Fresnel Zone to a small circle, but 2-D
migration collapses it in only one direction.
Figure 5 ± A given point on a reflector affects a surface region by an area equal to the Fresnel
Zone. In migration the entire Fresnel Zone must therefore be summed over to obtain the
correct amplitude.
Figure 6 ± Model demonstrating out-of-the-plane imaging and Fresnel Zone effects on data
over a hypothetical reef with the specified offsets. The false image in this example is clearly
seen 1,500 feet away (after Waldo Jackson and Fred Hilterman).

The reflected waves will interfere constructively where their travel paths differ by less than a
half wavelength (see Figure 1), and the portion of the reflecting surface involved in these
reflections is called the First Fresnel Zone.
eyond this First Fresnel Zone region interference will be alternatively destructive and
constructive. Fresnel showed that the destructive contribution of some of these zones beyond
the First Fresnel Zone will be offset by the constructive contribution of other zones ± and thus
the reaction of the reflector responsible for a reflection will be only that of the First Fresnel
Zone.

In other words, a reflection that we think of as coming back to the surface from a point is
actually being reflected from an area with the dimension of the First Fresnel Zone. The
adective rfirst´ is often dropped.

The dimensions of the Fresnel Zone can be calculated easily by simple geometry. This is
shown in Figure 2 for a plane reflector in the constant velocity case, allowing for two-way
travel time.

Note that the Fresnel Zone radius depends on wavelength (itself a function of frequency and
velocity). For seismic frequencies and the depths of interest to oil finders, the resulting
dimensions are quite large (Figure 3).

The effect of migration can be thought of as lowering geophones through the earth until they
are coincident with a reflector, at which time the Fresnel Zone will have shrunk to a small
circle. If the data and migration are two-dimensional, then the Fresnel Zone will have only
shrunk in one dimension and will still extend its full width perpendicular to the line (Figure
4).

Much of the improvement of 3-D over 2-D is because of this difference.

Figure 2 can be turned upside down to show the portion of the surface affected by the
reflectivity at a print on the reflector (Figure 5). If we wish to preserve amplitudes so that we
can interpret amplitude variations as changes in acoustic impedance, porosity, hydrocarbon
accumulations, lithology, porosity-thickness, etc., we must integrate over all of the affected
surface in the migration process in order to get the correct relative value.

Thus, if we are to compute porosity-thickness correctly from a 3-D seismic survey, the survey
must extend for the full Fresnel-zone radius beyond the field.

ecause of data coming out of the plane on the 2-D profiles shown in the model (Figure 6),
the algal mound is seen on all profiles that are within a 1,000-foot window. A profile only
800 feet away looks identical to one over the center of the feature. Hence, any survey must
extend beyond the area over which one intends to interpret amplitude changes by a fringe
distance required by the migration process.

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Prior research in routing for wireless ad hoc networks has shown that multipath routing can
enhance data delivery reliability and provide load balancing. Nevertheless, only a few
multipath
routing algorithms have been proposed and their interaction with transport layer protocols has
not
been thoroughly addressed in the literature.
In this work, we propose the multipath rFresnel zone´ routing (FZR) algorithm for wireless
ad hoc networks. FZR constructs multiple parallel paths from source to destination based on
the
concept of rFresnel zones´ in a wireless network. The zone construction method assigns
intermediate
routers into diOOerent rFresnel zones´ according to their capacity and eOO
ciency in forwarding
traOO
c. The central idea in FZR is to disperse traOO
c to diOOerent zones according to network
load
and congestion conditions, thus achieving better throughput and avoiding congestion at
intermediate
routers. FZR diOOers from most existing multipath routing approaches in that both source and
intermediate nodes use multiple forwarding paths. FZR also adopts a combination of
proactive and
on-demand (reactive) approaches to reduce control overhead and latency for packet delivery.
Simulation experiments have shown that FZR outperforms unipath distance vector routing,
multipath distance vector (MDV) routing, and split multipath routing (SMR) algorithms in
quasistatic
wireless ad hoc networks. In our simulations, FZR achieves up to 100 percent higher average
throughput using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and 50 percent higher average
throughput
using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). FZR can also provide better load balancing
among
diOOerent paths, improve network resource utilization, and enable fairer resource allocation
among
diOOerent data transmission sessions. Future work is needed to evaluate FZR in mobile
scenarios.

 

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" For the same source and destination, routes are chosen dynamically and tend to use all
possible
combinations.
The above comparison gives us some hints on how to use multiple routes in ad-hoc networks.
First, since there is no coordination between hosts in selecting routes, optimum routes cannot
be solely inferred from topology. The actual costs of routes will be a function of the choice of
routes of all connections. Information about the status and potential congestion of routes can
help
in deciding routes. Second, routes between end hosts should be selected dynamically and it is
desirable to utilize all available routes dynamically to spread out the traOO
c to improve
capacity
utilization. Third, queuing increases the variance in the estimated cost of routes and makes
the
network more dynamic, thus making it more diOO
cult to predict good routes prior to
transmission.
Indefinite queuing delays also aOOect end-to-end performance.

  



 
 
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Line of sight is not enough for radio wireless networks. The wave needs certain amount of
space around the line of sight to travel. If there are obstacles within this space, there will be a
signal loss to the link, or even then signal may disappear completely. According to
Wikipedia, there is a critical zone in which no obstruction is to be tolerated during planning.
Keeping more clearance is actually being recommended.

The obstruction-intolerable space has ellipsoid shape and is thickest in the middle between
receiver and transmitter. The radius of the ellipsoid in the middle can be calculated according
to the formula u     u
 where d is distance between receiver and
transmitter in kilometers, f frequency in gigahertz and sqrt is square root. The resulting radius
is in meters.

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100 m 1m
300 m 1.8 m
700 m 2.8 m
1.4 km 3.9 m
3 km 5.7 m




  

Fresnel zone can be disrupted by various stationary obects - ground, terrain features, houses
and trees. Such disruption manifests as permanently weak or even absent reception. Moving
obects can disrupt Fresnel zone as well - buses, trams, trains, lorries, cars or even
pedestrians. These cause temporary losses of function.




" $ !"

Postscript  PDF  EPS  IG png  SVG (Inkscape)

Rona has a Fresnel Zone as well, but it is very small. If we use the above formula for Rona's
range 1.4km and frequency 476 THz (630 nm), we get 9mm. The beam width is 130mm.
After adding the 9mm on each side, we get 148mm thick sausage that we need to keep clear.
That's practically equivalent with a line of sight.

With such small Fresnel zone, Rona is a solution for cases where Fresnel zone for
microwave would be obstructed - when the line of sight goes over roofs of houses, tips of tree
or above a road where the traffic can cause dropouts in the signal.

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In this particular installation (left), the beam is closely passing by electric power line cables.
ut because the Fresnel zone of Rona is only 9mm wide, it doesn't matter. If the link were
realized by a microwave, the power cable in the way would pose an exemplary violation of
the Fresnel zone rule.

elow you can see 4 other installations where the beam is close to an obstacle. Click pictures
to zoom if you cannot see the red light on the other side.
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