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The area where the waves interfere with each other constructively is
our area of concern, called the rFirst Fresnel Zone.´ The anomaly will
be seen throughout this region, and this has caused dry holes to be
drilled on anomalies that were off to the side of the seismic line.
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Figure1 ± Within a Fresnel Zone reflection contributions arrive coherently and thus reinforce.
Outside peaks and troughs tend to cancel each other and thus make little net contribution.
Figure 2 ± The Pythagorean theorem allows one to calculate the radius of the Fresnel Zone.
Figure 3 ± Nomogram for determining Fresnel Zone radius. A straight line connecting the
twoway time and frequency intersects the central line at the same point as a line connecting
the average velocity and the Fresnel Zone radius. For example, a 20Hz reflection at 2.0
seconds and velocity of 3.0 kms has a Fresnel Zone radius of 470 m.
Figure 4 ± Threedimensional migration collapses the Fresnel Zone to a small circle, but 2D
migration collapses it in only one direction.
Figure 5 ± A given point on a reflector affects a surface region by an area equal to the Fresnel
Zone. In migration the entire Fresnel Zone must therefore be summed over to obtain the
correct amplitude.
Figure 6 ± Model demonstrating outoftheplane imaging and Fresnel Zone effects on data
over a hypothetical reef with the specified offsets. The false image in this example is clearly
seen 1,500 feet away (after Waldo Jackson and Fred Hilterman).
The reflected waves will interfere constructively where their travel paths differ by less than a
half wavelength (see Figure 1), and the portion of the reflecting surface involved in these
reflections is called the First Fresnel Zone.
eyond this First Fresnel Zone region interference will be alternatively destructive and
constructive. Fresnel showed that the destructive contribution of some of these zones beyond
the First Fresnel Zone will be offset by the constructive contribution of other zones ± and thus
the reaction of the reflector responsible for a reflection will be only that of the First Fresnel
Zone.
In other words, a reflection that we think of as coming back to the surface from a point is
actually being reflected from an area with the dimension of the First Fresnel Zone. The
adective rfirst´ is often dropped.
The dimensions of the Fresnel Zone can be calculated easily by simple geometry. This is
shown in Figure 2 for a plane reflector in the constant velocity case, allowing for twoway
travel time.
Note that the Fresnel Zone radius depends on wavelength (itself a function of frequency and
velocity). For seismic frequencies and the depths of interest to oil finders, the resulting
dimensions are quite large (Figure 3).
The effect of migration can be thought of as lowering geophones through the earth until they
are coincident with a reflector, at which time the Fresnel Zone will have shrunk to a small
circle. If the data and migration are twodimensional, then the Fresnel Zone will have only
shrunk in one dimension and will still extend its full width perpendicular to the line (Figure
4).
Figure 2 can be turned upside down to show the portion of the surface affected by the
reflectivity at a print on the reflector (Figure 5). If we wish to preserve amplitudes so that we
can interpret amplitude variations as changes in acoustic impedance, porosity, hydrocarbon
accumulations, lithology, porositythickness, etc., we must integrate over all of the affected
surface in the migration process in order to get the correct relative value.
Thus, if we are to compute porositythickness correctly from a 3D seismic survey, the survey
must extend for the full Fresnelzone radius beyond the field.
ecause of data coming out of the plane on the 2D profiles shown in the model (Figure 6),
the algal mound is seen on all profiles that are within a 1,000foot window. A profile only
800 feet away looks identical to one over the center of the feature. Hence, any survey must
extend beyond the area over which one intends to interpret amplitude changes by a fringe
distance required by the migration process.
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" For the same source and destination, routes are chosen dynamically and tend to use all
possible
combinations.
The above comparison gives us some hints on how to use multiple routes in adhoc networks.
First, since there is no coordination between hosts in selecting routes, optimum routes cannot
be solely inferred from topology. The actual costs of routes will be a function of the choice of
routes of all connections. Information about the status and potential congestion of routes can
help
in deciding routes. Second, routes between end hosts should be selected dynamically and it is
desirable to utilize all available routes dynamically to spread out the traOO
c to improve
capacity
utilization. Third, queuing increases the variance in the estimated cost of routes and makes
the
network more dynamic, thus making it more diOO
cult to predict good routes prior to
transmission.
Indefinite queuing delays also aOOect endtoend performance.
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Line of sight is not enough for radio wireless networks. The wave needs certain amount of
space around the line of sight to travel. If there are obstacles within this space, there will be a
signal loss to the link, or even then signal may disappear completely. According to
Wikipedia, there is a critical zone in which no obstruction is to be tolerated during planning.
Keeping more clearance is actually being recommended.
The obstructionintolerable space has ellipsoid shape and is thickest in the middle between
receiver and transmitter. The radius of the ellipsoid in the middle can be calculated according
to the formula u u
where d is distance between receiver and
transmitter in kilometers, f frequency in gigahertz and sqrt is square root. The resulting radius
is in meters.
"#
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100 m 1m
300 m 1.8 m
700 m 2.8 m
1.4 km 3.9 m
3 km 5.7 m
Fresnel zone can be disrupted by various stationary obects  ground, terrain features, houses
and trees. Such disruption manifests as permanently weak or even absent reception. Moving
obects can disrupt Fresnel zone as well  buses, trams, trains, lorries, cars or even
pedestrians. These cause temporary losses of function.
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Rona has a Fresnel Zone as well, but it is very small. If we use the above formula for Rona's
range 1.4km and frequency 476 THz (630 nm), we get 9mm. The beam width is 130mm.
After adding the 9mm on each side, we get 148mm thick sausage that we need to keep clear.
That's practically equivalent with a line of sight.
With such small Fresnel zone, Rona is a solution for cases where Fresnel zone for
microwave would be obstructed  when the line of sight goes over roofs of houses, tips of tree
or above a road where the traffic can cause dropouts in the signal.
elow you can see 4 other installations where the beam is close to an obstacle. Click pictures
to zoom if you cannot see the red light on the other side.
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