Bloom's Taxonomy

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Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. Competence
Knowledge

Skills Demonstrated
observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.

Comprehension

understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend

Application

use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations solve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover

Analysis

seeing patterns

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what if?. classify. create. explain. rank. discriminate. judge. substitute. measure. modify. select. rewrite Evaluation compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories. 2 . connect. (Ed. rearrange. cognitive domain. compare. arrange. integrate. grade. summarize * Adapted from: Bloom. compose.organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components Question Cues: analyze. support. explain. convince. conclude. decide. compare. explain. Green. divide. plan. B.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I. test. generalize. New York . presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues assess. separate. infer Synthesis use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict. order.S. formulate. design. prepare. Toronto: Longmans. draw conclusions Question Cues: combine. invent. select. recommend.

Below are the six question categories as defined by Bloom.. applying information to produce some result. where... use of facts.. what. describing in one's own words... identifying motives. KNOWLEDGE o o o o o remembering.. Outline/diagram. how ...? How is.related to. These questions are not bad. memorizing.? Why is.according to..? Classify. organization and selection of facts and ideas Retell...As teachers we tend to ask questions in the "knowledge" catagory 80% to 90% of the time... These questions require much more "brain power" and a more extensive and elaborate answer. finding the underlying structure of a communication..? Describe COMPREHENSION o o o o interpreting. when. APPLICATION o o o problem solving. rules and principles How is... recalling identification and recall of information Who.... Try to utilize higher order level of questions.an example of.. translating from one medium to another. 3 . but using them all the time is.significant? ANALYSIS o o o o subdividing something to show how it is put together. recognizing.. separation of a whole into component parts What are the parts or features of.

original product that may be in verbal form or may be a physical object.? Place the following in order of priority.... judgements or decisions Do you agree..? What do you think about..? SYNTHESIS o o creating a unique..... How would you decide about.... development of opinions...? 4 .? What evidence can you list for...? How would you create/design a new.? What solutions would you suggest for. resolving controversies or differences of opinion.....? What criteria would you use to assess...? What is the most important..? What ideas can you add to. combination of ideas to form a new whole What would you predict/infer from.How does.compare/contrast with.? What might happen if you combined...? EVALUATION o o o making value decisions about issues....

ANALYSIS (breaking down into parts. KNOWLEDGE (drawing out factual answers. unfamiliar or have a new slant for students) predict what would happen if choose the best statements that apply judge the effects what would result tell how. when. forms) distinguish identify what assumptions what is the function of what's fact. testing recall and recognition) who what why when where how match select describe define choose omit which one what is the best one how much what does it mean II. Developed and Expanded by John Maynard I.Bloom's Taxonomy's Model Questions and Key Words Based on Bloom's Taxonomy. table demonstrate III. APPLICATION (to situations that are new. where. opinion what statement is relevant 5 . why explain identify the results of select tell what would happen tell how much change there would be IV. table this represents is it valid that show in a graph. interpreting and extrapolating) state in your own words what does this mean give an example condense this paragraph state in one word what part doesn't fit what expectations are there what are they saying what seems to be what seems likely which statements support what restrictions would you add classify judge infer show indicate tell translate select match explain represent which are facts is this the same as select the best definition what would happen if explain what is happening explain what is meant read the graph. COMPREHENSION (translating.

theme what literary form is used implicit in the statement is related to. valid. extraneous to. inconsistencies appear which is more important. not applicable what does author believe. consistencies. and state why) appraise judge criticize defend what fallacies. logical. moral. appropriate find the errors compare 6 . fallacies what persuasive technique V.what motive is there what conclusions make a distinction what is the premise what ideas apply what's the relationship between what's the main idea. assume state the point of view of state the point of view of what ideas justify conclusion the least essential statements are what inconsistencies. better. SYNTHESIS (combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before) create tell make do choose develop how would you test propose an alternative solve the following plan design make up compose formulate how else would you state a rule VI. EVALUATION (according to some set of criteria.

Make an acrostic.? Can you provide an example of what you mean..? Can you tell why.? Who spoke to........ Retell the story in your words.? Can you provide a definition for..... Comprehension Useful Verbs explain interpret outline discuss distinguish predict restate translate compare describe Sample Question Stems Can you write in your own words...? What was the main idea..? Can you name the.. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember.. Paint a picture of some aspect you like...... Application Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products 7 . in the story... List all the .. Make a timeline of events. Recite a poem. Make a colouring book.? Describe what happened at...? Who was the key character. Illustrate what you think the main idea was.? What do you think could of happened next..? Who was it that.? Potential activities and products Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event..? How many.? Potential activities and products Make a list of the main events.. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write a summary report of an event....? What differences exist between. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.? Which is true or false. Write and perform a play based on the story..? Who do you think. Make a chart showing... Make a facts chart....Knowledge Useful Verbs tell list describe relate locate write find state name Sample Question Stems What happened after...? What is.? Find the meaning of.? Can you write a brief outline.....? Can you distinguish between..

what might the ending have been? How was this similar to..? What questions would you ask of.? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did .. Write a biography of the study person. Review a work of art in terms of form.? What were some of the motives behind.......... Prepare a report about the area of study... Make a diorama to illustrate an important event.. Arrange a party. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Analysis Useful Verbs analyse distinguish examine compare contrast investigate categorise identify explain separate advertise Sample Question Stems Which events could have happened.? From the information given.... Put on a play about the study area...? I ..? Can you distinguish between. changes occur? Can you compare your .? Can you explain what must have happened when.? What are some of the problems of...? Could this have happened in.? Would this information be useful if you had a .. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view..solve show use illustrate construct complete examine classify Do you know another instance where.. Make a jigsaw puzzle.. happened..? What was the turning point in the game? What was the problem Potential activities and products Design a questionnaire to gather information. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information...? How is .? What was the underlying theme of.? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own. Write a textbook about..? Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work. Dress a doll in national costume.. Write a commercial to sell a new product.? Can you group by characteristics such as. Make up a puzzle game suing the ideas from the study area. colour and 8 . with that presented in. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Paint a mural using the same materials.. can you develop a set of instructions about.. Make a paper-mache map to include relevant information about an event. similar to .. Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model.... Make a clay model of an item in the material..? What factors would you change if. Make a family tree showing relationships.. Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed.... for others...

.. Can you defend your position about. Write a TV show.. is a good or a bad thing? How would you have handled. Create a new product... Form a panel to discuss views.. Potential activities and products Invent a machine to do a specific task. Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody... play.. show. eg "Learning at School.? Do you think . Judge the value of.....? Make up a new language code and write material suing it. Convince others. Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important. song or pantomime about....? Can you create new and unusual uses for...... Write about your feelings in relation to. advising on changes needed at.. Indicate priority and ratings. Design a building to house your study." Write a letter to ...? texture....? Why don't you devise your own way to deal with..with....? Can you see a possible solution to. Sell an idea. Devise a way to. 9 .? Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish? can you develop a proposal which would. book.? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with. Synthesis Useful Verbs create invent compose predict plan construct design imagine propose devise formulate Sample Question Stems Can you design a .... Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest.? Design a record. Evaluation Useful Verbs judge select choose decide justify debate verify argue recommend assess discuss rate prioritise Sample Question Stems Is there a better solution to...? How many ways can you. Write a half yearly report.......? What would happen if.. role play...? Why not compose a song about.. to .. puppet show. or magazine cover for.. Potential activities and products Prepare a list of criteria to judge a . Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign.? What changes to .

.? How effective are.. Do you believe? Are you a .? What do you think about.. person? How would you feel if...? 10 .determine would you Prepare a case to present your recommend? view about......

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