Index

1. Carbohydrates: these provide a source of energy. 2. Proteins: these provide a source of materials for growth and repair. 3. Fats: these provide a source of energy and contain fat soluble vitamins. 4. Vitamins: these are required in very small quantities to keep you healthy. 5. Mineral Salts: these are required for healthy teeth, bones, muscles etc.. 6. Fibre: this is required to help your intestines function correctly; it is not digested. 7. Balanced Diets: we must have the above items in the correct proportions.

Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy. They contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. The first part of the name "carbo-" means that they contain Carbon. The second part of the name "-hydr-" means that they contain Hydrogen. The third part of the name "-ate-" means that they contain Oxygen. In all carbohydrates the ratio of Hydrogen atoms to Oxygen atoms is 2:1 just like water. We obtain most of our carbohydrate in the form of starch. This is found in potato, rice, spaghetti, yams, bread and cereals. Our digestive system turns all this starch into another carbohydrate called glucose. Glucose is carried around the body in the blood and is used by our tissues as a source of energy. (See my pages on respiration and balanced chemical equations.) Any glucose in our food is absorbed without the need for digestion. We also get some of our carbohydrate in the form of sucrose; this is the sugar which we put in our tea and coffee (three heaped spoonfuls for me!). Both sucrose and glucose are sugars, but sucrose molecules are too big to get into the blood, so the digestive system turns it into glucose. When we use glucose in tissue respiration we need Oxygen. This process produces Carbon Dioxide and water and releases energy for other processes. Now try my starch test in the Virtual Laboratory Proteins Proteins are required for growth and repair. Proteins contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulphur. Proteins are very large molecules, so they cannot get directly into our blood; they must be turned into amino-acids by the digestive system. There are over 20 different aminoacids. Our bodies can turn the amino-acids back into protein. When our cells do this they have to put the amino-acids together in the correct order. There are many millions of possible combinations or sequences of amino-acids; it is our DNA which contains the information about how to make proteins. Our cells get their amino-acids from the blood. Now try my Biuret test in the Virtual Laboratory Proteins can also be used as a source of energy. When excess amino-acids are removed from the body the Nitrogen is excreted as a chemical called urea. The liver makes urea and the kidney puts the urea into our urine. Fats Like carbohydrates, fats contain the elements Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. Fats are used as a source of energy: they are also stored beneath the skin helping to insulate us against the cold. Do not think that by avoiding fat in your diet you will stay thin and elegant! If you eat too much carbohydrate and protein, you will convert some of it into fat, so you will put on weight. You must balance the amount of energy containing foods with the amount of energy that you use when you take exercise. You must have some fat in your diet because it contains fat soluble vitamins. Vitamins Vitamins are only required in very small quantities. There is no chemical similarity between these chemicals; the similarity between them is entirely biological.
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Vitamin A: good for your eyes. Vitamin B: about 12 different chemicals. Vitamin C: needed for your body to repair itself. Vitamin D: can be made in your skin, needed for absorption of Calcium. Vitamin E: the nice one - reproduction? Mineral Salts These are also needed in small quantities, but we need more of these than we need of vitamins. Iron: required to make haemoglobin. Calcium: required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles. Sodium: all cells need this, especially nerve cells. Iodine: used to make a hormone called thyroxin. Fibre We do not // can not digest cellulose. This is a carbohydrate used by plants to make their cell walls. It is also called roughage. If you do not eat foods materials which contain fibre you might end up with problems of the colon and rectum. The muscles of you digestive system mix food with the digestive juices and push food along the intestines by peristalsis; if there is no fibre in your diet these movements cannot work properly. A Balanced Diet You must have carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals salts and fibre in the correct proportions. If there is not enough protein, you will not be able to grow properly and you will not be able to repair yourself i.e. wounds will not heal properly. If you do not have enough energy containing foods you will feel very tired, you will not have enough energy. If you have too much energy containing foods you will become overweight. If you think that you are overweight you might try taking more exercise to "burn off" some of the excess food which you ate at you last meal. Healthy Balanced Diet What is a healthy balanced diet? This section contains details on what a healthy diet should consist of and why each vitamin and mineral is an essential part of staying healthy. The majority of people in this country eat too much fat and not enough fibre and for most people a healthy diet is simple and easy to do. The move towards a healthy diet may just mean eating more fruit, vegetables, bread, cereals, potatoes, and pasta. People in the UK have a 1 in 3 chance of developing cancer at some time in their lives, eating a healthy diet, which includes 5 portions of different fruit and vegetables a day can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease or cancer. There are 5 basic food groups and a healthy diet consists of eating a variety of foods from all of the groups but in the correct proportions. 1. Bread, potatoes, pasta, rice, noodles and breakfast cereals. These foods mostly contain starch and should be the main part of all your meals. If possible try
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to choose high fibre varieties. This group of foods are an excellent source of fibre and are rich in vitamins from the B complex. 2. Fruit and vegetables. This includes all frozen, fresh and canned fruit/vegetables as well as salad vegetables. These are all excellent sources of vitamins, minerals and fibre and are naturally low in fat and calories. You should try to eat at least 5 portions of fruit and vegetables every day. The following is a guide as to how much equals 1 portion: • • • • • • • • • • 2 serving spoons of small vegetables, e.g. sweetcorn, peas or mixed frozen vegetables. 1 whole fruit, e.g. like an apple or banana. 1 medium slice of large fruits e.g. melon or pineapple. 2 medium fruits e.g. satsuma’s, plums or kiwi fruit. 1 small bowl of small fruits e.g. strawberries or grapes. 1 medium bowl of salad 2 tomatoes Half a cucumber 2 serving spoons of green and root vegetables e.g. cabbage, broccoli, carrots or parsnip. 1 glass of fruit juice.

3. Milk and dairy foods. Milk and dairy products include cheese, yoghurt, milk and fromage-frais. They are rich in protein, calcium, vitamins and minerals. Eat or drink a moderate amount of these foods - about 2 to 3 servings per day. These foods contain a good source of calcium, which is essential to our diet, but as these foods can also be high in saturated fats try to choose reduced fat versions when possible. 4. Meat, fish, poultry and pulses. Eating fish 1-2 times a week is good for you, especially if you eat oily fish (sardines, mackerel and salmon). All types of meats are included in this category and red meat is an excellent source of iron and vitamin B12, but try to choose the leaner cuts and trim off all visible fat before cooking. Lentils, nuts, peas and beans are also in this food group. Try to use lower fat versions of all these foods whenever possible. You should eat approximately 2 servings from this category each day. 5. Foods containing fats and sugars. This last group contains butter, margarine, cream, ice-cream, low fat spreads, cooking oils, mayonnaise, salad dressings, cakes, biscuits, chocolate, sugary drinks, sweets, pastry foods and crisps. All of these foods tend to be high in fat and calories. Try not to eat these foods too often and when you do only have them in small amounts. If possible try to go for the healthier varieties for example sugar free sweets and low fat crisps. Here are a few more pointers to guide you on a healthy balanced diet. The best way to get all the vitamins, minerals and nutrients we need is to eat a variation of foods, no one food can provide us with all we need to keep our bodies healthy. Alcohol If you drink alcohol, keep within the limits. Too much alcohol may lead tohigh blood pressure, cirrhosis of the liver and heart disease. Try to spread your alcohol limits throughout the week and not have them all on one night. For more information on alcohol click here.
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Carbohydrates There are 2 main groups of carbohydrates: Starch Starchy foods include breads, potatoes(especially if you eat the skin), rice, cereals and pasta. Starchy foods give us energy and are not high in calories as long as you avoid adding extra fat or sugar to them. For example adding butter to a baked potato, sugar to cereals, or cooking them in fat (e.g.chips). Sugar Sugar is not essential in our diet. It just provides us with calories and contains no other nutrients. Too much sugar can rot teeth and lead to excess weight. Cutting sugar out of your diet is one of the easiest ways to cut down calories without losing any nutrients. Try choosing low calorie drinks, cutting sugar out of tea and coffee and avoid eating cakes and sweets. Fats A small amount of fat is essential in our diets as it gives us energy but the majority of us eat far too much and should try to cut down. There are 2 main types of fat. 1. Unsaturated fats (which includes polyunsaturated and monosaturated fats)- In moderation these can help lower cholesterol and help maintain a healthy heart. Good sources of these fats are found in vegetable oils like sunflower, soya or corn, oily fish like mackerel, sardines and pilchards, olive oils, margarines (labelled high in polyunsaturates)and avocado pears. 2. Saturated fats - A diet high in these types of fat will increase your cholesterol levels and also increase the risk of heart disease. These fats are found in high quantities in meat, dairy products like full-fat milk, cheese, and butter, pies, cakes, chocolate and biscuits. As well as cutting down on fat intake you should try to eat foods containing unsaturated fats instead of saturated fats. You can cut down on your fat intake by reducing the amount of butter and margarine that you use and by avoiding biscuits, cakes and sweets. Try not to fry food, instead bake, grill, poach or microwave. Cut any visible fats off meats before cooking, and remove the skin from chicken and other poultry before cooking. Fibre Fibre helps to keep our bowels working regularly and keeps the large intestine healthy. It also provides us with some nutrients too. Fibre can be found in breakfast cereals, wholemeal or granary bread, fruit and vegetables, wholegrain rice, pasta, potatoes (especially if you eat the skins), beans, pulses and lentils Protein Protein is essential for growth, repair and the healing of the body. Protein may be found in meats and poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, beans and lentils. Salt Too, much salt causes high blood pressure, can aggravate asthma, lead to stomach cancer or can even lead to kidney failure. Most of us eat more salt that we need and we should try to cut down. Try to avoid salty snacks like crisps and nuts, do not add salt at the table. Try to add herbs and spices to food instead of salt and cut down on salty foods like ham and bacon. Also beware of ready meals which all contain lots of salt. Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins and minerals are essential for good health. The majority of us who maintain a healthy
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diet will have all the vitamins and minerals we require. If you are eating a varied diet, vitamin and mineral supplements are probably not necessary. If you feel you may have a vitamin or mineral deficiency and you suffer from any illnesses you should always consult your doctor before taking any supplements. Vitamins Vitamin A helps cells reproduce normally, it also helps us keep our skin and hair healthy. Vitamin A can be found in leafy green vegetables, liver, dairy products, prunes and apricots. Excess levels of vitamin A can be dangerous during pregnancy. Vitamin B6 helps form red blood cells and assists in the formation of genetic material. Vitamin B6 can be found in poultry, bananas, kidney beans, liver, bread, spinach and breakfast cereals Vitamin B9 is also known as folate or folic acid. Vitamin B9 works with vitamin B12 in the formation of red blood cells. Foods high in vitamin B9 include green leafy vegetables, kidney beans, liver, chicken and whole grain breads and cereals. For more information on folic acid click here. Vitamin. B12 is essential for the proper formation of blood cells and nerve fibres. Rich sources of vitamin B12 include meat, liver, fish, eggs, milk and oysters. Vitamin C helps absorb iron, protects against infection and keeps blood vessels healthy. Vitamin C can be found in citrus fruits and juices, green vegetables, potatoes, frozen peas and tomatoes. If you over cook vegetables or boil them in lots of water you will lose the vitamin C. Vitamin D works with calcium to help prevent bones from thinning. Good sources of vitamin D include oily fish (herrings, mackerel, tinned sardines and pilchards)egg yolks, some margarine and fortified breakfast cereals. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient with powerful antioxidant properties. Vitamin E reduces the risk of health problems from cancer to heart disease. Vitamin E also plays a crucial role in promoting overall health and immunity by protecting cell membranes. Vitamin E may be found in green leafy vegetables, wheat germ (bread and cereals), nuts, egg yolks and vegetable oils. Minerals Minerals are substances required by the body for a variety of functions. We need some minerals in larger amounts than others. These include calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and phosphorus. Others minerals such as iron, zinc, iodine, fluoride and selenium are also required but only in small amounts. Calcium is the main mineral needed for the growth, protection and strength of bones and teeth. Calcium is found in dairy products, green leafy vegetables, canned salmon and brown bread. Magnesium is present in all tissues including bone tissue. Magnesium is needed for bone, protein and fatty acid formation, making new cells, activating B vitamins, relaxing muscles and clotting blood. Magnesium is found in green leafy vegetables, wholegrain cereals, brown rice and nuts. Potassium is a major mineral and is essential for the function of cells, including nerve cells. Potassium also helps with the proper function of the heart and kidneys. Potassium is present in bananas, grapes, beans, prunes, raisins, milk and vegetables. Phosphorus is an essential component of all cells and is present in bones and teeth. Phosphorus can be found in dairy products, meat and fish. Iron is part of haemoglobin, the oxygen carrying component of the blood. People who have an iron deficiency tire easily, this is because their body is starved of oxygen. Iron can be found in red meats, offal, fortified breakfast cereals, oysters and fish. If you drink a glass of orange juice
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with meals it will help you absorb more iron. Zinc is essential for growth and to maintain fertility. Zinc may be found in dairy products, meat, fish, wholegrain cereals and pulses. Zinc can be supportive in the treatment of acne, athlete’s foot, brittle nails, the common cold and minor injuries. Iodine helps with the formation, protection and function of the thyroid hormones. Iodine can be found in milk, table salt and seafood. Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay and can help in the prevention ofosteoporosis. Flouride can be found in canned fish, tea, cooked spinach and toothpaste. Selenium promotes normal growth and development and is needed for proper immune function. Selenium can be found in cereals, brazil nuts, fish, red meats, eggs and cheese.

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Basal metabolic rate (BMR), and the closely related resting metabolic rate (RMR), is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). The release of energy in this state is sufficient only for the functioning of the vital organs, the heart, lungs, nervous system, kidneys, liver,intestine, sex organs, muscles and skin. Energy Energy is the capacity of a system to do work. That system may be a jet, carrying hundreds of passengers across the ocean. A baby’s body, growing bone cells. A kite, rising on the wind. Or a wave of light crossing a space. In moving or growing, each of these systems is doing work, and using energy. Every living organism does work, and needs energy from food or photosynthesis. Humans also create machines that do work for them, and that derive energy from fuels. Some of the many forms that energy takes are: • Mechanical energy, which includes - Potential energy, stored in a system. - Kinetic energy, from the movement of matter. • • • • • • Radiant or solar energy, which comes from the light and warmth of the sun. Thermal energy, associated with the heat of an object. Chemical energy, stored in the chemical bonds of molecules. Electrical energy, associated with the movement of electrons. Electromagnetic energy, associated with light waves (including radio waves, microwaves, xrays, infrared waves). Mass (or nuclear) energy, found in the nuclear structure of atoms.

Factors affecting daily energy requirements? These are the factors: 1.occupation-heavy physical work requires more energy than sedentary worker 2.body size and weight-the more the size, the more energy required
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3. gender-young male adults need more energy than young female adults 4.age-children and adolescents need more energy for growth compared to adults A few interesting facts : It is recommended that 50 to 60% of your calories comes from carbohydrates, 20% from proteins and 15 to 20% from fat is recommended. Due to the biological changes in the body, adolescents' caloric requirements are high. Expectant mothers require 300 calories extra per day. Lactating mothers initially require 550 cals/d and later require 400 cals/d. Calorie requirements of an individual can be calculated with the Harris-Benedict formula.

Daily requirements for energy*
Life stage group Children 1-3 yr Children 4-6 yr Children 7-9 yr Males 10-12 yr Females 10-12 yr Males 13-15 yr Males 16-20 yr Females 13-15 yr Females 16-20 yr Males 21-64 yr, sedentary work Males 21-64 yr, moderate work Males 21-64 yr, hard work Males 21-64 yr, very hard work Females 21-59 yr, sedentary work Females 21-59 yr, moderate work Females 21-59 yr, hard work Pregnancy (II half) Lactation Males 65-75 yr Males > 75 yr Females 65-75 yr Females > 75 yr Energy Total [kcal] 1300 1700 2100 2600 2300 3000-3300 3200-3700 2600-2800 2500-2700 2400-2600 2800-3200 3500-4000 4000-4500 2100-2300 2400-2800 2900-3200 2800 3400 2300 2100 2200 2000

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Vitamins and Minerals
Chapter Outline Structure
1. Introduction

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2. Learning Objectives 3. Carbohydrates 1. Sources of Carbohydrates 2. Structure of Carbohydrates 3. Classification of Carbohydrates 4. Importance of Carbohydrates 5. Functions of Carbohydrates 6. Carbohydrates Deficiency Diseases 4. Proteins 1. Sources of Proteins 2. Structure of Proteins 3. Classification of Proteins 4. Importance of Proteins 5. Functions of Proteins 6. Proteins Deficiency Diseases 5. Vitamins 1. Classification of Vitamins 2. Vitamin A (Ratinol) 3. Vitamins D (Cholecalciferol) 4. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 5. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) 6. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 6. Minerals 1. Kinds of Minerals 2. Sources and Functions of Minerals 3. Mineral Deficiency Diseases 7. Let's Sum Up 8. Key Points 9. Glossary 10. Practice test 11. Answer to SAQs

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12. References and Further Readings

Introduction

There are seven main classes of nutrients that the body needs. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water. It is important to consume these seven nutrients on a daily basis to build and maintain health. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, scurvy, obesity, or osteoporosis as well as psychological and behavioral problems. According to the reports of the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO: 1996), more than starvation the real challenge in developing nations today is malnutritionthe deficiency of micronutrients (vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids) that no longer allows the body to ensure growth and maintain its vital functions. We will discus about the sources, classification, importance and deficiency diseases of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals in this unit.

Learning Objectives
After reading this chapter, you are expected to be able to:             Describe about carbohydrates, their sources, structure and classification; Explain the properties of carbohydrates, and their importance and functions in human body; Identify carbohydrates deficiency diseases; Describe about proteins, their structure, bond and classification; Explain the properties of proteins and their functions in human body; Identify the protein deficiency disease; Describe about vitamins and their classifications; Explain the properties, sources and functions of vitamins; Identify the vitamin deficiency disease; Describe about minerals and their kinds; Identify the sources and explain the function of minerals; and Recognize the mineral deficiency diseases.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the polyhydroxy organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in which the ratio of hydrogen and oxygen hydrogen is 2:1 exactly as H2O (2:1). ( this part?) : Can you add some more sentences to

Sources of Carbohydrates
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The main sources of carbohydrates are plants, e.g., starch (storage forms carbohydrate of chlorophyll containing plants), sugars, cereals, potatoes, legumes, millets, roots and other vegetables. Sugars are found in fruits, juice, cane, honey, palm, milk, etc. ( : Can you add some more sentences to this part?)

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Structure of Carbohydrates

Chemically, they are aldehyde or ketone derivatives of higher polyhydric alcohol (having more than one "OH" group). They may be identified by the type and number of monosaccharide residues (glucose/ fructose molecule) in their molecules. The general formula of carbohydrate is Cn (H2O)n where n=3-9.

Each sugar molecule consists of a backbone of carbon atoms linked together in a linear array by single bonds. Each carbon atom is linked to a single hydroxyl group except for one that bears a carbonyl (C=O) group. If the carbonyl group is located at an internal position, the sugar is a ketose (e.g., fructose). If the carbonyl is located at one end of the sugar, it forms an aldehyde group or aldose (e.g., glucose).

Classification of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates may be classified into the following four major groups 1. Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. All carbohydrates are reduced to this state before absorption and utilization. They contain three to six carbon atoms. General formula is Cn(H2O)n. 2. Disaccharide: Disaccharides Consist of two covalently joined monosaccharide units. They are produced as two molecules of the same or different monosaccharides on hydrolysis. General formula is Cn(H2O)n-1, e.g., lactose, sucrose, maltose etc. 3. Oligosaccaharides: Oligosaccaharides consist of few number (2-6) of monosaccharide units e.g., glycoproteins. 4. Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides are composed of many molecules of monosaccharides linked together. General formula is (C6 H10 O5)x. e.g., Glycerole.

Importance of Carbohydrates
1. Carbohydrates, such as energy yielding compounds D-Ribose, are the structural elements of nucleic acid and coenzymes. 2. Act as intermediates in hexose monophosphate stant. 3. D-Lyxose, a constituent of a lyxoflavin isolated from human muscle. 4. D-glucose carried out by the blood and used in tissues. 5. D-fructose can be changed to glucose in the liver and intestine and used in the body.

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6. Glycosides are important in medicine. 7. Hexosamines is used as antibiotic. 8. Monosaccharides are important constitute of nucleotides and nucleic acids. 9. Disaccharides act as an intermediate in the digestion, important as a dietary constituent and major source of energy in the diet. 10. Starch and glycogen serve as temporary stores of glucose in plants and animals respectively.

Functions of Carbohydrates
1. Glucose act as energy yielding compounds, the major fuel of the tissue, constitutes the structural material of the organism, converted to other carbohydrates having highly specific functions. 2. Glycogen acts as important storage of food material of the organism. 3. Play a key role in the metabolism of aminoacids and fatty acids. 4. Act as protective function-mucosubstance. 5. Act as intermediates in respiration and carbohydrates metabolism e.g., (trioses). 6. Participate in lipid synthesis. 7. Pentoses - Synthesis of nucleic acid; Some co-enzymes (e.g., NAD, FAD, FMN, etc.); ATP, ADP, AMP, and also synthesis of polysaccharides.

Carbohydrates Deficiency Diseases
       Hyperglycemia Glycosuria Galactosemia Pentosuria Diarrhoea and flatulence Ketone Under weight.

Proteins
Proteins are complex organic compounds. They are macromolecules or bio molecules composed of amino acids linked by peptide bond. The constituent elements of proteins are carbon (54%), hydrogen (7%), nitrogen (16%), oxygen (22%) and some may contain sulpher (1%) or phosphorus (0.6%). They are macromolecules of high MW and consisting of chains of amino acids e.g., hemoglobin, albumin, globulin, enzymes, etc.

Sources of Proteins
Peas, beans, poultry, cereals, lentils, milk, cheese, eggs, meat, wet and dry fishes, pulses, and nuts. ( you add little more in this sub-section?) : Can

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Structure of Protein
The basic unit of the protein molecule is amino acids .The protein molecules are composed of the union of a large number of amino acids. There are over 10,000 proteins in the human body. They all composed of different arrangements of the main 20 fundamental amino acids. The sequence of amino acids in each protein is specific and is genetically controlled by the DNA of the cell. Chemical Structure The synthesis of protein molecule takes place by the union of the-NH2 group of one amino acid with the-COOH group of another. Elimination of water is known as condensation and the linkage (bond) formed is a covalent carbon-nitrogen bond, called a peptide bond. The remaining part of amino acid is known as R group or side chain. In this way dipeptide or polypeptide is formed. COOH Amino group Carboxyl group H2N-CH.CH2-CO-NH.CH2COOH+H2O CH2-CH.NH2 + HNH.CH2COOH Fig. 2: General formula of an amino acid. According to the modern views, the structure of protein is considered by several level of organization. 1. -amion group of another amino acid through disulphide bonds and other covalent modification.α Primary level - peptide bond is formed by the amino acids. They are linked by carboxyl group of one amino acid with the 2. Secondary level - peptide bonds are folded which indicates a coiled structure (e.g., globular proteins). In this folding the carboxyl and amino groups of the peptide chains are linked by hydrogen and disulfided bonds. Such folding is known as the secondary structure of the protein. 3. Tertiary structure - when the globular protein consists of a series of single helix. These models will have elongated structures with a larger axial ratio (length: breadth). The structure in their dimensions is maintained by covalent or other bonds and described as tertiary structure. 4. Quaternary structure - In this structure, there are several monomer units, each with appropriate primary, secondary and tertiary structures may combine through non-covalent interactions e.g., hemoglobin contains four subunits identical in pairs.

Classification of Proteins
Proteins may be classified in the following ways According to Structure 1. Fibrous type with elongate molecule e.g., keratin 2. Pounded type with globular molecule 3. Intermediate type. According to Composition 1. Simple proteins -e.g., albumins, globulins, histones etc.

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2. Conjugated proteins - e.g., nucleoproteins, lipoproteins, chromoprotiens, flavoproteins. 3. Derived protein e.g., metproteins, peptones. According to function

1. -keratin ,mucoproteins.α Structural type - eg., collagen,
2. Enzymes type - eg. trypsinase, carbonylase, glutaminase. 3. Hormones type-e.g., insulin, glucagon. 4. Transplant type - e.g., hemoglobin, serum albumin. 5. Protective type - e.g., antibodies, thrombin, fibrinogen. 6. Contractile type - e.g., myosin, actin. 7. Storage type - e.g., casein, ovalbumin. 8. Toxins type - e.g., diphtheria toxin, snake venom.

Properties of Proteins
      Colloidal or crystallized in nature. Soluble in water, weak salts solution and dilute acids. Each protein possesses a specific isoelectric point at which it is precipitated. Optically active. Most of the proteins undergo coagulation by heat or acid. Proteins undergo denaturation by many kinds of chemical or physical treatment such as * shaking, change of temperature, change of reaction, additional of neutral salts etc.  They differ from one another in chemical structure, physical and physiological properties.

Function of Proteins
    Proteins as enzymes - accelerate the rate of metabolic reactions. As structural cables - provide mechanical support both within cells and outside. As hormones, growth factors - perform regulatory functions and gene activators. As hormone receptors and transporters-determine what a cell reacts to and what types of *substance enter or leave the cell.   As contract element -form the machinery for biological movements. Others - act as the defense against infections by protein antibodies, service as toxins, form blood clots through thrombin, fibrinogen and other protein factors, absorb or refract light and transport substances from one part of the body to another.   Constitute about half of the dry weight of most organisms and maintain growth. Maintain colloidal osmotic pressure of blood.

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  

Act as acid base balance. They perform hereditary transmission by nucleoproteins of the cell nucleus. Most fibrous protein plays structural roles in skin, connective tissue of fibers such as hair, silk or wool.

Protein Deficiency Diseases
         Abdominal enlargement, excessive loss in urine and disease to lower urinary tractsVomiting Diarrhea Nephrosis Lassitude Oedema Kwashiorkor (Protein malnutrition) Marasmic - Kwashiorkor Negative nitrogen balance.

Vitamins
Vitamins may be defined as organic compounds occurring in small quantities in different natural foods and necessary for the growth and maintenance of good health in human beings and certain experimental animals. They cannot be synthesized in the body but supplied by the diet to the human body. Plants produce all vitamins but animal (human) stores them. Some are produced in the body e.g. Provitamin carotene is converted into vitain A in the body and Vit. D is produced in the body in presence of ultraviolet radiation.

Classification of Vitamins
Vitamins are classified into two groups. 1. Fat - soluble vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins are soluble in fats and fat solvents. They are insoluble in water. So these are utilized only if there is enough fat in the body e.g., vitamin A, D, E and K. 2. Water -soluble vitamins Water-soluble vitamins are (heterogeneous group) soluble in water and so they cannot be stored in the body. 11 types of vitamins are included in this class e.g., thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, cyanoccobalamine, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid and ascorbic acid, para-amino benzoic acid, and choline.

Vitamin A (Ratinol)
Properties  Soluble in fat solvents and insoluble in water

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  

Viscous, colorless oil or pale yellowish substance Heat stable in absence of air Destroyed on exposure to air or ultra-violet rays.

Source of Vitamin A Liver, heart, kidney, milk, codliver oils, fishliver-oils, butter, eggs, carrots, cabbage, vegetables, green leaves, mangoes, potatoes tomatoes, spinach, papaya etc. Functions    Effect on reproductive processes, differentiation, and immune system Essential for growth and night vision Helps in the preservations of structural and normal permeability of membranes, cell, * astrointestinal tract etc.  Required for bone and teeth formation, influence genetic expression, reproduction to manufacture R.B.C etc.  Maintain the health and activity of epithelial tissues, and glands prevent infection, maintains nutrition and function of the nervous tissue.    Controls the action of bone cells and formation, helps in normal fertility and glucose synthesis. Acts as antioxidant. Helps in RNA and protein metabolism.

Vitamin A Deficiency Diseases    Night-blindness, Xerophthalmia, Keratinisation of skin and mucous membrane. Retardation of growth in children, defective growth of bone and teeth, skin lesions, Bitot's, sports etc. Abnormalities in respiratory, GU and GI epithelium, Diarrhoea, Kidney stone, bladder disorders, infections of vagina, depression of immune reactions, anaemia, injury to brain and nerve causes paralysis, stunted skull and spine.

Vitamins D (Cholecalciferol)
Properties     Soluble in fat solvents but insoluble in water Heat stable White crystalline material Ordinary boiling does not destroy it.

Source Fish liver oils e.g., cod liver oil, halibut - liver oil etc. Butter, milk, eggs, liver. In sub coetaneous tissue, 7 dihydrocholesterol is conveted to vitamin D by UV light.

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Functions  Control calcium and phosphorus absorption from the small intestine, concerned with calcium metabolism, helps in the bone and teeth formation.  Minimize the losses of calcium and increases phoshate excretion by the kidneys, affects insulin secretion in pancreases. Deficiency Disease Causes Rickets (directive bone growth) in childless, osteomalacia in adults, disturbs calcium and phosphorous absorption.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Properties     White crystals, soluble in water, heat lavish Good reducing agents Early oxidized at 1000C in presence of oxygen Cannot stand cooking or canning

Sources Guava, amla, green chilli, amaranth leaves, citrus fruits, green vegetables, potatoes, tomatoes, cheese, milk etc. Functions          Acts as antioxidant. Essential for formation of collagen present between cells. Necessary for the formation of osteoblasts and red blood cells. Helps to reduce the ferric iron (Fe3+) to ferrous iron (Fe2+) and is absorbed only in this form. Essential for the utilization of folic acid Takes part in oxidation and reduction reactions in the tissues. Helps in bone formation. Helps in wound healing. Prevents formation of free radical in the body.

Deficiency Diseases  Scurvy, a disease characterized by sore, spongy gums, loose teeth, fragile blood vessels, swollen joints, and anemia.  Delay in wound healing.

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  

Pain in bones. Skin becomes rough and dry. Pyrexia, rapid pulse and susceptibility to infection.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Properties       White, crystalline substance Water-soluble Heat labile Unstable at high temperature and in alkaline medium Stable in acid medium On oxidation it gives a yellowish dye called thiochrome.

Sources Rice polishing, dried yeast and wheat germ are rich sources of vit. B1. Whole cereals like wheat, oats, legumes, oil seeds and nuts are good sources. Milled cereals, vegetables, fruits, meat and fish are poor sources. On milling, vit. B1 is lost from cereals. Functions      Acts as a co-enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism Require for the synthesis of glycine It has a specific action on nerve tissue Requires for the maintenance of normal gastro-intestinal tone and motility Maintains normal appetite.

Deficiency Diseases   Beriberi - nervous, system affected, muscles become weak and painful paralysis can occur. Heart failure, wet beriberi, dry beriberi, infantile beriberi, oedemia, children's growth is impaired, keto acids accumulate in the blood, wernicke’s-korsakoff’s syndrome etc.  Loss of appetite, fatigue, irritability, depression and constipation occur.

VitaminB2 (Riboflavin)
Properties   Yellow crystals Soluble in water

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 

Heat soluble in neutral and acid media Destroy by light.

Sources Milk, liver, kidney, muscle, butter, chicken, fish, yeast, cheese, raw egg, white grains, green vegetable such as spinach, peanuts, fruits such as apple, orange etc. Functions  Precursor of coenzymes (FMN and FAD) in oxidation-reduction reactions of electron transport chain, fatty acid synthesis etc.    Essential for growth, essential for tissue oxidation related to carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Maintain mucosal, epithelial and ocular tissues. Essential for normal vision.

Deficiency Diseases Symptoms     Tongue sore at the corner of the mouth. Loss of hair, skin becomes dry and scaly. Arrest of growth. Dermatitis around nose and lips, inflammation of tongue, angular stomatitis and cheilosis, photophobia, cataract etc.   Scrotal or vulval dermatitis, intense itching etc. Disturb carbohydrate metabolism.

Minerals
( : Check this part, particularly the gm per day)

Minerals are inorganic substances that serve a variety of functions such as cofactors in enzyme-catalyzed reactions, in the regulation of acid-base balance, in nerve conducty to gm per day. Some of the more important of these are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and iron.µ ion and muscle irritability, and as structural elements in the body. Each mineral is required in specific amounts ranging from

Kinds of Minerals
Minerals may be divided arbitrarily into 2 groups. 1. Macro minerals: The minerals, which are required in amounts greater than 100 mg/ day. 2. Micro minerals: The minerals, which are required in amounts less than 100 mg/ day.

Source and Function of Minerals
Macro Minerals

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Source and Function  Calcium: Milk, egg, leafy green vegetable, fish, meat soybeans etc. Formation of bones and teeth structure. Activates ATP during muscular contraction, helps in blood clotting and capillary permeability.  Phosphorus: Milk, peas, meat, fish, eggs, cottage, cheese, almonds, wheat germ, soybeans, black beans etc. Synthesis of nucleic acid, ATP and some protein. Helps in calcification of bones, maintain buffer system in body and bone formation.  Potassium: Spinach, butter, beans, oranges, milk, peas, meat, fruits nuts, and vegetables. Involves transmission of nervous impulses chemical reactions and acid base balance in the body.  Sodium: Table salt, eggs. meat, milk, cheese, butter, margarine, bacon etc. Form part of tissue fluids inducing blood, involves kidney functioning and transmission of nervous impulses, acid-base balance in body.     Sulfur: Protein e.g., meat, fish and milk, Synthesis of proteins e.g., Keratin and many other organic confounds e.g., coenzymes A. Manganese: Vegetables and most other foods Constituent of bones and tooth structure, co-factor for many enzymes e.g., ATP-ase.

Micro minerals Source and Functions  Iron: Liver, eggs, meat, dark and green vegetables, lentis, potatoes, soybeans, chick peas, black beans, spinach, etc. Forms part of haemoglobin, helps in electron transport in biochemical reactions.   Fluorine: Water, milk etc. Needed for strong enamel on teeth, as calcium deposit in bone Nitrogen: Protein e.g., meat, fish and milk,Synthesis of protein NA and many other organic compounds, e.g., coenzymes and chlorophyll        Manganese: Vegetables and most other foods; Bone development (a growth factor) Cobalt: Liver and red meat; Red bloods cell development Copper: Most foods; Melanin production Zinc: Most foods; CO2 transport in vertebrate blood Molybdenum: Most foods; Hydrolysis of peptide bonds in protein digestion Boron: Most foods; Reduction of nitrate to nitrite during amino acid synthesis in plants. Iodine: Seafood’s, such as fish, shellfish and fish oil. Vegetables, spinach, fruits, and cereals.

Mineral Deficiency Diseases
  Nitrogen-kwashiorkor Sodium-muscular cramps, giddiness, anorexia, scanty urine, dry mouth, inelastic skin and disorientation.

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        

Chlorine-muscular cramps, renal disease etc. Calcium-poor skeletal growth, rickets in children, osteomalacea in adults. Manganese-poor bone development Iron-anemia, weakness, lethargy, brittle nails, koilonychia, palpitations, breathlessness etc. Zinc-poor appetite, mental lethargy and delayed wound healing etc. Cobalt-pernicious anemia, Fluorine-dental caries Iodine-goitre, cretinism in children Potassium-muscular weakness, paralysis, mental confusion, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal distension.

Phosphorus-rickets in children, osteomalacia in adults.

Self-Assessment Questions (SAQs) - 1
Multiple choice questions. Choose the correct answer. 1. The unit of Carbohydrates is a) Disaccharide b) Monosaccharide c) Oligosaccharide d) Polysaccharide. 2. Disaccharide consists of a) Two molecules of monosaccharedes b) Three molecules of monosaccharides c) Four molecules of nonosaccharides d) Five molecules of monosaccharides. 3. The basic unit of protein molecule is a) Peptides b) Amino acid c) Allanylglycine d) Albumines. 4. Which vitamin is soluble in fat solvent a) Thiamin b) Biotin c) Vitamin A

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d) Folic acid. 5. Which vitamin cannot stand cooking or canning a) Biotin b) Vitamin D c) Folic acid d) Ascorbic acid. 6. The mineral are required in amounts greater than 100 mg/ day is known a) Micro molecule b) Mineral c) Mineral d) Macro molecule. 7. Calcium is found in a) Sprouts b) Dark green tea c) Cheese d) Tea

Let's Sum Up
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fiber and water are very much essential for health. Carbohydrates are the polyhydroxy organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides according to their chemical structure. Proteins are bio molecules composed of amino acids linked by peptide bond. The body requires amino acids to produce new body protein and to replace damaged proteins. Deficiency or excesses of mineral and vitamin may cause weak health, disorders of cell metabolism and poor psychological health. Better nutrition can help to prevented or alleviated many common threats and their symptoms. Poor health can be caused by an imbalance of nutrients. Deficiency or excess of various nutrients may affect hormonal function indirectly.

Practice Test
Short questions 1. What do you mean by carbohydrates? 2. What are the diseases caused in deficiency of Carbohydrates?

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3. What do you mean by proteins? 4. What do you mean by vitamins? 5. What are the fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins and where are they found? 6. What are the diseases created by the deficiency of vitamin A, C and B1? 7. What do you mean by minerals? 8. What do mean by macro and micro minerals? Analytical Questions 1. Describe the structure of Carbohydrates. 2. Classify the Carbohydrates. 3. What are the properties, sources and functions of vitamin A, B1, and C? 4. Briefly describe properties, some functions and daily requirements of ascorbic acid and folic acid. 5. Discuss the diseases, which are occurred in mineral deficiency.

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