Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger

October 27

2010
Formal Lab Report

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Index 2 .

counter-current and co-current helps to evaluate for simple heat transfer co-relations.       3 . C) Shell and Tube heat exchanger. Heat can also be termed as “Therm” There are majorly 3 types of heat exchanger: A) Double pipe. Both the flows i.e. etc. petrochemical refineries.1.” The two mediums are separated by a solid wall to prevent mixing of both mediums. The heat exchanger is commonly used in chemical plants. The “concentric tube heat exchanger” has very simple design with the movement of the cold and hot fluid flows in the opposite direction or the same direction. This experiment helps to understand co-current and counter-current flow operation for simple heat transfer operation. B) Plat heat exchanger. A car radiator is the basic example of heat exchanger. Objective  “A heat exchanger is an instrument which transfers the heat from one medium to another without mixing.

There are two main types of flow patterns.2.e. The driving force is temperature gradient. Description  This simple thermal exchanger is manufactured by a company named Arm field HT4 Limited which is situated in Ringwood Hampshire in England. The thermal duty is directly proportional to the log mean temperature difference. Heat exchanger is a device in which heat transfers between two fluids from hot fluid to cold fluid with different temperatures in entrance and exits. This space between two pipes is known as annulus. The double pipe thermal exchanger consists of two concentric pipes from which one has small diameter than another. Thermal exchangers depend on the motion of the direction of the fluids. either from increase in temperature of cold water or decrease in temperature of hot water the equation of “Q” is as follows: Q= If the two values of temperature are similar but not identical then take “Q” as the average of the two. With limited heat transfer areas and pure counter-current flow is generated by this exchanger which helps to achieve greater co-efficient. hot and cold) flow in same direction then it is known as co-current flow or when fluids flow in opposite direction is known as counter-current flow. The flow pattern can be any for example hot fluid enters from the smaller diameter pipe and cold fluid enters through the space between the outer diameter of inner pipe and the inner diameter of the outside pipe or visa-versa. (It’s shown in the figure). when the two fluids (i.      Figure 1: Co-Current Flow Figure 2: Counter-Current Flow The heat load “Q” is calculated in two ways and both has temperature gradient. 4 .

The equation of log mean temperature difference “ΔTlm” for counter-current flow pattern is: The equation of log mean temperature difference “ΔTlm” for co-current flow pattern is: 5 .

Apparatus: The experimental apparatus consists of a set of tube heat exchanger. hot and cold fluid supply assembly and a stop watch. Figure 3: Switch. Figure 4: Volumetric Flow Rate. 6 .3. Figure 2: tube heat exchanger. The picture of the experimental assembly is as follows: Figure1: Flow diagrams. the thermocouples or thermometers mounted at various points on the tubes helps to generate the reading of different temperatures which is very useful for thermal studies.

Figure 6: Co-current (Valve Position) Figure7: Counter-current (Valve Position) 7 .Figure5: Diagram of Concentric tube heat exchanger.

When temperature reaches to the 60⁰C than started taking readings for 5 minutes for all the 6 temperatures and then check the rate of flow too. after that set the water temperature at 60⁰C. The rate of flow of hot water is put to 2 minutes and the rate of flow of cold water is put to 1 minute. Fig 6: shows the co-current valve position and fig 7: shows the counter-current valve position. The same procedure repeat for Co-current flow heat exchanger and the position of the valves are also changed.        8 .4. At the end of the experiment switched off the instrument and switched on the water flow rate meter. Now heated them up to 10 to 15 minutes till temperature reaches to 60⁰C. These six readings and two flow rates for co-current and countercurrent flow are helpful for getting the results. Practical Method   Before starting the experiment laboratory coat and safety glasses must be worn then check the position of valves and water tap connections. The water tap connection should be connected properly and valve should be closed. The same method is repeated for 75⁰C run in the same experiment for both co-current and counter-current flow operation and change valve positions too. In the counter-current flow operation switch on the heating element and heat the fluid first than change the condition of valve.

5. Outcomes 9 .

6. Sample Calculation 10 .

The same results are obtained in 75⁰C run. From the experiment which we have performed shows us that the value of overall counter-current heat transfer co-efficient is lower than that of overall co-current heat transfer co-efficient value. For getting more accurate reading the experimental apparatus should be more accurate.    11 . The average counter-current duty for 60⁰C run in counter-current flow is bigger than the average co-current duty.7. The driving force is higher in counter-current and lower in co-current operation. For the overall heat transfer co-efficient is lower in counter-current and higher in co-current operation. this may be because of the error while doing the experiment that may cause heat loss. The experiment that we have performed gives us that. The overall log mean temperature difference for co-current flow is lower than that of counter-current flow. Discussion      These Results shows that the experiment is done in a right way and we have achieved success. It is not showing the accurate heat transfer from one medium to another as it has to be.  8. Conclusions    Therefore we have concluded that the flow of fluids is more accurate in counter-current operation than that of co-current. Final conclusion about this experiment is that it was completed and the final values of heat transfer co-efficient are obtained but it’s still needed to do something for its improvement. when the volumetric flow rate of the hot fluid is increased its overall heat transfer co-efficient is also increased.

2007. “Encyclopaedia of chemical engineering”. Wiley [2] Perry. and Green. Bibliography [1] Kirk-Othmer. List of Symbols 12 . D. 2007 10. 8th Edition. “Chemical Engineering handbook”.W. Volume 7. R. McGraw Hill.H.9. 5th edition.

11. Appendices 13 .

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