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VAHELAL, AHMEDABAD.

Guided By Submitted By

080240116002

5th I.T.

1

HASMUKH GOSWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

VAHELAL, AHMEDABAD.

Year:2010

Certificate

This is to certify that the seminar entitled “CRYPTOGRAPHY” and submiitted

by SALONI BHARGAVA having roll no 02 for the partial fullfilment of

requirements of Bachelor of Engineering(Information Technology) degree of

HASMUKH GOSWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, VAHELAL,

AHMEDABAD, Gujarat, India embodies the bonafied work done by haer under

my supervision.

Name of guide

Place:

Date :

2

HASMUKH GOSWAMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Vahelal,Ahmedabad.

Year:2010

Acknowledgement

Miss Ankita patel for her advice and continued support

without which it would not have been possible to complete

this report.

I would also like to thank entire computer department and faculty for helping me

in every possible manner during this course.

3

ABSTRACTION

the growing threats of message hacking through various trends in

cryptography. Yet the headlines are dominated with the latest news of

message passing disaster more frequently than any time before.This

document intends to review this problem and propose several

possible solutions.The cryptographic industry has been responding to

these threats with ever-quicker responses to the rapid ons laught of

malicious techniques, while corporations establish strict

cryptographic techniques. Placing an organizations cryptographic

techniques at the desktop level is like closing all the doors in a

houseÂ¦..while leaving windows and other entry points open.The

present document discusses various cryptographic techniques of all

times such as the three basic algorithms namely private key

algorithm,,public key algorithm and the hash functions.The need for

having three encryption techniques has also been encrypted .A

detailed discussion has been done on the classical cryptography and

the drawbacks of the classical cryptography to ensure the need for

going to new trends in cryptography like quantum cryptography,elliptic

curve cryptography.These new techniques that has emerged out of

various exploitations in the field of cryptography rises a fair amount of

hope that we can over come the problems we are facing in a headhoc

way.These proven technologies can meet the needs of the

most demanding of environments while their respective focus on

manageability has automated many tasks and simplified

administrative functions through easy-to-use interfaces developed

through years of customer feedback..And at the end of the document

we can conclude that soon we can save secrecy involved in message

passing from the dangerous clutches of message hackers.

4

INDEX

No TOPIC Page no

1. Introduction 6

2. Development of cryptography 6

3. Need of cryptography 7

4. What is cryptography? 8

5. Types of cryptography 8

6. Digital signature 15

7. Hash functions 16

8. Security Architecture 19

9. Applications 19

10. Examples 26

12. Conclusion 23

13. Bibliography 23

5

1. INTRODUCTION

are intentionally caused by malicious people trying to gain some benefit or harm

someone.The requirement of information security has undergone two major changes

in last two decades. In earlier days cabinets with a combination lock for storing

sensitive documents were used.With introduction of computer, the need for

automated tools for protecting files and other information became evident. This is

very important in case of shared systems as well as for data network or internet.The

generic term for the collection of the tools designed to protect data and thwart hackers

is Computer Security

2. DEVELOPMENT OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

recent decades, it has been the story of what might be called classic

cryptography — that is, of methods of encryption that use pen and paper, or

perhaps simple mechanical aids. In the early 20th century, the invention of

complex mechanical and electromechanical machines, such as the Enigma rotor

machine, provided more sophisticated and efficient means of encryption; and the

subsequent introduction of electronics and computing has allowed elaborate

schemes of still greater complexity, most of which are entirely unsuited to pen

and paper.

development of cryptanalysis — the "breaking" of codes and ciphers. The

discovery and application, early on, of frequency analysis to the reading of

encrypted communications has on occasion altered the course of history. Thus

the Zimmermann Telegram triggered the United States' entry into World War I;

and Allied reading of Nazi Germany's ciphers shortened World War II, in some

evaluations by as much as two years.

Until the 1970s, secure cryptography was largely the preserve of governments.

Two events have since brought it squarely into the public domain: the creation of

a public encryption standard (DES), and the invention of public-key cryptography.

3. NEED OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

1) Private or confidentiality

6

2) Data integrity

3) Authentication

4) Non-repudation

1.Confidentiality is a service used to keep the content of information from all but

those authorized to posses it. Secrecy is a term synonymous with confidentiality and

privacy. There arenumerous approaches to providing confidentiality, ranging from

physical protection tomathematical algorithms which render data unintelligible.

assure data integrity, one must have the ability to detect data manipulation by unau-

thorized parties. Data manipulation includes such things as insertion, deletion, and

substitution.

entities and information itself. Two parties entering into a communication should

identify each other.Information delivered over a channel should be authenticated as to

origin, date of origin, data content, time sent, etc. For these reasons this aspect of

cryptog-raphy is usually subdivided into two major classes:

entityauthentication and dataorigin authentication. Data origin authentication

implicitly provides data integrity (for if a message is modified, the source has

changed).

commitments or actions. When disputes arise due to an entity denying that certain

actions were taken, a means to resolve the situation is necessary. For example, one

entity may authorize the purchase of property by another entity and later deny such

autho-rization was granted. A procedure involving a trusted third party is needed to

resolve the dispute.

in both theory and practice. Cryptography is about the prevention and detection of

cheating and other malicious activities and to secure what you have as sensitive

information

BASICS OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

ENCRYPTION:-

7

DECRYPTION:-

4. WHAT IS CRYPTOGRAPHY?

data. Cryptography enables you to store sensitive information or transmit it

across insecure networks (like the Internet) so that it cannot be read by any-

one except the intended recipient.While cryptography is the science of securing data,

cryptanalysis is the science of analyzing and breaking secure communication. Classical

cryptanalysis involves an interesting combination of analytical reasoning, application of

mathematical tools, pattern finding, patience, determination, and luck. Cryptanalysts are

also called attackers.Cryptology embraces both cryptography and cryptanalysis.

A related discipline is steganography, which is the science of hiding messages

rather than making them unreadable. Steganography is not cryptography; it is a form of

coding. It relies on the secrecy of the mechanism used to hide the message. If, for

example, you encode a secret message by putting each letter as the first letter of the first

word of every sentence, it’s secret until someone knows to look for it, and then it

provides no security at all.

encryption and decryption process. A cryptographic algorithm works in combination with

a key—a word, number, or phrase—to encrypt the plaintext. The same plaintext encrypts

to different ciphertext with different keys. The security of encrypted data is entirely

dependent on two things: the strength of the cryptographic algorithm and the secrecy of

the key. A cryptographic algorithm, plus all possible keys and all the protocols that make

it work, comprise a cryptosystem. PGP is a cryptosystem.

5. TYPES OF CRYPTOGRAPHY

8

There are two main types of cryptography:

• Secret key cryptography

• Public key cryptography

In cryptographic systems, the term key refers to a numerical value used by an

algorithm to alter information, making that information secure and visible only to

individuals who have the corresponding key to recover the information.

SECRET KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY:-

Secret key cryptography is also known as symmetric key cryptography.

With this type of cryptography, both the sender and the receiver know the same

secret code, called the key. Messages are encrypted by the sender using the key

and decrypted by the receiver using the same key.

This method works well if you are communicating with only a limited number of

people, but it becomes impractical to exchange secret keys with large numbers

of people. In addition, there is also the problem of how you communicate the

secret key securely.

The figure given below shows secret key cryptography.

• STREAM CIPHERS:

Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a time,

and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly

changing.

9

• BLOCK CIPHERS : The scheme encrypts one block of data at a time using the

same key on each block.

STREAM CIPHERS

Stream ciphers come in several flavors but two are worth mentioning

here :

• Self-synchronizing stream ciphers calculate each bit in the keystream as a

function of the previous n bits in the keystream.

• Synchronous stream ciphers generate the keystream in a fashion

independent of the message stream but by using the same keystream

generation function at sender and receiver.

BLOCK CIPHERS

Block ciphers can operate in one of several modes; the following four

are the most important:

• Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode :

• Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode :

• Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode :

• Output Feedback (OFB) mode

a) DES

b) TRIPLE-DES

c) BLOWFISH

d) IDEA

e) RC4

f) RC5

g) TwoFish

Public key cryptography, also called asymmetric encryption, uses a

pair of keys for encryption and decryption. With public key cryptography, keys

work in pairs of matched public and private keys.

10

The public key can be freely distributed without compromising the private key,

which must be kept secret by its owner. Because these keys work only as a pair,

encryption initiated with the public key can be decrypted only with the

corresponding private key. The following example illustrates how public key

cryptography works:

• Ann wants to communicate secretly with Bill. Ann encrypts her message

using Bill’s public key (which Bill made available to everyone) and Ann

sends the scrambled message to Bill.

• When Bill receives the message, he uses his private key to unscramble

the message so that he can read it.

• When Bill sends a reply to Ann, he scrambles the message using Ann’s

public key.

• When Ann receives Bill’s reply, she uses her private key to unscramble his

message.

The major advantage asymmetric encryption offers over symmetric key

cryptography is that senders and receivers do not have to communicate keys up

possible using the public keys.

The figure given below shows public-key cryptography.

Public-key private-key

11

Plaintext Encryption Ciphertext Decryption Plaintext

The Assymmetric(public key) key cryptographic algorithms are as

follow:-

a) RSA

b) Diffie-Hellman

c) Elliptic curve

PGP then creates a session key, which is a one-time-only

secret key. This key is a random number generated from the random

movements of your mouse and the keystrokes you type. The session

key works with a very secure, fast conventional encryption algorithm

to encrypt the plaintext; the result is ciphertext. Once the data is

encrypted, the session key is then encrypted to

the recipient’s public key. This public key-encrypted session key is

transmitted

along with the ciphertext to the recipient.

12

Plaintext is encrypted with

Session key

Ciphertext +

encrypted session

key

copy of PGP uses his or herprivate key to recover the session key,

which PGP then uses to decrypt the conventionally encrypted

ciphertext.

13

Encrypted message encrypted session recipient’s private key

used

Key to decrypt session key

original to decrypt

ciphertext plaintext

convenience of public-key encryption with the speed of conventional

encryption. Conventional encryption is about 10,000 times faster than

public-key encryption.Public-key encryption in turn provides a solution

to key distribution and data transmission issues. Used together ,

performance and key distribution areimproved without any sacrifice in

security.

KEYS:

A key is a value that works with a cryptographic algorithm to

produce a specific ciphertext. Keys are basically really, really,

really big numbers.Key size is measured in bits; the number

representing a 2048-bit key is darn huge. In public-key

cryptography, the bigger the key, the more secure the

ciphertext.

key size are totally unrelated. A conventional 80-bit key has the

equivalent strength of a 1024-bit public key. A conventional 128-

bit key is equivalent to a 3000-bit public key. Again, the bigger

14

the key, the more secure, but the algorithms used for each type

of cryptography are very different and thus comparison is like

that of apples to oranges.

While the public and private keys are mathematically related, it’s

very difficult to derive the private key given only the public key;

however, deriving the private key is always possible given

enough time and computing power. This makes it very important

to pick keys of the right size; large enough to be secure, but

small enough to be applied fairly quickly. Additionally, you need

to consider who might be trying to read your files, how

determined they are,how much time they have, and what their

resources might be.

of time. If what you want to encrypt needs to be hidden for many

years, you might

want to use a very large key. Of course, who knows how long it

will take to

determine your key using tomorrow’s faster, more efficient

computers?There was a time when a 56-bit symmetric key was

considered

extremely safe.

least until

someone invents a usable quantum computer. We also believe

that 256-

bit keys will be safe indefinitely, even if someone invents a

quantum

computer. This is why the AES includes options for 128 and 256-

bit keys.

But history tells is that it’s quite possible someone will think this

statement

amusingly quaint in a few decades.

Keys are stored in encrypted form. PGP stores the keys in two

files on

your hard disk; one for public keys and one for private keys.

These files are called keyrings. As you use PGP, you will typically

add the public keys of your recipients to your public keyring.

Your private keys are stored on your private keyring. If you lose

your private keyring you will be unable to decrypt any

15

information encrypted to keys on that ring. Consequently, it’s a

good idea to keep good backups.

6. DIGITAL SIGNATURES:

method for

employing digital signatures. Digital signatures let the recipient

of information verify the authenticity of the information’s origin,

and also verify that the information was not altered while in

transit. Thus, public key digital signatures provide authentication

and data integrity. These features are every bit as fundamental

to cryptography as privacy, if not more.

document, or a

handwritten signature. However, because of the way it is

created, it is superior to a seal or signature in an important way.

A digital signature not only attests to the identity of the signer,

but it also shows that the contents of the information signed has

not been modified. A physical seal or handwritten signature

cannot do that. However, like a physical seal that can be created

by anyone with possession of the signet, a digital signature can

be created by anyone with the private key of that signing

keypair.

encryption. For

example, you may not care if anyone knows that you just

deposited

$1,000 in your account, but you do want to be darn sure it was

the bank

teller you were dealing with.

shown in the following figure. The signature algorithm uses your

private key to create the signature and the public key to verify it.

If the information can be decrypted with your public key, then it

must have originated with you.

16

private key public

key

verifying verified text

7. HASH FUNCTIONS

it produces an enormous volume of data—at least double the

size of the original information. An improvement on the above

scheme is the addition of a one-way hash function in the process.

A one-way hash function takes variable-length input—in this

case, a message of any length, even thousands or millions of bits

—and produces a fixed-length output; say, 160 bits. The hash

function ensures that, if the information is changed in any way—

even by just one bit— an entirely different output value is

produced.

plaintext the user is signing. This generates a fixed-length data

item known as a message digest. (Again, any change to the

information results in a totally different digest.)

17

Then PGP uses the digest and the private key to create the

“signature.” PGP transmits the signature and the plaintext

together. Upon receipt of the message, the recipient uses PGP to

recompute the digest, thus verifying the signature. PGP can

encrypt the plaintext or not; signing plaintext is useful if some of

the recipients are not interested in or capable of verifying the

signature.

someone’s signature from one document and attach it to

another, or to alter a signed message in any way. The slightest

change to a signed document will cause the digital signature

verification process to fail.

validating the keys of other PGP users.

18

The Advantages of Public-Key Cryptography Compared with Secret-Key

Cryptography is as follow:-

and convenience: private keys never need to transmitted or revealed to

anyone. In a secret-key system, by contrast, the secret keys must be

transmitted (either manually or through a communication channel), and

there may be a chance that an enemy can discover the secret keys during

their transmission.

method for digital signatures. Authentication via secret-key systems

requires the sharing of some secret and sometimes requires trust of a

third party as well. As a result, a sender can repudiate a previously

authenticated message by claiming that the shared secret was somehow

compromised by one of the parties sharing the secret. For example, the

Kerberos secret-key authentication system involves a central database

that keeps copies of the secret keys of all users; an attack on the

database would allow widespread forgery. Public-key authentication, on

the other hand, prevents this type of repudiation; each user has sole

responsibility for protecting his or her private key. This property of public-

key authentication is often called non-repudiation

.

Cryptography is as follow:-

there are popular secret-key encryption methods that are significantly

faster than any currently available public-key encryption method.

Nevertheless, public-key cryptography can be used with secret-key

cryptography to get the best of both worlds. For encryption, the best

solution is to combine public- and secret-key systems in order to get both

the security advantages of public-key systems and the speed advantages

of secret-key systems. The public-key system can be used to encrypt a

secret key which is used to encrypt the bulk of a file or message. Such a

protocol is called a digital envelope.

even if users' private keys are not available. A successful attack on a

certification authority will allow an adversary to impersonate whomever

the adversary chooses to by using a public-key certificate from the

compromised authority to bind a key of the adversary's choice to the name

of another user.

19

• In some situations, public-key cryptography is not necessary and secret-

key cryptography alone is sufficient. This includes environments where

secure secret-key agreement can take place, for example by users

meeting in private. It also includes environments where a single authority

knows and manages all the keys, e.g., a closed banking system. Since the

authority knows everyone's keys already, there is not much advantage for

some to be "public" and others "private." Also, public-key cryptography is

usually not necessary in a single-user environment. For example, if you

want to keep your personal files encrypted, you can do so with any secret-

key encryption algorithm using, say, your personal password as the secret

key. In general, public-key cryptography is best suited for an open multi-

user environment.

but rather to supplement it, to make it more secure. The first use of public-

key techniques was for secure key exchange in an otherwise secret-key

system ; this is still one of its primary functions. Secret-key cryptography

remains extremely important and is the subject of much ongoing study and

research. Some secret-key cryptosystems are discussed in the sections

on block ciphers and stream ciphers.

The three encryption techniques are used for following reasons:

• Secret-key cryptography: ideally suited to encrypting message

• public-key cryptography : for Key exchange

Security services

1. Authentication

2. Data Confidentiality

3. Data Integrity

4. Non repudiation

5. Availability Services

Security mechanism

1. Specific security Mechanism

2. Pervasive Security Mechanism

20

Security attacks

1. Passive Attacks

a. Release of message contents

b. Traffic analysis

2.Active Attacks

a. Masquerade

b. Replay

c. Modification of messages

d. Denial of services

9. APPLICATIONS

Computer password.

ATM security.

Military security

Electronic commerce.

Authentication of messages.

Digital signatures.

Interactive proofs

Secure compututers

10. EXAMPLES:

This payroll information is frequently transmitted over the Internet from

participating companies. For security reasons, the ABC company conducts all of

its Internet transactions using public key cryptography. The company owns both a

public and a private encryption key. The public key is made available to all

participating organizations and in fact is openly available to anyone who wants to

download it from the ABC website. The private key is kept secure in a bank vault

at ABC headquarters. When the XYZ company wants to transmit its payroll data

to the ABC company, it first encrypts the data using the ABC company’s public

key. Once it’s encrypted, the scrambled payroll data is transmitted securely over

the Internet to the ABC company’s processing department. If the information is

intercepted along the way, all the interceptors will see is scrambled information.

Even if they have the public key, which is very possible, they will not be able to

unscramble the information. Only the private key can do that. Once the

21

information is received by ABC, the private key is used to unscramble the

information, allowing the processing department to process the payroll.

• Using symmetric cryptography the ABC company would have to deliver, through

some secure means (such as a courier), a copy of its one and only private key.

Since the same key is used to both encrypt and decrypt the information, both

sender and receiver must have a copy. So if XYZ is a new client for ABC, ABC

must send XYZ a copy of the secret key so that XYZ can then encrypt its payroll

information and transmit it to ABC. ABC, using the same key, decrypts XYZ’s

information and processes the payroll data. Since a system is only as strong as its

weakest link, key security during transmission becomes as important for XYZ as

encrypting the data.

called digital signatures. Digital signatures involve a reversing of the normal

public/private encryption/decryption process. Here is an example that

demonstrates its use. Suppose Mary wants to send the ABC company a request for

a special document. Before the ABC company can send that document, they must

be assured that the requestor is actually Mary. A digital signature can verify

Mary’s validity to ABC in the following way. Mary first encrypts her name using

her private key. She then encrypts the request along with the encrypted name

using the ABC company’s well-known public key. When the ABC company

receives the message, it decrypts the request using its private key and then

decrypts the signature using Mary’s well-publicized public key. If the name

decrypts successfully, then it must be Mary’s signature since she is the only one

who could have encrypted it with her secret private key. The request can be safely

processed.

signature verification such as contracts and other legal negotiations as well as

court documents. Recent enhancements to digital signatures include digital time

stamps. Digital timestamps apply a “when” criteria to a digital signature by

attaching a widely publicized summary number to the signature. That summary

number is only produced at some given point in time, essentially linking that

signature to a certain date/time. It’s an especially effective technology since it

doesn’t rely on the security of keys.

• As mentioned earlier that for large documents, use of public key cryptography is

prohibitive because transmission speeds are so slow. By using something called a

digital envelope, the best of both symmetric (transmission speed) and public key

(security) cryptography can be used. Here is an example of how a digital envelope

works. Mary wants to send a very large document to her main office overseas.

Because of its sensitivity, Mary believes it should be sent using public key

22

cryptography but knows she can’t because it’s too large. She decides to use a

digital envelope.

• Mary first creates a special session key and uses this key to symmetrically encrypt

her document. That is, she uses a symmetric cryptographic algorithm. She then

encrypts the session key with her organization’s public key. So now the document

is encrypted using symmetric cryptography and the key that encrypted it is

encrypted using public key cryptography. The encrypted key is called the digital

envelope. She then transmits both the key and the document to the main office.

• At the main office, the company’s private key is used to decrypt the session key.

Then the session key is used to decrypt the document. Transmission was fast and

just as secure as using public key cryptography exclusively [1:24]. Digital

envelops offer the benefits of both approaches without sacrificing security..

FUTURE ASPECTS:

Crypto Ring Processors

Java Rings

Distributed crypto crackers

S/MIME Cracking Screen Savers

"Chinese Television" crypto crackers

CRYPTOGRAPHY:

DNA Cryptography:

• DNA cryptography is a new born cryptographic field emerged with the research

of DNA computing, in which DNA is used as information carrier and the modern

biological technology is used as implementation tool.

23

• The vast parallelism and extraordinary information density inherent in DNA

molecules are explored for cryptographic purposes such as encryption,

authentication, signature, and so on.

QUANTUM Cryptography:

other forms of cryptography but through the use of photons, or packets of light.

The process, though still in experimental stages, makes use of the polarization

nature of light and is proving to be a very promising defense against

eavesdropping.

12. CONCLUSION:

With the introduction of computer, the need for automated tools for protecting files &

other information stored on the computer, to protect these type of files & our network we

use cryptography.

13. BIBLIOGRAPHY:

• www.cryptography.com

• www.wikipedia.com

• www.io.com/~hcexres/power_tools/hyperweb/website1.PDF

• www.abo.fi/~ipetre/crypto

• www.google.com

• www.howstuffworks.com

24

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