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Automotive industry
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The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells the world's motor
vehicles. In 2009, more than 60 million motor vehicles, including cars and commercial vehicles
were produced worldwide.[1]
In 2007, a total of 79.9 million new automobiles were sold worldwide: 22.9 million in Europe,
21.4 million in Asia-Pacific, 19.4 million in USA and Canada, 4.4 million in Latin America, 2.4
million in the Middle East and 1.4 million in Africa.[2] The markets in North America and Japan
were stagnant, while those in South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly. Of the major
markets, China, Russia, Brazil and India saw the most rapid growth, and China became both the
largest automobile producer and market in the world after experiencing massive growth in 2009.
In the first quarter of 2010, the total sales of automobile were 4.61 millions in China, and the
total sales were expected to be around 17 millions(13.65 millions in 2009) for the year of 2010,
nearly twice as much as USA.
About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world, there were about
806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007; they burn over 260 billion gallons of
gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China.[3] In the
opinion of some, urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable,
consuming excessive energy, affecting the health of populations, and delivering a declining level
of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative impacts fall disproportionately
on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive cars.[4][5][6] The sustainable
transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems.
In 2008, with rapidly rising oil prices, industries such as the automotive industry, are
experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material costs and changes in
consumer buying habits. The industry is also facing increasing external competition from the
public transport sector, as consumers re-evaluate their private vehicle usage.[7] Roughly half of
the US's fifty-one light vehicle plants are projected to permanently close in the coming years,
with the loss of another 200,000 jobs in the sector, on top of the 560,000 jobs lost this decade.[8].

• 1 History
• 2 Crisis in the automotive industry
• 3 World motor vehicle production
○ 3.1 By Country
○ 3.2 By Manufacturer
• 4 Company relationships
• 5 Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)
○ 5.1 Notes
• 6 Minor automotive manufacturers
• 7 See also
• 8 References
• 9 External links

[edit] History
The first practical automobile with a Petrol engine was built by Karl Benz in 1885 in Mannheim,
Germany. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first
production of automobiles in 1888, after Bertha Benz, his wife, had proved with the first long-
distance trip in August 1888 - from Mannheim to Pforzheim and back - that the horseless coach
was absolutely suitable for daily use. Since 2008 a Bertha Benz Memorial Route commemorates
this event.
Soon after, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Stuttgart in 1889 designed a vehicle from
scratch to be an automobile, rather than a horse-drawn carriage fitted with an engine. They also
are usually credited as inventors of the first motorcycle in 1886, but Italy's Enrico Bernardi, of
the University of Padua, in 1882, patented a 0.024 horsepower (17.9 W) 122 cc (7.4 cu in) one-
cylinder petrol motor, fitting it into his son's tricycle, making it at least a candidate for the first
automobile, and first motorcycle;.[9]:p.26 Bernardi enlarged the tricycle in 1892 to carry two adults.

Main article: Automotive industry by country

[edit] Crisis in the automotive industry
Main article: Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009
[edit] World motor vehicle production
See also: List of countries by motor vehicle production
[edit] By Country
« previous year Top 20 motor vehicle producing countries 2009 next
year »
Motor vehicle production (units)
Country 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,0007,000,000

China 13,790,994

Japan 7,934,516

United 5,711,823
Germa 5,209,857

South 3,512,916

Brazil 3,182,617

India 2,632,694

Spain 2,170,078

France 2,049,762

Mexic 1,557,290
Canada 1,489,651

UK 1,090,139

Czech 974,569

Thaila 968,305

Poland 879,186

Turkey 869,605

Italy 843,239

Iran 752,310

Russia 722,431

Belgiu 522,810
Reference: "Production Statistics". OICA. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
[edit] By Manufacturer
« previous year — Top motor vehicle manufacturing companies by
volume 2008 next year »
Total motor vehicle production
Group 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000
Heavy Commercial
Key Cars Light Commercial Vehicles VehiclesHeavy
Toyota 9,237,780
Volkswagen* 6,517,288
Ford 5,407,000
Honda 3,912,700
Nissan 3,395,065
PSA 3,325,407
Hyundai** 2,777,137
Suzuki 2,623,567
Fiat 2,524,325
Renault 2,417,351
Daimler 2,174,299
Chrysler 1,893,068
BMW 1,439,918
Kia** 1,395,324
Mazda 1,349,274
Mitsubishi 1,309,231
AvtoVAZ 801,563
Tata 798,265
FAW 637,720
Fuji 616,497
Isuzu 538,810
Dongfeng 489,266
Chery 350,560
SAIC 282,003
Volvo 248,991
Brilliance 241,553
Harbin Hafei 226,754
Geely 220,955
BYD 192,971
GAZ 187,053
Mahindra 162,816
Proton 157,306
Great Wall 129,651
Paccar 125,084
M.A.N. 108,053
Porsche 96,721
LUAZ 90,548
Navistar 90,264
Shannxi Auto 75,220
UAZ 72,181
Kuozui 67,891
Heavy Commercial
Key Cars Light Commercial Vehicles VehiclesHeavy
Total global production: 69,561,356
Reference: "World motor vehicle production by manufacturer: World
ranking of manufacturers 2008". OICA. July 2009.
* Volkswagen Group total includes Scania production figures, which OICA
lists separately. Scania is a VW Group subsidiary.
** Hyundai Kia Automotive Group and Kia Motors are listed separately as
the former owns only 38.67% of the latter.
[edit] Company relationships
It is common for automobile manufacturers to hold stakes in other automobile manufacturers.
These ownerships can be explored under the detail for the individual companies.
Notable current relationships include:
• Daimler AG holds a 20% stake in Eicher Motors, a 10.0% stake in KAMAZ, a 10% stake
in Tesla Motors, a 6.75% stake in Tata Motors and a 3.1% in the Renault-Nissan Motors
alliance. They are in the process of selling back their 40% stake in McLaren Group. This
process will be finalized in 2011.
• Dongfeng Motor Corporation is involved in joint ventures with several companies in
China, including: Honda, Hyundai, Nissan, Nissan Diesel, and PSA Peugeot Citroen.
• Fiat holds a 85% stake in Ferrari and a 20% stake in Chrysler, that can be increased to
35%; with the option of increasing its stake further.
• Ford Motor Company holds a 13.4% stake in Mazda and an 8.3% share in Aston Martin.
• Geely Automobile holds a 23% stake in Manganese Bronze Holdings.
• General Motors and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) have two joint
ventures in Shanghai General Motors and SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile.
• Hyundai Kia Automotive Group holds a 38.67% stake in Kia Motors, down from the
51% that it acquired in 1998.
• MAN SE holds a 17.01% voting stake in Scania.
• Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.74% stake in Volkswagen Group. Due to
liquidity problems, Volkswagen Group is now in the process of acquiring Porsche.
• Renault-Nissan Motors have an alliance involving two global companies linked by cross-
shareholding, with Renault holding 44.3% of Nissan shares, and Nissan holding 15% of
(non-voting) Renault shares. The alliance holds a 3.1% share in Daimler AG.
• Renault holds a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ and 20.5% of the voting stakes in Volvo Group.
• Toyota holds a 51% stake in Daihatsu, and 16.5% in Fuji Heavy Industries, parent
company of Subaru.
• Volkswagen Group and FAW have a joint venture.
• Volkswagen Group and Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) have a joint
venture in Shanghai Volkswagen Automotive.
• Volkswagen Group holds a 37.73% stake in Scania (68.6% voting rights), and a 29%
stake in MAN SE.
• Volkswagen Group has a 49.9% stake in Porsche AG. Volkswagen is in the process of
acquiring Porsche, which will be completed in mid-2011.
• Volkswagen Group has a 19.9% stake in Suzuki, and Suzuki has a 5% stake in
[edit] Top vehicle manufacturing groups (by volume)
The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the
marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2008 end of year production figures from
the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[10] for the parent group,
and then alphabetically by marque.
Country of
Marque Ownership Markets

1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)

Daihatsu Subsidiary Global, except North America and Australia
Asia Pacific, North America and South
Hino Subsidiary
Lexus Division Global
Scion Division North America
Toyota Division Global

2. General Motors Company ( United States)

Buick Division North America, Middle East, East Asia
Global, except South America, South Asia,
Cadillac Division
South East Asia, Pacific
Global, except Australia, New Zealand,
Chevrolet Division
South Korea
Daewoo Subsidiary South Korea
GMC Division North America, Middle East
Holden Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Europe (except UK), Russia, South Africa,
Opel Subsidiary
Vauxhall Subsidiary United Kingdom

3. Volkswagen Group AG* ( Germany)

Audi Subsidiary Global
Bentley Subsidiary Global
Bugatti Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini Subsidiary Global
Porsche Subsidiary Global
Scania Subsidiary Global
Europe, South America, North Africa,
SEAT Subsidiary
Middle East
Global, except North America and South
Škoda Subsidiary
Volkswagen Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial
Subsidiary Global

4. Ford Motor Company ( United States)

Ford Division Global
Lincoln Division North America, Middle East, South Korea
Mercury Division North America, Middle East
Troller Subsidiary South America and Africa

5. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)

Acura Division North America, East Asia, Russia
Honda Division Global

6. Nissan Motor Company ( Japan)

Infiniti Division Global, except South America and Africa
Nissan Division Global

7. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)

Citroën Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia
Peugeot Subsidiary Global, except North America, South Asia

8. Hyundai Motor Company ( South Korea)

Hyundai Division Global

9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)

Maruti Suzuki Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
Suzuki Division Global

10. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)

Abarth Subsidiary Global, except North America
Alfa Romeo Subsidiary Global
Ferrari Subsidiary Global
Fiat Subsidiary Global, except North America
Fiat Professional Subsidiary Global, except North America
Irisbus Subsidiary Global, except North America
Iveco Subsidiary Global, except North America
Lancia Subsidiary Europe
Maserati Subsidiary Global

11. Renault S.A. ( France)

Dacia Subsidiary Europe, Latin America, Asia, Africa
Renault (cars) Division Global, except North America, South Asia
Renault Samsung Subsidiary Asia, South America

12. Daimler AG ( Germany)

Freightliner Subsidiary North America, South Africa
Master Subsidiary Pakistan
Maybach Division Global
Mercedes-Benz Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Subsidiary Global
Orion Subsidiary North America
Setra Subsidiary Europe
North America, Europe, South East Asia,
Smart Division
South Africa
Thomas Built Subsidiary North America
Western Star Subsidiary North America

13. Chrysler Group, LLC ( United States)

Chrysler Division Global
Dodge Division Global
GEM Division North America
Jeep Division Global
Ram Division North America

14. BMW AG ( Germany)

BMW Division Global
MINI Division Global
Rolls-Royce Subsidiary Global

15. Kia Motors Corporation ( South Korea)

Kia Division Global

16. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)

Mazda Division Global

17. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)

Mitsubishi Division Global

18. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)

Lada Division Russia, Europe, North Africa
VAZ Division Russia, Europe

19. Tata Motors, Ltd ( India)

Hispano Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar Subsidiary Global
Land Rover Subsidiary Global
Tata Division India, South Africa
Tata Daewoo Subsidiary South Korea

20. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China)

Besturn Division China
Freewind Subsidiary China
Haima Subsidiary China
Hongqi Division China
Jiaxing Subsidiary China
Vita Subsidiary China
Xiali Subsidiary China

21. Fuji Heavy Industries, Ltd ( Japan)

Subaru Division Global

22. Isuzu Motors, Ltd ( Japan)

Isuzu Division Global, except North America

23. Chana Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

Chana Division China, South Africa

24. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China)

Dongfeng Division China

25. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of

BAW Division China
Foton Subsidiary China

26. Chery Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

Chery Division China, Africa, South East Asia, Russia

27. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China)

MG Subsidiary United Kingdom, Chile, Argentina
SsangYong Subsidiary South Korea
Roewe Division China
Soyat Division China
Yuejin Division China

28. AB Volvo ( Sweden)

Mack Subsidiary Global
Nissan Diesel Subsidiary Global
NovaBus Subsidiary North America
Prevost Subsidiary North America
Renault (trucks) Subsidiary Global
Volvo (trucks) Division Global

29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

Brilliance Division China, North Africa
Jinbei Subsidiary China

30. Harbin Hafei Automobile Industry Group, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Hafei Division China

31. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China)

Geely Division China, Russia, North Africa
Maple Division China
Volvo (Cars) Subsidiary Global

32. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

JAC Division China

33. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China)

BYD Division China, Russia

34. GAZ Group ( Russia)

GAZ Division Russia
KAvZ Subsidiary Russia
LiAZ Subsidiary Russia
Ural Subsidiary Russia

35. Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd ( India)

Mahindra Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa

36. Proton Holdings, Bhd ( Malaysia)

Proton Division Asia Pacific, South Africa, United Kingdom
Lotus Subsidiary Global

37. Great Wall Motor Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

Great Wall Division China, South Africa, Russia, North Africa

38. Paccar, Inc ( United States)

DAF Subsidiary Global, except North America
Kenworth Division North America
Leyland Subsidiary Europe
Peterbilt Division North America

39. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

Lifan Division China

40. MAN SE ( Germany)

MAN Division Europe
Neoplan Division Europe and Middle East
Volkswagen (trucks) Division South America

41. Jiangxi Changhe Automobile, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

Changhe Division China

42. China National Heavy Duty Truck Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Sinotruk Division China

43. LuAZ ( Ukraine)

LuAZ Subsidiary Ukraine

44. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)

IC Subsidiary North America
International Division North America, South Asia

45. Shaanxi Automobile Group Company, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)

Shaanxi Division China

46. UAZ OJSC ( Russia)

UAZ Subsidiary Russia

47. Ashok Leyland ( India)

Ashok Leyland Division India

48. Kuozui Motors, Ltd ( Taiwan)

Kuozui Motors Ltd Subsidiary Taiwan

[edit] Notes
* Porsche Automobil Holding SE has a 50.7 percent share in the Volkswagen Group.[11]
However, Volkswagen Group will acquire Porsche AG, the automotive manufacturer under a
new "Integrated Automotive Group". This merger/acquisition is expected to be fully completed
in mid-2011.[12][13]
[edit] Minor automotive manufacturers
Main article: Minor automotive manufacturing groups
There are many automobile manufacturers other than the major global companies. They are
mostly regional or operating in niche markets.
[edit] See also
• Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers
• Automotive industry by country
• Automotive industry crisis of 2008–2009
• Automotive market
• Big Three automobile manufacturers
• Effects of the 2008-2009 automotive industry crisis on the United States
• List of auto parts
• List of former automotive manufacturing plants
• Top 20 motor vehicle producing companies
[edit] References
1. ^ "World Motor Vehicle Production by Country: 2008-2009". OICA.
2. ^ "2008 Global Market Data Book", Automotive News, p.5
3. ^ Plunkett Research, "Automobile Industry Introduction" (2008)
4. ^ Kenworthy, J R (2004). "Transport Energy Use and Greenhouse Emissions in Urban
Passenger Transport Systems" (PDF). Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy. Retrieved 2008-07-22.
5. ^ World Health Organisation, Europe. "Health effects of transport". Retrieved 2008-08-29.
6. ^ Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Prime Minister (UK). "Making the Connections -
final report on transport and social exclusion" (PDF).
1OTXBm9EA&sig2=o-ASe9xe84uOEJTQt-DxuQ. Retrieved 2003-02-01.
7. ^ IBISWorld Newsletter, June 2008, GLOBAL TRENDS Oil – The Crude Reality of
Current trends, IBISWorld
8. ^ Jeff Rubin (2009-03-02). "Wrong Turn" (PDF). CIBC World Markets.
9. ^ a b Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal,
10. ^ "World Motor Vehicle Production: World Ranking of Manufacturers 2008" (PDF).
OICA. Retrieved 2009-06-
11. ^ "Volkswagen Group - Shareholder Structure". Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft.
older_Structure.html. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
12. ^ Porsche Automobil Holding SE, Stuttgart (20 November 2009). "Porsche Supervisory
Board agrees on the contracts of implementation". Press release. http://www.porsche- Retrieved 22 November 2009.
13. ^ Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft (13 August 2009). "Volkswagen Supervisory Board
approves Comprehensive Agreement for an Integrated Automotive Group with Porsche".
Press release.
Aufsichtsrat_stimmt_Grundlagenvereinbarung_fuer.html. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
Pioneer Auto Compaines 1897-1904; N.Y.S.
• Amsterdam NY: Tillerwilliger Steamer
• Buffalo; Thomas 1902 Runabout
• Elmira, Steam Car 1902
• IlLion NY; 1900 Remington Runabout
• Fort Plain NY; Spring and Axel. 1897, 1902, 1903 Dr. Runabouts
• Utica NY: 1903 Buckmobile
[edit] External links
Look up automotive industry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

• Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers

• Doumental Detroit Industry Automotive
• Automotive engineering learning website
• Plunkett Research, "Automobile Industry Introduction" (2008)
• Automotive Industry Analysis
• All vehicle manufacturers in the world (in Dutch with English etc. translation)
• Car makes of the world, 1894—present
• Automotive history and photos
• Automaker Rankings 2007: The Environmental Performance of Car Companies
• GFC - Motor Industry Repurcussions - Carsguide - Chrysler to file for bankruptcy
• GFC - Motor Industry Repercussions - Carsguide - GM kills Pontiac
• List of car trims (car sub models) 1989 - present
• The Best Automotive News
Retrieved from ""
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