GEOGUIDE 2

GUIDE TO SITE INVESTIGATION

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING OFFICE Civil Engineering Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

GEOGUIDE 2

GUIDE TO SITE INVESTIGATION

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING OFFICE Civil Engineering Department The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

2

© The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
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First published, September 1987 Reprinted, December 1990 Reprinted, December 1993 Reprinted, September 1996 Reprinted, October 2000 Prepared by: Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering Department, Civil Engineering Building, 101 Princess Margaret Road, Homantin, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

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This publication is available from: Government Publications Centre, Ground Floor, Low Block, Queensway Government Offices, 66 Queensway, Hong Kong. Overseas orders should be placed with: Publications Sales Section, Information Services Department, Room 402, 4th Floor, Murray Building, Garden Road, Central, Hong Kong. Price in Hong Kong: HK$80 Price overseas: US$18.5 (including surface postage) An additional bank charge of HK$50 or US$6.50 is required per cheque made in currencies other than Hong Kong dollars. Cheques, bank drafts or money orders must be made payable to The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.
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FOREWORD
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This Geoguide p r e s e n t s a recommended s t a n d a r d of good practice f o r s i t e investigation in Hong Kong, t h e need f o r which was formally recognized a s early as July 1983 b y t h e Subcommittee of t h e Building Authority Working P a r t y on Geotechnical Regulations. In i t s format a n d content, t h e Geoguide follows closely t h e British S t a n d a r d BS 5930 : 1981. Code of Practice f o r Site Investigations, b u t t h e recommendations in t h e British S t a n d a r d h a v e been adapted t o s u i t local conditions a n d practices. I t should be used in conjunction with t h e companion document, Guide t o Rock a n d Soil Descriptions (Geoguide 3). These Geoguides expand upon, a n d largely replace, Chapter 2 of t h e Geotechnical Manual f o r Slopes. This Geoguide covers Sections 1 t o 7 of BS 5930, while Section 8 i s dealt with in Geoguide 3. I t h a s been p r e p a r e d in such a way t h a t t h e organization a n d format of t h e British S t a n d a r d have generally been p r e s e r v e d . Where portions of BS 5930 h a v e been adopted in t h e t e x t without significant amendment, t h i s is clearly denoted b y t h e u s e of a n i M c typeface. I t should be noted t h a t t h i s Geoguide gives guidance on good s i t e investigation practice a n d , a s such, i t s recommendations a r e not mandatory. I t i s recognized t h a t t h e practitioner will often need t o u s e alternative methods. There will also b e improvements in s i t e investigation practice d u r i n g t h e life of t h e document which will s u p e r s e d e some of i t s recommendations. The Geoguide was p r e p a r e d in t h e Geotechnical Control Office ( G C O ) u n d e r t h e general direction of M r J.B. Massey. The main c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e document were D r A. Cipullo, M r K.S. Smith a n d M r D.R. Greenway, with significant contributions d u r i n g t h e final s t a g e s of preparation from D r P.L.R. Pang a n d D r R.P. Martin. Mamy o t h e r members of t h e G C O made valuable suggestions and contributions. To e n s u r e t h a t t h e Geoguide would be considered a c o n s e n s u s document of t h e civil engineering profession i n Hong Kong, a d r a f t version was circulated widely f o r comment in early 1987 t o contractors, consulting e n g i n e e r s a n d Government Departments. Many organizations a n d individuals made useful a n d constructive comments, which have been t a k e n i n t o account in finalizing t h e Geoguide, a n d t h e i r contributions a r e gratefully acknowledged. Practitioners a r e encouraged t o comment a t a n y time t o t h e Geotechnical Control Office on t h e c o n t e n t s of t h i s Geoguide, s o t h a t improvements can be made t o f u t u r e editions.

E.W. Brand Principal Government Geotechnical Engineer September 1987

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5

CONTENTS
Page No.

T I T L E PAGE FOREWORD CONTENTS PART I : INTRODUCTION

1

1,
2.

SCOPE TERMINOLOGY

PART I 1 : GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

3,

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF S I T E INVESTIGATION GENERAL PROCEDURES
4.1 EXTENT AND S E Q U E N C E OF INVESTIGATION 4.1.1 General 4.1.2 Adjacent Property DESK STUDY S I T E RECONNAISSANCE DETAILED EXAMINATION AND SPECIAL S T U D I E S CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE A P P R A I S A L

4,

4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

5.

EARLIER USES OF THE SITE
5.1
5.2 5.3

GENERAL TUNNELS MINES AND QUARRIES WASTE T I P S OTHER EARLIER U S E S

5.4 5.5

Page No.
5.6

ANCIENT MONUMENTS

6,

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS
6.1 6.2

GENERAL T O P O G R A P H I C M A P S AND A E R I A L P H O T O G R A P H I C IMAGERY 6.2.1 M a p a n d Plan Scales 6.2.2 A e r i a l Photographic I m a g e r y 6.2.3 O r t h o p h o t o M a p s and Plans AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION 6.3.1 Identification and Interpretation of Ground Features 6.3.2 E x a m p l e s o f A P I in H o n g K o n g

6.3

PART I 1 1 : PLANNING THE GROUND INVESTIGATION

7,

INTRODUCTION TO GROUND INVESTIGATION
7.1 7.2

OBJECTIVES P L A N N I N G AND CONTROL

8,

TYPES OF GROUND INVESTIGATION
8.1 8.2 8.3

S I T E S FOR NEW W O R K S D E F E C T S OR F A I L U R E S O F E X I S T I N G F E A T U R E S OR WORKS S A F E T Y O F E X I S T I N G F E A T U R E S AND W O R K S 8.3.1 E f f e c t o f N e w W o r k s upon E x i s t i n g F e a t u r e s and W o r k s 8.3.2 T y p e s of E f f e c t s 8.3.3 Procedure M A T E R I A L S FOR CONSTRUCTION P U R P O S E S

8.4

9,

GEOLOGICAL MAPPING FOR GROUND INVESTIGATION

10, EXTENT OF THE GROUND INVESTIGATION
10.1 10.2 10.3

GENERAL C H A R A C T E R AND V A R I A B I L I T Y O F T H E GROUND NATURE O F THE PROJECT 10.3.1 General

10 S O I L S D E R I V E D F R O M I N S I T U ROCK W E A T H E R I N G 12.2 GENERAL S I T E CONSIDERATIONS 12. C O B B L E S OR G R A V E L FILL ROCK 12.7 12. EFFECT OF GROUND CONDITIONS ON INVESTIGATION METHODS 12.7.1 General 10.7 Marine Works 10.4 12.7.4 10.3.11 D I S C O N T I N U I T I E S 12. SELECTION OF GROUND INVESTIGATION METHODS 1 11.6 Pipelines 10.9 12.7. C O B B L E S OR G R A V E L GRANULAR S O I L S INTERMEDIATE S O I L S VERY S O F T T O S O F T COHESIVE S O I L S FIRM TO S T I F F COHESIVE S O I L S C O H E S I V E S O I L S CONTAINING B O U L D E R S .5 10.2 10.5 Pavements 10.6 12.3 12.2 F o u n d a t i o n s for Structures 10.7.7.1 11.5 12.8 12.3 Embankments 10.3 10.2 GENERAL GRANULAR S O I L S CONTAINING B O U L D E R S .8 Tunnels 1 .7. 10.4 C u t Slopes 10.3.Page NO.7.12 C A V I T I E S .6 10.7.1 12.7 Slope a n d R e t a i n i n g W a l l C o n s t r u c t i o n Foundations for Structures PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION LOCATION SPACING DEPTH O F EXPLORATION 10.

1 14.1 16.8 GENERAL P L A N N I N G AND D I R E C T I O N SUPERVISION IN THE FIELD LOGGING AND D E S C R I P T I O N O F GROUND C O N D I T I O N S LABORATORY T E S T I N G S P E C I A L I S T ADVICE INTERPRETATION OPERATIVES 16.3 13.2 15. 13. GROUND INVESTIGATIONS OVER WATER 14.1 13.7 GENERAL S T A G E S AND P L A T F O R M S FLOATING CRAFT WORKING B E T W E E N T I D E L E V E L S LOCATING BOREHOLE P O S I T I O N S DETERMINATION O F REDUCED L E V E L S D R I L L I N G .2 14. AGGRESSIVE GROUND AND GROUNDWATER 13.6 15.2 13.3 15. S A M P L I N G AND T E S T I N G 15.Page NO.6 14.4 14.2 16. REVIEW DURING CONSTRUCTION 16.3 14.4 65 65 65 65 66 GENERAL INVESTIGATION O F POTENTIAL DETERIORATION O F CONCRETE INVESTIGATION O F P O T E N T I A L CORROSION O F S T E E L I N V E S T I G A T I O N O F F I L L CONTAINING I N D U S T R I A L W A S T E S 14.5 14.5 15.7 15.3 GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION REQUIRED .1 15. PERSONNEL FOR GROUND INVESTIGATION 15.4 15.

3.2 Sampling Procedure 19.1 Wash Boring 18.3.2 19.1 18. EXCAVATIONS AND BOREHOLES 18.2 18.4 . 16.4.7.1 16.2 16. INTRODUCTION TO GROUND INVESTIGATION METHODS 18.7.8.9 19.4.4 G e n e r a l P u r p o s e 100 mm D i a m e t e r O p e n .7 S H A L L O W T R I A L P I T S AND S L O P E S U R F A C E S T R I P P I N G D E E P T R I A L P I T S AND C A I S S O N S H E A D I N G S OR A D I T S HAND A U G E R BORING L I G H T C A B L E P E R C U S S I O N BORING MECHANICAL A U G E R S ROTARY 18.1 Principles of Design 19.8 WASH B O R I N G AND O T H E R M E T H O D S 18.5 18.3 Thin-Walled S a m p l e r s 19.T u b e Sampler 19. SAMPLING THE GROUND 19.4.4 18.8.1 18.6 18.7.2 O t h e r M e t h o d s of B o r i n g B A C K F I L L I N G E X C A V A T I O N S AND B O R E H O L E S 18.2 18.Page NO.3 18.3 GENERAL SAMPLE QUALITY D I S T U R B E D S A M P L E S F R O M BORING T O O L S OR EXCAVATING E Q U I P M E N T OPEN-TUBE SAMPLERS 19.4 Soil and R o c k Water INSTRUMENTATION PART I V : GROUND INVESTIGATION METHODS 17.1 19.3 O P E N H O L E D R I L L I N G AND ROTARY C O R E D R I L L I N G General Flushing Medium Inclined D r i l l i n g 18.4.

GROUNDWATER 20.3 21.5 19.2.10.2.5 Split Barrel S t a n d a r d Penetration Test Sampler 19.2.1 General 19.2.6 THIN-WALLED STATIONARY PISTON SAMPLER CONTINUOUS SOIL SAMPLING 19.1 20.2.2.1 Response Time 20.1 General 19.10.8 Varying Groundwater P r e s s u r e s 20.10. TESTS I N BOREHOLES 21.6 Pneumatic Piezometers 20.4 19.9 19.3 Advantages a n d Limitations 21.0.2.1 General Principles 21.2.4.2 GENERAL STANDARD PENETRATION TESTS 21.10 HANDLING AND LABELLING OF SAMPLES 19.7 19.10.2.3 Disturbed Samples of Soil a n d Hand 19.2.4 Results a n d Interpretation . 19.6.1 21.8 19.10.9 Soil Suction GROUNDWATER SAMPLES 20.2 Labelling 19.4 Hydraulic Piezometers 20.1.6 Specimens of Rock Samples Taken with a Tube Sampler Rotary Core Extrusion a n d Preservation Block Samples 20.7 Installation of Piezometers 20.6.2.Page NO.3 Standpipe Piezometers 20.2.5 Electrical Piezometers 20.2.2 The Delft Continuous Sampler SAND SAMPLERS R O T A R Y CORE SAMPLES BLOCK SAMPLES 19.2 Observations in Boreholes a n d Excavations 20.2 GENERAL METHODS OF DETERMINING GROUNDWATER PRESSURES 20.2 Preparation f o r Testing 21.5 19.

5.7.2 Preparations for t h e Test 21.7 21.3 22.7 A d v a n t a g e s a n d Limitations PACKER (WATER ABSORPTION) TESTS 21.2 A d v a n t a g e s a n d Limitations PERMEABILITY TESTS 21.6.4.5 T e s t s i n Rock BOREHOLE DISCONTINUITY SURVEYS 21.2 22.1 General P r i n c i p l e s 21.5 Execution of T e s t 21. FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING AND TESTING IN BOREHOLES 22.4 21.3 Forming t h e T e s t P o c k e t 21.7.4.7.6.2 Limitations 21.6 M e a s u r e m e n t of Deflection 21.1 T e s t Description 21.4.5.5.7.6.6.3.6.6.6.4 B e d d i n g of t h e P l a t e Application a n d M e a s u r e m e n t of Load 21.5.2 Core O r i e n t a t o r s 129 129 129 130 130 21.5.5 A n a l y s i s of R e s u l t s Formulae f o r Borehole Permeability T e s t s 21.8 22.4 Constant-head Test 21.4.7.2 Packers Application a n d M e a s u r e m e n t of P r e s s u r e 21.2 E q u i p m e n t Calibration 21.5.8 U s e s of t h e T e s t 21.4 M e a s u r e m e n t of Flow 21. 21.6.4.1 22.1 Impression Packer S u r v e y 21.6 21.4.7 Execution of T e s t 21.5 21.3 21.10 Horizontal P l a t e T e s t s PRESSUREMETER TESTS 21.1 General P r i n c i p l e s 21.4 Results a n d Interpretation 21.8.1 General 21.3 Preparation 21.4 GENERAL PRINCIPLES DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND PROFILE ROUTINE DETERMINATION OF SOIL AND R O C K PROPERTIES DOUBLE-HOLE SAMPLING .4.3 Variable-head T e s t 21.3.6 Results a n d Interpretation PLATE TESTS 21.8.6.Page No.3 VANE TESTS 21.6 21.5 21.9 Supplementary Test 21.6.1 General P r i n c i p l e s 21.

PUMPING TESTS 25.2 23.Page No.1 23.7 GENERAL PRINCIPLES GROUNDWATER CONDITIONS TEST SITE PUMPED WELLS OBSERVATION WELLS TEST PROCEDURES ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 26.3. FIELD TESTS 24.1 P o i n t Load S t r e n g t h 24.1 24.1 25. DISCONTINUITY SURVEYS 26.3.3.5 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES 23.2 25.6 25.5 25.1 23.4 23.3.5 23.4 25. PROBING AND PENETRATION TESTING 23.4 STATIC-DYNAMIC PROBING PART V : FIELD AND LABORATORY TESTS 24.3.3 25.6 PROBING O R CONE PENETRATION TESTING General D e s c r i p t i o n Mechanical Cone P e n e t r o m e t e r s Electrical Cone P e n e t r o m e t e r s General Recommendations U s e s a n d Limitations of t h e T e s t P r e s e n t a t i o n of R e s u l t s 23. 22.2 23.2 GENERAL R O C K STRENGTH INDEX TESTS 24.3 INFILTRATION TESTS 25.2 S c h m i d t Hammer Rebound Value 24.2.1 GENERAL .2.3 23.3.3 GENERAL DYNAMIC PROBING STATIC 23.

2 DISCONTINUITY ROUGHNESS SURVEYS 27. BEARING TESTS 29.1.8 Interpretation o f R e s u l t s HORIZONTAL AND I N C L I N E D LOADING T E S T S P R E S S U R I Z E D CHAMBER T E S T S I N S I T U CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) T E S T S 29.1.1.1 V E R T I C A L LOADING T E S T S 29.4.4 . FIELD DENSITY TESTS 27. INSITU STRESS MEASUREMENTS 28.6 27.Page No.1 General Principles 29.1.4 Test Arrangement 29.4 27.7 Analysis of Results 29.1 General 29.5 Measurements 29.2 27.3 29.2 29.6 Test Methods 29.2 Limitations of t h e T e s t 29.4.1.2 28.1 28.8 GENERAL P R I N C I P L E S SAND R E P L A C E M E N T M E T H O D CORE C U T T E R M E T H O D W E I G H T I N W A T E R METHOD WATER D I S P L A C E M E N T M E T H O D RUBBER BALLOON METHOD NUCLEAR METHODS WATER R E P L A C E M E N T M E T H O D FOR ROCK F I L L 28.1.3 S i t e Preparation 29.2 Test Method 29.3 L i m i t a t i o n s and U s e o f T e s t 29.4.7 27.1.3 GENERAL S T R E S S M E A S U R E M E N T S I N ROCK S T R E S S MEASUREMENTS IN S O I L S 29.5 27. 26.1.1 27.3 27.

3 33.2 30. I N S I T U DIRECT SHEAR TESTS 30.2 31.1 Resistivity 33.5 30.4 33.3.2. 30.3 31.3 33.4 30.2 Gravimetric 33.4 GEOPHYSICS General Echo-Sounding C o n t i n u o u s S e i s m i c Reflection P r o f i l i n g Side Scan Sonar 33.3 30.2 33.1 33.3.3.6 GENERAL PRINCIPLES SAMPLE PREPARATION TEST ARRANGEMENT MEASUREMENTS TEST METHODS ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 31.1 30.3 Magnetic 33.5 BOREHOLE LOGGING CORROSION TESTING .3 GENERAL FAILURES OTHER CASES 33.2.Page No.2 32.3.2.4 Seismic MARINE 33. GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYING 33. LARGE-SCALE F I E L D T R I A L S 31. BACK ANALYSIS 32.4 GENERAL METHODS OF INSTRUMENTATION TRIAL EMBANKMENTS AND EXCAVATIONS CONSTRUCTION TRIALS 32.1 33.2.1 31.2 GENERAL LAND GEOPHYSICS 33.1 32.

TESTS ON SOIL 37.2 Introduction 40.1 36. 40.2 37.1 40.4 Geology .1 35. TESTS ON ROCK PART V I : REPORTS AND INTERPRETATION 39.2 36.3 36. 36.3 HANDLING AND LABELLING STORAGE OF SAMPLES INSPECTION FACILITIES 183 35.4 37.2.5 GENERAL SAMPLE QUALITY SAMPLE SIZE TEST CONDITIONS RELEVANCE OF TEST RESULTS 38. 34.2 GENERAL DESCRIPTIVE REPORT 40. VISUAL EXAMINATION 36.3 37.2.3 Description of Site 40.2 35.2. FIELD REPORTS S I T E INVESTIGATION REPORT 40.2. PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY TESTING SAMPLE STORAGE AND INSPECTION F A C I L I T I E S 35.1 R e p o r t as R e c o r d 40.4 GENERAL SOIL ROCK PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDS 37.1 37.Page NO.

9 40.3.7 Failures 40.3 Presentation of Borehole Data 40.3.1 Matters t o be Covered 40.2 Data on which Interpretation i s Based 40.7 40.3.3.8 40.3.2. 40.8 Calculations 40.5 40.Page No.6 40.6 Sources of Materials 40.3.3.2.4 Design 40.9 References REFERENCES TABLES LIST OF TABLES TABLES FIGURES LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES PLATES LIST OF PLATES PLATES APPEND ICES APPENDIX A : INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESK STUDY APPENDIX B : SOURCES OF INFORMATION APPENDIX C : NOTES ON SITE RECONNAISSANCE APPENDIX D : INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION APPENDIX E : SAFETY PRECAUTIONS .3.2.3.2.5 Construction Expedients 40.3 Field Work Borehole Logs Incidence a n d Behaviour of Groundwater Location of Boreholes Laboratory Test Results a n d Sample Descriptions ENGINEERING INTERPRETATION 40.2.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents INTRODUCTION PART I .

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Less r e l e v a n t o r r a r e l y . I t is essentially BS 5930 : 1981. Because i t would not be possible t o include full coverage of all available s i t e investigation techniques. 1988). sampling. or have been specifically deleted. with. this Ceoguide is divided as follows . sub-divided a s follows : P a r t IV deals with excavation. legal or environmental character that should be taken into account in selecting the site for i n determining whether a proposed site is suitable) and in preparing the design of the works. a n d of acquiring knowledge of s i t e characteristics t h a t affect t h e design a n d construction of s u c h works a n d t h e s e c u r i t y of a d j a c e n t properties. including the influence of general condihons and ground condihbns on the selection of methods of in vestigation.- Part I/. Part II ground in vestl'gahon. P a r t s IV a n d V discuss methods of g r o u n d investigation. The l a s t section of BSI (1981a). probing a n d tests i n boreholes. has been devoted entirely to t h i s topic. the interpretation of the data obtahed from the hvescigafhn and the preparahon of the final site investigation report. P a r t V deals with field tests a n d laboratory tests on samples. Part V/. topics of particular importance in Hong Kong have been supplemented o r rewritten in t h e l i g h t of local conditions a n d experience. more comprehensive coverage given t o methods t h a t a r e less f r e q u e n t l y used. t h e expression "site investigation" h a s been used in i t s wider sense. a n d t h i s has been denoted by a n 12al1'c script. 1981a). The use of soil a n d rock a s construction materials is t r e a t e d only briefly: f u r t h e r information on t h i s is given i n BSI (1981b). From Part I1 onwards. Part V/ deals with the preparation of field reports and borebole logs. methods t h a t a r e well documented elsewhere in t h e l i t e r a t u r e receive a b b r e v i a t e d coverage in Table of Contents . a s i n BSI (1981a). A companion document. a n d t h e r e a d e r should r e f e r t o i t f o r guidance on t h e description a n d classification of Hong Kong r o c k s a n d soils. SCOPE Table of Contents Table of Contents This Geoguide deals with t h e investigation of sites in Hong Kong f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of assessing t h e i r suitability f o r civil engineering a n d building works.1. i n some cases. In t h i s Geoguide. which deals with t h e description of soils a n d r o c k s . modified a s considered desirable f o r use in Hong Kong.u s e d portions of BSI (1981a) have been incorporated only by reference. Other sections of BSI (1981a) have been repeated herein without significant amendment. While t h e basic structure a n d philosophy of BSI (1981a) has been maintained in t h i s Geoguide. I t i s often used elsewhere in a narrow s e n s e t o describe what h a s been termed herein "ground investigation". Table of Contents P a r t s IV a n d V. Part /I deals with those matters of a technical. boring. 1 Part 1 1 discusses general aspects and planning of /. is not covered in t h i s Geoguide. Code of Practice f o r Site Investigations (BSI. Geoguide 3 : Guide t o Rock a n d Soil Descriptions ( G C O . I t may b e noted t h a t t h e r e are some imbalances in treatment of t h e various topics.

In this respect. Compliance with it does not confer immunity from relevant statutory and legal requirements. The recommendations given a r e intended only a s guidance and should not be taken a s mandatory. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents This Geoguide represents a standard of good practice and therefore takes t h e form of recommendations. . it should be realized t h a t improvements to many of t h e methods will continue to evolve.this Geoguide.

These simple terms are useful in t h e classification of materials d u r i n g g r o u n d investigation f o r t h e p u r p o s e of choosing a suitable method f o r sampling t h e g r o u n d . in which a drill bit i s rotated into t h e g r o u n d f o r t h e p u r p o s e of forming t h e hole. t h e terminology given in t h e following p a r a g r a p h s has been adopted. usually b y v i r t u e of its fines content. The "matrix" of a composite soil r e f e r s t o t h e fine-grained material enclosing. o r filling t h e spaces between. A fine soil i s generally cohesive. F u r t h e r guidance on t h e u s e of t h e s e terms is given in Geoguide 3 (GCO. A "cohesive soil" is o n e which. t h e general term "borehole" i s u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s Geoguide f o r simplicity. Excluding a n y boulders o r cobbles. Conversely a " g r a n u l a r soil" o r a "cohesionless soil" will not form a c o h e r e n t mass. "Boring" is a method of advancing a cased o r uncased hole (viz a "borehole") in t h e g r o u n d a n d includes a u g e r boring. A "coarse-grained soil" o r a "coarse soil" contains less t h a n 35% of fine material a n d more t h a n 65% of coarse material ( g r a v e l a n d s a n d size particles). . 1988). "Soil" r e f e r s t o any naturally -formed e a r t h material o r fill t h a t can be broken down b y hand a n d includes rock which has weathered insitu t o t h e condition of a n engineering soil. a "fine-grained soil" or a "fine soil" i s o n e t h a t contains a b o u t 35% or more of fine material (silt a n d clay size particles). t h e l a r g e r g r a i n s o r particles i n t h e soil. I n t h i s Geoguide. TERMINOLOGY Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents A few commonly-used descriptive terms f o r geological materials a n d t y p e s of g r o u n d investigation a r e often i n t e r p r e t e d in different ways a n d t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e definition. "Rock" r e f e r s t o all solid material of natural geological origin t h a t cannot be broken down b y hand. whether t h e hole is bored. F u r t h e r guidance is given in Geoguide 3. a u g e r e d o r drilled. will form a c o h e r e n t mass.2. percussion boring a n d r o t a r y drilling . Although t h e term "drillhole" is commonly used in Hong Kong because of t h e popular u s e of t h e r o t a r y c o r e drilling method in g r o u n d investigations.

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Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS PART I 1 .

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Where alternatives emkt. to advise on the relative suitabh!ity of dXferent sites.31. or different parts of the same site.4). to foresee and provide aganst d~Yficulties delays that and may arise during construction due to ground and other l o d conditrbns. Table of Contents Table of Contents .to emstrng works. PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF SITE INVESTIGATION Table of Contents Investigatrbn of the site fk an essentrtral prelimnary to the constructlbn of a// u'vil engineering and building works.21. /e1 Choice of Site. /b1 Des~gn.3. eeither naturdy or a s a result of the works. and for invesligating cases where failure has occurred /see Sectron 8. to explore sources of indigenous mater%ds for use in constructrbn /see Sectron 8. vertrical or hor~zontal. To enable an adequate and economic design to be prepared incfud~ng design of temporary works. on aaacent works. and the effect of such changes on the works. To plan the best method of construction. Table of Contents To determine the changes that may arise in the ground and environmental conditrons. and to se/ect sites for the dfkpod of waste or surplus materials. To assess the general suitabfXty of the site and environs for the proposed works. and the objectrives h making such investrgatrons are as follows : /a1 Suitability. In additon. in appropriate cases. site hvestigatrons may be necessary in reportrng upon the safety of existrng features and works /see Sectrbn 8. and on the environment in general. /dl Effect of Changes. the fc1 Construction. for the design of exte~wons.

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topographic and hydrographic survey and spec12 studies. g r o u n d settlement o r movement. Hansen. A s far as possibfe. Adjacent buildings. road. construction activities can often affect a d j a c e n t property. 1982). assembly o f the desk study hformation shoufd be complete. 4. should be specifically considered. r e c o r d s of ground levels. or be taken out of sequence. Griffiths & Marsh.1. t e r r a i n classification a n d hazard analysis may b e useful t o delineate critical a r e a s s o t h a t detailed investigations can be concentrated in a r e a s where t h e y are most r e q u i r e d (Brand e t al. Some o f the stages may overlap. site reconnaissance. The extent of the ground investigation is discussed in Chapter 10. This may be fohwed by appraisal of performance. groundwater levels a n d r e l e v a n t particulars of a d j a c e n t properties should be made before.g. g a s o r sewage. a t least h respect of t h e aspects refated to ground condizbns. For regional s t u d i e s o r s i t e investigation of projects covering l a r g e areas. detailed examination for design. o r c h a n g e s in groundwater levels d u r i n g a n d a f t e r construction activities on t h e site. 1982. the site reconnaissance may well take place before completion o f the desk study. A site ~nvestigationwifl norma//y proceed in stages. Table of Contents . rather than the]> cost.2 Adjacent P r o p e r t y Because of t h e d e n s e u r b a n development in Hong Kong. Where possible. I t is t h e r e f o r e essential t h a t investigations should cover all f a c t o r s t h a t may affect a d j a c e n t p r o p e r t y .4.1 4. including ground in vesogation. techniques s u c h as engineering geological a n d geomorphological mapping. a s t h e y may b e affected by vibrations. as fo/laws :desk study. followup investigatJons during constructJon (Figure 1). Table of Contents Table of Contents The costs o f a site investigation are low in refatJon to the overall cost o f a project and may be further reduced b y intelligent forward planning. including pipes conveying water. for example. e. s t r u c t u r e s a n d buried services. a d e q u a t e photographic r e c o r d s should be obtained. GENERAL PROCEDURES Table of Contents 4. Hospitals a n d o t h e r buildings containing sensitive i n s t r u m e n t s o r a p p a r a t u s should b e given special consideration.3). The technicaf requirements o f the investigation shoufa' be the overriding factor in the selection o f investigatory methods. Where damage t o existing s t r u c t u r e s i s a possibility. A preliminary ground in vestigathn may be desirable to determine the extent and nature o f the main ground investigation. 1984. Discussion at an e&y stage with a speciaht contractor wifl help to formdate an efficient and economic plan.1. before ground i n vestJgatJon begins. I EXTENT AND SEQUENCE OF INVESTIGATION General The extent o f the hvestigation depends primarily upon the magnitude and nature o f the proposed works and the nature of the site. d u r i n g a n d a f t e r construction. t u n n e l o r transmission line routes. including f e a t u r e s s u c h a s slopes a n d retaining walls (see Chapter 7 a n d Section 8.

. in general. Terrain Classification. rainfall a n d piezometric data. In t h e intenselydeveloped u r b a n a r e a s of Hong Kong. Local maps a n d plans a r e easily obtained (Table 1). Erosion. b u t t h e s e have not been published. a n d laboratory t e s t r e s u l t s o n soil a n d rock samples.2 Table of Contents DESK STUDY f i r s t s t a g e in a s i t e investigation. 4. GCO. 1988.2). 1971): new 1:20 000 scale geological maps will become available between 1986 a n d 1991 (Figure 3). Systematic t e r r a i n evaluation has been u n d e r t a k e n at a scale of 1:20 000 covering t h e e n t i r e Territory (Brand et al.Special permission o r approval m u s t be obtained when t h e s i t e i s above o r near t h e Mass Transit Railway Corporation's t u n n e l s o r s t r u c t u r e s . The new geological s u r v e y u s e s different nomenclature f o r certain major rock divisions a n d rock t y p e s (Addison. Much A a b o u t a s i t e may already b e available in existing r e c o r d s .3 SITE RECONNAISSANCE Table of Contents A t a n early stage. s e e also Chapter 7). The GASP programme a n d t h e a r e a s covered by t h e GASP publications a r e shown i n Figure 4. 4. a s discussed in Chapter 6. These publications generally contain Engineering Geology. a n d examples of some of t h e 1:20 000 maps a r e given in Figure 5. t h e important s o u r c e s of information is given in Appendix B. i t will usually b e necessary t o inspect existing slopes a n d retaining walls within a n d s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s i t e a n d adjacent properties d u r i n g t h e s i t e reconnaissance s t a g e . F u r t h e r details of t h e Geotechnical Information Unit a r e given in Appendix B. Valuable information may often be obtained from aerial photographs. Table of Contents Table of Contents An important s o u r c e of basic geotechnical information is t h e Geotechnical Area S t u d y Programme (GASP) publications available from t h e Government Publications Centre. a desk s t u d y is necessary a n d indicates t h e t y p e s of information t h a t may b e r e q u i r e d . a n d as-built r e c o r d s of p r i v a t e developments a r e retained b y t h e Buildings Ordinance Office o r t h e Public Records Office ( s e e AppendixB). Landform a n d Physical Constraint Maps. t h i s should b e used w h e r e v e r possible. Appendix C gives a summary of t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r s i t e reconnaissance a n d t h e main points t o be considered b u t should not be r e g a r d e d as necessarily covering all requirements. The approximate locations of t h e s e two f e a t u r e s a r e shown in Figure 2. A useful bibliography on t h e geology a n d geotechnical engineering of Hong Kong is also available (Brand. o r is within t h e Mid-levels Scheduled Area ( s e e Appendices A a n d B. a matter of judgement ( s e e Section 4. a thorough visual examination should b e made of t h e site. Relevant d a t a can be easily accessed by geographical location of t h e site. 1992). The e x t e n t t o which g r o u n d a d j a c e n t t o t h e s i t e should also be examined is. The Geotechnical Information Unit also contains numerous r e c o r d s of boreholes from t h r o u g h o u t t h e Territory. As a AppendixA information summary of A new geological s u r v e y is c u r r e n t l y underway in Hong Kong t o replace t h e existing 1:50 000 scale geological maps and memoir (Allen & S t e p h e n s . S t r a n g e & Shaw.1. a s well a s useful r e c o r d s of landslides. 1986. 1986). Selected a r e a s of t h e Territory have also been evaluated a t t h e 'district' scale of 1:2 500. 1982).

4. such a s basements and tunnefs. as can old excavations and quarries. The hvestigation of ground conditions is dealt with in Parts IZI and IK Other requirements may entail studies of special subjects such a s hydrography /see Appendix D. Such requirements may necessitate a detailed land survey /see Append~x D. Append~k 4). or an investigation of liabifity to flooding.6). 1987). Exampfes of earlier uses of the site that may affect new construct~on works are given in Chapter 5. Shilarly. a s may be also the presence of a vacant site zn the midst of otherwise intensive de vehpment. 3). the design and planning of construction will require a detaded examination of the site and its surround~ngs/see afso Append~k D).5 CONSTRUCTION AND PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Construction and performance appraisal are discussed in Chapter 16. and the absence of such structures may be significant. Table of Contents . or other en vironmental considerations. The beha viour of structures simiar to those intended shoufa' also pro vide useful hformatJon.Nearby cut sfopes can reveal soil and rock types and their stablzty characteristics. Tbe poss~B~Xty disused tunnels affecting the site should also be of considered (see Section 5.1 ). or Other important evidence that might be obtained from an inspection is the presence of underground excavations. in the vicinity there may be embankments or bu~idings and other structures having a settfement history because of the presence of compress~Ble unstable soih.21.ZI.4 DETAILED EXAMINA TION AND SPECIAL STUDIES Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents For most projects. disposal of waste materials /see Appendix 0. sources of mater~als (see Appendix D. In areas where underground cavities are suspected (Culshaw & Waltham. 5). it may be necessary to carry out a special study to assess the suitability of the site for development (see Section 7. micrometeorofogy /see D. 4.

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3 MINES AND QUARRIES A relatively minor amount of e i t h e r opencast o r u n d e r g r o u n d mining has been u n d e r t a k e n i n Hong Kong. i n d u s t r i a l waste a n d o t h e r r e f u s e . detailed consideration must be given t o i t s influence on affected sites. The fill materials used have been variable. Table of Contents 5.5 Table of Contents OTHER EARLIER USES Much of t h e low-lying land of Hong Kong has b e e n ' extended b y successive s t a g e s of reclamation in t h e p a s t 80 t o 90 years.2 to 5. 5. many instances of previous u s e of a s i t e can be discovered b y a n inspection of early maps. b u t q u a r r y i n g f o r rock p r o d u c t s has been extensive at some locations. Where t h i s h a s o c c u r r e d . b u t o t h e r t i p s may also exist. may b e found in places t h r o u g h o u t t h e Territory. as have borrow a r e a operations. . used f o r t h e disposal of domestic r e f u s e . EARLIER USES OF THE SITE Table of Contents 5. Due t o t h e relatively s h o r t history of development in Hong Kong. Harmful i n d u s t r i a l wastes may also b e encountered. u n d e r g r o u n d s h e l t e r s a n d disused t u n n e l s (of a v e r a g e dimensions 2 m high a n d 3 m wide) exist in places t h r o u g h o u t t h e Territory as a r e s u l t of previous wartime activities. 5. aerial photographs a n d o t h e r historical r e c o r d s (see Appendices A a n d B).2 TUNNELS Table of Contents The presence of n e a r b y t u n n e l s may have a profound effect on t h e intended use of t h e site. sites i n t h e proximity of waste t i p s may also b e s u b j e c t t o t h e effects of laterally migrating combustible gas a n d leachate.4 WASTE TIPS Waste tips.1 GENERAL If a site has been used for other purposes in the past. Examples are given in Sectlbns 5. sewage conveyance. The location of p a s t o r p r e s e n t 'controlled tips' o p e r a t e d b y Government a r e documented. toxic leachate a n d g r o u n d settlement. The u s e of waste t i p s i t e s f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s must consider fully t h e effects of combustible gas. Former seawalls a n d o t h e r o b s t r u c t i o n s may t h e r e f o r e be encountered beneath t h e s e a r e a s . In addition t o t u n n e l s in active u s e f o r w a t e r supply.6. a n d should b e fully considered. A careful visual inspechon of a site and the vegetation i t sustains may reveal clues suggesting interference with the natural subsoil conditons at some t h e in the past. often containing l a r g e boulders a n d building debris. 5. r o a d s a n d railways. The fill is often underlain b y soft compressible marine sediments.31 5. Furthermore. this can have a significant effect on the present intended use.

a n y discovery of antiquities or supposed antiquities should b e r e p o r t e d t o t h e Antiquities a n d Monuments Office (see Appendices A a n d B). I t is advisable t o consult t h e Antiquities a n d Monuments Office before e n t e r i n g a n y historical site. a r e often prone to landslides a n d o t h e r forms of instability. e v e n ungazetted sites.6 Table of Contents ANCIENT MONUMENTS A l i s t of gazetted historical s i t e s is maintained b y t h e Antiquities a n d Monuments Office of t h e Government Secretariat. 5. a n d a permit is r e q u i r e d before commencement of a n y work within a gazetted historical site. I t is of paramount importance t h a t all slope f e a t u r e s on o r adjacent t o t h e s i t e should b e examined f o r areas of past.Natural slopes a n d boulders. During s i t e investigation. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . c u r r e n t o r potential instability at a n early s t a g e i n t h e s i t e investigation. a n d older c u t a n d fill slopes a n d retaining walls.

Advice on how t o obtain t h e aerial photographs i s given in Appendix 8. f o r s i t e s which can b e identified within t h e c e n t r a l t h i r d of a vertical aerial photograph a n d which contain t e r r a i n of broadly similar elevation.l. a n d by using t h i s proportion ratio a s a n enlargement factor.e. Despite t h e s e s o u r c e s of distortion. materials a n d land u s e ) a n d can provide valuable information f o r t h e assessment of slope stability (Geological Society. reasonably a c c u r a t e scaled images can b e obtained by proportioning t h e distances between o b j e c t s identifiable on a map ( o r plan) a n d a contact p r i n t of a n aerial photograph. Prior t o 1963. whereas plans with scales of 1:5 000 t o 1:20 000 a r e more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r d i s t r i c t o r regional s t u d i e s . Most aerial photography has been obtained using cameras with l a r g e format negatives. a n d t h e y can a s s i s t in t h e identification a n d general assessment of n a t u r a l a n d man-made f e a t u r e s . b u t a r e usually 162 mm b y 175 mm. hydrology a n d vegetation. 6. an effect which becomes more pronounced n e a r t h e e d g e s of a photograph.1. For almost a n y s i t e i n t h e Territory.1). tall o b j e c t s ( t o p s of hills and buildings). r e p e a t e d aerial photograph c o v e r a g e r e c o r d s t h e land u s e a n d development c h a n g e s t h a t have o c c u r r e d . t h e f i r s t complete coverage was obtained in 1963. a s summarised in Table 2. Large scale plans (scales 1:500 t o 1:l 000) a r e usually most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s i t e investigations of small a r e a s .1 TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGERY Map a n d Plan Scales Table of Contents Accurate topographic maps a n d plans can b e produced from aerial photog r a p h s . Black and white aerial photograph coverage of Hong Kong is extensive. geomorphology.2.2 6. on o r in relation to a site.1 GENERAL Aerial photographs can b e used in t h e preparation and revision of maps a n d plans. A small number of t r u e colour. a n d o b j e c t s n e a r t h e c e n t r e of t h e photograph. The small scale black a n d white photographs obtained a t flying heights of o v e r 6 000 m a r e more suitable f o r obtaining a n overall view of t h e Territory. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS Table of Contents 6.2 Aerial Photographic Imagery Table of Contents Table of Contents The scale of an image on a n aerial photograph i s proportional t o t h e distance between t h e camera a n d t h e s u b j e c t . t h e sizes of t h e contact p r i n t s v a r y . A partial catalogue of maps a n d plans available from t h e Lands Department i s given in Table 1 ( s e e also Appendix B. For a n aerial photograph t a k e n vertically. as well a s a n y history of r e c e n t instability. (false) colour i n f r a r e d a n d black a n d white i n f r a r e d photographs a r e also available. including geology. 6.33 6. c r e a t e images a t slightly l a r g e r scales t h a n low t e r r a i n o r similar o b j e c t s n e a r t h e e d g e of t h e photograph. c h a n g e s in form. 1982).3. With few . This may c r e a t e dramatic effects on large-scale p h o t o g r a p h s with considerable c h a n g e s in elevation from one portion t o a n o t h e r .2. Radial distortion a b o u t t h e optical axis of t h e camera displaces t h e t r u e vertical away from c e n t r e of t h e photograph. Although partial c o v e r a g e of t h e Territory is available from 1924. They a r e particularly useful in t h e assessment of s i t e history (i.

Aerial photographs. This can highlight t h e n a t u r a l a n d man-induced characteristics of t h e t e r r a i n . reflecting underlying c h a n g e s in soil t y p e . colluvial a n d alluvial deposits). Sequences of aerial photographs t a k e n a t different d a t e s can b e compared to determine t h e location. soil t h i c k n e s s . API is of particular value i n t h e mapping of "photolineaments". a n d clear images c a n be obtained e i t h e r b y viewing t h e contact p r i n t s with a magnifying lens o r stereoscope.g. The image produced on contact p r i n t s is extremely s h a r p . f r a c t u r e zones o r major joints. particularly when examined stereoscopically. a n API s t u d y can often provide useful information on t h e distribution a n d t h i c k n e s s of natural a n d fill materials. Even when performed f o r smaller sites. noting in particular h a z a r d s a n d r e s o u r c e s t h a t may have a significant effect on t h e feasibility o r design of t h e project. extent a n d approximate time of filling a n d reclamation. Photolineaments a r e usually marked b y topographic highs o r lows i n t h e t e r r a i n b u t sometimes t h e y may be more s u b t l e f e a t u r e s . This term r e f e r s t o s t r a i g h t o r gently-curving f e a t u r e s on aerial photographs which a r e usually t h e s u r f a c e expression of variations in t h e s t r u c t u r e o r materials of t h e underlying bedrock.3 6. can often be used t o identify a n d delineate specific ground f e a t u r e s s u c h a s t h e distribution of soil t y p e s (e. a n d t h e s e q u e n c e of development of a n area. Local linear topographic highs o r lines of boulders o r rock o u t c r o p s may indicate t h e p r e s e n c e of a rock u n i t t h a t is more r e s i s t a n t t o weathering.exceptions. Early identification by API of major c h a n g e s in soil a n d rock t y p e s a n d f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e likely t o have a significant influence o n t h e Table of Contents Table of Contents . 6. railways. o r by enlarging all o r p a r t of t h e negative. Rectification of t h e image can be performed optically o r digitally. f r a c t u r e p a t t e r n s a n d spacings.3. The design of s i t e investigations f o r l a r g e projects s u c h as r o u t e c o r r i d o r s (e. pipelines o r transmission lines) can benefit enormously from a preliminary aerial photograph i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (API) s u r v e y . bedrock t y p e . t h e d e g r e e of rectification desired a n d t h e scale of t h e original photography. Enlarged p r i n t s c a n be used e v e n f o r s t u d i e s of small a r e a s of t h e size of a n individual building site. t h e accuracy is determined b y t h e number of control points supplied. which can only b e identified b y different vegetation growth. Well-defined linear depressions usually indicate t h e location of l e s s r e s i s t a n t bedrock o r of discontinuities in t h e bedrock s t r u c t u r e s u c h as faults. as well a s local relief.g. soi! t h i c k n e s s or moisture content. a n d may reveal potential problems originating from adjacent land. All t h e f e a t u r e s mentioned above may be important f o r t h e interpretation of s i t e conditions. t h e negatives obtained from 1963 t o t h e p r e s e n t a r e 228 mm b y 228 mm. roads. 6. d e p t h t o bedrock. which consist of rectified ( t r u e t o scale) photographs o v e r p r i n t e d with contours o r g r i d s c a n be made (overseas only) f o r both vertical a n d oblique aerial photography.1 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION Identification a n d Interpretation of Ground Features Aerial photographs can b e i n t e r p r e t e d a t a r a n g e of scales a n d levels of detail t o provide information valuable t o both t h e design of s i t e investigations a n d t o t h e interpretation of t h e results.2.3 Orthophoto Maps a n d Plans Table of Contents Table of Contents Orthophoto maps a n d plans.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . Bryant (1982) a n d Koirala e t a1 (1986).2).2 Examples of API i n Hong Kong In Hong Kong. Van Zuidam & Van Zuidam-Cancelado (1979). All GASP maps a r e available f o r inspection in t h e Geotechnical Information Unit ( s e e Appendix B ) .local groundwater regime can b e of g r e a t assistance in t h e design of t h e ground investigation a n d in establishing a geological model f o r t h e site. For example.e a s t p a r t of t h e photograph. 19861. deep valley i n t h e c e n t r e . API techniques have been successfully applied t o both specific problems a n d regional appraisals. Near t h e north e a s t e r n c o r n e r of t h e photograph. t h e photolineaments indicated on t h e map can b e seen t o correspond t o less clearly-defined valleys. 6. Table of Contents Reviews of API and related mapping techniques a r e contained in Geological Society (1982). Verstappen & Van Zuidam (1968) a n d Way (1978). 1987) a n d a f u r t h e r eleven r e p o r t s in t h e s e r i e s were published between 1987 a n d 1989. r e s o u r c e appraisal a n d engineering feasibility s t u d i e s ( s e e Section 4. Some f e a t u r e s of t h e bedrock s t r u c t u r e c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d from t h e aerial photograph. F i g u r e 6 shows a n example of a vertical black and white aerial photog r a p h of p a r t of Hong Kong Island a n d includes t h e corresponding portion of t h e 1:20 000 scale geological map ( G C O . The f i r s t of t h e regional GASP r e p o r t s was available in 1987 ( G C O . Some good examples of t h e u s e of API techniques a r e provided by Lueder (1959). t h e location of t h e f a u l t line shown on t h e geological map can b e clearly seen a s a s t r a i g h t . Examples of t h e former a r e given in Brimicombe (1982). Systematic regional API s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n within t h e Geotechnical Area Studies Programme (GASP) t o provide information f o r planning.3.

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Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents PART I I 1 PLANNING THE GROUND INVESTIGATION .

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11). groundwater level and flow pattern.31. t h e effects on t h e stability of existing slopes a n d retaining s t r u c t u r e s ( s e e Sections 4. i t will b e v e r y important t o determine t h e variations in t h e groundwater regime in r e s p o n s e t o rainfall.2 a n d 8. Special measures may b e r e q u i r e d to locate disused t u n n e l s o r u n d e r g r o u n d cavities. subject to confirmatibn b y t r i d p i t s or boreholes mapping. . Materials placed in the ground may deteriorate.2). i t is often necessary t o investigate t h e effects of new works on t h e s a f e t y of existing f e a t u r e s a n d works: i n particular. and the groundwater condit~ons. o r both. O f p r h a r y hportance w i l be the establishment of the so17profile or sod and rock p r o f i / . I n some cases where the geology i s relatively straightforward and the engineering problems are not complex. will s u f f i e . The investigation should be designed t o verify a n d expand information previously collected.21. o r to safety o f existing features and works (see Section 8. which may collapse. 1988). supplemented by limited t be insitu o r laboratory testing. The profile shouM be obtained by close visual inspection and systematic description of the ground using the methods and term~irologygiven fir Geoguide 3 ( G C O .3). resulting in damage t o s t r u c t u r e s ( s e e Sections 8.3. changes li. The objective o f ground investigation related to defects or f a i h r e s o f existhg features o r works (see Section 8. wiiY be directly related to the particular problems The requirements f o r i n vestljrathn o f materials f o r constructhn ~nvol ved purposes are discussed i n Sectlbn 8.1 OBJECTIVES For new works. In Hong Kong. suffic~entgeofogical hformation may have been provided by the desk study. this. The investigation should embrace al/ ground i n which temporary or permanent changes may occur as a result of the works. It is therefore necessary to provide informaaon from which an estimate o f the corros~~vity the ground can be of made (see Chapter 131.7.1. because of i n t e n s e u r b a n development. i w~Yl necessary to determine i n detail the engineering properties of the soils and rocks. especially in slope design.3 a n d 10. the geometry and nature o f discontinuities shoufd be estabhbed (see Section 12. The Mere extent of the ground hvestigatfon i s discussed i n Chapter 10.4. and changes in soil properties such as strength and compress1.3. changes ~n moisture content and associated volume changes. or a suitable alternative system. 10. I n other cases.3ility. i t may be necessary to undertake geolog~cal which is discussed i n Chapter 9. I n many cases. I n others. t h e objectives of ground investigation are t o obtain reliable information t o produce a n economic a n d safe design a n d t o meet t e n d e r a n d construction requirements. appropriate. These changes include :changes i n stress and associated strain. Other h a z a r d s may a r i s e from earlier uses of t h e s i t e (see Chapter 5 ) . INTRODUCTION TO GROUND INVESTIGATION Table of Contents 7.7. An understanding o f the geology o f the site i s a fundamentaf requirement in the planning and interpretation o f the ground i n vestigatlbn.2. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents I n many cases.

2 PLANNING AND CONTROL Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Before commenuhg ground investgaton. The propertes of the ground and also the groundwater levels may vary with the seasons. Since backfilled pits a n d boreholes might i n t e r f e r e with s u b s e q u e n t construction. piezometers should b e installed well i n advance t o obtain sufficient g r o u n d w a t e r d a t a f o r t h e design.8). Investigations f o r new works a n d all o t h e r building works within t h e . The r e c o r d s should b e s u c h t h a t t h e locations a n d levels c a n be readily incorporated i n t o t h e r e p o r t o n t h e investigations (see Sections 10. a prehinary concepton of the ground conditions and the engineering problems that may be involved T h k will assist in plannhg the amount and types of ground hvestigatrbn required Plannhg of the ground investigation should be flexible so that the work can be varied as necessary h the light of fnsh information. In plannihg the ~hvestigation. I t is also essential t o establish a n d record t h e g r o u n d levels of t h e s e locations. I t i s t h e r e f o r e important t h a t sufficient time f o r g r o u n d investigation (including dealing with all legal. P r o p e r identification a n d maintenance of utilities encountered b y t h e works is essential.5 a n d 40. high voltage power cables. Should c h a n g e s in t h e p r o j e c t o c c u r a f t e r completion of t h e main investigation. A s g r o u n d investigations i n Hong Kong must often b e u n d e r t a k e n i n u r b a n areas (Plate l A ) . Add1'0ond investigations carried out a t a later stage may prove more costly and result in delays. i n slope design.4). tendered for and constructed adequately. economicdly and on the.7. O occasions. The g r o u n d investigation should b e largely completed before t h e works are finally designed. t h e y should b e sited a n d backfilled with care. conditons necessitate additondl investigation after the works commence. If so. Somethes. advantage fsee Sectbns 4 1 1 and 10. In tunnelfihg. may result h insufficient infomaton beihg obtained to enable the works to be designed. For some s i t e s i t will be necessary to coordinate t h e works with t h e requirements of t h e t r a f f i c police a n d o t h e r authorities (Plate 1B). environmental. For example. dl relevant informaton collected frwn the sources discussed in P r I1 should be considered together at to obtiui. n especiafly on large or extended sites.2.consideraton should be given to predicting the ground conditions a t other t h e s of the year. probing ahead of the face may be required to give warning of hazards or changes in ground conditlbns. a prefimhwy hvestigation may be necessary in order that the main investgatian may be planned to best .. I t is essential t h a t t h e precise location of e v e r y excavation. additional g r o u n d investigation may be required. r e p o r t i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) is allowed i n t h e overall programme f o r a n y scheme. g a s distribution lines a n d o t h e r utilities often p r e s e n t significant s a f e t y hazards. t h e programme should b e a d j u s t e d to allow f o r t h e additional time r e q u i r e d . temporary licences or way leaves before commencing t h e g r o u n d investigation. borehole or probing is properly r e f e r e n c e d to t h e 1980 Hong Kong Metric Grid a n d recorded d u r i n g t h e execution of t h e fieldwork. on the grounds of cost and the. i t is often necessary t o obtain road excavation permits. contractual a n d administrative matters. The ~hpositonof limitatons on the amount of ground investgation to be undertaken. for example.

should be forwarded to t h e Mass Transit Railway Corporation for agreement prior to commencement of t h e work. including t h e submission of t h e ground investigation plan t o t h e Buildings Ordinance Office for approval and consent to commence t h e work. 19851. Appendix A summarises t h e types of information t h a t may be required in planning a ground investigation. t h e Antiquities and Monuments Office should be notified (see Section 5. this list is not necessarily complete. details and locations of t h e proposed works.6). Certain methods present special safety problems. including t h e depths of any proposed boreholes. A list of statutory regulations which may apply t o ground investigations is given in Appendix E. o r within t h e limits of t h e railway 'protection boundary'. and recommendations a r e given in t h e relevant sections. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents To obtain the greatest benefit fm a ground investigation. i is t essential that there is adequate directrbn and supervisbn of the work b y competent personnel who have approprhte knowledge and exper~ence and the authoriy to decide on var~atrons the ground investigation when required to (see Chapter 15). f u r t h e r advice should be obtained. and if there is doubt over safety precautions. Where t h e proposed investigation is in t h e vicinity of t h e Mass Transit Railway. Should i t appear during t h e course of t h e investigation t h a t items of archaeological o r historical significance have been encountered. . In planning ground investigations. Other methods involve normal safety precautions appropriate to site o r laboratory work.Mid-levels Scheduled Area (Figure 2) must comply with t h e provisions of t h e Buildings Ordinance (Government of Hong Kong. particular attention should be paid to t h e safety of personnel.

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g. including least favourable conditions. what form of s u r f a c e protection is required.1. Observations a n d measurements of t h e f e a t u r e o r s t r u c t u r e to determine . should be known. a knowledge of the subsurface materi*alsand groundwater cond~*tibns should indkate : whether removal of t h e material will be difficult. This entays not only a study of the degree of var~kbifity the soil and rock profiles over the area of the site. Where works r e q u ~ k the orientatrbn and nature of discontinuities in the rock may be the most hportant factors. it is necessary to assess such considerations as n bearing capacity and setuement of foundations. and the des~gn and construction of the works. it is important that the range of cond~'tions. 3 ) . excavations into or within rock. a n d w h e t h e r t h e hydrogeological regime may be a d v e r s e l y affected (see Sections 4.2 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents DEFECTS OR FAILURES OF EXISTING FEATURES O R WORKS The investigation of a site where a falure has occurred is often necessary to estabfish the cause of the faiure and to obtarh the hfonnation required for the design of remedid measures. earth pressures on supporthg structures. TYPES OF GROUND INVESTIGATION Table of Contents 8. stability of slopes ~ i . and the effect of any chemically aggressive ground conditom.2 a n d 8 . For the design of new works. embankments and cuttings. e. O the desjyn side. but also an in appreciation of the possibe hjur~ous effects of groundwater var~ations and weather c0nd~'tibnson the propertis of the various subsurface materials.1 SITES FOR NEW WORKS In vestigat~ons new works d~Wer for from the other types of h vestigatlbn mentioned ILJ Chapter Z in that they are u M y wider li. 8. iduding weathered rock. w h e t h e r t h e n a t u r e of t h e g r o u n d will c h a n g e a s a r e s u l t of excavation. a preliminary design of t h e proposed works is of g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e in t h e identification of parameters t h a t are r e q u i r e d t o b e obtained from t h e g r o u n d investigation. whether t h e s i d e s of t h e excavation will b e stable if u n s u p p o r t e d o r will r e q u i r e s u p p o r t .8. For example. Often. scope because they are required to y~eldinformation to assist h selecting the most suitable location for the works. opening of relict joints in t h e soil mass. whether groundwater conditions will necessitate special measures s u c h a s g r o u n d w a t e r d r a i n a g e o r o t h e r geotechnical processes. when slope excavathn has to be carr~edout. s e r v i c e s a n d s t r u c t u r e s . Investigations should a s s e s s whether t h e proposed works may i n d u c e g r o u n d movements which could affect a d j a c e n t land.

e i t h e r b y general g r o u n d deformation o r b y slope instability. an investigation to determine the causes of a failure may be much more detailed in a partzkuhr respect than would n o r d y be the case in an investiga&bn of new works. Table of Contents Excavations o r demolitions in t h e immediate vicinity.3 8. 12 is common practice to monitor movements both of the surface and underground The former is conducted b y conventionalsurvey methods and the latter b y means of slip indicators or incfinometer measurements. a n investigation will b e r e q u i r e d t o ascertain t h e ground a n d groundwater conditions relevant t o t h r e e phases of t h e s i t e history. . S t r e s s e s t h a t t h e new s t r u c t u r e may impose on existing slopes o r s t r u c t u r e s . or where such faihre is considered imminent. before t h e works were c o n s t r u c t e d . which can c a u s e slope instability o r d i s t r e s s t o existing s t r u c t u r e s . Indications of t h e probable c a u s e of a failure will often r e s u l t in detailed attention being directed t o a particular a s p e c t o r t o a particular geological feature. swelling may r e s u l t in g r o u n d heave. o r at least indicate whether t h e g r o u n d conditions were p a r t l y o r wholly responsible. 8. a n d give r i s e t o increased pore p r e s s u r e s affecting t h e stability of slopes a n d retaining walls. It is also usually necessary to monitor groundwater 0.e. t o decide w h e t h e r t h e existing works a r e likely t o be affected b y c h a n g e s in t h e g r o u n d a n d groundwater conditions b r o u g h t a b o u t b y t h e new works. pressures within the various underlying zones (see Chapter 2 1 fierefore. These techniques are fu/y described in BSI 11981b) and in the Geotechnical Manual f o r Slopes (G CO. o r on t h e foundation materials below a d j a c e n t s t r u c t u r e s . i t is often necessary t o investigate existing f e a t u r e s a n d works in t h e immediate vicinity o r even remote from t h e s i t e of t h e proposed new works.3.1 Table of Contents Table of Contents SAFETY OF EXISTING FEATURES AND WORKS Effect of New Works upon Existing Features a n d Works Because of t h e d e n s e u r b a n development in p a r t s of Hong Kong.3. 1984).2 Table of Contents Types of Effects Existing slopes a n d s t r u c t u r e s may be affected b y changed conditions s u c h as t h e following : Impeded drainage. which may r e s u l t in a r i s e i n t h e groundwater level. If t h i s is t h e case. This can c a u s e softening of cohesive materials a n d reduction of s h e a r s t r e n g t h of permeable materials. 8. at t h e time of failure a n d as t h e y exist a t p r e s e n t (see also Chapter 32). Each problem will need t o b e considered on its merits. In the case of slope failure. a n d t h e s e will often s u g g e s t t h e origin of t h e trouble. which may c a u s e a reduction i n s u p p o r t t o t h e slope o r s t r u c t u r e .t h e mode o r mechanism of failure a r e f i r s t needed. i.

if pumps do not have an adequate filer.g. In a r e a s w h e r e n a t u r a l u n d e r g r o u n d cavities can occur. t o . fh) Silahon of the approaches of harbour works or the changing of navigation channel afignments. 1984). Also. In some cases. piling o r blasting i n t h e immediate vicinity. e. wh~ch may cause ~ n d e r c ~ t t i n g banks or scouring of foundations of of wafls. 8.( d ) Vibrations a n d ground movement resulting from traffic.g. ( b ) t o find suitable materials f o r specific purposes. the effect of tension and compress~un drainage should not be overlooked.3 Procedure Table of Contents In the ~ h v e s t ~ g a t ~ o n safety of existing features or works. Table of Contents /el Lowering the groundwater level b y pumping from wels or 1l dewatering of excavations or tunnels w 7 cause an increase i n the effective stress in the subsoil affected which can lead to excessive settlement of adjkcent structures. it may be necessary to carry out a detailed analysis to estimate the effect of the changed conditins on the safety of the existing features and works. the leaching of tihes from the subs017 can easily result in excessive settlement of structures at considerable distance from the pump. e. increase in effective s t r e s s o r downward ravelling of soil d u e t o heavy pumping may lead t o subsidence o r t h e formation of sinkholes (Siu & Wong. and quantities. for construchon work of materials that become available from excavations or dredging. e. together with the examination and testing of samples to assess the effect that the changed cond12ions are likely to have on these mater~kls. k a r s t f e a t u r e s in t h e Yuen Long basin. the /list of the requirement is an apprec~htion the changes to the ground that are likely to of occur. Table of Contents ff) Tunnelling operations i n the ne~ghbourhood which may cause deformations and subsidence.4 MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION PURPOSES Invest~gations sites are sometimes requked : of Table of Contents fa) to assess the suitability. v i b r a t o r y compaction. bridges and p~ers. o r from o t h e r construction activities.and may be due to works carr~ed out some distance away. The ground investigahon wifl need to provide knowledge of the subsurface materials. t o locate borrow pits o r a r e a s f o r e a r t h w o r k s ( a common problem in Hong Kong where i n t e n s e u r b a n development demands a c o n s t a n t s e a r c h f o r suitable fill materials).g. 8. whether spoil from cuts in road and rayway works win be suitable for li//s i n other places. on fg) Alterahon in stream flow of a waterway.3.

fcl to Jocate suitabJe dXsposaJ s12e.s for waste and dredged Table of Contents rnaterids. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .a s s e s s the suitability of materials in waste tips that may need to be removed for environmental reasons.

1976. 1982.1). Caution is needed in extrapohling data. A s a base map o r reference. Methods used f o r geological mapping a t t h e regional scale a r e equally suitable f o r s i t e specific mapping f o r g r o u n d investigations (Geological Society. Recording o f geo/ogcal information should be undertaken at a// stages o f the works. Strange. u s h g mechanically excavated s M o w pits and trenches. IAEG. 1982. geologcal deposits may vary l a t e r d y . 1972. F u r t h e r information a n d examples of engineering geological mapping a r e given elsewhere ( B u r n e t t & Styles. Two existing 1:50 000 geological maps (which c o v e r t h e e n t i r e T e r r i t o r y ) a r e also available (Allen & Stephens. These maps will become available between 1986 a n d 1991 (Figure 3). The walls o f excavations and.9 . a n d a suitably t r a i n e d specialist should normally u n d e r t a k e t h i s task. 1986) a n d may b e supplemented b y interpretation of aerial photographs ( s e e Chapter 6 ) a n d geophysical investigations (see Chapter 33). Natural exposures and artificial exposures. Such information should be used as a guide only to conditoons likely to be present at the site.for example. 1971). frequency and character o f bedding and jbinbhg discontinu~'bes. and very important geo/ogialstructures. the orientabon. ICE. ~ h c l u d h g . 1976). Interpretation of t h e geological conditions a t t h e s i t e may not be possible without mapping a l a r g e r area. UNESCO. such as faults and other majar disconbhuities. Slope s u r f a c e s t r i p p i n g is also commonly used in Hong Kong f o r t h e p u r p o s e of geological mapping ( s e e Section 18. such as cut slopes and quarries. Geological Society. beyond the site may provide data on the material and mass characterisbcs o f soils and rocks. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of geological f e a t u r e s is a pre-requisite t o i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e geological conditions a t t h e site. 1981. weathering profiies. distribution a n d s t r u c t u r e of t h e soils a n d rocks underlying t h e area. t h e new 1 2 0 000 scale geological maps a r e most useful. GEOLOGICAL MAPPING FOR GROUND I N V E S T I G A T I O N Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The object of geological mapping is t o a s s e s s t h e c h a r a c t e r . may have only a restricted extent. where appropr~ate.the f/oor should be mapped at a suitably large scale and sampled before backijlfing takes place. and the nature o f the junction between superficial and s o M formabbns. . It may be expedient to hvestigate local conditions at an early stage of the mapphg.

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hard rock a t t h e ground surface may be underlain by thick zones of weaker material. The uncertainties can be reduced but. which together form the major portion of the solid geology of the Territory. The use of angled boreholes can in certain cases greatly assist interpreting vari~hons between vertical boreholes (see also . the greater wi'l be the extent o f the ground jhvestigation requii-ed to obtain an ihdicatlbn of the character o f the ground The depth of exp/orahon is generafly determined by the nature o f the works projected.g. the type o f project. The possibility remains that significant undetected variations or discontinuities can exist. Ma On Shan and Yuen Long.1 In some circumstances. I 2 and I 7 to 23. . and the amount o f existing information. granitic rocks may be weathered to over 100 m deep. includihg lateral o r vertical varjahons within a given layer.l 8 .10. The factors determining the selection o f a particular method are diicussed in Chapters If. and the foflowing generalpohts should therefore be considered as guidance in planning the ground investigation and not as a set o f rules to be applied rigidly in every case.2 to 10. Under certain geological conditions. soils derived from insitu rock weathering generally exhibit great variability even within relatively short distances. EXTENT OF THE GROUND INVESTIGATION Table of Contents 10. but it may be necessary to exp/ore to greater depths at a lihited number o f poihts to establish the overall geological conditions. on occasions. additonal information between Section 10. fill materials within reclamations may vary considerably. and the term "exploration point" is used to describe a position where the ground is to be exdored b y any partkular method Each combination o f project and site is Me& to be unique. 10.1 GENERAL The extent o f the ground investigafion is determined by the character and variability of the ground and groundwater. except by complete excavation. probing. It i s important to recognize that ground conditions may not always improve with depth. 3.2 CHARACTER AND VARIABILITY OF THE GROUND The greater the natural variabifity of the ground. investigation points can be obtained b y geophysical methods (see Chapter 3 1 Table of Contents . excavations. see Chapters I 7 to 23. may be weathered to soils typically to depths of 30 m and 10 m respectively. In Hong Kong. Examples can be found in the Mid-levels area. can never be whofly eliminated b y a more ihtensive inveshgation. since decisions on the design will influence the extent of the jir vestigation. In genera4 the recommendations in Sections 10. Similarly. b o r e h o k .7 appfy irrespective o f the method adopted. Table of Contents Table of Contents Investigations include a range o f "methods' e. surface outcrops and subsurface information at the positions o f the explorathn points. Granitic and volcanic rocks. 1988). Hong Kong soils and rocks are further discussed in Geoguide 3 ( G C O . It i jhportant to realize that the detailed geology o f a site can be no i more than inferred from aerial photography. I t is important that the general character and variabifity o f the ground should be estabhhed before deciding on the basic principles o f the design of the works. The technical development of the project should be kept under continuous review.

i t will often be useful d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e t o c a r r y o u t a geophysical s u r v e y i n addition t o . Consideration may need t o be given t o locating u n d e r g r o u n d cavities within t h e zone of influence of t h e loaded area.7.2. BSI (1986) a n d Weltman & Head (1983).2.g. 1993).3 Foundations f o r S t r u c t u r e s Most s t r u c t u r e s in Hong Kong a r e founded on piles. It should in aadit~onbe sufficient to cover possible methods of construction and. Two typical examples are the zone of stressedgruund beneath the bottom of a group of pii'es. where appropriate. a r e given in Section 10. The investigation should make a full appraisal of t h e s i t e a n d t h e ground conditions should be investigated a t d e p t h s well below t h e proposed pile toe level t o allow f o r variations in t h e pile design. Recommendations on t h e d e p t h of exploration f o r foundations f o r s t r u c t u r e s .10.7. logged a n d sampled ( s e e Section 18. machine-bored piles a n d b a r r e t t e s a r e commonly used. Knowledge of t h e groundwater conditions i s also required.3.2 Slope a n d Retaining Wall Construction Due t o t h e extensive construction of slopes a n d retaining walls i n Hong Kong. General Table of Contents The investigation should yield sufficient data on which to base an adequate and econom~'caldesign of the project. In a r e a s w h e r e major s t r u c t u r a l defects in rock may o c c u r (e. k a r s t f e a t u r e s in t h e Yuen Long basin. 1984) a n d in Geoguide 1 : Guide t o Retaining Wall Design (GEO. detailed guidance on t h e n a t u r e a n d c o n t e n t of s i t e investigation f o r t h e s e f e a t u r e s is given in Tables 3 a n d 4. These should be carefully examined. o r major s h e a r o r fault zones). Hand-dug caissons.1). i t may b e advisable t o excavate trial pits o r t o s t r i p t h e s u r f a c e cover from slopes f o r a preliminary assessment of g r o u n d conditions. For l a r g e p r o j e c t s r e q u i r i n g s t a g e d g r o u n d investigations. more intensive investigation a n d g r e a t e r exploration d e p t h s t h a n normally recommended may be r e q u i r e d . including shallow foundations. to indicate sources of constructhn materials. The lateral and vertical extent of the invesbgathn should cover a f ground that may be s~gnificantfy L affected b y the new works or their constructzbn. driven piles.lcent slope. f r a c t u r e s a n d alternating soil a n d rock layers.4 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION Before deciding on a full investigation programme. the stabZty of which may be reduced b y the works. and an adJ. F u r t h e r discussion of t h e design a n d construction of slopes a n d retaining walls is given in t h e Geotechnical Manual f o r Slopes ( G C O .3.3 N A T U R E OF THE PROJECT 3 . 10. F u r t h e r advice on g r o u n d investigation f o r foundations is given in Section 10. 10. A general approach t o planning a ground investigation suitable f o r pile design p u r p o s e s is given in ICE (1978). a n d t o identifying o t h e r possible significant f e a t u r e s s u c h as steeply-dipping rockhead. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 10.

pits) should be located so that a general geological view o f the whole site can be obtained. wi/ often be appropriate for structures. e. together with adequate detays o f the engineering properhes o f the soils and rocks and of groundwater conditlbns. old s/ipped areas and underground cavities. preconceived patterns o f pits. a s well a s uphill a n d downhill f o r area a n d regional stability studies. In some cases. Consideration should b e given t o obtaining t h e s u b s u r f a c e profile b y additional drilling a n d geophysical means. e. t h e level of bedrock along t h e f a c e of t h e cutting is important. I t is essentid that accurate locations and ground levels for all exploration points should be estabfished. at points of special engineering difficulty or importance.g. s i t e reconnaissance a n d geological mapping a r e completed. Table of Contents 10. explorahon should be made a t a minimum o f t h e points ifpossible.9.5 LOCATION The points o f exploration. boreholes. I t i s often useful t o locate boreholes at t h e intended positions of l a r g e deep foundations. (e.2). I necessary b y survey (see Section l. boreholes should be carefufly backfilled. Where a structure consists o f a number o f adjacent units. a relatively close spacing between points o f &orahon. For slopes. For other structures. the programme o f in vestigations shou/d be modfled accordingly. T r ~ kexcavations shouM be located outside proposed foundation areas. one exp/oration p o h t per unit may suffice. I0 to 30 m. soundings. v e r y closely spaced boreholes may b e r e q u i r e d t o locate a n d delineate buried obstructions s u c h a s remnants of a n old seawall. For structures small in plan area. In t h e c a s e of reclamation. Table of Contents Table of Contents For tunnels and incfined shafts. In t h e case of a proposed c u t slope extending from soil into rock. tunnels and major excavations. boreholes should generally b e located along anticipated critical slope sections. the need to offset boreboles and trial excavahbns from criticapoints should be considered In most cases.some widely-spaced boreholes t o identify those a r e a s which r e q u i r e more detailed investigation. The locations of boreholes a n d o t h e r exploration points should only b e planned a f t e r t h e desk s t u d y . concreted or grouted l up. Certain engineerhg works.6 SPACING Although no hard and fast rules can be laid down. it wig not be possible to locate subsurface features until much of the ground investigation data has been obtained In such cases. and where ground conditions are compficated. Table of Contents . 10. Rigid. boreholes or soundkgs shouM be avoided. such as dams.9. suspected buried va/lys. More d e t d e d informahon shouM be obtained at positbns of important structures and earthworks. and the spacing and locahon o f exploration points shouM be more closely related to the detailed geology o f the area than I> usual for other works. boreholes should be offset so as not to interfere with subsequent construction. are particularly sensih've to geological conditons.

the loaded area is considered as either : (a/ (bl the area of an individual footing. i t is common practice to drill into rock f o r a d e p t h of a t least 5 m t o establish whether corestone. including a n y weak materials overlain by a s t r o n g e r layer. or where the floor loading is significant. Normally.7.2 to 10. In Hong Kong.2).g. the depth o f exphratron should be at least one and a half times the width of the loaded area. where the spacing o f foundahbn footings is less than about three tJhes the breadth. or the plan area of the structure.7. For foundations near the surface. and then the remainder sunk to some lesser depths to exp/ore more thoroughly the zone near the surface which the initial exphrahon had shown to be most relevant to the problem i n hand 10.10. In many instances.4). i t may not be necessary t o terminate drilling in rock ( s e e Section 10. t h e final d e p t h of drilling will depend on t h e need t o prove b e d r o c k . exploration should be t a k e n below all deposits t h a t may be unsuitable f o r foundation purposes.2 Foundations f o r S t r u c t u r e s Table of Contents In the case of foundations for structures. boulder o r bedrock h a s been encountered. I t is not always necessary that every exploration should be taken to depths recommended i n SectJons IO.l.7. o r deeper. In some cases. the length o f pile usually cannot be decided unt17 an advanced stage o f the project. or the area of a foundation raft. f o r example. e. the recommendations given ~nSections I'D. Commonsense will indicate exceptions to this guidefine. However. 12 would not usually be necessary to continue drilfing for long distances i n strong rock. it wi// be adequate IF one or more boreholes are taken to those depths i n the early stages of the field work to estabfish the general subsurface profile. Table of Contents More specifica//y. for example. fill a n d weak compressible soils. the depth should be measured below the base o f the footing or raft.1 General The d e p t h of exploration is governed b y t h e d e p t h t o which t h e new project will affect t h e g r o u n d a n d groundwater o r b e affected by them.7 DEPTH OF EXPLORATION Table of Contents 10. generally t o a d e p t h where s t r e s s increases cease t o b e significant. The exploration should be t a k e n t h r o u g h compressible soils likely t o c o n t r i b u t e significantly t o t h e settlement of t h e proposed works. but the fohwing offer some guidance : (a) Fill a n d weak compressible soils seldom c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s h a f t r e s i s t a n c e of a pile and may a d d down d r a g t o t h e . Table of Contents Wherepiled foundations are considered to be a possibi/ity. i n investigations f o r e n d bearing piles (see Section 10.Z8.7. i t will be necessary t o drill d e e p e r t h a n 5 m t o establish conclusively t h e presence of bedrock. Z 2 to I'D. (cl In each case. No exp/icit rules can be given for the depth o f exploration. In o t h e r instances. Z 8 may be considered for certain types of work.

In any event. Foundations in t h i s case must often b e founded in t h e weathered rock. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . whichever is l a r g e r . For boreholes c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g construction t o prove satisfactory pile founding levels.and an assessment of the types of pile likely to be considered. t h e d e p t h of exploration is governed b y t h e need t o examine all s u b s u r f a c e materials t h a t could contribute significantly t o t h e settlement.2) is satisfied t h a t t h e r e is no possibility of weaker materials occurring lower down t h a t could affect t h e performance of t h e piles.g. g r e a t e r exploration d e p t h s t h a n t h o s e recommended in t h i s Section may be r e q u i r e d . The rock should t h e n b e f u r t h e r explored. t h e length of t h e pile is not accurately known until t h e piling c o n t r a c t begins. Similarly. In t h e case of e n d bearing piles in s t r o n g rock. t o s u c h a d e p t h t h a t t h e e n g i n e e r directing t h e investigation (see Section 15. exp/oration should at some pofnts be taken below the depth to which it is cons~'dered Mely that the longest piles w i l penetrate. a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y checked b y load t e s t s . in s u c h cases. b u t i t may b e possible t o gain a n early indication from s t a n d a r d penetration t e s t (SPT) blow counts. Pile-supported r a f t s on clay may be used solely t o r e d u c e settlement.load on it. usually b y means of r o t a r y drilling. The whole pile load. f o r pile g r o u p s on clay. This will usually r e q u i r e penetrating a t l e a s t 5 m. I n t h e s e cases. i t will be necessary t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e d e p t h of exploration i s sufficient t o p r o v e t h e adequacy of t h e founding material below t h e toe of t h e piles. a n d proving t h e s t r e n g t h a n d continuity of t h e material below t h e intended founding level a n d t h e location. possibly with t h e addition of down d r a g . n a t u r e a n d orientation of discontinuities may t h e n suffice. The l e n g t h of driven piles is often determined initially b y t h e driving resistance. e i t h e r in e n d bearing o r t h r o u g h s h a f t resistance. In weathered rocks. will have t o be b o r n e b y t h e s t r o n g e r materials lying below t h e weak materials. below t h e proposed founding level of t h e pile. k a r s t f e a t u r e s in t h e Yuen Long basin) o r a n y o t h e r causes. o r two a n d a half times t h e diameter of t h e pile. i t may not always be feasible t o locate underlying f r e s h rock. boreholes should be of sufficient d e p t h t o establish conclusively t h e presence of bedrock. the genera/ guidance given in fal to (el above. I t should be noted t h a t if a n y s t r u c t u r e i s likely t o be affected b y s u b s i d e n c e d u e t o collapse of u n d e r g r o u n d cavities (e. Hence. Based on the informat~bnof the probable subsurface profile obtained from the desk study. the engineer directing the hvestigathn shouh' determine the depth of exploraation and be ready during the course of the field work to modify this depth as appears to be necessary. t h e d e p t h of penetration may have t o be increased where l a r g e corestones o r boulders a r e suspected o r have been identified nearby.

Groundwater conditions.3 may apply and. it is important to take the exploration to a generous depth below the proposed h v e r t level because changes in design may result i n the lowering of the level of the tunne4 and because the zone of lnfluence of the . Table of Contents In many cases of reclamation. Table of Contents For shallow s d p~pefines. the depth of the exploraation should be sufficient to check possible shear failure through the foundation materials and to assess t%relikely amount of any settlement due to compress~Ble materids. especially those in ground of low bear~hg capacity. 10.5 Pavements Table of Contents For pavements. However. one o r more exploration points should in all cases extend below t h e toe of t h e slope o r excavation. 1986).Z 3 Embankments Table of Contents For embankments on alluvial and marhe soils. consia'erafion shouh' be given to the effects of fi'dal variations.4 C u t Slopes The d e p t h of exploration f o r c u t slopes should b e sufficient t o permit full assessment of t h e stability of t h e slope. t h e d e p t h of exploration should be sufficient t o determine t h e s t r e n g t h a n d drainage conditions of possible s u b .7.Oelinesto be discovered. irrespective of bedrock level. including t h e possibility of perched o r multiple water tables. 10.7.it wil frequently be suffiient to take the depth of exploration to 1 m below the invert le veL For deeper p~pelinesthe depth of explora&o should be sufficient to enable any likely difficultres in excavating trenches and supporting the p~. In general. This may necessitate proving t h e full d e p t h of a n y relatively weak o r impermeable materials s u c h as decomposed d y k e s (Au. In the case of water-retaining embankments. whichever i s shallower.10.7. should also be determined. i t may be sufficient t o terminate drilling shortly below t h e base of a n y s o f t deposits t h a t a r e present. a depth a t least I to 2 m below the invert level may be advisable.7. 10.7. 10. exploration f o r slopes should extend a minimum of 5 m below t h e toe of t h e slope o r 5 m i n t o bedrock. Exploration t o a d e p t h of 2 t o 3 m below t h e proposed formation level will probably b e sufficient in most cases.7 Marine Works For marine works. in additbn.2 and 10.7. the effects described in Sections 10.g r a d e s . Large pipelines.8 Tunnels For tunnels. require specid consideration. investigation should explore all materials through which piping could be initiated or significant seepage occur.

tunnel may be extended by the nature of the ground at a greater depth. 1987). Table of Contents Long horizontal boreholes parallel t o the proposed tunnel alignment are extremely useful. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . particularly where the location of the proposed tunnel i s overlain by thick layers of deeply weathered rock (McFeat-Smith.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents [BLANK PAGE] .

1). Timber scaffolding is often used in Hong Kong t o provide access o v e r r u g g e d t e r r a i n a n d t o c o n s t r u c t drilling platforms in v e r y s t e e p t e r r a i n (Plate 28). Where the working pos12ion is on steeply sloping ground. Gaining access to sites covered by water presents special problems fsee Chapter 14). it may be possible to lift the equ12ment over obstructions ushg a crane or to use special equ~>mentthat can be dismantled and man-handled through the bu17ding and used in a confined space. For sites u n d e r t h e control of Government. the existence of buifd~hgs other structures and land 'owner~h~>' or may cause problems of access to the locations for borehofes. service r e s e r v o i r s . O sites that are obstructed b y buildings and other n structures. it may be necessary to demofish wa//s to gain access. approval must b e obtained from t h e r e l e v a n t Department concerned. approval should b e s o u g h t from t h e r e l e v a n t District Lands Office. c a r e should b e t a k e n t o locate boreholes f o r e a s e of access w h e r e possible. SELECTION OF GROUND INVESTIGATION METHODS Table of Contents 11. t h e p r e s e n c e of foundations and services often r e s t r i c t t h e u s e of inclined drilling t h r o u g h existing retaining walls into a d j a c e n t properties. on very steeply sloping open sites. i t may be necessary t o control o r eliminate t h e r e t u r n of flushing media from boreholes t h a t affect a d j a c e n t slopes. I f the ground surface is soft. c o u n t r y p a r k s . maps a n d aerial photographs. or interfere with g e o p h y s ~ ~ ~ f methods. Where t h ~ k would not be effective. the a v d a b ~ x t y of equipment and personneL and the cost of the methods. a n d who has p r o p e r equipment a n d experienced personnel t o c a r r y o u t t h e works. roads. Such s i t e s include r e s e r v o i r s . fish ponds. Permission t o e n t e r a s i t e f o r purposes of g r o u n d investigation may place f u r t h e r restrictions on . Urban Council p a r k s . highways. etc.11. As s u c h scaffolding can account f o r a l a r g e portion of t h e total c o s t of t h e investigation.2 SITE CONSIDERATIONS Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The topography. nature of the ground surface. it may be necessary to construct an access road or lower the equ~pment down the sfope or haul it up. Most methods of boring a n d field t e s t i n g r e q u i r e a s u p p l y of water. surface water. the use of heficopters or hovercraft may be appropriate. Alternatively. The specialist n a t u r e of ground investigation work should a t all times b e considered. including properties of t h e utilities companies a n d armed forces. o r highways ( s e e Section 18. 11. it can be traversed o d y by very light equ~kment. For Government land. access roads for heavier equipment will be required Alternatively. sefectrbn may also be ifluenced b y the character of the site.the methods used.1 GENERAL Although the character of the ground and the technic& requirements are the most important aspects in the selection of methods of ground investigation. For g r o u n d investigation within o r r e q u i r i n g access t h r o u g h privatelyowned land. Access f o r drilling r i g s should b e assessed in t h e field with t h e assistance of plans. For example. On . In most cases i t will be necessary t o employ a c o n t r a c t o r who is experienced in t h e t y p e of investigation work which is being proposed. Also. it will be necessary to form a hor~zontafwork~ngarea by excavation or the use of staging (Plate 2A). permission should f i r s t be obtained from t h e owners.7. For example. cultivated fields.

1. (c) Buried utilities a n d services a r e v e r y common a n d must be accounted for. Table of Contents .2).a s i t e where water is not available. Such measures may include settling basins a n d s a n d / s i l t t r a p s . water can often b e obtained from fire h y d r a n t s upon application t o t h e Water Supplies Department f o r t h e h i r e of a metered adaptor.2 a n d 7. Mass Transit Railway t u n n e l s ) t h a t may pass beneath t h e site. (dl (e) (f) Seismic s u r v e y s employing explosives may be r e s t r i c t e d o r prohibited in built-up areas. a d e q u a t e measures should be provided t o p r e v e n t silt a n d o t h e r d e b r i s in t h e flushing r e t u r n from e n t e r i n g t h e permanent drainage system. Noise restrictions may prohibit methods of investigation.g. a n d local advice should b e s o u g h t in planning t h e investigation. On s i t e s where t h e provision of water p r e s e n t s a major problem. for example. o r t o use alternative methods of investigation. Where water is u s e d a s t h e flushing medium. In r u r a l a r e a s water may be obtainable from wells. Other site considerations which may r e s t r i c t t h e methods used a r e as follows : (a) Table of Contents Trees on Government land are protected. t h e r e b y causing siltation a n d o t h e r problems. F u r t h e r advice on planning a g r o u n d investigation a n d relevant sources of information can be found in Appendices A a n d B (see also Sections 4. Permission t o lop o r c u t down a n y t r e e s will not b e g r a n t e d unless good c a u s e is shown. r i v e r s o r streams.7). the u s e of certain Table of Contents The difficulty in s t o r a g e of spoil may r e s t r i c t t h e u s e of trial pits on some sites. i t will be necessary t o a r r a n g e f o r a temporary s u p p l y t o b e provided. with r o t a r y drilling a n a i r foam flush could b e used instead of water flush ( s e e Section 18. i t may be necessary t o t r a n s p o r t t h e water in bowsers. I n t h e u r b a n area. Table of Contents ( b ) 'Fung shui' a s p e c t s of some s i t e s a r e of g r e a t social a n d religious significance. a n d should be p r e s e r v e d as f a r a s possible in gaining s i t e access o r in choosing investigation points. a s must subways a n d o t h e r t u n n e l s (e.

a s determined b y t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e g r o u n d . t h e r e may b e difficulty in advancing t h e boreholes and. EFFECT OF GROUND CONDITIONS ON INVESTIGATION METHODS Table of Contents 12. .1 a n d 18. 1984.10. a n d i t may b e n e c e s s a r y in some c a s e s t o a d o p t alternative methods of investigation below t h e g r o u n d w a t e r table. t h e b e s t method for investigating t h i s t y p e of g r o u n d i s b y means of a d r y excavation ( s e e Sections 18. and is not. Rotary water f l u s h drilling may b e employed ( s e e Section 18. Table of Contents 12.b a r r e l with r e t r a c t o r s h o e f o r matrix material a n d a diamond drill b i t f o r boulders. F r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e i s made to classes of sample quality.1 GENERAL This c h a p t e r considers t h e f a c t o r s involved in t h e choice of t h e most suitable p r o c e d u r e s f o r boring. G C O . a s may some fill a n d soils derived from insitu rock weathering.5). i n genera/. which summarises typical sampling p r o c e d u r e s f o r different t y p e s of materials ( s e e Section 19.4. If i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o investigate t h e g r o u n d below t h e g r o u n d w a t e r table. COBBLES O R GRAVEL Some t y p e s of colluvium a n d alluvium may fall into t h i s c a t e g o r y . The excavation permits t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e g r o u n d t o b e inspected. 29 and 30).2 GRANULAR SOILS CONTAINING BOULDERS. I t f ~ v o l v e sthe installation of p~ezometers and borehole or field testing (see Chapters 20. a major consideration i n the choice of a procedure for d r i / / i g and sampling. although t h e l a t t e r two t y p e s a r e considered more fully in Sections 12. in obtaining samples of a d e q u a t e quality. Within t h e limits of c o s t . 1985). The determination of the groundwater cond12ions I> a most important part of a ground investigation. drilling. dewatering may b e r e q u i r e d t o obtain a d r y excavation. consequently. 1984. a n d field t e s t s t o b e used t o measure insitu d e n s i t y . Disturbed samples t a k e n from t h e shell a r e usually only class 5 ( g r a d i n g incomplete) because t h e fine fraction may have been washed o u t a n d t h e c o a r s e f r a g m e n t s may have been b r o k e n u p b y u s e of t h e chisel. t h e s e a r e f u r t h e r described elsewhere (Brand & Phillipson. Specific r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h e g r o u n d conditions commonly e n c o u n t e r e d in Hong Kong. however. Endicott.1). s t r e n g t h a n d deformation characteristics ( s e e Chapters 27. 21 and 25). a n d employing t h e chisel when rock fragments too l a r g e t o e n t e r t h e shell a r e encountered. sampling. Boring may b e u n d e r t a k e n with t h e l i g h t cable percussion method using t h e shell ( s e e Section 18. Ceophys~kd methods are often a useful means of interpolating between boreholes i n a variety of ground cond~Zions (see Chapter 33). The possible effects on a d j a c e n t g r o u n d of a n y dewatering should f i r s t be assessed. Phillipson & Brand.8 a n d 12. The sides of t h e borehole m u s t b e s u p p o r t e d with casing.12.2). probing a n d field t e s t s . using a t r i p l e . Table of Contents Table of Contents During boring. The following sections should b e r e a d in conjunction with Table 8. which a r e defined in Table 9 ( s e e Section 19. I t may also b e possible t o u s e a U l O O sampler ( s e e Section 19. samples t o b e obtained. The u s e of a i r foam a s a flushing medium may e n h a n c e c o r e recovery a n d sample quality.4) in matrix material t o obtain class 3 o r 4 samples.t u b e c o r e .7). 1988.2).

where the so~7 loose or very dense. hence the density of the s a m e may not be representative of the layer. and are fairly common in alluvial or marine deposits. is produce class 2 sampLes or. A guide to the relative density of granular so17s is obtained b y the standard penetration test. preferably. may be obtained using the split barrel standard penetration t e s t sampler. Pressuremeter tests are also usefuL A more direct determination requires the use of plate tests carried out in a dry excavation (see Sechon 21. silty sands and sandy silts. even if the area raho is s d (see Sectrbn 19. It is also limiited because of the inabimy of the cone to penetrate dense gravel.4. the relative density should be assessed b y the cone penetration test. and the results can also be used to give a guide to the proportion of tihe particles i n the soiL A more rehble assessment of permeability wifl be obtained from a pump~hgtest. a piston samp/er wi7. Disturbed samples taken with the shell are likely t o be deficient in fines. class 3 samples. 1 'this should 95. . from the results of the cone penetratlbn test. Boreholes in these materials may be sunk by the light cable percussion method using the shell.3 Table of Contents Table of Contents GRANULAR SOILS These soils include sands. and therefore of class 5 only. excavations or hand augering (see Sechbn 18. i n both cases the moisture content of the samples may be unrepresentative of the insitu ground With clean sand.71. ) ' sample classes w 7 be 97. penetration test fsee Sechon 23.31. or by rotary drilling. However. for example when a driven p17e prokct is being inveshgated. However.1/21).41. The borehole permeabifity test fsee Section 21. The standard penetrahon test (see Sect~on indication of relative density. 12.6 and Chapter 291. has limitations where there is a s~gn~flcant content of boulders or cobbles. normal samp/ng equipment may fail to recover a sample. In some cases. In shallow investigations above the water table. Samples suitable for a particle size distribution test. Occasional high values that are unrepresentative of the true relative density will be obtained when the penetrometer encounters coarse graveL In ground contahfhg cobbles or boulders. and it wi/ then be necessary to use the compressed a> sand se -r /see Sechbn 1 .21 will give some the ground. 1l similar to those obtained with a piston sampler. Larger class 4 samples can sometimes be obtained using UlOO sampling equipment with a core-catcher. The action of forcing a sampler into granular soils tends to cause a and change in volume. class 4 . the standard penetratlbn test gives an increasing proportion of unrealisticaly high results.41.41. Table of Contents Table of Contents Approxhate values of the strength and compressibility parameters can be estimated on an empirical basis from the results of the standardpenetration test or. the results can eas17y be i n v W a t e d by loosening of the so17 below the water table. The "static-dynamic" test (see Section 23. (see Chapter 2 ) The cone 5. may give a reasonable indication of permeability. may be used.Jbe effective (see Section 1 . although its results win also be affected where cobbles or boulders are encountered The pressuremeter is useful in coarse granular so~7s when held w12hin a slotted casing (see Section 21.Borehole tests can be used to obtain an indicatlbn of the properties of 21. is useful for this purpose. Where it IS important that the relative density should not be underestimated.

t u b e core-barrel can b e used in r o t a r y drilling t o obtain class 2 a n d sometimes class 1 samples.3). 12. The r e t r a c t a b l e t r i p l e .3). Vane t e s t s a r e particularly effective if combined with s t a t i c cone penetration t e s t s ( s e e Section 23.6). The compressibility values obtained from Rowe cell t e s t s on l a r g e diameter samples (see Chapter 37 a n d Table 12) may b e used in conjunction with insitu c o n s t a n t head permeability measurements t o give a reasonable estimate of r a t e of consolidation settlement. 12. i t may be necessary t o u s e t h e shell.6 Table of Contents Table of Contents FIRM TO STIFF COHESIVE SOILS These materials may b e encountered as l a y e r s within marine o r alluvial deposits. The 100 mm open-tube sampler can be used t o obtain class 2 t o 3 samples.Permeabifity may b e assessed from borehole permeabifity tests (see Section 2I. b u t considerable c a r e i s r e q u i r e d t o avoid c h a n g e of water c o n t e n t a n d d i s t u r b a n c e b y t h e drilling fluid. Class 2 o r 3 samples can sometimes be obtained with a n o p e n . Table of Contents Rotary drilling can be u s e d . b u t t h e penetration v a n e test a p p a r a t u s is much t o b e p r e f e r r e d t o equipment which is u s e d in boreholes ( s e e Section 21. The normally consolidated a n d lightly overconsolidated marine clays may be sensitive. Alternatively. . in which c a s e class 4 samples can b e obtained provided t h a t lumps of intact soil can be recovered. Continuous samples. Disturbed samples from t h e clay c u t t e r of t h e light cable percussion method a r e generally class 4. They a r e commonly e n c o u n t e r e d in marine a n d alluvial deposits. clayey silts and silts. t h e light cable percussion method with clay c u t t e r can be used. which will r e s u l t i n class 5 samples. while t h e alluvial silty clays a r e generally insensitive. Considerable c a r e is r e q u i r e d with r o t a r y drilling t o avoid c h a n g e of water content a n d d i s t u r b a n c e by t h e drilling fluid. The insitu v a n e t e s t is b y f a r t h e most satisfactory means of measuring t h e undrained s h e a r s t r e n g t h of s o f t clays.4 Table of Contents INTERMEDIATE SOILS These include clayey s a n d s . silty clays o r clays.31. Rotary drilling o r t h e light cable percussion method may b e used t o a d v a n c e holes in s o f t cohesive soil. and may be encountered in alluvial a n d marine deposits. usually class 3. can be obtained with a Delft sampler (see Section 19. Class 1 samples can be obtained by using a piston sampler. 12.t u b e sampler.5 VERY SOFT TO SOFT COHESIVE SOILS These include s a n d y clays. Where t h e borehole contains water. The selection of methods of g r o u n d investigation will depend on whether t h e material behaves a s a g r a n u l a r soil o r a cohesive soil. For laboratory t e s t purposes (particularly oedometer t e s t s ) l a r g e diameter samples ( g r e a t e r t h a n 150 mm) should be obtained w h e r e v e r possible. or b y pumping tests (see Chapter 251.

on the quality of the incoming material and on the method of placing and compaction.b a r r e l s and water flush. temperature measurements may be necessary. Soils derived from insitu rock weathering a r e f u r t h e r considered in Section 12. sampling and h s i t u testing. Double-tube o r t r i p l e . It I> essentid to ensure that the borehofe is always fufly cased through fil/ to avoid contamination of the natural ground from falling materiaL Pits and trenches are particularly useful for investrgating the nature and var~kbi/iy fil/ (see Chapter 181. COBBLES O R GRAVEL Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Most colluvium a n d some t y p e s of alluvium fall i n t o t h i s category. strength to and undrained deformation character~str'cs be carr~edout. t h i s t y p e of g r o u n d p r e s e n t s difficulties in both advancing t h e hole a n d recovering samples of a d e q u a t e quality.8 a n d 12. Lagoons w12hin waste tips may be areas of very soft ground. the variation wifl be random. and the major problem i n planning the ground investigation wi/ be to assess the variation in character and quality across the site. Conventronal methods of boring. The s t a n d a r d penetration t e s t is sometimes used t o obtain a r o u g h indication of s t r e n g t h . Rotary drilling is often employed. TIP fies may also create voids. W M n the fim12s of cost. or waste materkls of various 1l origins.t u b e corebarrel. When using borehole methods of investigation. Often. with t r i p l e . The uniformity of fi/l w i l depend on the degree of control which has been imposed. The u s e of U l O O samplers can yield class 2 o r 3 samples of t h e matrix material. a s may some fill a n d soils derived from insitu rock weathering. can give informatron on the thickness and properties of the fil/ at the particular locations of the boreholes or ins12u tests.10. and field tests for the determination of the insitu density. although t h e l a t t e r two t y p e s a r e considered more fully in Sections 12. the best method of investigating cohesive soils containing boulders. which may coflapse under the weight of an investiqation rig. 12. burning materials below ground may give rise to toxic or flammable fumes from the borehole. cobbles or gravel is by a dry excavation. It should be noted that on waste tips. Class 1 samples c a n be obtained b y employing a i r foam flush with t h e l a r g e diameter t r i p l e . In older filL there may have been little or no control of the filfing operation. while t h e split b a r r e l s t a n d a r d penetration test sampler can b e used t o obtain class 3 t o 4 samples. The excavathn wi enable the structure of the ground to be inspected. samp/es to be iY obtained. as appropriate to the character of the ground.7 COHESIVE SOILS CONTAINING BOULDERS.t u b e core-barrels may b e employed.t u b e c o r e .12. b u t i t may give misleading r e s u l t s if boulders a n d cobbles a r e p r e s e n t .9 ROCK Rotary diamond bit c o r e drilling with water flush is normally used in rock.10.t u b e core-barrels giving b e t t e r core recovery a n d causing l e s s . Class 1 t o 2 samples may be obtained with r e t r a c t a b l e t r i p l e . of In combustible AHs. using triple-tube coreb a r r e l s equipped with a r e t r a c t o r shoe f o r t h e matrix materials a n d diamondimpregnated drill bits f o r rock fragments a n d boulders. F 7 can conskt of replaced natural ground.

unless special techniques are used The use o f borehole periscopes. a n d t h e i r c h a r a c t e r depends on t h e p a r e n t rock type. I n a ground investigatlbn using light cable percussion borihg or rotary core drilfing. including the orientahon o f dikcontinuities. I. Soils derived from g r a n i t e a r e typically silty o r clayey sands. alteration.81. These materials a r e derived primarily from t h e chemical decomposition of t h e p a r e n t bedrock. can give a rough indication of the variation of strength and cornpress~'bAity n weak rock.51. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 12.d i s t u r b a n c e . class 1 block samples of t h e matrix material can usually b e obtained f o r laboratory t e s t i n g a n d t h e exposure can be fully described a n d logged. faulting. Table of Contents Where t h e s e soils o c c u r a t shallow d e p t h . Soft i n f l l i n g o f rock discontinuities can sometimes be lost due to erosion by the flush water. Rotary drilling can be used t o advance boreholes in t h e s e materials provided considerable c a r e is taken t o limit d i s t u r b a n c e by t h e drilling fluid. and field tests carried out i n excavations. and television cameras may be usefuZ i n thh connection /see Section 21. The permeabifity test (see Section 21. 1988).b a r r e l s can generally be used t o obtain class 2 a n d .51. I n genera/ rotary core dr17fing with a d~hmond dri7l bit will produce samp/es which may allow an assessment o f the character and engineering properhes of the intact rock materia1 Such sampies may a/so give some indicat~ono f the frequency and dip angle of the discontinuities but not their dip direction. an indicatlbn of the properties o f the rock mass can be obtained For certaih o f such tests. can be used to investigate deformation properties and possibly also the strength. and diyatometers such as the pressuremeter (see ) Section 21.t u b e c o r e . These soils v e r y often contain corestones of l e s s decomposed rock within a more decomposed matrix. The use of l a r g e r sized equipment producing cores of a b o u t 100 mm diameter o r more will also help t o improve core recovery.10 SOILS DERIVED FROM INSITU R O C K WEATHERING Weathered rock t h a t can be r e g a r d e d a n d t r e a t e d essentially a s soil from a n engineering viewpoint o c c u r s extensively t h r o u g h o u t Hong Kong. especially in highly f r a c t u r e d o r jointed rock. while those derived from tuff a n d o t h e r volcanic r o c k s a r e often s a n d y o r clayey silts. a n d t h e position of t h e water table (GCO. The d e p t h o v e r which decomposed material c h a n g e s to f r e s h rock is extremely variable a n d is related t o t h e rock t y p e . I n many cases. Retractable t r i p l e . howevec it wifl be from tests ih borehoZes. rotary core sampZes give no indication of the character o f any infZfing o f the discontinuities. cameras. Where appficable. i s visual ihspection. a n d i t is not uncommon to e n c o u n t e r g r a n i t e corestones a s l a r g e a s 3 m o r more. and air o r air foam flush driyfing may be deskable. impression packers. The standard penetration test /see Section 21. The best method f o r determining the properties o f a rock mass. o r the i packer o r Lugeon test (see Section 21.41.21. caissons or headings (see Chapter 181. joint p a t t e r n . t h e spacing of t h e joints. may give a measure o f the mass permeabi7ityY which i n t u r n can give an lhdication o f the presence o f open jbints and other water-bearihg discontli7uities. the plate test (see Section 21. necessary to take into account the probable effects o f disturbance o f the ground by the drilling process. pits a r e probably t h e most effective means of investigation.

a n d to maintain verticality of t h e hole. the discntzhuitis are often d e s t ~ y e d the dr~Zing by and therefore overlooked Where d~kcontinuities are inp port ant to the eng~heering problems in volved. the mass properties depend largely on the geometry and the nature of the discontinuities. A v a r i e t y of drilling techniques may need to be t r i e d . but may be equa//y imgortant. There are no satisfactory drilng or bor~ngtechniques available for ensuring that the core recovered can be orientated over the full depth penetrated. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents In most rocks. 12. disused t u n n e l s a n d old mineshafts) a n d t h e cavities may be v a c a n t o r infiIIed (Culshaw & Waltham. After i M a l ~hvestigations using interpretation of aerial photographs.or~entatrbnand nature. large dimeter boreholes.t u b e c o r e . the discontinuity data that can be obtained Generally. The p r e s s u r e m e t e r may b e useful f o r measuring g r o u n d stiffness. In sofi!s.2). but borehole discontinuity surveys can be conducted f e e Seelion ZI. although t h e p r e s e n c e of corestones may give unrealistically high results. a n d precautions should b e t a k e n t o p r e v e n t dropping of t h e drill s t r i n g .81.b a r r e l with a i r foam flush. three orthogonal exposures are required to define fully the spatial distribution of the d~kcontinuiti'es. suitable exposures may be provided in exca vatibns necessitated by the permanent works. together with orientated large scale tests. The extractrbn or insitu preparation of orientated test smples can be carried out in these exca vations. The extent of the excavations is governed by the spauhg between discontinuities and the size of the works. trenches.12 CAVITIES Table of Contents Ground containing n a t u r a l o r man-made cavities can be found i n Hong Kong (e. pits or adits to allow visual inspection around and within the undisturbed ground mass. . In some projcts. i M u exposures of discontinuitJes are necessary to obtah data on the2. it may be necessary to form full surface auposures.g. surface outcrop logging and the drilfing of vertical and inclined or~entated holes. This can requ~ie engineering properties to be measured in the plane of the discontinu~'tresalong specific orientathns determined by the anti'c~pated directions of the stresses to be applied The controf by discontinuities over the strength and deformtlbn characteristi'cs of a ground mass is less obvious in so17s derived from ihsitu weathering than in moderately weathered to fresh rock. Class 1 samples can be obtained using a l a r g e diameter t r i p l e .3. The borehole permeability test may give a reasonable indication of permeability. The split b a r r e l s t a n d a r d penetration t e s t sampler can b e u s e d t o obtain small class 3 or 4 samples. 1987). consequently. The orlentation of the excavations controls thek intersection with the discontinuities and. Open-tube samplers generally provide class 2 t o class 4 samples.sometimes class 1 samples. and measurement of the relevant discontinuity data (see Chapter 261. Care may also b e r e q u i r e d to avoid g r o u n d subsidence d u r i n g investigation ( s e e Section 8. Close supervision is essential f o r s u c h investigations. The s t a n d a r d penetration test can generally provide useful information f o r t h e initial assessment of likely pile founding d e p t h s . The s t a n d a r d penetration test will give some indication of density a n d d e g r e e of weathering. Borehole tests c a n be u s e d t o obtain a n indication of t h e properties of t h e g r o u n d . Difficulties may b e experienced in advancing a borehole t h r o u g h s u c h ground. c a v e r n s i n k a r s t .

1981). 13. total s u l p h a t e content. The saline concentration in groundwater near t h e s e a may approach t h a t of seawater. Therefore s u l p h a t e a n d acidity tests c a r r i e d o u t on samples from boreholes may not b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e unless special precautions a r e t a k e n ( s e e Section 20.13. t h e zone t h a t is only wetted occasionally). Water sampled from boreholes may be altered by t h e flushing water used in drilling. corrosive action may a r i s e from individual waste p r o d u c t s t h a t have been dumped on t h e site. Chemical tests should be done on u n d i s t u r b e d specimens which have been placed in clean airsealed containers immediately a f t e r sampling. 13. a n d f o r all marine sites. a n d total sulphide content. chloride ion content.e. rock a n d groundwater may contain certain c o n s t i t u e n t s in amounts sufficient t o c a u s e damage t o Portland cement concrete o r steel. a n d r e l e v a n t limits f o r a relatively non-aggressive environment f o r steel. AGGRESSIVE GROUND AND GROUNDWATER Table of Contents 13. 1975b). pH. particularly i n t h e c a s e of reclaimed land. t h e most s e v e r e corrosion is found in t h e 'splash zone' (i. which are most common i n clay soils and acidic waters. Reference should be made t o BRE (1981) r e g a r d i n g t h e determination of water-soluble s u l p h a t e concentrations. Investigations f o r a g g r e s s i v e ground a n d groundwater should be considered f o r all s i t e s where t r a n s p o r t e d soils a r e encountered. redox potential.2% b y weight in soil a n d 300 parts p e r million in g r o u n d w a t e r a r e potentially a g g r e s s i v e (BRE. a n d t r a d e effluents may also r e q u i r e investigation. 1986).3). Corrosion of metal i s caused b y electrolytic o r o t h e r chemical o r biological actions. s u l p h a t e ion content. I n a marine environment. are given in t h e Model Specification f o r Reinforced Fill S t r u c t u r e s (Brian-Boys et al. While insitu weathered rocks a n d t h e i r associated soils in Hong Kong are generally not a g g r e s s i v e . If bacteriological attack is expected. soil.2 INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL DETERIORATION OF C O N C R E T E Table of Contents Table of Contents Laboratory tests t o a s s e s s t h e a g g r e s s i v e n e s s of t h e ground a n d groundwater a g a i n s t Portland cement concrete include determination of pH value a n d s u l p h a t e content (BSI. I n e s t u a r i n e situations. s o field determinations should be made if possible. In r i v e r a n d marine works.3 INVESTIGATION OF POTENTIAL CORROSION OF STEEL Table of Contents The likelihood of corrosion of s t e e l can be a s s e s s e d from tests of resistivity. Details of t h e s e t e s t s . The principal constituents causing damage t o concrete are sulphates.1 GENERAL In some a r e a s . The pH value may be altered if t h e r e is a delay between sampling a n d testing. In i n d u s t r i a l areas. Total s u l p h a t e contents of more t h a n 0. sea water a n d o t h e r saline waters. t h i s should be confirmed by g r o u n d investigation a n d laboratory t e s t i n g whenever t h e u s e of g r o u n d a n c h o r s . o r b y o t h e r flushing media employed. t h e possible corrosive action of water. u n d i s t u r b e d specimens should be placed i n sterilized containers a n d t e s t e d in accordance with BSI (1973) (see also . reinforced fill s t r u c t u r e s o r o t h e r susceptible s t r u c t u r e s a r e contemplated. t h e r e may b e a n a d v e r s e condition because of alternation of water of different salinities.

It may then be necessary to carry out a detarjed chemical study of the ground conditions. or the disposd of contaminated groundwater. The fast two characteristics can present major construction problems. and the pH value and sulphate content for the of fil/ and the groundwater will genera//y give some indication of the magnitude of the contminatlbn. and some can be highly obnoxious or even poisonous.4 INVESTIGATION OF FILL CONTAINING INDUSTRIAL WASTES Industrid waste products can contain a wide range of chemicals. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . depending on the industrial processes from which the waste products are derived.Section 13. Table of Contents 13. Some chemicafs are h~ghlyaggressive to concrete or steel ~ i r underground structures. e.2 and Table 12).g. Further guidance i s g i v e n b y Naylor et a1 (1978). L ocal enquiries may give some indication of the orig~ns the waste materials. the disturbance or disposal of contaminated ground.

14, GROUND I N V E S T I G A T I O N S OVER WATER
Table of Contents

14.1

GENERAL

Sinking boreholes below water presents special d~yficult~es comparison in with working on dry land. A reasonably stable working platform may be provided, such as a staging, barge or sh& and the borehole sunk through a conductor pipe spanning between the working platform and the water bottom. of rncreasing use is being made of a var~ety penetration testing techniques (Blacker & Seaman, 1985). In some cases, it may be feasible to lower specidy designed boring, driflng orpenetration testing equipment to the water bottom to be operated by remote control or a diver. With remote controL operation is restricted to a s~hgle continuous process. Penetration depths vary from less Geophysical than 5 m for some devices, to 20 m or more for others. techniques are also used to augment the informaoon obtained from boreholes, or a s a prefiminary investigation before putting down borehofes (see Chapter 33).
A s in land investigations t h e choice of suitable equipment f o r marine investigations d e p e n d s primarily on t h e expected g r o u n d conditions a n d t h e p u r p o s e of t h e investigation. Additional factors t h a t must be considered in marine investigations include t h e water d e p t h , heave of t h e c r a f t caused b y wave action, tidal fluctuations, a n d w a t e r c u r r e n t s (Blacker & Seaman. 1985). Also, t h e r e q u i r e d working a r e a f o r a drilling vessel must include a safe margin f o r anchor lines beyond t h e dimensions of t h e c r a f t itself. A typical s p r e a d of a n c h o r s would be u p t o 50 m on e i t h e r side of t h e craft.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents

The scope of the work, including the methods of drilling, samphhg and insitu testhg, requires careful considera&on depending on the parthuhr difficulties of the site. When working over water it is essenttkl that due consideration is given to safety requirements, navigational warnings, and the regulations of Government Departments and other authorities.
To avoid i n t e r f e r e n c e with marine traffic, t h e Marine Department must be notified of investigations s o t h a t a Notice t o Mariners can b e issued. Special consideration must be given t o s i t e s w h e r e t h e investigation o r associated c r a f t could p r e s e n t a hazard. For example, c r a f t working close t o t h e runway of Kai Tak Airport must not pose a hazard t o aircraft; permission f o r a n y s u c h work must f i r s t b e obtained from t h e Civil Aviation Department. Similarly. permission must b e obtained from t h e Mass Transit Railway Corporation, t h e Cross Harbour Tunnel Co. Ltd, t h e Water Supplies Department, o r t h e various public utility companies if work is t o be c a r r i e d o u t n e a r submerged tunnels, pipelines o r major utilities (see Appendices A a n d B).

Ground invesfiyafions conducted from above water are often more expensive and time consum~hg than comparable hvest~gathns conducted on dry land, and there may be a temptation to economize by reduchg the scope of the ~hvestigatlbn. The extent of the requirement for ground investigabons shouM be realisticafly assessed, shce econom~esn t h ~ k i direction can turn out to be false.
Tropical cyclones may lead t o disruption of investigations, especially in t h e summer months. I t i s a usual i n s u r a n c e requirement t h a t vessels proceed t o a typhoon s h e l t e r when t h e s t r o n g wind warning signal number 3 o r above h a s been issued ( o r is forecast) b y t h e Royal Observatory.

14.2 STAGES AND PLATFORMS
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Mere stable working platforms are available or can be provided, such as oil dr17ling platforms and jetties or purpose-bu17t scaffold stages and drilfing towers, 12 is generdy possible to use conventional dry-land ground investigation drilfing equipment and conventional methods of sampling and insitu testing. When working from existing structures, it may be necessary to construct a cantilevered platform over the water on which to mount the drilling rig. m e n drjyfing close to the shore in relatively shallow water, it may be more convenient to construct a scaffold staging from land to the borehole location. Alternative&, it may be more economical to construct a scaffold or other tower a t the borehole locathn, i n which case some means of transporting the drilfing equ~bmentto the tower wifl need to be provided. Some towers are constructed such that they can be moved from one borehole location to another without having to be dismantled. Jack-up platforms, and special craft fitted with spud legs, can be floated into positlbn and then jkcked out of the water to stand on their legs. They can combine manoeuvrability w12h fu/fi/ent of the requirement for a fked w o r m platform.
Jack-up and other fixed platforms effectively overcome the problem of heave and allow a high standard of drilling, testing and sampling to be achieved. Jack-up platforms currently available in Hong Kong are capable of operation in water depths not exceeding about 12 m (Plate 3A).

The design of dl staging, towers and platforms should take into account the nature of the seabed, fluctuating water levels due to tides, waves and swefl conditions. It is essential that such constructibns should be sufficjently strong for the boring operations to resist waves, tidal flow and other currents and floatihg debris.
1 . FL UA TINC CRAFT 43

The type of floating craft suitable a s a drjYfing v e d depends on a number of factors such a s whether the water is sheltered or open, the anchor holding properties of the seabed, whether accommodation for the personnel is required on board, the like& weather conditlbns, the depth of water and the strength of currents. In inland water, a small anchored barge may suffice, but i n less sheltered waters a barge should be of substanthl size, and anchors wi/ require to be correspondi&y heavy. In offshore conditions, a ah12 is often employed, and it may then be possible to accommodate the personnel on board, vessels. with a saving in auxifiary su&y An auxifiary vessel will be required to handle the moorings ifa barge is used for the work, but in certah cases a sh@ may be able to lay and pick up its own moorings. Generdy, four or s ~ k poht moorings will be required, and anchors should have the best hold~hg capacity feas~Ble. In water deeper than 80 m, conventional moorings become difficult, and the use of vessels maintained in position b y computer-controlled thrusting devices should be considered.
Special techniques are required to deal with fluctuating water levels due to tides, waves and swell conditions (Plate 3 B ) , particularly with rotary drilling where a constant pressure between the drill bit and the bottom of the When the heave is borehole is required (Smyth & Mcsweeney, 1985).

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anticipated t o exceed a b o u t 300 mm, i t is necessary t o employ a heave compensator system if high quality samples a r e t o be obtained. Heave compensator systems allow t h e drill s t r i n g a n d sampling equipment t o b e isolated from t h e vertical movements of t h e c r a f t (Blacker & Seaman, 1985). Pontoons a n d b a r g e s should be anchored a t t h e c o r n e r s using a n c h o r lines a t l e a s t five times t h e d e p t h of water. In exposed waters, motorized mooring winches a r e necessary.
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WORKING BETWEEN TIDE LEVELS

Sinking boreholes between high a n d low t i d e levels may b e achieved using scaffold stagings. platforms (see Section 14.2) o r flat-bottomed pontoons, o r by moving drilling r i g s t o t h e location d u r i n g periods permitted by t h e tides. When i t is intended t o conduct drilling operations from flat-bottomed c r a f t r e s t i n g on t h e seabed a t low tide, t h e profile a n d condition of t h e seabed should be a s s e s s e d in advance.
14.5
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LOCATING BOREHOLE POSITIONS

Close t o shore, borehole positions a n d o t h e r investigation points can be s e t - o u t b y radiation from known s h o r e stations with distances measured b y Electronic Distance Measuring ( E D M ) equipment. F u r t h e r offshore. o r when visibility is bad, electronic position fixing techniques can be used. Setting-out b y radiation usually involves t h e initial placement of a m a r k e r buoy within 5 rn of t h e specified position. The marker buoy should b e fitted with a line of sufficient length t o allow f o r tidal variations a n d wave heaving. An auxiliary float on a 5 m line can also be tied t o t h e marker buoy t o indicate t h e direction of t h e c u r r e n t . This will help in manoeuvering t h e drilling c r a f t into position. Once t h e drilling c r a f t has been anchored o v e r t h e s i n k e r of t h e marker buoy, f u r t h e r measurements from t h e known s h o r e stations c a n b e taken. The position of t h e drilling c r a f t c a n b e a d j u s t e d b y means of a n c h o r winches until t h e borehole is positioned within 1 m of t h e r e q u i r e d position. All borehole positions should be related t o t h e 1980 Hong Kong Metric Grid, o r if a s i t e g r i d is used, t h e s i t e g r i d should b e related t o t h e 1980 Hong Kong Metric Grid s u c h t h a t s t a n d a r d co-ordinates can be obtained.
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DETERMINATION OF REDUCED LEVELS
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Reduced levels are generafly transferred to a drilfing vessel from shore by setting up a tide gauge close to the shore. Tbe gauge is read at frequent intervals throughout the tia'al cycles at the same time as readings of water depth are taken on the dr~jrfingvessel. Corrections may be necessary to allow for tidal variations when the distance between the tide gauge and the vessel is s&ni&ant.

Reading of t h e t i d e g a u g e can be facilitated b y noting both t h e c r e s t a n d t r o u g h levels of at least six consecutive waves. An a v e r a g e of t h e mean c r e s t level a n d mean t r o u g h level can be adopted as t h e t i d e level at t h a t instant. The tide g a u g e should be referenced t o Hong Kong's Chart Datum

(which is 0.146 m below Principal Datum), so that the reading can be used t o obtain t h e reduced levels of t h e seabed and subsurface geological boundaries.
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D R I L L I N G , S A M P L I N G AND T E S T I N G

Marine investigations commonly encounter interbedded marine and alluvial deposits underlain b y weathered bedrock. Each stratigraphic horizon may contain distinctly different materials and may require different investigatory techniques (Beggs. 1983; see also Chapter 12). For marine investigations, the rofary open hole method of advancing a hole is preferred to the rotary wash boring method (see Section 18.7.1). Drilling mud should be used as a flushing medium and to stabilize the hole when casing is not required. Cable tool boring techniques may be used t o advantage in some situations, for example the identification of suitable marine borrow areas. Rotary drilling with a retractable triple-tube core-barrel (see Section 19.8) is often employed in soils derived from insitu rock weathering, as for land-based investigations.
I f a fixed platform is not used during sampling, particular care must be taken to prevent sample disturbance due to heave. Continuous sampling o f soft soils can be undertaken with a Delft or Swedish foil sampler, but these are particularly sensitive t o heave and should only be attempted from a fixed platform. With the Delft samplers, care should be taken to prevent necking of the nylon jacket due to unbalanced fluid pressures, and ripping o f the jacket due t o shells in marine deposits.
A range of field tests in boreholes is useful in marine investigations, including standard penetration tests. vane shear tests and permeability tests. Static cone penetration testing and geophysical testing are also o f value. In the case of vane shear tests, i t is preferable t o provide a stable support for the equipment on top o f a soft marine mud seabed (Fung e t al, 1984). A special category of marine investigations involving only shallow-depth seabed materials is often required for pipeline foundations, pollution monitoring and similar projects. Disturbed, shallow-depth seabed samples may be obtained for these purposes with a grab sampler, gravity corer or vibrocorer. The grab sampler is t h e simplest of these devices, but it can only obtain samples from t h e uppermost 0.5 m of the seabed. The gravity corer normally consists of an open barrel 3 m in length that is allowed t o fall and penetrate the seabed under its own weight. The vibrocorer is driven b y a motorized vibrator and can penetrate 3 to 6 m depending on t h e nature of the seabed materials. The samples recovered using these methods are generally o f poor quality but nevertheless should be suitable for classification testing. The principal advantage of these methods is the speed with which samples may be recovered over a considerable area (Blacker & Seaman. 1985).

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15, PERSONNEL FOR GROUND INVESTIGATION
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15.1

GENERAL

In view of t h e importance of ground investigation as a fundamental component of t h e p r o p e r design a n d efficient a n d economical construction of all civil engineering a n d building works, i t i s recommended t h a t personnel involved in t h e investigation should be familiar with t h e p u r p o s e of t h e work, a n d should have appropriate specialized knowledge a n d experience. 15.2 PLANNING AND DIRECTION

The person planning a n d directing t h e g r o u n d investigation should be a suitably qualified a n d experienced e n g i n e e r o r engineering geologist. This person should have a university d e g r e e in civil engineering o r geology, o r a n equivalent professional qualification, a n d a t least f o u r y e a r s post-qualification engineering experience, some of which should be local experience on p r o j e c t s of a similar n a t u r e t o t h e one being contemplated. If t h e g r o u n d conditions a t t h e s i t e a r e anticipated t o be complex a n d t h e safety a n d economy of t h e project a r e significantly influenced b y t h e g r o u n d conditions, t h e person planning a n d directing t h e g r o u n d investigation should possess, i n addition. specialized qualifications o r experience in geotechnical engineering, a n d specialized knowledge in s i t e investigation practice in Hong Kong. The person planning a n d directing t h e g r o u n d investigation should be thoroughly familiar with t h e project requirements a n d capable of liaising effectively with t h e project d e s i g n e r o r client t h r o u g h o u t all phases of t h e investigation (Figure 1). This person should determine t h e content a n d e x t e n t of t h e investigation, direct t h e investigation in t h e field a n d laboratory, a n d a s s e s s t h e r e s u l t s in relation t o t h e p r o j e c t requirements. P a r t of t h e s e duties may be delegated t o geotechnical specialists o r suitably t r a i n e d a n d experienced subordinates. 15.3 SUPERVISION IN THE FIELD

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Ground investigation works should generally be c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r t h e supervision of a suitably qualified a n d experienced e n g i n e e r o r geologist. assisted b y trained a n d experienced technical personnel. The s u p e r v i s i n g e n g i n e e r o r geologist should have a university d e g r e e i n civil engineering o r geology, o r a n equivalent professional qualification, and at least f o u r y e a r s post-qualification engineering experience, some of which should have been in g r o u n d investigations. Technical personnel should possess a certificate i n civil engineering from a polytechnic a n d at least o n e y e a r of specialized training a n d experience i n ground investigations, including training in t h e p r o p e r logging a n d description of g r o u n d conditions. The s u p e r v i s i n g e n g i n e e r o r geologist should be full time or p a r t time on site, depending on such f a c t o r s as t h e : (a) size of t h e investigation. ( b ) n a t u r e of t h e project.

(c) (d) (e)

complexity of t h e anticipated g r o u n d conditions, complexity of t h e sampling a n d field t e s t i n g schedule. reliability of t h e contractor's personnel u n d e r t a k i n g t h e g r o u n d investigation works.

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Increasing size a n d complexity of t h e p r o j e c t , a s well a s increasing complexity of g r o u n d conditions a n d investigation t e c h n i q u e s , o r decreasing reliability of t h e contractor's personnel, should all lead t o heavier time commitments f o r t h e s u p e r v i s i n g e n g i n e e r o r geologist. The s u p e r v i s o r will normally b e r e q u i r e d full-time on s i t e w h e n e v e r i t i s planned t o c a r r y o u t works which a r e critically d e p e n d e n t on a high s t a n d a r d of workmanship for t h e i r s u c c e s s o r safety. Only when minor g r o u n d investigation w o r k s a r e u n d e r t a k e n f o r confirmatory purposes, a n d where t h e works involve simple investigation t e c h n i q u e s , should full delegation of t h e supervision of t h e works to technical personnel b e contemplated. Technical personnel will normally b e r e q u i r e d full-time on site. Several technical staff may b e r e q u i r e d on s i t e if a number of drilling r i g s a r e operating simultaneously, if s e v e r a l field t e s t s or i n s t r u m e n t installations a r e being u n d e r t a k e n simultaneously, o r if t h e w o r k s a r e widely s c a t t e r e d . The s u p e r v i s i n g e n g i n e e r o r geologist should b e aware of t h e t y p e 'of information r e q u i r e d from t h e investigation, a n d should always maintain close liaison with t h e e n g i n e e r o r engineering geologist directing t h e g r o u n d investigation ( s e e Section 15.2). o r with t h e p r o j e c t d e s i g n e r , t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e project requirements a r e satisfied. In most c a s e s , i t i s worthwhile f o r t h e p r o j e c t d e s i g n e r t o s p e n d some time on s i t e d u r i n g t h e g r o u n d investigation works in o r d e r to a p p r e c i a t e fully t h e actual g r o u n d conditions. Wherever possible, t h e s u p e r v i s i n g e n g i n e e r o r geologist should b e i n d e p e n d e n t of t h e c o n t r a c t o r u n d e r t a k i n g t h e g r o u n d investigation works. If t h i s i s not t h e case, t h e e n g i n e e r o r engineering geologist planning and directing t h e g r o u n d investigation should t a k e s t e p s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e is a n a d e q u a t e level of s i t e supervision a n d t h a t reliable information i s obtained from t h e works.
15.4 LOGGING AND DESCRIPTION OF G R O U N D CONDITIONS

The s u p e r v i s i n g technical personnel ( s e e Section 15.3) should b e responsible for recording t h e information obtained from boreholes o r o t h e r investigations a s i t arises. This information should include a measured record of t h e s u b s u r f a c e profile with rock a n d soil descriptions, a n d a r e c o r d of t h e drilling a n d sampling t e c h n i q u e s used. In complex g r o u n d conditions. o r when t h e information i s particularly important, t h e s u p e r v i s i n g e n g i n e e r o r geologist should r e c o r d t h i s information a s i t a r i s e s . In some cases, i t may b e n e c e s s a r y t o obtain specialist advice on t h e logging a n d description of g r o u n d conditions ( s e e Section 15.6). Detailed descriptions of t h e g r o u n d conditions e n c o u n t e r e d a n d of all rock a n d soil samples obtained should b e made in accordance with Geoguide 3 (GCO, 1988), o r a suitable alternative system. All personnel u n d e r t a k i n g logging and description of g r o u n d conditions should b e thoroughly familiar with t h e system t o b e u s e d a n d suitably experienced in i t s application.

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15.5 LABORATORY TESTING
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The testing of soil and rock samples should be carried o u t in a laboratory approved by t h e directing engineer o r engineering geologist referred to in Section 15.2. The laboratory testing should be done under t h e control. of a suitably qualified and experienced supervisor, and all laboratory technicians should be skilled and experienced in t h e type of t e s t they a r e conducting. The laboratory testing schedule should be finalised only a f t e r selected samples have been examined by t h e person directing t h e investigation o r by t h e supervising engineer o r geologist. The latter should supervise t h e more complex tests. 15.6 SPECIALIST ADVICE Depending on t h e complexity of t h e ground conditions and t h e nature of t h e project, specialist advice on particular aspects of t h e ground investigation may be needed. For example, t h e advice of an experienced engineering geologist may be required on such aspects a s : (a) full detailed geological descriptions of soils and rocks,

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( b ) differentiating fill from insitu materials, o r boulders/ corestones from bedrock. (c) identifying and classifying colluvial deposits.

( d ) rock mass classifications,

(e) geological and groundwater models of ground conditions
a t t h e site. Similarly, t h e advice of an experienced instrumentation specialist will be invaluable for t h e planning, calibration. installation. commissioning and data interpretation of t h e more complex geotechnical instruments. 15.7 INTERPRETATION The interpretation of t h e ground investigation should be directed by t h e engineer o r engineering geologist referred to i n Section 15.2. incorporating any specialist advice obtained (see Section 15.6). 15.8 OPERATIVES The driller in charge of an individual drilling rig should be skilled and experienced i n t h e practice of ground investigation by means of boreholes and simple sampling and testing techniques. Operators of other equipment used in ground investigations should have appropriate skills and experience. Any timbering. shoring o r other s u p p o r t required in excavations or caissons should be installed only by suitably skilled workmen. All operatives should be familiar with and observant of safety precautions (see Appendix E).
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75

16, REVIEW DURING CONSTRUCTION
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16.1

GENERAL

There I> an hherent difficulty in forecasting ground conditions from ground i n veshgations carried out before the works are started since, however ~htensive the inveshgation and whatever methods are used, only a sma// proportion of the ground is examined.

fie primary purpose of the review during construction is to determine to what extent, if any, ~h the light of the conditlbns newly revealed, conclusions drawn from the ground investigation are required to be revised. In some cases, additional information is found which may necessitate amendment of the design or the construction procedures. In certain cases, it may therefore be appropriate to initiate a site procedure i n the early stages of the contract, so that correct and agreed records are kept during the duratlbn of the contract by both the engineer and the contractor. Tbe purposes of these records are : fa) fbl to assist i n checking the adequacy of the design, to assist in checking the safety of the works during constructlbn and to assess the adequacy of temporary works, to check the findings of the ground investigathn and to provide a feed-back so that these findings may be reassessed, to check h i t i a l assumptlbns about ground conditlbns, including groundwater, related to construction methods, to provide agreed information about ground condihbns in the event of dispute, to assist i n checking the suitabifity of proposed instrument installations,
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(cl

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fdl fel
ffl

fg) to assist in decid'ng the best use to be made of excavated materials, /hl to assist in the reassessment of the initial choice of construction plant and equ~;Oment.
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16.3 INFORMA TION REWIRED 16.3.1 Soil and Rock

Accurate descriptions of all material encountered below ground level should be made in accordance with Geoguide 3 (GCO, 19881, or a suitable alternative system. The subsurface profile revealed on site should be recorded

and compared with that anticipated from the ground investigaton. The descriptions should be made by an engineer or geologist /see Section 1 . 1 It 54. may be advantageous to arrange for the site to be inspected by the organization that carried out the site investigations, p a r t r k u M y if ground conditions appear to differ s ~ g n i f i a n t l y from those described i n the ground i n vestigation.

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1 . . Water 632
It is most important to record accurately a/l informatrbn about the groundwater obtained during construction, for comparison with i n f o r m t o n recorded during the investigation. The informaton should cover the flow and static conditons in a// excavations, seepage from slopes, seasonal variatons, tidal variations i n excavatons or tunnels near the sea or estuaries, suspect or known artesian conditrons, the effect o f weather conditions on groundwater, and any unforeseen seepage under or from water-retah~hg structures. The effect of groundwater lowering should also be recorded in observatfon holes to determine the extent of the cone of depress~on.

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Groundwater rises due t o the damming effects of new construction or temporary works should likewise be recorded.
16.4 INSTRUMENTATION

O many types of structures, such as earth dams, embankments on soft n ground, some large buiMngs with underground construction, exca vations and tunnels, it is prudent to consider regukr observatons by means of instrumentation ~h order to check that construction works can proceed s&y (Bureau of Reclamation, 1987; DiBiagio & Myrvoll, 1982). Such observations may include measurement of pore pressure, seepage, earth pressure, settlement and lateral movements (see also Sectons 8.Z 2 . and 31.21. 83 The instrumentation may be usefully conthued after construction h order to observe the performace o f the project. This i s part'cularly necessary i n the case o f earth dams for maintaining a safe structure under varying conditons, and ~h other cases for gaining valuable data for future design.

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For projects involving slopes, it is common practice in Hong Kong to monitor groundwater levels and pore pressures, and their response t o rainfall. Methods of measuring pore water pressures are given in Chapter 20. In many situations, it will also be essential to monitor movements and the condition of nearby buildings and structures.

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PART IV GROUND 1NVESTI GATION METHODS

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17, INTRODUCTION TO GROUND INVESTIGATION METHODS
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There is a considerable variety of methods of ground investigation, and normally a combination of methods is employed to cover t h e technical requirements and t h e range of ground conditions t h a t a r e encountered. The factors involved in t h e selection of methods a r e discussed in Chapters 7 t o 16. Particular attention should be paid t o t h e safety of existing features. s t r u c t u r e s and services in t h e course of ground investigation. Advice on The planning and control is given in Section 7.2 (see also Appendix A). selection of methods may be influenced by t h e character of t h e site (see Section 11.2), and particular ground conditions often dictate which specific investigation technique should be used (see Chapter 12). Attention should also be given t o t h e safety of personnel (see Appendix El.

Insitu tests that are carried out i n boreholes as part of a borehoe investigation are described ih Chapter 2 . Other insitu tests, for which a 1 borehofe either I> unnecessary or I> o d y an inwWdentd part of the test procedure, are descriaed ih Chapters 24 to 33. Laboratory tests on soil and rock are discussed in Chapters 31 to 38. The collecOon and recordihg of data I> discussed i n Chapters 39 and 40.

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such as insitu density tests or Schmidt hammer. They also provide access for taking good quality (block) samples and for carrying out insitu tests.2 m. timber shoring is usually provided when excavation is deeper than 1. Recommendations on backfilling are given in Section 18. The positions and results of any field testing should also be recorded. and generally consists of a 0.5 m wide strip. extending from the crest to the toe of the slope. Material excavated from trial pits should be stockpiled in such a manner that it does not fall back into the pit or cause instability of the pit excavation. chunam plaster or other coverings. 1988) or a suitable alternative system. logging and reinstatement. and allow mass properties to be assessed.1 SHALLOW TRIAL PITS AND SLOPE SURFACE STRIPPING Shallow trial pits are usually dug by hand using a pick and shovel. The latter is used extensively in Hong Kong to investigate both natural and man-made.18. The field record of a shallow trial pit should include a plan giving the location and orientation of the pit. EXCAVATIONS AND BOREHOLES Table of Contents 18. Ground conditions should be fully described in accordance with Geoguide 3 (GCO. It is advisable to backfill pits as soon as possible after logging. and samples taken should be fully documented. The spoil should be placed and covered so as not to be washed downhill during rainstorms or allowed to enter surface drainage systems. rial pits are particularly useful for investigating and sampling soils derived from insitu rock weathering and colluvium. Pits may also be used to investigate the dimensions and construction details of old retaining walls. by surcharging the adjacent ground. Pits that must be left open temporarily should be covered and sealed so that rain water cannot enter. and commonly extend to a depth of about 3 m. e. It is essential that the pit sides are guarded against sudden collapse in order to protect personnel working in the pit. since open pits can be a hazard. they should also be securely fenced off if readily accessible by the public. Wooden hoardings anchored by steel bars driven into the ground are often used on steep slopes to retain spoil from falling back into the pit. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Trial pits can be extended readily into trenches or slope surface stripping. Two examples of trial pit logs are given in Figures 7 and 8. Bamboo scaffolding or access ladders are provided for inspection.g. both of which often exhibit a high degree of variability. Shallow trial pits may also be dug by machine.slopes. and to ascertain the exact position of buried utilities and services. . Shallow trial pits permit the insitu condition of the ground to be examined in detail both laterally and vertically. in which the ground has been laid bare of vegetation. and a dimensioned section showing the sides and floor. For this purpose. Logs should always be supplemented with colour photographs of each face and of the base of the pit. a hydraulic back-hoe excavator is the most commonly used. The spacing of the shoring should be sufficiently wide to allow inspection of the pit'sides.9. sampling and testing have been completed. hand penetrometer and hand shear vane index tests.

such as petrol-driven pump motors. Hand auger borehofes can be used for groundwater observatlons and to obtain disturbed sampfes and s d open-tube sampfes.4 HAND AUGER BORING The hand auger bor~hg method uses fight hand-operated equl-t. Further considerations a r e given i n BSI (1981a). Oxygen-consumhg engines that emit fox12 exhaust fumes. shoufd not be empfoyed in shafts. 18. 1981) should be followed.2 and Appendix E). An example of a caisson log is given in Figure 10. 1985). if this is encountered in slope stripping t h e depth of excavation should be increased if possible to reveal t h e t r u e nature of ground beneath. considerable judgement and experience is often required t o establish suitable procedures for such excavations. and for carrying out special sampling o r insitu testing. These caissons may be particularly useful for t h e investigation of rock a t or near t h e founding level of large foundations (Irfan & Powell. while t h e caisson is left unlined in rock. shafts and caissons a r e normally constructed by hand excavation using various methods for supporting t h e sides.ametermay be made ~n suitable ground conditions to a depth of about 5 m. The method can be used ~nself-supporak-g ground without hard obstructions or gravel -sized to boulder-sized partl'cfes.3 HEADINGS OR ADITS Headings a r e driven from t h e bottom of shafts o r laterally into sloping ground. and can be used for t h e insitu examination of t h e ground o r existing foundation structures.2 DEEP TRIAL PITS AND CAISSONS Deep trial pits. I t is recommended t h a t t h e guidance notes on t h e technical and safety aspects of hand-dug caissons issued by t h e Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (HKIE. Table of Contents . cast-insitu concrete liners a r e used in soil. The auger and driff rods are usudfy fifted out of the borehofe w~?houtthe aid of a tr~bod.An example of a log sheet for slope surface stripping is given in Figure 9. Colour photographs of salient geological features revealed by t h e stripping should always be obtained. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Workhg in deep shafts w 7 be dangerous unless the appropr~ate 1f safety precau&ons are str12tly foffowed Attention should be given to the poss13le occurrence of ~nj'urious or combustl3fe gases or of oxygen deflcienc~es. Hand-dug caissons 1 m in diameter and larger a r e commonly used in Hong Kong for foundation construction t o depths of 30 m o r more. Correct methods of ~nspectlon shoufd be foffowed and appropriate precautlbns shoufd be taken (see Section 7. and no borehofe casing is used Borehofes up to 200 m d~. Fill is sometimes used t o smooth t h e surface of a c u t slope before application of t h e chunam plaster. Typically. 18. but it is also necessary to consider t h e need t o expose t h e ground for inspection and logging. Temporary o r permanent liners a r e necessary for t h e protection of personnel working in these excavations. 18.

and it is recommended for most situations. and core drilling. They are of limited use in soils with boulders or corestones and are therefore seldom used in Hong Kong. In ground investigations. comprising a continuous-flight auger and a hollow stem. employing a clay cutter for dry cohesive soils. The drilling fluid is commonly water. 18. lubricates the bit and flushes the drill debris up the borehole. In rotary open hole drilling. Drill casing is normally used to support unstable ground or to seal off open fissures which cause a loss of drilling fluid. and it is severely restricted in bouldery ground where the frequent use of a heavy chisel is required.1 General Rotary drilling.2). in which the drill bit cuts all the material within the diameter of the borehole. The widespread occurrence in Hong Kong of bouldery colluvium and corestone-bearing soils derived from insitu rock weathering has therefore curtailed the use of light cable percussion boring. However. as has the widespread need to core into and prove rock. in which an annular bit fixed to the outer rotating tube of a core-barrel cuts a core that is returned within the inner stationary tube of the core-barrel and brought to the surface for examination and testing. drilling mud or cement grout can be used to seal open fissures.7 ROTARY OPEN HOLE DRILLING AND ROTARY CORE DRILLING 18. drill cuttings brought to the surface in the flushing medium can only provide an indication of the ground conditions being encountered. which is pumped down to the bit through hollow drill rods. 18.6 MECHANICAL AUGERS Mechanical augers. Further considerations are given in BSI (1981a). However.7. and a chisel for breaking up rock and other hard layers. is the most common method of subsurface exploration used in Hong Kong (Chan & Lau. There are two basic types of rotary drilling : open hole (or full hole) drilling. The shell can only be used when there is sufficient water in the borehole to cover the lower part of the shell. a shell (or bailer) for granular soils. are suitable for augering soft cohesive soils and may be suitable for firm cohesive soils.7.18. 1986).5 LIGHT CABLE PERCUSSION BORING Table of Contents Table of Contents Light cable percussion boring is an adaptation of common well-boring methods. Light cable percussion boring cannot be used for boring into or proving rock. in which the drill bit or casing shoe is rotated on the bottom of the borehole. The drill tools are worked on a wire rope using the clutch of the winch for percussive action. rotary core drilling has the important advantage over rotary open hole drilling of providing a core sample while the hole is being advanced. but drilling mud or air foam are often used with advantage (see Section 18. Table of Contents Table of Contents . and samples may be obtained between drill runs even when the open hole technique is used. the method can be used to investigate the finer-grained marine sediments and alluvium found in the flat coastal areas. The drilling fluid. rotary open hole drilling is useful for rapid advancement of a borehole required for field testing or instrument installation. Alternatively.

2). i t is impossible t o flush out. a n d b e able t o o p e r a t e with a minimum of vibration.Water used a s a flushing medium in r o t a r y drilling may have a deleterious e f f e c t on both t h e stability of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g g r o u n d a n d on t h e samples obtained. with t h e inside of t h e casing cleaned o u t b y s u r g i n g a n d flushing. In choosing a r i g . In marine investigations. often termed r o t a r y wash boring. where considerable expertise is necessary to obtain fu// recovery of core of saakfactory qua/ity. 18. They a r e commonly available with a power r a t i n g in t h e r a n g e of 10 t o 50 horsepower a n d capable of stable drill s t r i n g rotation u p t o 1 500 o r 2 000 rpm. Rigs a r e normally s k i d mounted. t h i s may be detrimental t o stability a n d may actually t r i g g e r rapid collapse.10. weak. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents r. The sizes of commonly-used core-barrels. f o r example. consideration must b e given t o t h e expected d e p t h a n d diameter of t h e hole t o be drilled. t h u s c r e a t i n g a l a r g e zone of d i s t u r b e d material which can extend f o r some distance below t h e bottom of t h e hole. This method involves advancing t h e hole b y casing alone. DrMng is in part an a t and its success is dependent upon good practice and the ski1 of the operator. a n d s i t e access. When drilling on a slope o r behind a n old masonry retaining wall. partkularly when coring weathered.7. Drilling r i g s should be mounted on a stable platform s u c h t h a t a force of 12 t o 15 kN c a n b e applied to t h e drill bit without movement of t h e rig. all t h e coarse fragments.51.81 and b y the method of extruding. i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e w a t e r p r e s s u r e employed. These fragments will affect t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of f u r t h e r sampling a n d t e s t i n g done in t h e borehole. may be particularly detrimental in t h i s r e g a r d . Water p r e s s u r e s sufficient t o flush t h e casing a r e often high a n d may lead t o increased pore p r e s s u r e s ( o r reduced pore suctions) in t h e s u r r o u n d i n g ground. horizontal boreholes often enable t h e wall t h i c k n e s s a n d backfill materials t o b e determined. samples obtained from r o t a r y wash boring may be d i s t u r b e d .7. a n d t h e y will accumulate in t h e base of t h e hole.7). Rotary drilling r i g s a r e available in a wide r a n g e of weights a n d power r a t i n g s in Hong Kong. handfing andpreservaoon of the core fsee Section 19. t h e flushing water may not only c a r r y t h e c u t t i n g s u p t h r o u g h t h e casing. partMly cemented and fractured rocks. casings a n d drill r o d s a r e shown i n Table 5. Smaller scale r o t a r y drilling r i g s a r e also available a n d c a n sometimes b e u s e d t o g r e a t advantage in special situations. with a typical configuration as shown in Figure 11. t h e possible casing requirements. t h e s t a n d a r d r o t a r y open hole method should t h e r e f o r e be used i n preference t o r o t a r y wash boring (see Section 14. A s a result. Also. A c r u d e adaptation of t h e r o t a r y open hole method. Water is t h e simplest flushing medium. a t least over a portion of t h e i r length. This is greatly inhenced b y the choice of core-barrel and cutt~hgbit type (see Section 19. I n s o f t o r loose g r o u n d . Rigs should generally have a minimum ram s t r o k e length of 600 mm. in soils containing gravel-sized fragments. a n d i t s u s e m u s t be carefully considered (see Section 18. b u t also u p a r o u n d t h e outside of t h e casing. Hand-portable r o t a r y core drills may often be useful f o r coring t h r o u g h existing c o n c r e t e o r masonry retaining walls.2 Flushing Medium with t h e is v e r y used a s clay o r Careful selection of a flushing medium which is compatible equipment employed a n d suitable f o r t h e g r o u n d t o be drilled important. Other fluids flushing media are drilling muds (which consist of w a t e r with .

t h e y often allow additional geological d a t a t o b e obtained. o r if piezometers a r e t o be installed. high p r e s s u r e air compressor. The air foam also r e s i s t s percolation i n t o open f i s s u r e s . I n situations where deviation is detrimental. a n d containing corestones. While t h e y a r e generally more costly t h a n similar vertical holes. The polymer stabiliser. a n d overly flexible r o d s .bentonite). 1985). r o d s much smaller t h a n t h e borehole. drilling mud is not recommended if permeability t e s t s are t o be c a r r i e d o u t in t h e borehole. Another a d v a n t a g e of drilling mud is t h a t i t can r e d u c e soil d i s t u r b a n c e a n d hence improve sample quality. A i r foam flushing. produce spiraling i n t h e hole. has t h e disadvantage of coating t h e walls of t h e hole s u c h t h a t insitu permeability t e s t i n g may not b e representative.7. t h e air foam h a s a g r e a t e r ability t o maintain t h e c u t t i n g s in suspension. Some of t h e f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e t o deviation a r e : (a) worn a n d undersized drill rods. ( b ) drilling r i g rotation a n d vibration. a n d a slow-moving column of foam with t h e consistency of aerosol shaving cream c a r r i e s t h e s u s p e n d e d c u t t i n g s t o t h e surface. However. Inclined holes may be found t o deviate i n both dip a n d direction from t h e intended orientation (Craig & Gray. a i r foams a n d polymer mixtures. 1981. t h e u s e of water as t h e flushing medium may not be advisable (see Section 18. however. 1986). The u s e of a i r foam as a flushing medium h a s enabled increased core recovery a n d quality t o be achieved in colluvium a n d soils derived from insitu rock weathering (Phillipson & Chipp. 1987: McFeat-Smith et al. as i t helps t o stabilise t h e sides a n d bottom of t h e hole i n caving soils. air flushing should b e considered t o r e d u c e t h e r i s k of slope movement in s u c h cases. i t can b e minimised b y t h e u s e of securely-anchored drilling r i g s a n d platforms. o r in some instances. F u r t h e r guidance on t h e u s e of drilling mud i s given b y Clayton et a1 (1982). Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 18. When investigating potentially unstable slopes. This technique involves t h e injection of foaming c o n c e n t r a t e a n d water i n t o t h e a i r stream produced b y a low volume. a n d it stabilises t h e borehole walls.7. a n d t h e low uphole velocity a n d low volume of water utilized s e r v e t o r e d u c e d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e c o r e a n d s u r r o u n d i n g ground. 1982). a v e r y stiff drill s t r i n g which tends to Table of Contents (c) difficult g r o u n d conditions.1). a s shown diagrammatically i n Figure 12. A polymer stabiliser is a d d e d when drilling below t h e water table. s u c h as bouldery soils o r soils . The foam is forced down t h e drill r o d s in t h e conventional manner. The u s e of drilling mud can also minimise t h e need f o r casing of t h e hole. water with a n additive s u c h a s sodium chloride. Compared with water. The main a d v a n t a g e of t h e s e o t h e r flushing media i s t h a t drill c u t t i n g s may be removed a t a lower flushing velocity a n d with less d i s t u r b a n c e t o t h e ground. o r when drilling i n t o failed slopes t o obtain samples from t h e slip zone. This is particularly common i n t h e vertical plane d u e t o t h e weight of t h e drill r o d s .3 Inclined Drilling Inclined boreholes can often be used to g r e a t advantage i n g r o u n d investigations (McFeat-Smith.

b u t may b e cumbersome f o r t a k i n g r e p e a t e d deviation c h e c k s d u r i n g drilling. o r t h e multi-shot version of t h e Eastman-Whipstock tool. t h e drill r o d s a r e r o t a t e d i n direction t o allow t h e reamer to be folded in a n d t h e bit t o b e r e t r a c t e d Table of Contents . The ABEM Fotobor r e c o r d s cumulative deflection measurements photographically within t h e borehole a n d i t can b e u s e d within steel casings. The function of t h e Eastman a n d Pajari tools i s t o record t h e orientation of a gimballed magnetic s p h e r e . in which case single-shot tools may be preferable. The percussive action may be provided b y e i t h e r a t o p hammer o r a down-the-hole hammer. provided that the boreholes are drfled under controlled conditons. For t h e s e reasons. When t h e a reverse desired d e p t h has been reached. b y photographic a n d mechanical means respectively.8. a n d t h e location of centralizers placed on t h e drill rods. 18. which is i n s e r t e d at t h e same time as t h e hole i s being advanced.a n d c o r e .g. wash boring is seldom u s e d i n Hong Kong. 18.8 18. which is based on t h e principle of u n d e r reaming. hinited informaobn about ground conditons may be obtained. Several i n s t r u m e n t s a r e available f o r measuring borehole orientation o r deviation.1 Table of Contents Table of Contents WASH BORING AND OTHER METHODS Wash Boring Wash boring utilizes t h e percussive action of a chisel bit to break u p material t h a t is flushed to t h e s u r f a c e b y water pumped down t h e hollow drill rods. a r e useful f o r u n d e r t a k i n g complete borehole s u r v e y s . o r drilling mud may be used. a n d t h e flushing water may d i s t u r b t h e s u r r o u n d i n g g r o u n d i n t h e same manner a s t h e r o t a r y wash boring method discussed in Section 18.2 Table of Contents Other Methods of Boring There are many other methods of borhg.8. Directional control may also be achieved b y careful adjustments t o rotational speeds. rotary percussive drilfing for blast holes and grouthg. casing may b e d r i v e n down t o s u p p o r t t h e sides of t h e borehole. a n eccentric reamer bit swings o u t a n d drills a hole l a r g e r t h a n t h e o u t e r diameter of t h e casing. e. s u c h as t h e Eastman-Whipstock single-shot o r multi-shot photog r a p h i c s u r v e y tools. and sampHng of the drfling flushings fXorner & Sherrel' 19771.b a r r e l s a t least 3 m long coupled t o drill r o d s of t h e same diameter as t h e c o r e . observaoon of drilling character13tics. I n some difficult g r o u n d conditions. One s u c h r o t a r y percussive method is t h e Overburden Drilling Eccentric method.b a r r e l o r to r o d s fitted with centralizers. s u c h as colluvium containing v e r y h a r d boulders within a loose soil matrix. When such boreholes are sunk for purposes other than ground i f f vestigation. o r ODEX (Plate 4A). The fragments of soil b r o u g h t t o t h e s u r f a c e b y t h e wash water a r e not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d consistency of t h e materials being penetrated. During drilling in soil. o r in areas w h e r e o t h e r magnetic d i s t u r b a n c e s may b e anticipated.7. with measurement of rate ofpenetration. i t may b e v e r y difficult t o control t h e deviation of inclined holes. I n g r o u n d which is liable t o collapse. Multi-shot tools s u c h a s t h e ABEM Fotobor. t h e Pajari mechanical single-shot s u r v e y i n g i n s t r u m e n t a n d t h e ABEM Fotobor multi-shot photographic probe. t h r u s t p r e s s u r e s . which have been developed generafly to obtain maximum penetration speed. This precludes t h e u s e of t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s within steel casings o r attached to steel r o d s .

b u t it has been used in Hong Kong t o install long horizontal drains in colluvium (Craig 81 Gray. The best procedure is to refill in the borehole with a cement-based grout introduced at the lowest point by means of a tremie p$e. tunnels or water-retaining structures. 1985) a n d f o r drilling t h r o u g h bouldery fill t o p r o v e t h e bedrock profile. The latter effect can cause very ser~bus incon venince ifthe backr'ied exca vatrons or 6oreholes are on the s2e o f future deep exca vathns. This method is not commonly u s e d in g r o u n d investigations a s no i n t a c t samples a r e obtained.g. For boreholes in dry ground. on account o f shrinkage. I t may also be a useful technique f o r t h e location of cavities i n k a r s t t e r r a i n (Horner & Sherrell.t h r o u g h t h e casing. Cement alone wi/l not necessarily seal a borehole.g. It could a/so lead to the future po//ution o f an aquifer. Table of Contents 18. which remains in t h e hole. It is possible to compact the backfi7l o f excavations by means of the excavator bucket or other mechanical means. mix proportios about four to one. In some cases. and it is often preferable to use a cement-bentonite grout. e. weak concrete may be used. The add~~tron an of expandhg agent may be necessary. i t possible to use compacted so17 as a backfill although the procedure is often unsuccessfu~ preventing the flow o f water. Drilling may t h e n b e f u r t h e r extended into rock b y replacing t h e ODEX bit with a normal rock drill bit. with no more water added than is necessary to permit the grout to flow or to be pumped.9 BA CXFLLING EXCA VATIONS AND BOREHOLES Poorly-compacted backfill wdl cause settlement at the ground surface and can act as a path for groundwater. to fill a small hole on a steeply sloping face. 1977). Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . e.

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31. particularly with r e g a r d t o t h e e x t e n t t o which d i s t u r b a n c e o c c u r s before. 1988). in which a tube or spLit tube sampler having a sharp cutting edge a t its lower end IS forced into the ground either by a static thrust or by dynamic impact (see Sections 19. i t should b e made clear whether mass properties o r i n t a c t material properties a r e t o b e determined ( s e e Section 12. most wi7f exh~Bit and some degree of d~kturbance. fc1 and /dl are u s u d y taken in a vertical ~ direction. i t i s possible to obtain a good sample of material t h a t may not b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e mass. The selection of a sampling technique d e p e n d s on t h e quality of t h e sample t h a t i s r e q u i r e d and t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e g r o u n d .1 G E N E R A L The main p u r p o s e s of sampling a r e t o establish t h e s u b s u r f a c e geological profile in detail. Guidance on t h e mass of soil sample r e q u i r e d f o r different laboratory tests i s given i n Table 7.11). fd) Table of Contents takjhg block samp/es spec~allycut b y hand from a t r ~ h l pit. Table of Contents There are four main techniques for obtdining samples (Hvorslev. shaft or heading (see Section 19.2.4 to 19. lh which a tube with a cutter a t its lower end ~krotated ihto the ground. Therefore. I t should be borne in mind t h a t t h e overall behaviour of t h e ground i s often dictated by planes o r zones of weakness which may be p r e s e n t (e.g. fc1 and fdl wifl often be suffic~entJy by intact to enable the ground structure wl'thin the s a m e to be examined. The distinction between mass a n d material properties i s discussed f u r t h e r in Geoguide 3 ( G C O . The principal c a u s e s of soil d i s t u r b a n c e a r e listed in Table 6 (Clayton e t al. thereby p r o d u c ~ ~ g a core s@e (see Sectlbn 19. A method for class~yfyingthe guafity of the sampfe given in Sechun 19. The mass of sample r e q u i r e d f o r various p u r p o s e s i s determined b y t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e g r o u n d and t h e t e s t s t h a t a r e t o b e u n d e r t a k e n . fb1 drive samphg. d u r i n g o r a f t e r sampling.9 describe the various sampfing techniques and give an indication of the sampfe quak2ie.' fa) taking disturbed samples from the dr~i'l tools or from excavating equipment in the course of boring or excavation (see Sectlbn 19.91.7). a n d t h e f r e q u e n t need t o modify t h e sampling technique t o s u i t t h e g r o u n d conditions. The quamy of such samp/es can vary considerably. v e r y close supervision of sampling i s w a r r a n t e d ( s e e Chapter 15).9. Table of Contents . In choosing a sampling method.3 to 19. Sampfes obta~hed techniques (b1. depending on the technique and the ground cond~'t~ons.s that can be expected Intact samples obta~hed by t e ~ h n l q u e(b). 19481. but specially orientated samples may be required to investigate particular features. fc1 rotary samp/ing. discontinuities). Sections 1.89 19. 1982) a n d a r e f u r t h e r discussed b y Clayton (1984). Because of this. a n d t o s u p p l y both d i s t u r b e d a n d u n d i s t u r b e d materials f o r laboratory testing. SAMPLING THE GROUND Table of Contents 19.81.

g. it wi// only be possible to obtain samples with some degree of disturbance. Alternatively. there is a danger that the samples obtahed may not be truly representative of the ground. Le. samples 100 nun in d ~ k t e are preferred r since the results o f laboratory tests may then be more representative of the mass propertlis of the ground. Where the approximate number o f tests is known. Where the ground contains d13continuities of random orientation. Samples of classes 3. When disturbed samples are taken from below water in a borehole or excavation. or width. for soi4 is often referred to as 'the fabric' @owe.3 DISTURBED SAMPLES FROM BORINC TOOLS O EXCA V A T M EQUIPMENT R The quality o f the sample depends on the technique used for sinking the borehole or excavation and on whether the ground is dry or wet.A summary of t h e typical sampling procedures for materials commonly encountered in Hong Kong i s given in Table 8. This I> particukify the case with granular soils conta'n~hg fines. 19721. in johted rock.2 SAMPLE UUALITY The sampfing procedure shouh' be selected on the bas13 of the quality of the sample that is requ~i-ed. for general use. This can be partly overcome by plachg the whole contents o f the too/ h t o a tank and allow~hgthe fines to settle before decanting the water. However. For h e so& that are m homogeneous and ikotropli?. TabAe 7 gives some guidance on the amount of soil that should be obtahed for each series of tests. whatever sampling methods are used. 197501 give precise details o f the mass o f so17 sample required for each type o f test. sbould be as large as possible in relation to the spau'ng o f d~kcontinuitibs. Table of Contents Table of Contents 19. In some cases. detads of the size o f sample requked are given in BSl f1975al. I f the programme of laboratory tests is uncertan. T h k is determined largely by the geological structure o f the ground.9. sands and flters are b e h g considered. BSI N975b. which should b e read in conjunction with Sections 19. e. I? may be necessary to take samples which have been specidly orientated. Table of Contents 19.3 to 19. Where materials for mineral aggregates. The following classes o f samp/e can generally be tupected from the various methods o f boring and sampling : Table of Contents . A classificatian for soil samples developed in CermanyfIdeI et a4 19691 provides a useful basis for c/assfying samples h terms of quality /Table 91. samples 150 mm and 250 mm ~hdiameter are used (Rowe. 4 and 5 are conmonly regarded as 'disturbed samples: A further consideration in the selection of procedures for taking c h s s 1 sampies 13 the size of the sample. In special cases. the s a m e d z e e t e r . which. which tend to be washed out of the tool. samples as s & as 35 mm in d i e t e r may be used. The results of any strength or compressibility tests carried out on such samples should be treated with caution.and is assessed largely by the suitabfity of the sample for appropriate laboratory tests. where the ground contains strongly orientated discontinuities. i is a simple matter to estimate the total amount o f soil that has to t be obtained. class 2 at best. 19721.

e. The use of sockets and core-catcher 12 discussed h Secbon 19. The cutting shoe should n o r d y be of a des~gn similar to that shown in F~gure and 12 should embody the fohwing features 13 fa) Inside clearance. Disturbed samples from dry excavabons and from dry boreboles sunk either by a clay cutter ushg cable percussion equ~pment by an auger. Disturbed samples in granufar soil from wet excavabons or from any borehole sunk by a shell ushg cable percuss~bn equ~pment from any borehole sunk by or a method in which the dr5'l debris is flushed out of the borehole. thereby increasing the disturbance. rotary open hole dr~yling. or Table of Contents b Class 4. Care should be taken to ensure that the sample is representative of the zone or layer from which it I> removed. the inside wall friction and the non-return valve..q shoe.4 OPEN. or from boreholes sunk either by a clay cutter using cable percusshn equ~pment.1 Table of Contents Princ~pfes Design of 11) General. shoufd be slightly less than that of the sample tube. Disturbed samples obtaned in cohesive soLJ from excavabbns. D. reduces fr~'cbonal drag from the ins^-de wa/l of the tube and he& to retain the sample. and has not been contaminated by other mater~as.g.wash boring. in condiClbns where water is present. to give inside clearance. and assists i f f retaking the samp/e when the tool I> withdrawn from the ground Figure 13 shows the basic detays of a sampfer suitable for general use having a single s a m e tube and simple cutbhg shoe.4.or by an auger. Table of Contents The fundamental requirement of a sampling toof I> that i should muse t a s little remoulding and d~kturbanceas possibe on behg forced into the ground The degree of d~kturbance controlled by three features of the 13 design :the cutting shoe.tmeter the cutting of shoe. Open-tube samplers consht essentialy of a tube t h a t is open a t one end and fitted a t the other end with means for attachment to the drill rods. This allows for s/ight elasb'c expansion of the sample as it enters the tube. A large ins~~de clearance should be a voided s~nce it would permit the sampfe to expand. D. The outside d~. diameter of the tube.. fc) Class 5. to give outside clearance and fac~Xtate the withdrawal of the sampler from the ground The outside clearance should not be much greater than .4. The hternaf diameter of the cutmg shoe. 19. A non-return valve permis the escape of ai or water as the sample enters the tube. 12) The cutbh. An alternative sampler incorporates a detachable inner finer.4. D should be slightly greater than the outshfe . Table of Contents fb) Outside clearance.fa) Class 3. Dr. typically about 1%of the d ~ d t e r .TUBE SMPLERS 19.

4.5. A sampling head with an 'overdrve' space (Figure 131 will allow the sample tube to be campletely filled without rikk of damaging the sampie. The area raho represents the volume of so17 displaced by the sampfer in proportion to the volume of the sample (Figure 13).4.g. the bottom of the borehole or surface of the excavaoon or heading should be cleared of loose or dikturbed materi-al a s far a s possible. and for most ground condioons it is probable that there ik no significant difference. The area ratro is about 30%for the general purpose IOU m dikmeter sampler. Below the water table. e. The samp/r can be driven into the ground by dynarm2 means. the sampler ik stead17y withdrawn. After dri'vihg. Some or a// of any such loose or dikturbed materm that is left will n o r d y pass into the 'overdrve' space.the inside clearance. and about 10%for a m thin-walled samp/er. s m t h finikh to the i'nsi. The length of s@e that is recovered should be recorded. 19. 3 W l friction. ifthe lengCh of the s u e is less than Table of Contents Table of Contents .. the soil will be compressed in the sampler. using a hydraulic jack orpulley block and tackfe. ifdriven too far. There is litt/e published evidence to indicate whether dynamic or static driving produces less sample disturbance. using a drop weight or s M n g hannner. It should be kept a s s d as possible consistent with the strength requirements of the sampfe tube. Table of Contents Table of Contents Typi'cal designs of open-tube samplers whi'cb are used for various purpqses are descrfbed in Sections 19. fc) Area rath. in order to accommodate a loose inner liner. The sampling disturbance is reduced by using a cutting shoe that has a long outside taper. i is necessary to t keep the level of the borehole water above the groundwater level appropriate to the location of the s d e . ? and to assist in retention of the sampfe when removing the sampler from the borehole. and any dikcrepancy i'nvestigated For example. This can be reduced by a suitable inside clearance. certain types of laminated soils occurring below the bottom of the borehole or excavatjon may be dikturbed if the natural water pressure in the lamha&ons exceeds the pressure imposed by the water within the borehoe or excavatbn.4. and ik consi'derably less than that which wouM be expected from the calculated area ratio. relative to the internal diameter D. compared ~ 9 t h the diktance that the too/ was driven.3 to 19. Scnne special samplers have a large outside diameter Dr. a/ and by a clean. or by a continuous stat12 thrust.de of the tube. (4) Non -return valve. To prevent this effect. The non -return valve should have a large orifice to allow a and water to escape quickly and easily when driving the sampler. The distance that the t d ik driven shoufd be checked and recorded as.2 Sampling Procedure Before a sample is taken. The driving effort for each sample may be recorded a s an indicazYon of the consistency of the ground.

The smaller samplers are of s1b1172r design. & may fall out when the tool 13 withdrawn from the g m d Sample the s e recovery can be ~mproved insert2ng a core-catcher between the cutting edge by and the sample barrel. These samp/rs are suitable only for h e s o i s up to a fim consistency.hk?ter can be used ifuse of the 100 mm samp/er I> precluded by the borehole s~ze. foming a sampler about 1. . such as silt and silty h e sand. provided that the soil has not been disturbed by sinkng the borebole. Sp/it Barrel Standard Penetratrbn Test Sampler 945 The split b a r d sampler is used in the standard p e k a t i o n test and is described JR Test I9 of BSI N975b). SSamps between 75 mrn and 100 mrn in diameter are normally obtaneo'. . often termed the U l O O sampler (Plate 48). are often used for sampflng soft clays (Scrota & Jenn~ngs. alternative&. and free from large particles. T h e details of the sampler is illustrated in Figure 13 and m i s t s of a sample barreL about 450 mm in length. the sample tool h a y have permitted the samp/e to s/l. 19.oout 8s the tool was being withdrawn. sampler illustrated in Figure 14. the sample qua/2y is unlikely to be better than c h s 3 . Sample barrels can be coupled together Table of Contents Table of Contents w~2h screw sockets to form a longer sampler. Thin -Walled Samplers 943 Table of Contents Table of Contents Thin-wded samp/ers are used for soils that are partl'cularly sens~iYve to sampling disturbance. 1 . except that the c u t t ~ h gedge may not be detachable. 1 .". They generally give class 1 samples in all fine cohesive s o i k ~ n c l u d ~ h g sensitive clays. It should be noted that d~kturbance at the base o f a borebole in weak soil will occur below a certain depth because of stress relief: Piston samples penetrating we// below the base of the borehole are therefore preferable (see Sect2on 1 . The area rat20 is about 10%.2 and Figure 2 ) 5. sampfes up to 250 nun in d~klmter are often obtained for spec~klpurposes. the sample may have exper~enced some compression or. ) A typ~calthin-wa/ed 95.the d~ktancedriven.4 General Purpose 100 mm Diameter Open-Tube Sampler The 100 mm diameter open-tube sampler.4. When u s ~ h ga core-catcher. It ~k used to recover small samples. In soils of low cohesion. although the increased length of the sample tube may lead to some disturbance. with a screw-on cutding s o and drive he head The area rat20 13 about 30%. but the driving action during sampling i s likely to introduce some disturbance. It takes samples 35 nun n d ~ h e t e and u n h r has an area rat2O o f about 100%. 1958). partl'cularly under condit2ons wh~ch prevent the use o f the general purpose 100 mm sampler. . . Two standard b a r d . The highest sample quality that can be obtained is class 2 a t best (Whyte. i s a fairly robust sampler that can be used for many Hong Kong soils. Smaller samplers of about 50 mm or 75 mm dJ.0 m in length. and gives class 3 or class 4 samples (see SectJbn 21. and consist o f a th~n-waled steel tube whose lower end is shaped to form a cutting edge with a s d ins~ile clearance. 1984).

and the sample is fed automathally ~ h t o a nylon stockinette sleeve wh~kh has been treated to make it ~inperv~ous. . In soft clay. The samp/er is normally used ih low strength fine s 1 . 962 1 . Although normally in 943 used J> soft clays. . 1% descrl'bed more fully in Sectrbn 1 .wh12h is slightly a coned a t its lower face. 1972). Holland. The sample witb~hthe sleeve fed into a thin-waLJedplastic inner tube filled to the appropriate level with a bentonite-barytes supporttng flu~Y of s~in~i'ar dens12y to the surround~ng ground The upper end of the nylon sleeve I> fked to the top cap of the sample. The piston is Dked to separate rods wh~bh pass through a slid~hg J b i n f fthe drive head and up inside the hollow rods. operated a t ground surface. 1 . but samplers up to 250 m d~heteer m are used for spe& so17 condithns.19. the sampler can be pushed below the bottom of the borehole. The sample tube ~k fitted to the drive head. spec~kl p~kton samplers have been designed for use in stryf c/aus (Rowe. This ~k of partlbular value for ~'denttfying so17 '/abr~b' ' w .1 General 96 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Continuous soil sampling can produce samples up to 30 m in length ~h soils such as recent fine alluvial deposits. and gives class 1 o 7s samples in silt and clay. Ini&ialy.W A L L E D STATIONARY PISTON SAMPL ER The thin-walled stafionary p~ktonsampler (Plate 4C ) consists of a thinwalled sample tube conta'n~ng close-fitthg sliding p~kton. the piston is locked to the lower end of the sample tube to prevent water or slurry from entering the sampler. wh~bh connected through a tens~on is cable to a Table of Contents . When the sample depth is reached. enable the p~ktonand sample tube to be locked together or the piston to be held statrbnary whlye the sample tube is driven down. 1977). wh~bh 13 connected to hollow dr17l rods. CONTNUOUS SOIL SAMPLING 96 1 . 1972) and gives results s u p a r k to those the & e o which can be obtained by consecutive drive sampling. m The 66 m sampler is pushed into the ground w ~ l h conventronal Dutch deep m a sounding mach~hehhav~nga thrust of 200 kN The sampler is advanced by pushing on the steel outer tubes.tJbfl. the p~kton held stabbnary and is the sample tube is driven down by a static thrust until the drive head encounters the upper face of the piston. including sensitive clay.5 T W . . An automatic clanp in the drive head prevents the piston from dropping down and extruding the sample while the sampler is withdrawn. developed by the Laborator~bm vmr Grondmechanica of Delft. The sample d i m t e r is normally 75 nun or 100 mm. . 1950) takes samples 68 m in diameter us~hg m steel fo~7s to eliminate l'ns~kkfdction between the sample and the tube w d The Delft system. The Delft Continuous Sampler 962 The D&t continuous sampler. w~yhthe piston in this pos~. The Swedish system /Xjeffman et al. . F~gure shows the bas12 deta7s of a statibnary 15 piston sampler. . is available in two s h to take cont~nuous samples 29 m and 66 nun in diameter /Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory. ~ t Clamping devices. Its ability to take samples below the disturbed zone and to hold them d ~ r ~ recovery gl'ves an advantage ng over the thin-waled sampler descr~i5ed Sectbn 1 . wbicb uses fighter equ~bmentand offers two sizes of sample.

but i'n suitable ground with a modified magazine and 9 m increased thrust. I n highly f r a c t u r e d r o c k s t h i s c a n r e s u l t in a jumble of rock fragments in t h e c o r e box a n d may make logging a n d measurement of f r a c t u r e s t a t e indices difficult. Double-tube a n d t r i p l e .I. If the sampler I> driven by m dynam~c means. I n addition. can normally b e used in f r e s h to moderately decomposed rocks. Class 2 to class 3 samples can be obtained with these samp/ers.8 R O T A R Y CORE SAMPLES Samples are obta'ned by the rotary core dri'/ig procedures described i n Sectrbn 18. The q u m y of sample may vary considerably depending on the character of the ground and the type of coring equ~pment used (BS/. t h e s e b a r r e l s d o not p r o t e c t t h e c o r e from t h e drilling fluid unless t h e equipment is modified. as t h e core-barrel r o t a t e s directly a g a i n s t t h e core a n d core recovery is usually unsatisfactory. t h e core is often removed b y hanging t h e b a r r e l in a n e a r vertical position a n d tapping o n t h e s i d e s of t h e barrel.t u b e b a r r e l s a r e used. the change in volume of the sand caused by the dri-w'ng gives a sample quality not better than class 3. Core-barrel sizes commonly u s e d in Hong Kong a r e given in Table 5. I9581 introduces a bubble of a at the > base of the sampler before it i s withdrawn fm the ground Table of Contents 19. After specimens have been removed for testr'ng. if static thrust i s used. The sampler i s general/y constructed to take se -s 60 m i n d ~ h t e r . An example of a Table of Contents . I974al. The 29 m m m samples are used for visual ex&natron and the determinatron of bulk density and index propertres. A compressed a r sampler (Elkhop.ftuedpoint at the ground sudace. t o g e t h e r with t h e c o r e sizes produced.7 SAND SAMPLERS The recovery of tube samples of sand from below the water table presents special problems because the sample tends to f a / / out of the samp/e tube. with applicability a n d limitations a s follows : (a) Double-tube core-barrels. with a n i n n e r t u b e mounted on b e a r i n g s which does not r o t a t e a g a i n s t t h e core. Single-tube core-barrels a r e seldom used. However. n samples taken with a 66 m sampler being reta'ned i n the plastic tubes. The samples are cut into I m lengths and placed ~ ' purpose-made cases. 19481 enables the sample to be i removed from the ground into an air chamber and then lifted to the surface without contact with the water i n the borehole. generally &ass 2 and sometrines class I samples can be recovered An alternative design (&rota B Jennings. Extens~on tubes I m i n length are added as the sampler is pushed into the ground. only one half of the split materikl i s used for testr'ng. samples up to 30 m i'n length can be obta'ned The 2 m sampler i s of s1k7ar design and requires less thrust to effect penetration. However. The m 66 m samples are suitable for a range of laboratory tests. Tbe sampler normah'y has a maximum penetration of 18 m. The u s e of a c o r e e x t r u d e r is recommended i n s u c h situations. the samples are split and are then descr~'bed and photographed i n a semi-dried 9 m state when the soil fabric can be more readily identrued For 2 m samples. thus preserving a continuous record of the ground Table of Contents Table of Contents 19.

The Mazier core-barrel has an inner plastic liner which protects the sample during transportation to t h e laboratory. Further discussions of core-barrels. This nonretractable barrel incorporates a line mechanism for withdrawing t h e inner barrel up through t h e drill rods without withdrawing t h e outer barrel o r rods from t h e hole. Another type of triple-tube barrel is t h e wireline core-barrel. However. containing detachable liners within t h e inner barrel t h a t protect t h e core from drilling fluid and damage during extrusion. t h e double-tube Craelius T2-101 barrel a s shown in Figure 16). a Mazier core-barrel (Figure 18 and Plate 4F) is used. a core-barrel with a diamond-impregnated drill bit has t o be used t o advance t h e hole (e. They a r e particularly useful in coring highly fractured and jointed rock a s t h e split liners facilitate the retention of core with the joint system relatively undisturbed. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .7. The cutting shoe and connected inner barrel projects ahead of t h e bit when drilling in soft material and retracts when t h e drilling pressure increases in harder materials. Table of Contents ( b ) Triple-tube core-barrels. and f a r more commonly in Hong Kong. This core-barrel may be used in fresh t o moderately decomposed rock. An example of a non-retractable triple-tube core-barrel (with split liners) is shown i n Figure 17 (see also Plate 4E). a r e suitable for use in fresh t o moderately decomposed rock and some of t h e stronger highly decomposed materials. Brenner & Phillipson (1979) and Forth & Platt-Higgins (19811. This greatly reduces t h e possibility of drilling fluid coming into contact with t h e core a t o r j u s t above t h e point of cutting.double-tube core-barrel is shown in Figure 16 (see also Plate 4D). When rock o r corestones a r e encountered. i t should be noted t h a t t h e Mazier has a tungsten carbide tipped cutting shoe and is therefore not suitable for coring fresh to moderately decomposed rock. and in very deep vertical o r inclined holes t o achieve more rapid drilling progress. triple-tube core-barrels fitted with a retractable shoe a r e normally used (Table 5). The 74 mm diameter core obtained with t h e Mazier is compatible with t h e commonly -used laboratory triaxial testing apparatus. These cutting shoes can be added to t h e same triple-tube corebarrel used for coring fresh t o moderately decomposed rock.g. High quality (class 1) core samples of soils derived from insitu rock weathering and colluvium can be obtained using t h e large diameter triple-tube core-barrels i n conjunction with air foam a s t h e flushing medium (see Section 18.2). drilling techniques and their suitability t o materials found in Hong Kong can be found in Brand & Phillipson (1984). When coring soils derived from insitu rock weathering. Samples of class 1 to class 2 can also be obtained using t h e Mazier sampler in conjunction with air foam o r water a s t h e flushing medium. Alternatively.

19. 19. location a n d a n g l e of hole. Block samples should b e t a k e n a n d handled a s described in Section 19. they wil at the same time have to be sealed in an aiitight container or coated in wax. y recorded on the da@y field report. e. . The label should show a// necessary information about the sample. The location a n d orientation of a block sample should always b e r e c o r d e d before t h e sample is s e p a r a t e d from t h e ground. The s&es should be protected from excessive heat and temperature variatrbn. The p r o c e d u r e is also used t o obtain specially orientated samples. The temperature of the sample store will be M u e n c e d by the c h a t e . which may lead to deter~oration in the seahng of the sample containers and subsequent damage to the samples. but I? 13 recommended that the samples should be stored at the lowest temperature practikable wwithn the range Z•‹C to IS•‹C The d d y temperature variatrbn within the store should not exceed ZO•‹C.10 XANDLINC AND 19.S General Table of Contents Table of Contents Samples may have cost a considerable sum of money to obtain and should be treated with great care. t o measure t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h on specific discontinuities.10.1 LABELLING OF S2MfLE.9 BLOCK SAMPLES Table of Contents Block samples are c u t b y hand from material exposed i n trial pits a n d excavations. They are normally taken i n fill.19. (c) reference number. and also for their storage and transport so that they do not deteriorate. and an addiobnal copy should be kept separately from the sample. and can readily be identi3ed and drawn from the sample store when required. ( d ) r e f e r e n c e number of sample.g. The usefulness of the results of the laboratory tests depends on the qu&y of the samples at the tibe they are tested It is therefore hportant to e s t a b m a satikfactory procedure for handling and l a b e f i g the samples.10.10. soils derived from insitu rock weathering a n d colluvium in o r d e r to obtain samples with t h e l e a s t possible disturbance. thh latter ~k n 0 r . where r e l e v a n t : (a) name of contract.6. ( b ) name o r r e f e r e n c e numbers of t h e site. The sample itself should carry more than one label or other means of identincatrbn so that the sample can sti7l be identiild ifone label ~k damaged. The label should be marked with indelible J M and be sufficienlry robust to withstand the effect o f its environment and o f the transport o f the sample. I f they are to be preserved at their natural moisture content.2 Labelling All samples should be labefled fmmed12tely after being taken from a borehole or excavation. Table of Contents The sample label should give t h e following information. More detailed recommendations f o r block sampling are given i n USER (1974).

l9. procedure fbl should be foflowed. Immediately after being taken from a borehole or exca vaton. the sample should be placed in a non-corrodible and durable contaher of at least 0. procedure fa1 should be foflowed.51. preferably . The containers should be carefully crated to prevent damage during transit. For hand samples of rock. an alternative procedure is to coat the sample lh a layer of paraffin wax.lO. and ( h ) location and orientation of the sample where appropriate (e.4.4 Samples Taken with a Tube Sampler Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The following recommendatons are appflcable to a 7 samples taken witb 1 tube samplers. 19. The precautons for handfling and protectlbn of s d e s are to be regarded a s a minimum requ~iement samples taken b y the usual methods.(e) date of sampling. for other samples. For samples that are retained in a tube or liner. For rock samples. ( g ) depth of top and bottom of the sample below ground level.5 kg capacity.Z.g. they should be protected from excessive heat. The contaher should have an airtight cover or seal so that the natural moisture content of the sample can 62. wh~ehthe sample should /il/ witb the minimum of air space. A microcrystalline wax is preferred because it is less Mely to shrink or crack. 12 may be necessary to take more elaborate precaubons. except those taken with thick-walled samplers (see Section 19. or where it is desirable to keep them in good conditon over long periods. Large disturbed s-es that are requked for certah laboratory tests may be packed in robust containers or p h t k sacks. It is advisable to include in the wrapping a label of the type described in Section l9. for In special cases. Several layers of molten wax. Table of Contents (f) brief description of the sample.Z should be placed ~h the contaner hmediately under the cover. they should be treated as described below..10. fa) Immediately after the sample has been taken from the borehole or excavation. a sample from a trial pit). the ends of the sample shouId be removed to a depth of about 25 mm and any obv~ously d~kturbed sod ih the top of the s-er should also be removed. Tbe sample containers should be numbered and the tear-off slip or a label as described in Secton l9. the reference number shauld be recorded by panting d~iectryon the surface of the samp/e or by attaching a label Samples should then be wrapped in several thkkness of paper and packed in a wooden box.3 Disturbed Samples of So17 and Hand Spec~hens Rock of Where samples are required for testhg. During the intervals wMe the samples are on site or in transit to the sample store.lO.lO. An ia'enbkal label should also be securely Iixed to the outskie of the contaher under a waterproof seal /war or plastksI. maintained uno7 tested in the laboratory.

a layer of waxed paper or alumhum foil should be placed over the end of the sample before a p p / y i g the wax.de.2 Table of Contents .wr. 19.microcrystalline wax. as far a s poss~'ble. and a closefitthg lid or screw-cap should then be placed on each end of the tube or liner. It is essenhal that the sides of the tube be clean and free from adhering soil. the number of the sample should be panted on the outside of the contaner. I f the sample is very porous. If the sample is very porous.the quality of the core is mahtahed in i s natural state unM it I> finally stored t Except h relatively strong and massive rocks. core is dmst inevitably disturbed IT i is removed from the barrel held in a vertr'cal posii3on and then t placed into the core box. The lids should IT necessary. hnmed~ktely after be~hg removed from the samp/ng tooL and then should be t&bt& packed with suitable mater%alh t o a metal or plastic conta'ner. For soft marine soil samples. and the top or bottom of the sample should be lhdl'cated. keeping t h e sample in the same direction a s it left the ground. preferam m~'crocryst//inewax. the tube or liner should be held vertically. In addWon. The barrel should be held in a hor~kontal pos~~oon. be hem in positon with adhesive tape.5 Rotary Core Extrusion and Preservation After recovery of the core-bard to the surface. every effort should be made in subsequent handling to ensure that. The label should be placed a t the top of the s. The liners or contaners should be packed in a way that wiyl minlinize damage by vibration and shock dur~hg trans12. and the core extruded into a tray in such a manner that i is continuously t supported Ran-water guttering or other convenient/y avdable r q i split ~ gd tube can be used for this purpose. The lid of the container should be held h position with adhesive tape. Table of Contents Table of Contents A label bearing the number of the sample should be placed inside the container just under the lid.10. the sample should then be wrapped z h foi4 coated with successive layers of waxed cheese cloth and labelled a s descried 121 Section 19. it may be necessary to cover it with waxea' paper or alummi/m foil before applying the &ten wax.10. The molten wax should be as cool a s possible. (6) Sampls Table of Contents that are not retahed IR a tube should be wholly covered with several layers of &ten paraffin wax. agan supporhhg the core with rigid split tube. Any remaning space between the end of the tube or h e r and the wax should be tightly packed with a material that IS less compressible than the sample and not capable of extracting water from it. any dr17ling mud contaminatjbn and softened material should first be removed. When 12 is required to preserve the core such that it does not dry out. a conven~ent metbod is to extrude it from the core-bard into s k v i n g formed of thh-gauge polyethylene. and extreme care should be taken during all stages of handling and transportation. should then be app/ed to each end to give a plug about 25 mm in th~kkness. Where selected lengths of core are to be preserved a t their natural mkture content for laboratory tesahg.

Both the /id and the box should be marked to show the site location. u s u d y between I m and 1. seamless metal n m e r s and plastik h e r s are partkularly useful where core is to be removed from site for logging or where confined. ~Yrequired.10. and to damage by impulsive stressing of the core. This is con venientfy achieved with wooden or plastic core boxes. since water-pressure type extruders can lead to water contact with the core. Extruders should be of the p~kton type. Core box mark~hg should be done so as to facilitate subsequent photography which. However. weathered or fractured rocks. and should be designed so a s not to be too heavy for two persons to lift when the box ~k full of core. great care should be taken to ensure that the core is not turned end for end. and before descr~. 1 7 ) 9 0 . sampling and testJhg. but lies i'n its correct natural sequence. borehole number and range of depth of the core with~h the box. The box should be fitted with a h~k-ged /id and strong fastener. It should be noted that in weak. aluminium foil or grease-proof paper. The use of a low-friction transparent plastjc finer in the inne/ tube of a modified conventional double-tube sw~'vefcore-barrel overcomes the majority of the problems encountered in core extrusion. and lengthwise along the overlap in 0 the plastic sheet. and the sample should be protected from rain and direct sunlight. and then coated with a succession of . addi~onto the number of the box in refatJon to the total sequence of boxes for that borehole. and then.O~on. the core can be boxed without too much disturbance to the fabr~k. the core should preferably be extruded i f f the same direcbbn a s it entered the barrel. however carefully it is done.ametersize that are inserted in the core box between cores from successive runs. Depths below ground surface should be indicated by an indelible marker on sma// spacers of core d~. should be carried out a s soon a s 13 practicable after recovery of the core.6 Block Samples Sample cutting should be carried out a s quickly a s possible t o prevent excessive moisture loss. It is usual to preserve a/l core obta'ned from the borebole for the period of the main works contract to wh~kh the core dr17ling relates. t h ~ k should be indicated b y spacing-blocks of appropriate length. The general practice is to tape the outside of the sleeved core every 2 0 mm.) Split 98. and fau7itates preservaoon of the core in the conditrbn in which it is recovered. the presence of abrasive and frmtured m k s may preclude the use of such hers. undisturbed samples are required for sample preservation and subsequent laboratory testhg. 19. with the aid of plastic guttering for extra support. The sample should be trimmed t o size in plan while still The sides should be protected with connected a t i t s base (Plate 5A). extrusion can lead to core d~kturbance.In the extrus~on process. hher tubes are an ideal method of examiining the recovered core w~xhout further damage after the dr~yling process. W e r e there is fayure to recover core. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The difficulz2es of extrus~on and preservat~oncan be overcome by the use of tr~plee-tube core-barrels with low-friction h e r s (see Section 1. O the other hand. In remowng the core from the barrel and plac~hg12 in the bau. The box shoufd be of such depth and the compartments of such ~ ~ 7 t h that there is mini& movement of the cores when the box J> closed fCeological Society. or where specimens of recovered core are removed from the box for other purposes. preferably mechanically activated.5m ~ ' length and divided long12ud~hally hold a number of rows of n to core.

A close-fitting box with t h e t o p a n d bottom lids removed should t h e n b e slid down o v e r t h e sample (Plate 5B). The sample may t h e n b e c u t d o n g i t s base. The t o p of t h e sample should b e trimmed flat. marked with location a n d orientation. rigid. reinforced with l a y e r s of porous f a b r i c (e. a n d t h e t o p lid attached t o t h e box. coated as described above. muslin). a n d t u r n e d o v e r slowly a n d carefully f o r trimming a n d coating of t h e bottom p r i o r t o attachment of t h e bottom lid. A s t r o n g . if r e q u i r e d . Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .l a y e r s of microcrystalline wax.g. e n s u r i n g a close fit. close-fitting box is r e q u i r e d t o minimize sample d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g t r a n s p o r t a n d t o p r e v e n t discontinuities from opening.

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For accurate measurement of groundwater pressures. Ground conditions in Hong Kong may produce perched o r multiple water tables which must also b e considered when installing a n d monitoring piezometers (Anderson et al. a n d t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s a n d disadvantages are summarized in Table 10. t h e available t y p e s a r e described i n Sections 20. a s t h i s information i s vital t o t h e design a n d construction of slopes. particululy those separated b y relatively impermeable layers. The r a n g i n g from virtually no r e s p o n s e t o a l a r g e immediate response.103 20.2. excavations in hillsides. The monitoring of groundwater levels a n d pore p r e s s u r e s .2. t h e period of monitoring may need t o b e extended t o beyond t h e e n d of t h e s i t e formation works. Hydrochemical analysis of groundwater may aid t h e identification of t h e leak.1 GENERAL since they have a profound influence on the behaviour o f the ground during There is always the and after the constructfbn o f engineering works. The choice of piezometer t y p e d e p e n d s on t h e predicted water p r e s s u r e s . I t may also b e necessary t o measure negative pore water p r e s s u r e s . measurement of t r a n s i e n t r e s p o n s e is t h e r e f o r e v e r y important ( s e e Section 20. Open-hydraulic (Casagrande) piezometers a r e often u s e d in soils derived from insitu rock weathering a n d colluvium. the seasonal variation and the influence o f other hydrological factors. it IS nerdy desirable to determine the contours o f the water table or piezometric surface to ascertah the direction o f the natural drainage. possibfXty that various zones. Slope failures in Hong Kong a r e normally t r i g g e r e d by rainstorms. The r e s p o n s e of t h e groundwater regime t o rainfall v a r i e s widely from s i t e to site. some o f wh~cb may be artesian.3 t o 20. access f o r reading. ti& or other causes.9). 1983). existing groundwater d a t a in t h e vicinity of t h e s i t e will be available in t h e Geotechnical Information Unit (see Section 4. In many cases.2.8). I n o r d e r t o provide design data. GROUNDWATER Table of Contents 20. wwil have different groundwater pressures.g. e. which a r e generally relatively permeable.2). This contribution can b e significant at some sites. For s i t e formation works which involve s u b s t a n t i a l modifications t o t h e hydrogeological characteristics of t h e site.6. and it may be necessary to take measurements over an extended period o f t h e 1j7 order that such variatfons may be investfgated When designing drainage works. it is generally necessary to install piezometers. t h i s wet season should ideally contain a storm t h a t has a r e t u r n period of g r e a t e r t h a n t e n years. o r soil suction ( s e e Section 20.2. a n d s i t e formation works. service life a n d r e s p o n s e time r e q u i r e d . The locatfon of highly permeable zones in the ground and the measurement o f water pressure in each is particdarly linportant where deep excavation or tunnelling is requ~ked. Advice o n chemical The determination o f groundwater pressures is o f the utmost importance Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . a n d may be useful in planning a n a p p r o p r i a t e groundwater monitoring scheme. is c a r r i e d o u t routinely in Hong Kong. a n d t h e i r r e s p o n s e t o rainfall.since special measures may be necessary to deal with the groundwater. The groundwater pressure may vary with tfme owing to rainfa//. g r o u n d w a t e r monitoring should extend o v e r at least o n e wet season. t h e presence of fluoride a t t r i b u t a b l e t o leakage from f r e s h water mains. An additional consideration i n u r b a n areas is t h e contribution of leakage from water-bearing s e r v i c e s t o t h e overall groundwater regime. Other piezometer t y p e s may be used f o r specific projects.

3) consists of a n open-ended t u b e of h a r d plastic of approximately 19 mm i n t e r n a l diameter which h a s been perforated e i t h e r o v e r i t s e n t i r e length o r j u s t t h e lowest 1 t o 2 m.2. The perforated section. or Lugeon. Standpipe r e a d i n g s may t h e r e f o r e not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of actual g r o u n d w a t e r levels. a large v o h e of water may flow before the water level reaches equifibr~um with the groundwater pressure. Table of Contents 20. Readings taken in a borehole s h o r t l y a f t e r completion of drilling should be t r e a t e d with caution. O the other hand. and if zones of different permeabilities have been penetrated. Table of Contents Borehole permeability tests are described l h Section 21. I Response Time A l l the methods descr12ed i n Section 20. a n d observations should b e made at r e g u l a r time intervals until i t i s established t h a t t h e water level h a s reached equilibrium. flow between zones may occur. The reliability of w a t e r level observations in boreholes o r excavations can be somewhat improved b y t h e installation of a standpipe. For an excavation or a borehole. and the permeability of the ground The selection of a suitable method for measuring the groundwater pressure will largely be determined b y the response time (Penman. A s t a n d p i p e ( n o t t o be confused with t h e s t a n d p i p e piezometer described in Section 20. The &he required for a measuring device to indicate the true groundwater pressure is known as the response time and depends on the quantity of water required to operate the device f 'volume factor% the 'shape factor' of the piezometer (Brand & Premchitt.4. 1986). While r e a d i n g s taken in a s t a n d p i p e a r e more controlled t h a n i n a n open borehole.2 Observations in Boreholes a n d Excavations The c r u d e s t method of determining t h e groundwater level i s b y observation in a n open borehole o r excavation. should b e wrapped in a suitable filter fabric.5 and large-scde pumping tests are d e d b e d f h Chapter 25. packer. the permeabiiWy of the porous element. a s shown in Figure 19.2 METHODS OF DETERMINING GROUNDWATER PRESSURES 20. The r e a d i n g s will be misleading if rain o r s u r f a c e w a t e r is allowed t o e n t e r t h e open hole. Table of Contents Table of Contents .analysis of groundwater a n d related interpretation techniques s u c h as trilinear plotting of cation a n d anion c o n t e n t s a r e given in ICE (1976).2.2 require some flow of water into or out of the measuring device before the recorded pressure can reach equifibrjkm with the actual groundwater pressure.2. tests are described in Secoon 21. s t a n d p i p e r e s p o n s e time i s still slow. The space between t h e t u b e a n d t h e wall of t h e borehole o r excavation is normally backfilled with medium t o coarse s a n d a n d fine g r a v e l t o act a s a filter. 20. some types of n piezometer requke only a very small change in volume of water in order that the groundwater pressure may be read Tbe rate a t which water flows through the soil depends on the permeabifity.5 m a r o u n d t h e s t a n d p i p e should be sealed to p r e v e n t t h e i n g r e s s of s u r f a c e water. The t o p 0. These drawbacks can largely b e overcome b y t h e installation of open-hydraulic o r o t h e r piezometers. with openings o v e r a t least 5% of i t s s u r f a c e a r e a . a s i t i s unlikely t h a t equilibrium will have been re-established. This method may involve a long r e s p o n s e time unless t h e g r o u n d is v e r y permeable. 19801.

b u t i t must remain v e n t e d t o t h e atmosphere. consists of a t u b e with a porous filter element on t h e e n d t h a t can be sealed into t h e g r o u n d a t t h e a p p r o p r i a t e level (Figure 19).2. i t can b e used t o determine t h e permeability of t h e g r o u n d in which t h e t i p is embedded ( s e e Section 21.9). p r e v e n t t h e e n t r y of a i r by diffusion. I t h a s a cylindrical (low a i r e n t r y ) porous element protected b y a perforated rigid s h e a t h a b o u t 35 mm in diameter a n d 300 mm long.3 Standpipe Piezometers Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The standpipe piezometer. The filter cannot. t h e filter c a n sustain a p r e s s u r e difference between a i r a n d w a t e r on i t s s u r f a c e d u e t o t h e effect of s u r f a c e tension. t h e h i g h e r will be t h e filter's a i r e n t r y value. The piezometer t u b e should generally not be smaller t h a n 1 2 mm internal diameter o r t h e self deairing function may be impaired (Vaug han. t h e r e s p o n s e time should not be more t h a n a few h o u r s when t h e piezometer is installed within a 150 mm diameter b y 400 mm long sand pocket. 1951). Access t o t h e t o p of t h e piezometer is generally r e q u i r e d in o r d e r t o measure t h e water level with a dipmeter ( s e e Section 20.2. also termed closed-hydraulic piezometers. The smaller t h e size of t h e pores. A low air e n t r y filter has l a r g e pores a n d t h e r e f o r e does not impede t h e passage of air. viz t h e high a i r e n t r y filter a n d t h e low a i r e n t r y filter. i t will resume satisfactory operation without maintenance. Depending on t h e size a n d uniformity of t h e pores. water can b e pumped down t h e pipe t o flush o u t blockages. hence t h e need t o flush air bubbles o u t of t h e measuring system from time t o time. The r e s p o n s e time of t h i s t y p e of piezometer is comparatively slow. and t h i s can give r i s e t o a long r e s p o n s e time.4 Hydraulic Piezometers In hydraulic piezometers. 20. Low a i r e n t r y filters a r e t h e r e f o r e not suitable f o r measuring pore water p r e s s u r e s in u n s a t u r a t e d ground.20. b u t being self de-airing. A t t h i s permeability.2. The main a d v a n t a g e s of a n open-hydraulic piezometer are i t s simplicity a n d reliability.8) o r similar device.8). Moreover. b u t t h e lower will b e t h e filter's permeability. although t h e water level can be read remotely using a n air-bubbling system (see Section 20. Bourdon g a u g e o r . Also. b u t it generally does not become a significant factor until t h e soil permeability is less than about m/sec (Hvorslev. Two t y p e s of filter elements.2. A high air e n t r y f i l t e r can be u s e d t o measure matric soil suction. a r e generally used. however. If t h e pore p r e s s u r e temporarily d r o p s below atmospheric. t h e groundwater p r e s s u r e is detected in a small piezometer t i p with porous walls a n d conducted t h r o u g h small diameter plastic t u b e s t o a remote point. 1974). a s a i r can be k e p t o u t of t h e measuring fluid system.4). The maximum p r e s s u r e difference t h a t can be sustained is known as t h e a i r e n t r y value of t h e filter. Open-hydraulic piezometers a r e normally installed in boreholes. t h e openhydraulic piezometer will c e a s e functioning.2. The Casagrande-type device is t h e most f r e q u e n t l y installed s t a n d p i p e piezometer (Plate 6A). The piezometer t o p should be well protected. p e r h a p s b e t t e r termed t h e open-hydraulic piezometer. This element is connected t o a 19 mm o r 25 mm internal diameter pipe. where t h e p r e s s u r e is measured. usually with a mercury manometer. which is t h e n allowed t o come i n t o equilibrium with t h e s u r r o u n d i n g negative pore water p r e s s u r e ( s e e Section 20. I t s main disadvantage is slow r e s p o n s e time in soils of low permeability.

rathg wire type. The operation o f the valve requkes a s d volume change in the porous element. wh12h cannot be checked easily after insta//athn. s o t h a t water c a n b e circulated t o flush o u t a n y air bubbles. The electrical p~ezometercannot be used for ihsitu permeabiZty measurements /Penman. V e r y rapid response t~ines be achievedprovided the tip is de-aied mere long term stability is required. pressure changes due to tidal variathn or to changes of stress induced by superhposed loads or excavathns.t u b e t y p e s shown in Figure 20. De-aihhg is not possible after installatrbn. It cannot be used for insitu permeabZty measurements /Marsfand. Table of Contents Table of Contents Pneuma02 systems comprise two aii-Med tubes connecfihg the measurhg point to a valve located close to the porous element. or the s ~ g n a lI> to be transmitted over a long distance. The hydraulic leads facilitate remote reading. Also. Moreover. care should be taken to see that the /im&hg permeability o f the porous tip is considered 20. methane in organ2 soils. t h e most common being t h e t w i n . so that check cahbrattons should be carried out at groundwater temperature. It can a130 be used for ihsitu measurements of permeab~jrity. A i r i n t h e t u b e s will c a u s e e r r o n e o u s r e a d i n g s . a n d t h e measuring point can b e s e p a r a t e d laterally from t h e piezometer t i p b y fairly long distances. Table of Contents Table of Contents Various t y p e s of hydraulic piezometers are available. the valve operates. dirt enter~hgthe lines can prevent valve operation. Pneumatri: piezometers have the s m lim12atrons as electrical p~kzometersih a e that they cannot be checked and the porous tips cannot be de-aied after instaffation. It should be noted that some transducers have temperature-sens12ive elements. In t h e s e piezometers. parb'cularly ~h unsaturated so17s or so17s contahing gas. the transducer I> u s u d y of the vf. I n o r d e r t o avoid cavitation. This should be done in s u c h a way t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e t i p is left approximately at working p r e s s u r e . t h e measuring point a n d connecting t u b e s should not b e more t h a n 7 m above t h e piezometric level being measured (Penman. In zones of high permeability. it is not always easy to check that the instrument I> behaving reliably. t h e t i p i s connected t o t h e measuring point b y two tubes. 1960). The m a h disadvantage o f the electrcal piezometer 13 that it requires calibrathn. a n d because of t h i s t h e t u b e s m u s t b e k e p t full of w a t e r a n d routinely de-aired. and in impermeable clays this can lead to difficulbes.p r e s s u r e t r a n s d u c e r . . When the air pressure h the input line equah the water pressure in the porous element.g. A closed-hydraulic piezometer has a s m d response tihe and can be used for measuring rapid changes ~h pore water pressure due to rahfallinfiltraOon.. Electrical piezometers h a v e not been widely used in Hong Kong. thereby holding constant the pressure eithor ih the return line or in the supply h e . The pneumatic piezmneter is cheap and easy to instd and has a rapid response.25 Electrical P~ezometers Electrical p~ezometershave a pressure transducer located h e to the can porous element. 19731. and mislead~ng results can be obtahed. 1978). e. Hydraulic piezometers a r e not self de-airing a n d r e g u l a r maintenance i s r e q u i r e d f o r satisfactory performance.

In soft ground. Table of Contents 20. the condition of the borehole and the groundwater levels. preferably not less than 400 mm.2. in which case sufficient time should be allowed for t h e swelling action of t h e pellets t o occur before grout is placed on top of t h e seal. In harder ground.g. An alternative is to use compressed bentonite pellets. the porous element can often be pushed or driven ihto position.and flex~3le. Washed sand with particle sizes in t h e range 0. a bentonite seal should also be placed beneath t h e sand pocket. filters should be specifically designed to match t h e surrounding material (GCO. the instrument J> installed in a borehole with the porous element surrounded by weLl-graded sand. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The compositfon of the grout m ~ k will depend on a variety o f factors. The constituents should not segregate while the grout is s M l liquid. o f the required permeab~jrity. A tremie pipe should be used to place t h e grout. The length of t h e response zone should be a t least four hole diameters. The typical method of installation of a piezometer in a borehole is illustrated in Figure 21. the borehole should be sealed off: preferably with grout. The grout should be easily pumped. A typical mix might be four parts o f bentonite mired thomughly with e ~ g h tto twelve parts o f water. and if t h e piezometer has not been installed near t h e base of t h e borehole. to which is added one part o f ord~haryPortland cement. may be used to form t h e seals.5 m. For coarse transported soils (e. necessary to a void clogg~hgthe porous element if12 is pushed thmugh soft clays. the r e q u ~ b d permeability. alluvial and marine sands and gravels). wh~kh s o i s o f low permeability may take a long t h e in to diss~pate. a pushed or driven piezometer shears and remoulds the chy.2 m is recommended for t h e response zone in most m m soils derived from insitu rock weathering.The use of pneumatic piezometers in Hong Kong is described by Handfelt et al (1987). This can be ach~evedby u s ~ n ga drivep~ezometer wh~'chhas a removable sleeve that covers the element during driving Parry. Bentonite balls approximately 25 mm in diameter. destroys the fabric in the clay adjacent to the porous element. The volume of grout used should be compared with t h e volume of t h e hole t o be grouted. the type and make of bentonite. 19717 In day. formed from powdered bentonite and water. both above t h e upper seal and beneath t h e lower seal (if applicable). The length of bentonite seals is typically 0. howe ver. especially on t h e upper side of t h e piezometer. The tip should be placed within a sand pocket in t h e specific zone for which pore pressures a r e to be measured. and can lead to erroneous measurements o f insitu permeab12ty. Bentonite should be used to provide a seal above t h e sand pocket. such as the availability of materials.7 Installation of Piezometers The success of pore water pressure measurement depends upon the care taken during instdation and seahhg of the p~ezometeror standp~pe. It is. Above the sand. The porous element should be fully saturated and filled with de-aired water before installaation. referred t o a s t h e response zone. The remaining sections of t h e borehole. should be filled with a cementbentonite grout of t h e same o r lower permeability than t h e surrounding soil. although longer seals may be preferable.2 m t o 1. . It should also be noted that the actfbn o f push~hgor driving may set up high excess pore-pressures. 1984).

Special mixes and chemical a d d i t i v s may be necessary if the grout is to be used in sea water or very acid water. and may r e n d e r t h e readings meaningless. A typical data sheet is shown in Figure 24.2. They might typically be placed a t 0. Where i t is finportant to take account of these effects. 1985). response to tr'dal changes or may be affected b y abstractibn from ne~ghbouringwells or b y other causes. where t h e plotted on a time base for ease of interpretation.5 m intervals within t h e range of 2 m both above and below t h e critical groundwater level assumed in t h e design. Care should be taken when handling t h e string t o ensure t h a t it does not drop into t h e borehole (thus rendering t h e piezometer useless). Table of Contents Table of Contents Poor sealing of t h e piezometer will permit t h e migration of water from The one level to another. A readings have been with corresponding levels o r pressures should be recorded and plotted typical record sheet is shown in Figure 22. In soft cohesive soils. Table of Contents Table of Contents The observation of peak groundwater response i n open-hydraulic piezometers o r standpipes can be measured using a string of piezometer 'buckets' (Figure 23 and Plate 6 8 ) . o r t h a t i t does not tangle and reduce t h e spacing between t h e buckets. together rainfall data. In some instances t h e dipmeter may fail to function until t h e conductivity of t h e water has been increased. The buckets a r e filled progressively a s water rises in t h e piezometer and will retain their water even if t h e piezometric pressure subsequently falls. water pressures may show seasonal variation. If two piezometers a r e placed in a single hole. care should be exercised t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e head used in response t e s t s does not cause hydraulic fracture in t h e soil. Unexpected results in a response t e s t may indicate t h a t t h e piezometer is defective. By using a series of closely-spaced piezometer buckets. lockable surface box should be provided for every piezometer installation (Figure 21). After installation. The response t e s t may be of t h e falling head type.8 Varying Groundwater Pressures In additrbn to varying response to ra'nfalI. with t h e results presented on falling head permeability t e s t result sheets. installation of more than one piezometer in a single borehole is not generally recommended. adequate periods of observation should be adopted Groundwater levels in open-hydraulic piezometers o r standpipes a r e commonly measured with battery-operated electrical dipmeters (McNicholl & Cho. for example by t h e addition of a few crystals of common salt (sodium chloride). Similar response tests carried out a t intervals during t h e life of t h e piezometer a r e also recommended t o e n s u r e t h a t readings remain valid. t h e peak transient response during o r a f t e r a rainstorm can be recorded a t a convenient time later on. . t o check t h e adequacy of t h e installation. a response t e s t should be conducted on each piezometer where possible. This technique relies on t h e conductivity of t h e groundwater to complete a circuit. The buckets a r e tied to a weighted nylon string a t selected depth intervals above t h e normal base water level and can be pulled t o t h e surface for readings. Groundwater systematically. A well-drained. great care must be taken to achieve proper seals. 20.

Water samp/es may deterforate rapl-dly and should therefore be tested as soon a s poss~Bleafter sampling. A s far as is possible. A vacuum gauge is located a t t h e top of t h e tensiometer. allowing variation in t h e number of piezometers read. Better resuks can be obtahed IT samples can be taken from a standpipe p~ezometersealed withh the relevant zone. 1982). 20.3 CROCINDWAATER SAMPLES Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Care should be taken to ensure that samples are representative of the water-bearing zone from w h k h they have been taken and that they have not been contanuhated or d ~ l ~ t e d surface water or water used for boring. . for example. 1982).5 m vertically beneath t h e gauge. t h e dwell time on each piezometer. in t h e range 0 to -80 kPa can be undertaken in t h e field with tensiometers. a caisson may be excavated and tensiometers installed through t h e sides of t h e caisson (Sweeney. For measurement of soil suctions beyond t h e range of tensiometers. water samples from boreholes may be unrepresentative. and a good seal between t h e tensiometer tube and t h e soil. The measurement of soil suction in Hong Kong slopes has been reviewed by Anderson (1984).g. o r 'bubbler' system. If other water-bear~hg tones occur a t higher levels. An example of a tensiometer is shown in Plate 6C. these shouM be sealed off by the borehole cashg. t h e maximum soil suction t h a t could be measured would be reduced t o -65 kPa. Even when precauttons are taken.Another method for recording transient water levels in open-hydraulic piezometers or standpipes is t h e automatic bubbling recorder. and t h e interval time between readings. water inside t h e tensiometer cavitates and is lost through t h e ceramic tip. o r negative pore water pressure. An electronic pressure transducer and "Scanivalve" have been used for automatic recording of a number of piezometers (Pope e t al. The reliability of a tensiometer depends on a good contact between t h e soil and t h e ceramic tip. psychrometers may be used (Richards.2.9 Table of Contents Soil Suction Measurement of matric soil suction. Functioning of t h e system may be controlled by a microprocessor. A high air e n t r y pressure ceramic tip allows equilibrium to be achieved between soil moisture and a confined reservoir of water within t h e tensiometer. The air pressure required t o release bubbles can be equated to t h e water pressure produced by t h e height of water in t h e standpipe. 20. When suction measurements a r e required a t greater depths. More stringent requirements may apply ih certain cases. e. A t suctions greater than -80 kPa. The pressure exerted by t h e column of water within t h e tensiometer must also be considered. although their accuracy is doubtful. if t h e tip were located 1. About one litre should be coL4ected in a clean glass or hert plastic bottle. and the s a m e taken fmwater which collects by seepage. rinshg the bottle three Limes with the water being sampled before filling. by Water samples should be taken as soon as possible after the water-bear~hg zone has been met in the borehole. 1971). In this system. a small diameter air line is installed down to t h e piezometer tip with a small air flow sufficient to produce several bubbles per minute. use of sterilized containers /see Chapter 131. all the water in the borehole should be removed by pumping or baling.

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b y pressure d~Yferences This effect can be paro'cularfy severe in sands. 21. A small d i s t u r b e d soil sample (quality class 3 ) is normally obtained when t h e s p l i t b a r r e l sampler i s u s e d (Figure 25 a n d Plate 7A). except t h a t t h e following modifications should be incorporated : (a) An automatic release t r i p hammer (Plate 7 8 ) should b e used t o d r i v e t h e sampler.1 STANDARD PENETRATION TESTS General Principles Table of Contents The s t a n d a r d penetration t e s t is a f r e q u e n t l y u s e d dynamic penetration t e s t a n d is described i n Test 19 of BSI (1975b).2. Additional field t e s t s a r e described in Chapters 24 t o 33. 21. 1982. 1971. 1970. When the test is carried out below the groundwater level. especially i n s a n d s a n d gravels. (c) The diameter of t h e borehole should b e between 60 mm a n d 200 mm. Nixon. therefore.5 kg. These modifications b r i n g t h e t e s t p r o c e d u r e s into conformity with t h e proposed international standardization of t h e test (ISSMFE. Skempton. 1986).1 GENERAL This c h a p t e r describes various tests t h a t may b e conducted a s supplementary t o a g r o u n d investigation c a r r i e d o u t b y boreholes.22 Preparaobn for Testing Table of Contents It is necessary to clean out the bottom of the borehole. The tests described a r e generally u n d e r t a k e n as a n integral p a r t of t h e drilling operation. a n d include some t e s t s which can also b e conducted in boreholes. I t is important t h a t t h e t e s t is c a r r i e d o u t precisely as described i n Test 19 of BSI (1975b). ( d ) Drill r o d s with a s t i f f n e s s equal t o o r g r e a t e r t h a n t y p e BW r o d s should be u s e d to r e d u c e e n e r g y dissipation.2 21. The test r e s u l t s have been related empirically t o soil parameters a n d foundation conditions. Minor variations from t h e specified equipment a n d procedures can seriously affect t h e r e s u l t s of t h e test (De Mello. Table of Contents ( b ) The weight of t h e hammer in t h e d r i v e assembly should be 63. 1977). where coverage of a particular t e s t is not given in t h i s c h a p t e r .111 21. The division of t h e s u b j e c t matter h a s been somewhat a r b i t r a r y . TESTS I N BOREHOLES Table of Contents 21. The effect can be reduced b y keeping the borehole topped up with water and b y very careful operaoon of will not be completely successfuL the boring tools but often these exped~ents The drill casing should not be advanced ahead of t h e borehole w h e r e a . Ireland et al. certain types of soil may be loosened below the base of the borehole by the acaon of the boring tools and between the groundwater and water ih the borehole. i t should b e s o u g h t i n later c h a p t e r s .

3. When the test is carried out in granular sods below groundwater level.g.2. the test may then proceed. . it can be u s e m to contihue driving the sampler beyond the distance specified. They may. the test is sometlines carried out i n boreholes consl'derably larger in diameter than those used for ground in vestigation work. I f the samples are found to be unacceptably disturbed. c h y containing sand or gra vel and weak rock. 21. it is often advantageous to alternate the samp/ng with standard penetration tests. The number of blows required for each 7 5 mm advance in the initial seating drive should be recorded. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents In the construction of bored pdes. If the test is curtailed due to hard driving. When there is good reason to believe that unrealstically low vahes are being recorded. e. I. and should not be regarded as such.4 Results and Interpretation The resulting N value is defined as the number of blows required to drive the standard split spoon sampler a distance of 300 mm. the number of blows used to achieve the actual penetration should be measured and recorded (e. parb'cularly ifhe has considerable experience in their use.standard penetration test is to be performed. e. but give a useful guide in ground conditlbns where it may not be possible to obtain borehole sampZes of adequate quality. gra vels. and these tests should not be regarded a s standard penetration tests.g. considerafion should be glSvento the use of some other test which can be performed independently of a borehole.g. give an indication as to whether the deposit is really as loose as the standard test may indicate. pro vide useful informatlbn to a plying contractor. it may be necessary to use a different method for measuring strength. When the test is carried out in soils derived from insitu rock weathering in Hong Kong. very sJty or very sandy clays. it is recommended that the test should be discontinued when the blow count reaches 100 or if the hammer bounces and insignificant penetration is achieved. it is commonly extended to high blow counts. thereby obtahing a check on the strength. 21. is that it is simple and inexpensive. the so17 may become loosened.g. Although this is not a standard penetration test. the plate test described in Sections 21. and the main reason for its widespread use.g.2. sands. however.6 and 29. e. with recording of the number of blows required for each 7 5 mm incremental advance of the test drive. it may. The result of the standard penetration test is dependent upon the dimeter of the borehole. adding further dry1 rods as necessary. and this may be used to estimate the blow counts for 300 mm penetration.3 Advantages and Limitations Table of Contents The great merit of the test. or hard clays. However. a t least. silts. sometimes in excess of 200. The soil strength parameters which can be inferred are very approminate. the cone penetration test described in Section 23. as is frequently the case when corestones are encountered. The sampler is initially driven 150 mm to penetrate through any disturbed material at the bottom of the borehole before the test is carried out. Blow/Penetration = 100/80 mm). e. In conditlbns where the quality of the 'undisturbed' samp/e is suspect. In certain circumstances. even when the test is carried out i n strict accordance with BSI (19756) and the borehole has been properly prepared.

g. Th13 I> partz'culzly apparent ~ isensitive clays.4. 19731. cohesive. h the fa7ure of an embankment on soft clay. where the vane ) test tends to give higher shear strengths than those derived from laboratory tests on samples obtahed with the genera/ purpose sampler described i n Section 19. Vanes can t a k e t h e form of borehole v a n e s o r penetration vanes.7). The test can be extended t o measure t h e remoulded s t r e n g t h of t h e soil. i t should be noted t h a t t h e empirical relationships developed f o r t r a n s p o r t e d soils between N value a n d foundation design parameters. The t o r q u e r e q u i r e d to r o t a t e t h e v a n e c a n b e related to t h e s h e a r s t r e n g t h of t h e soil. Corestones. The presence of rootlets i n organic so17s. not equal to the average value calculated at f a M i n the field e. It should be noted that the undraned shear strength determined by an insitu vane test is. the vane test results are g e d l y considered to be much more reliable. f o r example. The method of c a r r y i n g o u t t h e t e s t i s described in Test 18 of BSI (1975b). This is done b y t u r n i n g t h e v a n e t h r o u g h t e n complete rotations. If the test 1 carried out i n so2 that i s 3 not uniform and contains even thin layers of laminatrbns of sand or dense s17t.2 Advantages a n d Limitations Table of Contents The mah advantage 1 that the test itself causes /ittle d~kturbance 3 of the ground. a n d is used mainly f o r clay having a n undrained s h e a r s t r e n g t h of u p to a b o u t 75 kPa. Marine muds are generally v e r y soft. relative density a n d s h e a r s t r e n g t h may not be valid. and also of coarse parOWes. a n d it is often necessary t o provide a s e p a r a t e s u p p o r t frame on t o p of t h e seabed t o c a r r y o u t t h e v a n e test (see Section 14. A pause of not more t h a n o n e minute is permitted to elapse a n d t h e v a n e test is t h e n repeated in t h e normal way. the torque may be misleadingly high. . I n Hong Kong. The discrepancy between /ied and vane shear strengths generuy increases as the day becomes more plastk (8jerrum. fullys a t u r a t e d soils. may lead to erroneous results. some s t r a t a a r e s a n d y o r contain shells.3. o r t o develop site-specific correlations. can b e responsible f o r misleadingly high values t h a t a r e u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e mass.3 21. t h e l a t t e r being much more reliable. The r e s u l t s are questionable i n s t r o n g e r clays. a n d t h e numerical value of t h e sensitivity of t h e clay determined b y t h e s e procedures is not s t r i c t l y comparable with t h e r e s u l t s obtained from laboratory triaxial tests. i n genera/. The d e g r e e of d i s t u r b a n c e caused b y rotating t h e vane differs from t h a t obtained b y remoulding a sample of clay in t h e laboratory. In view of this. t h e test should only be used to give a r o u g h indication of relative s t r e n g t h in t h e s e soils. t h e v a n e test i s invaluable i n t h e marine sediments ( F u n g et al. 21.When t h e test i s u s e d in soils derived from insitu rock weathering. in which case v a n e s h e a r r e s u l t s should b e i n t e r p r e t e d with caution. or if t h e soil t e n d s to dilate on s h e a r i n g o r is fissured. However.3. 1984. Handfelt et al. 1987).4. The test is normally r e s t r i c t e d t o fairly uniform.1 VANE TESTS Genera: Principles Table of Contents Table of Contents A cruciform v a n e on t h e e n d of a solid rod is forced i n t o t h e soil a n d t h e n r o t a t e d (Figure 26). Table of Contents 21. I n these condihns.

It i s essential that . Small hand-operated v a n e t e s t i n s t r u m e n t s a r e available f o r u s e in t h e sides o r bottom of a n excavation. which is then surrounded b y a granular /iltr t o prevent erosion o f the ground. t h e vane a n d a protective casing (Plate 8) a r e forced into t h e g r o u n d by jacking. The test is then conducted b y measuring the rate o f flow o f water out o f the borehole into the soil. thus increasing the surface through which water can flow. t h e v a n e is advanced a s h o r t distance ahead of t h e protective casing. 1988). t h ~ s approxhate value wfYl r e f i c t the fnfi7traatrbn capacity o f the subsurface materia/ rather than i t s permeabfPty fsee dm Section 24. These devices can also be used on samples. preparation consists o f cleaning out the bottom o f the borehole. Comparative hand vane t e s t s c a r r i e d o u t in both t h e field a n d laboratory may provide a n indication of possible d i s t u r b a n c e d u r i n g handling a n d transportation of t h e sample. 21. c d e d a falfing-head or inflow test.4. the ground.3). a n d t h e casing a n d v a n e a r e then s u b s e q u e n t l y advanced to t h e next required depth. However. varying from the very crude. If necessary. the uncased p a r t o f the borehole is supported b y a suf'table AYter material Water leak~ng through the casing joints has at trines been found t o cause m~sleading results and the problem has been overcome b y the use o f f i b r e rhgs. and the casing withdrawn. with t h i s t y p e of test i t is not always possible t o penetrate t o t h e desired l a y e r without t h e assistance of pre-boring. although an approximate assessment may be made above t h ~ s level (Schmid. a perforated tube o r a suf'tab1e piezometer tip i s i n s t d e d .2 Preparatfons f o r the Test I n the s~inplestform o f test. whfcb i s commonly. The techn~*ue i s strictly applicable only to the measurement o f permeability o f soi/s below groundwater level. However. The pressure i n the borehole may be increased b y introducing water into it. 21.4 PERMEABILITY TESTS The determination o f insitu permeability b y tests f h boreholes i n volves the application o f an hydraulic pressure i n the borehole different from that ~ i . A t t h e r e q u i r e d d e p t h . A great varfety o f tests are included under this heading. The r e s u l t s t h u s obtained a r e generally adequate f o r t h e p u r p o s e of classifying t h e consistency of cohesive soils ( G C O . where simple problems can be solved b y s h p l e means. The pressure may be held constant durfng a test fa constant-head test) o r it may be Mowed t o equahe to i t s origfhal value fa variable-head test). with t e s t s done e i t h e r in t h e field o r in t h e laboratory.With t h e penetration v a n e t e s t a p p a r a t u s ( v a n e b o r e r ) described in Test 18 of BSI (1975b3. The borehole may be extended beyond the bottom o f the casing. t o the sophisticated when the nature o f the problem demands more refined data. or it may be decreased b y pumping water out of it i n a rising-head or outflow test. For more accurate measurements. 19661. and the measurement o f the flow due to this difference. through the open end o f the casing. t h e test is conducted. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Misleading r e s u l t s c a n also a r i s e if a n y r e t u r n flow o c c u r s u p t h e outside of t h e casing. or vice versa.

Figure 27 shows a suitable test arrangement. It w f l not be possible to achieve a constant head IT the groundwater level IS not constant or the head lost by frictrtrb in the pipes is sigdficant.27. and with clays of low permeability it can take several months for the pore pressures set up by the drilling of the borehole to equa/lie. The head in the borehole IS then d o w e d to equalize with that in the ground. i IS essentral to determhe the t level of the natural groundwater table by one o f the methods described in Chapter 2 . Variable-head Test 143 The fist operatlbn is either to fi// the piezometer tube with water (falling-head tesN or to force the water level down by a fbot-pump or bikycle pump (rising-head test). Recommendatrons for sealing the borehole above the granular filter are gi'ven ih Sectron 20. in the s i r n e s t form of test.the filter material used has a permeabii'ity much greater than that of the soil being tested. Where a high flow rate is antrcipated and where the ihstallatrbn comprises a piezometer tip surrounded by a iWter materied. If a piezometer is finally installed in the borehole. 0 Measurements of water level taken soon after cessation of drilling usually do not represent equilibrium values. The period required for constant-head tests is decreased and the interpretation simplfied ifshort lengths of borehole are used for the test. Table of Contents Table of Contents Before a permeabi/ity test is conducted. In some ground. For soih derived from ihsii'u rock weathenhg and co//uvium. this may take a long period of time. in such cases the method suggested by Gibson N963) may be used. The depth o f the borehole should be checked to determihe whether any sediinent has come out o f suspension or whether the bottom of the borebole has heaved during the test period 2 . the piezometric data obtained from monitoring may provide a check on the measurements taken at the time of the test. Table of Contents Table of Contents . equalizatton typicdy occurs very much faster. and. the actual head being measured at ihtervals of trine from the commencement of the test. The rate of flow of water IS adjusted unt2 a constant head is achieved and. and a series of measurements may be necessary. In order to avoid errors in flow measurement due to compression and solution o f trapped air in the leads. Constant-head Test 144 A constant-head test is normally conducted as an i f l o w test ih whikh arrangements are made for water to flow into the ground under a sensi'bly constant head. It ik e s s e n W to use clean water. in whikh the actual rate of flow is measured and recorded at intervah from the commencement of the test. two standpipes should be installed. . 2 . . one to supply the water and the other to measure the head in the Mter materihl surrounding the piezometer tip. ceramic piezometer tips should be saturated with de-aked water before installath Permeability tests can be carried out at various depths in the borehole as drilling progresses. flow IS allowed to contrhue unM a steady rate of flow IS achieved. Pore pressures should be in equilibrium before the test is performed.

t') loge fceneral approach) z- . In Hong Kong. I31 where k I> the permeability o f soil. I t m u s t be emphasized t h a t t h e formulae given i n Section 21. it is often necessary t o measure permeability above t h e water table. Table of Contents after commencement of test.6 a r e s t e a d y .4. are much used and cover a large number of conditons. The method given in Gibson N963) for the 1s constant-head test is afso indicated This gives a more accurate result with compressiible soils. the rate of flow q I> F is the />take factor (Figures 28 and 291. A is the cross-sectionaf area o f borehole casing or standpipe as appropriate.21. In t h i s case.4. t h e s t e a d y . . Hz is the variable head measured at tihe 1.6(2). after commencement of test. . and for vanable-head test.s t a t e equations suitable f o r calculation of permeability when t h e test is c a r r i e d o u t below t h e water table.6 Formufae for Borehole PermeabhYty Tests (II Method 1 (after Hvorsfev.4. . 21.4. . 19511. For constant-head test. I> T the bask time factor (Figure 331.s t a t e equations c a n only be used if t h e time o v e r which t h e test is conducted becomes v e r y long. is the constant head. with H measured from t h e c e n t r e of t h e r e s p o n s e zone in t h e test.5 Analysis of Results Table of Contents Table of Contents There are numerous pubL&bed fomulae for calculating permeability from these tests. H.4. Section 21.6. . They are based on the assumption that the effect of so17 compressib~jrity negligible. HI is the variable head measured at t h e t. which are reproduced h outhne in Section 21. permeability should be a s s e s s e d using t h e constant-head test i n t e r p r e t e d according t o Method 2 in . many of them part/y empiricaL Those given by Hvorsfev (19511. Under t h e s e circumstances. Table of Contents k = A F(t2 .

the johts may be blocked by the d r i l h g debris. fbl The method makes dowance for the compressibility of the soil and also permits the coefficient of consoldahon or swe//ing to be calculated q. n is the slope of the q. The appropriate choke of dr17ling method and careful drilling technique are necessary to avoid d~kturbingthe ground to be tested.It shouh' be noted the above formulae assume that the natural groundwater level remains constant throughout the test. Table of Contents is the intake factor (Figures 2 and 29A 8 He is the constant head r 13 the radius o f a sphere equal in surface area to that of the cylindrical tip. has. In granular soils. the ground may be loosened below the bottom of the borehole. The line can then be extrapolated to give q. because a larger volume of mater~kl tested. M d permeabiTty tests y ~ e l dmore &able data than those carried out in the laboratory. h johted rock. and because the ground is tested hsitu. . thus blocking the more permeable layers. F IS the steady state o f flow /read o f f the q. I/Jt graph at f/[t = 01. The 1 . and n. Table of Contents (21 Method Z. 19631.4. thereby avoiding i3 the d~kturbance associated with sampflng. a s k h of remoulded mixed mater%almay be formed on the walls of the borehole.7 Advantages and Limliations Table of Contents For most types o f ground. (Constant-head Test. in layered deposits o f varying permeability. it may take same hours for the plot to came on a straight h e . where k 13 the permeabzity of so~z C IS the coeffic~knt consolidahon or swelling. of q. where the test would otherwise take too long. Table of Contents fc1 //. a linear relationsh& with In prachke. in theory. see Hvordev f19511. 1/Jt graph. after Gibson. The followfi?g points regarding this method should be noted : fa1 Heads are referred to natural groundwater level before the test.w 21. For the cam where the natural groundwater varies.

w h e r e t h e conditions indicate increasing effective s t r e s s . When the test is carried out within a borehole using the d r i l casing. i n many types of ground. the coefficient o f conso/iration or s w e h q may be deduced from the results o f both constanthead and variable-head tests. results o f only limited accuracy can be obtained. s u c h a s in embankment construction. In ground o f low permeabifity. and s d faults in technique lead to errors of up to one hundred tlines the actual value. Accuracy will usua//y be improved by ana/ysing nt the results of a s e r ~ e s o f tests. particularly stratified soil or jointed rock. flow rates are fikely to b e large and head losses at entry or exit and in the borehole may be high. variable-head tests are simper to perform. on the other hand. Even with considerable care. The water pressure used in the test should be less than that whkh wifl disrupt the ground by hydrauhk fracturing. where the pressure distribuabn can be measured by piezometers on radial fines away from the borehole. in which i t is increased. e. Table of Contents Table of Contents The compressiibity is influenced in a s i d l a r way. the flow rate may be very small. these are described ]in Chapter 25. In general. In praca'ce. it is recommended that the total increase i n water pressure should not exceed one half the effective overburden pressure. greater than about m/s. the lower limit o f permeabifity that can be measured reliably is determined by the watertightness o f the casing jbints and by the success achieved in seaihg the casing into the In so2 the refiable lower h i t I> about lo-* m/s. an individual test result is often accurate to one s ~ g n ~ f i c afigure only. i t is v e r y difficult t o c a r r y o u t a successful permeability t e s t because of t h e low permeability of t h e soil. s u c h a s when a s s e s s i n g t h e quantity of inflow into a n excavation. Table of Contents Table of Contents Constant-head tests are likely to give more accurate results than var12ble-head tests. and the permeability of the mass of ground may be determined . fieldpump~ngtests. owing to dXficulties in interpretation and the extent to which the stress history o f the soil adJbcent to the borehole is modified b y the installarion o f the borehole. With soh's of high permeabifity. In lower ground permeab17ity soils and unweathered rock. However. but. and this may affect the results achieved The accuracy with which the coefficient of permeabifity may be deduced from variable-head tests decreases with the coefficient o f consofida&bn o f the soil being tested In princ~ple. will probably yield more accurate results. and measurements may be subject to error owing to changes in temperature o f the measurihg apparatus. It has been shown that s e r ~ b u serrors may be introduced if excessive water pressures are used IBjerrum et a/. f o r t h e case of decreasing effective s t r e s s . The permeability of a compressible soil is influenced b y t h e effective stress at which i t is measured. The test t o b e used should model t h e field conditions a s closely a s possible. Execution of the borehole permeability test requires much experthe.g. in which effective stress is reduced. In this case. The permeability of soil a r o u n d t h e borehole may also be influenced b y c h a n g e s in i t s stress history owing t o installation of t h e borehole a n d a n y previous permeability t e s t s performed on it. 19721. it is a d v k b l e to carry out the test using a standpipe or piezometer which is s e a M within the test length using grout. a n d t h e possibility of hydraulic f r a c t u r e arising from t h e relatively l a r g e head r e q u i r e d f o r a falling-head o r constant-head t e s t . i t s compressibility. a rising-head t e s t should be used. a falling-head t e s t would b e appropriate. a n d t h e r e s u l t s of outflow t e s t s .I n v e r y s o f t marine clays. there may be a very wide variatlbn in permeability. a n d t h e r e may be significant differences between t h e r e s u l t s of inflow t e s t s .

This often leads to t h e test being conducted a t p r e s s u r e s of 50 t o 500 kPa. a n d extrapolation is t h e n necessary t o obtain t h e Lugeon v a l u e equivalent t o a 100 m w a t e r head (approximately 1 MPa p r e s s u r e ) . a mass permeability can be calculated A simple r u l e t h a t is sometimes u s e d t o a s described in Section 21. which 13 usually assumed to be 7 m fN size).5. the manual mechan~kal-expanding packer and the hydraulic self -expanding packer.m/s. In situations where only salt water i s available t o conduct t h e t e s t . but the test I> not very sensitive to 6 m change in borehole dimeter unless the length of borehole under test is small When t h e p a c k e r test is c a r r i e d o u t at shallow depths. t h i s should also b e clearly indicated on t h e t e s t results. The flow 13 confined between two packers h the double packer test. If t h e rock discontinuity spacing is sufficiently close f o r t h e test section t o b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e rock mass. t h e applied w a t e r p r e s s u r e must b e limited t o a value t h a t will not c a u s e hydraulic f r a c t u r i n g of t h e g r o u n d (see Section 21. . The results of the test are usua/y expressed in terms of Lugeon units. the programme of borehole permeability tests is generally followed by a full-scale pumping test (see Chapter 251. A s t h e packer test is u s e d t o assess t h e potential f o r w a t e r t o p e n e t r a t e rock discontinuities.5. Lugeon did not specify the dXmeter of the borehole. Very considerable care is needed in ~nterprethgthe test data. c o n v e r t Lugeon values i n t o mass permeability is t o t a k e o n e Lugeon as equal t o a permeability of 10. ad under a head above groundwater level of I00 m. In cases where a reliable result 13 required. it comprises the measurement of the volume of water that can escape from an uncased sectrbn of borehole in a given time under a given pressure. 21.5 21. 19681. a s is f r e q u e n t l y t h e case in Hong Kong. a I m length of borebole accepts I /ire of water per mhute. to obtain a measure of the amount of fracturing of the rock (Snow. a p p r o p r i a t e explanatory notes should also b e given with t h e test data. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 21. such as the mecban~kal tailp~be.2 Packers Several types of packer are in use.5.3). hence the more general name of the test. clean w a t e r should be u s e d a s t h e drilling fluid when forming t h e borehole. In essence.1 Table of Contents PACKER (WATER ABSORPTION) TESTS General Principles The packer or Lugeon test gives a measure of the acceptance by hsitu rock of water under pressure. A rock is s i to have a permeabifity of I Lugeon i/. or to give an approxhate value of the permeability of the rock mass adjacent to the borehole. If drilling mud has been used.by a relatively t h h layer of hzgh permeability or a ma/br joint. t h e hole should be thoroughly flushed o u t prior t o p a c k e r testing. The test is used to assess the amount of grout that the rock will accept. or between the packer and the bottom of the borehole in the single packer test.5.6. The test was originally introduced by Lugeon (19331 to provide an acceptable standard for testhg the permeabi/ity of dam foundatbns. r a t h e r t h a n drilling mud. to check the effectiveness of grouting. Flow is confined between known depths by means of packers.

but b y far the most commonly used is the pneumatk packer. The pressure gauge should be positioned so that it wifl give a true reading without interference from local pressure var~k&ons induced by flow through the pipe work. is the friction head loss in the pipes fml. 21. The standard head o f 100 m above groundwater level may not b e attainable in these conditons. and it may be necessary to keep the pressure well below the overburden pressure. the inflated diameter of the packer should be sufficient to provide an efficknt seaL A double packer is two packers connected by a length o f p&e of the same length as the test section. in metres. H. A t the same t h e . The test water is introduced between the packers. and water has been used for flushing purposes during . Excessive pressure may be detectable by careful analysis of the t e s t data. The natural groundwater level should be measured before the test begins.3 Application and Measurement of Pressure Table of Contents Water pressure is applied by a flush pump as used for diamond bit core dr17ling. the mid-point of Table of Contents test secthn fm/. Table of Contents The pressure to be deterdned for use in the calculation of permeabi/ity is that causing flow into the rock itselL This is somethes measured directly. The inflafionpressure has to be sufficient to expand the packer against the head of water in the borehole. A useful rule of thumb 1%that the pressure. Bottled nitrogen or oxygen IS fed down the borehole through a small diameter nylon tube. in kPa. an abrupt change of slope in a graph plot of applied water pressure v e r s u s flow rate may indicate possible hydraulic fracture during the test. .with the read~hgs adjusted in accordance with the following expression : where h is the pressure head causing flow into the rock fml. The difference between the diameter of the uninflated packer and the d i e t e r of the borehole should be such that the packer can be easily inserted. should lie between 12 times and 17 times the depth. but it is more usual to measure it at ground level by means o f a Bourdon gauge. P IS the Bourdon gauge reading converted H I> the h e ~ g h tof Bourdon gauge above to head fml. especjally when the rocks are of low permeability.g. is the h e ~ g h o f natural groundwater level above the midt point o f test section fml.5. This is not always easy. but not sufficient to cause heaving of the ground surface or fracturing of the rock. Table of Contents This comprkes a rubber canvas duct tube which can be iMated aganst the sides o f the borehole by means of pressurized gas (Figure 31). e. a s under some circumstances vertical cracks can develop in weak rocks at pressures much lower than this value. The maximum water pressure which should be applied should not be suffic~ent cause uplift o f the ground or to break the seal o f the packers li. to deep holes in weak rock. H. The applied pressure should not exceed overburden pressure a t t h e test depth. o f the borehole.

and calibrations should therefore be carefully checked on site. each having a t e s t section length of 3 to 6 m. a rotameter board with a series of graduated tubes can provide an accurate measurement of flow rate. Industrial water meters commonly available in Hong Kong a r e not sufficiently accurate for use i n the packer test. In any case. The single packer test is generto be preferred because any leakage past the packer can be detected. a careful examinathn may reveal suitable places to seat the packer. overlapping tests a r e used.5 Execution of Test The test may be carried out either a s a single or as a double packer test. by measuring the time taken to fill a container of known volume a t different rates of flow. 21. All pressure gauges and flow meters used in t h e t e s t should be calibrated regularly. the single packer test n o r d y has to be done period~kallydur~hgthe dr17fing of the hole. especially a t low flow rates. and periodically afterwards. which makes it more cosuy. Where a flowmeter is used. with the p&e work laid out on the ground Table of Contents Calibration must be carried out for each t e s t arrangement (pump. t h e upper limit of testing may be constrained by t h e highest level a t which a packer can be sealed satisfactorily. and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. For very low flows. While the number of packer t e s t s carried o u t in a borehole depends on t h e requirements of t h e project. i t is usual t o t e s t t h e whole length of t h e borehole t h a t is in rock. so as to seat the packer a t a different depth in the borehole. However. Flowmeters a r e prone t o inaccuracies. However. Where the flow out of a tank is to be measured.5. I t is customary t o r u n a staged t e s t a t each location. we// away from bends or fittihgs in the pipework. whereas leakage past the lower packer ~hthe double packer test cannot. Where the seating proves unsatistactory. Friction head loss in the pipes is best estabfished by means of a calZbrathn test. a s can an orifice plate meter. Typically.d i g If necessary. and the groundwater levels should be measured over a period to establish the general groundwater level. it should be h s t d e d upstream of the pressure gauge. Table of Contents Table of Contents 21. using different Table of Contents .4 Measurement of Flow The rate of flow of water may be measured either by a flowmeter or by direct measurement of flow out of a tank of known dimensions by means of a d~pstikkor depth gauge. valves and by-pass. or where appropr~atelogg~hgor television inspecIron has been carried out.5. An important point I> to ensure that the packer is properly seated ~h the borehole. the length of the test section should be altered or test sections overhpped. separate observation wells should be instafled. packer. t h e t e s t section length should not be less than ten borehole diameters so as t o minimise end effects. Where a complete core has been recovered from the borehole. pressure gauge and flowmeter) with various lengths of drill rods and varying flow rates. the use of one large tank can lead to haccuracfes where the p h area is large and the fall in level correspondingly smaL A better arrangement is to use a number of s d containers. The accuracy of the meter should be checked before the test begins.

Mere.1 General The plate test is one particufar applcation of the vertical l0ad1~gtest. i s given b y t h e formula : where 100 is t h e s t a n d a r d head of w a t e r (m).6 Results a n d I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Table of Contents Table of Contents The v a r y i n g values of p r e s s u r e a n d flow recorded d u r i n g t h e t e s t may b e plotted a s shown in Figure 33.5. q / h i s t h e slope of g r a p h a s shown in Figure 33. The i n t e r p r e t e d Lugeon value. 21. 1 q is t h e length of test section (m).6 PLATE TESTS 21. h is t h e p r e s s u r e head causing flow into t h e rock (m) (see Section 21. WhereverpracLti7ab1ee the test should in be conducted in a borehole whhh is of sufficient d~~ameter a technician to for enter. as a rising level may indicate t h a t leakage is occurring a r o u n d t h e u p p e r packer. for reasons of economy. where differences occur.6. The techniques used for tests in large and sma// dXmter boreholes differ in some respects and. the cleaning of the bottom and the bedding of the plate has to be done from the surface. d u e t o possible differences i n e n e r g y loss between laminar flow ( a t low head) a n d t u r b u l e n t flow ( a t high head). is t h e flow rate (litres/minute). This would of course. the test 13 conducted in a small dimeter borehole.5.2 a n d Appendix El. the methods are described separately in Chapter 29.3). Where a test h a s been conducted at p r e s s u r e heads considerably less t h a n t h e s t a n d a r d 100 m head. The diameter of the plate used sboufd so Table of Contents . and the general procedures for the test are described in Secoon 29. l m 2 the value of the resufts.p r e s s u r e s . Only the specific problems which anke from carrying out the test in the bottom of a borehole are d~kcussed thh SecLton. and bed the plate evenly on undisturbed ground Careful attention should be directed towards safety for operators working below ground (see Section 18. A five-stage t e s t is desirable. so that 1 ~k very difficult to be certain that the plate is not resting on disturbed 2 materLal. t h e Lugeon value may be somewhat o v e r estimated b y t h e above formula. with t h e maximum p r e s s u r e applied i n t h r e e equal increments a n d t h e n r e d u c e d with decrements of t h e same amount (Figure 32). L. F u r t h e r considerations o n test interpretation a r e given b y Houlsby (1976). Table of Contents 21.1. clean out the bottom. The d a t a obtained from t h e s e measurements a r e particularly useful in assisting in t h e interpretation of t h e behaviour of t h e rock u n d e r test. The water level in t h e borehole above t h e packer should be observed d u r i n g each t e s t .

3. after which the plate i bedded a s described in Section 29. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The general limf'tafions of the verthal load test are discussed in Section 29.5 Applicaoon and Measurement of Load Table of Contents The plate is usuafly loaded through a column formed b y a steel tube.1. (21 S a suitable auger or hinged bucket operated at the end of a drifl rod assembly. A t a hole-diameter to plate-diameter ratio greater than about 3Z the parameters : being measured are t h e pertaining to a load a t a free surface and not a t depth under confined conditons. Lf t h ~ is possible. Where the diameter of the plate is significantly less than that of the borehole. be equal to that of the borehole. which are usuafly the conditons of interest. Plaster and resins can also be used for bedding.I.necessary. and hence values obtained for the deformation parameters may be of hitea' significance. It wouM then be necessary to resort to external dewatering (see Section 29.1'. dewatering b y pumping or baling from within the borehofe may cause seepages which disturb the ground and have an adverse effect on its deformathn characteristics. The water shouM be allowed to return to its normal rest level before the test is commenced. disturbance due to groundwater seepage may be a less significant factor and the borehole may be emptied. with the load applied to the cofumn by means of a n hydraulic jack operating against the resistance of kentledge. wwhe the plate is s being installed. Additiondfy. in t a the bottom of a borehole i is more difficult to ach~eve satisfactory bedding of the load!hg plate on the test surface. and the plate lowered down the hole and lightly pressed on to the surface of the mortar. Alternatively. A layer of neat cement mortar is then placed a t the bottom of the boreme b y d Diameter Boreholes.2 and they ap&y similarly to the borehole test.41. casing should be used to support the sides of the borehole and to sea/ o f f water seepages from materials that are above the test elevation. altbough i may not then be poss~Ele to set the plate sufficienuy accurately for the deformation characteristics to be measured. Subject to safety requirements (see A p p e n d i x E). the plate can be instded under t water.6.6.1. 21. a technician shouh' be lowered to the bottom of the borehole to s remove a// loose soil manually.1. I f the test is undertaken only for measuring the strength parameters. . When the test is to be carried out below the prevailing water table.far a s practicable.4 Bedding of the Plate (11 Large Diameter Borehok. provided that care is taken to elimfnate cohesion or fricbon on the side of the plate. as described in Section 29. carried out b y means of means of a tremie or bottom opening bucket.4. the plate should have a skirt as shown in Figure 43 (see Sectkm 29.21. 21. Except i n strong materials. The cleaning lj. tension p17es or ground anchors. Where. the results of the test become difficult to interpret.

6. fiere the shaft f r i c h n of to only part of the ground prome is required. Casing or lining of the caisson must of course be kept well away from the test location. The shaft above t h ~ s level 1% then fifled with concrete while the casing is withdrawn. The main use of the test is for measuring the strength characteristks of those cohesive soils in which undisturbed samples cannot be obtained. some gravefly clays and very weak rocks.8 Uses of the Test fII Large Diameter Boreholes The main use of the test is to determine the strength and deformation character~ktksof the ground It is sometimes used to establish the working load of plies ( Sweeney & Ho. The plate diameter shouh' be large i n relation to the structure of the ground.7 Execution of Test The method of carrying out the test is given in Section 29. a test is sometimes made b y Lqsitu methods to determine the coefficient of fricthn between the ground and concrete as an ah' to the assessment of shaft fricaon for pile design. and the deflecthn measured in a manner s~hilar t h a t described i n Section 21.6. or the caisson wall opposite the t e s t can simply be used to provide the necessary reaction force.1. 6 Measurement of Deflection The movement of the plate under load is generafly transmitted to did gauges at the surface b y means of a settlement measurement rod that is located within the steel tube b y which the load is applied The rod i s restrained from lateral movement b y rod guides fied within the tube. 21-6. Table of Contents Table of Contents .2. as i n a rock socket. In this case.6. either two t e s t s can be conducted simultaneously on opposite sides of the caisson. the concrete is first brought up to the level of the top of the ground layer concerned. e. Methods of supporting the did gauges are given i n Section 29.10 Horizontal Plate Tests The plate t e s t may also be conducted horizontally within a large diameter borehole or caisson (Whiteside. A t the bottom of a borehole is placed either a layer of compressible material or a suitably-designed co/apsib/e container. the load is applied. 1982). and the shaft is conhnued in smaller dimeter. Guidance on interpretation of test results is given in Section 29.4. 21. 1986).6.6. The deformoon characteristks obtaned are of very dubious value owing to doubts about the elim~nafio~ ground of disturbance and errors resulting from unsatisfactory bedding of the plate.6.g.9 Supplementary Test Although not stricuy a plate test.21. Table of Contents Table of Contents 21. When the concrete has sufficiently matured.1. 21.6. (2) S d Diameter Boreholes.

7. 1979. the lateral load is appled 95. P r e s s u r e a n d volume calibrations should be c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e beginning a n d e n d of a t e s t i n g programme.21. Pressuremeter t e s t i n g in rock is described i n Section 21. Windle & Wroth. 1977).and can be operated at considerable depths. and that in most general use.5. The function of the guard cefls is to ensure a condition of plane strain in the ground i n contact with the central ceh! The probes are manufactured in four sizes up to 75 m d~. Self-boring pressuremeters. 21. This is t o account f o r volume losses which o c c u r because of expansion of t h e connecting tubes. The appfied pressures and resulthg deformations are measured and enable the strength and deformation characteristics of the ground to be investigated The earlest instrument. a n y water line s u b j e c t e d t o vacuum o r p r e s s u r e h a s been s u d d e n l y released. but is not suitable for stronger rock. 1978. o r a n y o t h e r factor affecting . is the M h r d pressuremeter /&nard 1 6 ) With this instrument. The m Mknardpressuremeter can be used i n soil or weak rock. Table of Contents Table of Contents A wireline-operated push-in pressuremeter exists a n d h a s been in u s e i n a n offshore environment (Fyffe et al. Table of Contents ( b ) Volume calibration.1. depending on the type of ~ffstrument. I t can be used in granular soils where special means are used to insert it.meter. a probe is inserted k t o a pocket below the bottom of a borehole or directly into the appropriate size of borebole and ? avpanded laterdy b y compressed a or gas. have also been developed (Baguelin e t al. The pressure tube and probe must be calibrated on site. which can b e i n s e r t e d i n t o some soil t y p e s with minimal d i s t u r b a n c e .2 Equipment Calibration The probe a n d t u b i n g of t h e pressuremeter r e q u i r e calibration on site.1 Test Descr-ption In a pressuremeter test. Readings are taken at the ground surface on pressure and volume gauges whkh are connected to the central cefl b y means of a back-pressured annular pfastik tube. since the instrument I> fimited b y its sensitivity to the tube calibration. b y a probe consisting of a water-filled central measuring cell flanked b y two guard cells.7 PRESSUREMETER TESTS Table of Contents 21. This is t o account f o r p r e s s u r e losses which o c c u r because of s t i f f n e s s of t h e r u b b e r membrane a n d slotted s t e e l s h e a t h of t h e probe. Another pressuremeter that has been developed has a 150 mm dimeter gas-expanded probe in which the deformation is measured directly b y potentimeters located 1j7 the centre of the probe OfcXinlay & Anderson. new s h e a t h s o r membranes are installed. 1986). o r whenever l e n g t h s of connecting t u b e s a r e changed. a s follows : (a) P r e s s u r e calibration. It can be used to determine the deformation characteristics of the more deformable weathered rocks. either gas-Meed or water-/lied.7.

Table of Contents Table of Contents 21. The Goodman jack i s capable of exerting p r e s s u r e s in excess of 60 MPa within a normal N X size borehole. t h e hydrostatic p r e s s u r e d u e t o fluid in t h e t e s t equipment below t h e p r e s s u r e gauge should be determined prior t o each t e s t . a s well as methods of placing t h e probe a n d conducting t h e test.1 BOREHOLE DISCONTINUITY SURVEYS Impression Packer S u r v e y An impression packer s u r v e y provides a n assessment of t h e orientation a n d a p e r t u r e of discontinuities in a borehole in rock b y means of a n inflatable r u b b e r membrane which p r e s s e s a n impressionable thermoplastic film a g a i n s t t h e borehole wall (Figure 34 a n d Plate 9 ) . 1966k and a rigid type. 19681.7. a n d with t h e p r o p e r diameter f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t t o b e used. 73 m hydrau/icaly b y OH to a pressure of about I 4 MPa /Rocha e t a/. s e e Section 18. a s t h e test d a t a a r e obtained by radial expansion of t h e probe of only a few millimetres and e v e n a t h i n d i s t u r b e d zone around t h e pocket will affect t h e r e s u l t s . A discussion of t h e application of t h e p r e s s u r e m e t e r t o foundation design in Hong Kong is given b y Chiang & Ho (1980). excavations o r t u n n e l s (Brand et .7. i t is necessary to use instruments of high sensifi'vity in wh12h the deformation of the rocks is measured over smell strain ranges b y electronic transducers located within the probe.1) should not be used t o form t h e t e s t pocket.8. The test pocket must t h e r e f o r e be formed with minimal d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e sidewalls. The impression p a c k e r c a n be used t o provide d a t a f o r t h e design of rock slopes. The water flush r o t a r y open hole drilling technique with open-ended casing ( r o t a r y wash boring. Briaud & Gambin (1984) have outlined proc e d u r e s f o r preparation of a n acceptable t e s t pocket of t h e r e q u i r e d diameter.7.t h e calibration has changed. consisting of a steel cylinder spkt vertically into two halves and called the Goodman jack /Goodman e t al.5 Tests in Rock In strong rocks. Winter (1982) has discussed t h e presentation a n d interpretation of r e s u l t s f o r both g r a n u l a r a n d cohesive soils.8 21. 21. The rigid type I> afso operated hydraulically b y oil but with a considerably higher pressure than the flexible type. A method of estimating t h e insitu modulus of deformation from t e s t s with t h i s device is p r e s e n t e d by Heuze (1984). 21.4 Results a n d Interpretation The t e s t is normally conducted b y increasing t h e p r e s s u r e in equal increments a n d taking volumetric r e a d i n g s a t time intervals a f t e r application of each p r e s s u r e increment. There are two types of m in diameter. operated instrument available : a flexibfe type. and is therefore part12uMy suitable for rocks in the h e r modulus range.3 Forming t h e Test Pocket Table of Contents Table of Contents The formation of a suitable test pocket is a crucial s t e p in p r e s s u r e m e t e r t e s t i n g . Values of t h e soil deformation modulus are t h e n i n t e r p r e t e d from t h e s e data.7. I n addition. 21.

The core orientator t h e n proceeds u p t h e c o r e . of which t h e Craelius core orientator has been widely used (Hoek & Bray. causing a permanent impression t o be r e g i s t e r e d on t h e film. The device may be orientated i n t h e borehole in two ways. I t i s recommended t h a t t e s t sections should b e overlapped to t h e e x t e n t t h a t a t l e a s t o n e discontinuity common t o a d j a c e n t sections is recorded. 1984a. The device m u s t b e fully deflated before removal.5 m can be s u r v e y e d with each t e s t . is usually only a c c u r a t e t o a b o u t i5" in orientation a t best. a f t e r which t h e device must b e withdrawn from t h e hole a n d t h e thermoplastic film changed. Table of Contents Table of Contents ( b ) By t h e use of a n orientation i n s t r u m e n t attached t o t h e bottom e n d of t h e device. S t a r r & Finn.al.8. This will provide d a t a f o r checking t h e north direction between successive impressions. o r t h e film may be damaged.2 Core Orientators Table of Contents Table of Contents Several devices a r e available f o r determining t h e orientation of drill core. Care must b e taken when lowering t h e device into t h e borehole s o t h a t t h e thermoplastic film is not scuffed o r damaged. The p a c k e r may be inflated b y e i t h e r a i r p r e s s u r e o r w a t e r p r e s s u r e applied t h r o u g h a c e n t r a l perforated t u b e . Two metal leaves. This method. orientation a n d opening of discontinuities where high water losses have occurred. Upon r e t r i e v a l of t h e core sample. 1981). The remainder . a n d i t can be used in conjunction with t h e p a c k e r (water absorption) t e s t t o define t h e location. Use of t h e device is usually r e s t r i c t e d t o vertical o r slightly inclined boreholes. depending on t h e accuracy r e q u i r e d : (a) By positioning t h e two metal leaves in a known direction a t t h e s u r f a c e . An example of a n impression p a c k e r s u r v e y is given in Figure 35. The impression packer device is commonly available in sizes t o f i t N a n d H size boreholes. a n d i t initially p r o t r u d e s ahead of t h e b a r r e l i n o r d e r t o s e n s e a n d record t h e c o n t o u r of t h e rock surface. t h e uppermost core segment can again b e matched a g a i n s t t h e core orientator a n d its relative orientation can b e determined. suitable only in shallow holes a n d when drill r o d s a r e utilized. The orientation of a floating compass i s set within a fixative solution a t t h e time t h e p a c k e r is inflated.b a r r e l . A borehole length of a b o u t 1. 1983. b u t more commonly a s e r i e s of overlapping t e s t s a r e r u n a f t e r drilling has been completed in o r d e r t o obtain a full s u r v e y of t h e borehole. Somewhat b e t t e r accuracy may b e achievable with t h i s technique. Tests can b e conducted a s drilling p r o g r e s s e s . 21. Gamon. Data from s u c h s u r v e y s should also b e checked a g a i n s t r e l e v a n t d a t a from s u r f a c e exposures whenever possible. a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y marking t h i s direction on each drill rod a s t h e device is lowered into t h e borehole. providing a record of orientation t h a t can l a t e r b e t r a n s f e r r e d onto t h e thermoplastic film. 1979). This mechanical device is usually installed in a fixed orientation in a c o r e .b a r r e l a n d core drilling commences. t h e r e b y force t h e impressionable thermoplastic film a g a i n s t t h e borehole wall. c u r v e d t o match t h e borehole wall.

b u t it does not provide information on t h e a p e r t u r e o r infilling of discontinuities. t h e orientation of t h e core must be determined relative t o t h e uppermost c o r e segment. nor does it provide a permanent record of discontinuities. a n d t h i s may prove difficult where core r e c o v e r y is poor o r where t h e c o r e contains sub-horizontal joints (Gamon. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The Craelius c o r e orientator c a n o p e r a t e i n steeply inclined o r horizontal boreholes a s well as vertical holes. In addition. .of t h e c o r e r u n may t h e n b e oriented with r e s p e c t t o t h e uppermost core segment. 1984a).

(c) t h e use of special techniques of sampling and testing in ground for which routine techniques may give unsatisfactory results. Otherwise. it may be possible t o reduce t h e need for this aspect. fn genera/. In f i e cohesive soi4 and some s~7ty sand consecutive drive samples can be obtahed using the 100 mm diameter sampler. or similar. character and geological (b) t h e determination of t h e properties of t h e various zones o r materials whose locations have been determined in (a). the core-catcher can be used to help retah the samp/s. ifnecessary.4. using routine techniques for sampling and testing. In soft clay or sand the barrels of the sampler can be coupled together to form a sampler 1 m in length and.6).5) a t about 1 m fhtervds. together witb split barrel standard penetration test samples /see Section 19. character and s t r u c t u r e of each zone in t h e soil o r rock mass.22. Samples should be taken continuously o r a t close intervals supplemented by standard penetration tests. it I> generdly g & practice to obtah a t least one complete profile for the site ushg the conC1. Table of Contents Some of the so17 samples obtained by drive sampfing or rotary cor~hg. colluvium and some fill materials.2 DETERMINATION OF THE G R O U N D PROFILE In areas where suitable information about t h e ground profile is available from previous investigations. each of which may require a different sampfing and tesbhg programme and may also requke phashg of operatrbns.7uous&ton sampfing technique. FREQUENCY OF SAMPLING AND TESTING I N BOREHOLES Table of Contents 22. it may be useful to t r y to recover a small drive sample using t h e split barrel SPT sampler. the field work w 7 cover three aspects. Some zones may be quite thin. t h e ground profile can be defined by taking samples using a triplet u b e core-barrel.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES The frequency of +mpfing and tesbhg in a borehole depends on the information that is &ready avdable about the ground condibbns and the 1l techmkd objectives of the investigation. However. it is necessary to determine a s f a r a s possible t h e location. Continuous rotary coring should be undertaken in fresh to moderately decomposed rock. Where a r u n with t h e rotary core-barrel results in poor core recovery. In coarse granular sofi such a s gravel it J> advisable to take disturbed samples from the drill tools /see Section 19. and continuous sampling of t h e entire borehole may be required in o r d e r t o obtain t h e necessary information.31. Table of Contents 22. In soft days. if . lmse sik and loose s a y sand /see Secbbn 19. These aspects are a s foflows : (a) t h e determination of t h e s t r u c t u r e of t h e ground. Specid sampfing equ~bment avayable for taklhg long continuous samples A is soft clay. Table of Contents In soils derived from insitu rock weathering. this does not obviate t h e need to a d j u s t t h e rotary coring equipment and techniques in order to obtain t h e best core recovery possible.

Continuous r o t a r y core sampling should be undertaken. p r e s s u r e m e t e r tests. b u t a t a sufficient Table of Contents distance away from i t t o avoid t h e d i s t u r b e d zone. This method may be used w h e r e high variability in g r o u n d conditions i s expected. cone penetration tests. followed b y a s t a n d a r d penetration t e s t should b e taken. t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s may be a s s e s s e d using routine o r special techniques ( t h e l a t t e r a r e discussed in Section 22.5 t o 3 m intervals. i. a n d samples a r e t a k e n at predetermined levels. . ( b ) Moderately decomposed t o f r e s h rock. A d i s t u r b e d sample should be recovered from t h e SPT sampler whenever possible.4 DOUBLE-HOLE SAMPLING I n t h i s method. o r f o r t h e location a n d sampling of t h e s h e a r zone material in a failed slope. These include v a n e t e s t s .e. A t t h e t o p of each zone o r l a y e r in t h e g r o u n d . 22. piston samplers a n d continuous soil samplers. These include t h e u s e of s a n d samplers. close to the initial borehfes (see Sechon 2 .g. A second borehole is t h e n s u n k a d j a c e n t t o t h e first. The programme of sampling a n d t e s t i n g should be varied t o s u i t t h e particular requirements of t h e investigation a n d t h e equipment t h a t is i n use. 22. it may be advantageous to s1h.2). a n d t h e r e a f t e r a t 1. either b y rotary core samp/ng or b y cable tool boring with conthuous tube sampling. in variable sedimentary deposits. The following programme is a n example of a reasonable sampling a n d t e s t i n g f r e q u e n c y w h e r e a borehole is being s u n k t h r o u g h colluvium o r weathered rock i n t o f r e s h rock b y means of r o t a r y coring : (a) Colluvium a n d soils derived from insitu rock weathering. ( b ) Testing techniques. ) 22. should be spkt along their longitudinal axis and carefufly examined and described i n their fresh condition. e. a n 'undisturbed' sample.3 ROUTINE DETERMINATION OF SOIL AND ROCK PROPERTIES Table of Contents Table of Contents Once t h e zones o r materials whose properties a r e likely t o b e r e l e v a n t t o t h e technical objectives of t h e investigation have been identified. plate t e s t s .4 one or more boreholes first.5 SPECIAL TECHNIQUES Table of Contents Special techniques of sampling a n d testing include t h e following : (a) Sampling techniques. packer tests a n d discontinuity s u r v e y s . The cores or tube samples can then be examined to give guidance for samp/ing at selected depths in other boreholes which are sunk subsequently 24.5).not required for 'undisturbed' tests. class 1 o r class 2 sample (see Section 19. This exercise should be repeated later when soil is i n a semi-dried state and the fabric may be more readily identified Where h~ghly variable ground conditions are expected. a borehole is f i r s t s u n k t o ascertain t h e ground profile.

only the small volume of clay that is rotated b y the vane IS tested. are generally taken continuously. . it may be adviable use of a special sampling technique is of l~inited to take samples a t s d e r than usual depth intervals so as to obtain a sufficient quantity of that materiaL In the borehole vane test. Where a ser~esof plate tests is required at increasing depths. or such that complete coverage of the borehole is provided. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The cone penetration. Using a special sampfing technique. For this reason. and individual results often show a considerable scatter. this interval is usuafly 500 mm. if the material requiring the thickness. and easily ~ r damaged ~ Y u s e d i unsuitable ground It shouldpreferab/y be used on/y where it is known that ground cond'bns are suitable. vane tests should be carried out as frequently as possible. the minimum spacing is determined b y the depth to which the so17 has been stressed b y the test. However. Chser spacing can be obta~ned using the penetration vane apparatus. a s well a s discontinuity surveys. A vertical interval of about four times the borehole dimeter is usuafly adequate.Some of the equipment used in these techniques IS fragile. The vertical interval will be determined by the depth at which the test is carried out below the bottom of the borehole. the frequency of sampling lir sand and in soft sensitive clay will in general be determined b y s~inilar considerations to those given in Section 223. pressuremeter and packer tests.

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which is essentially a l a r g e r a n d heavier version of t h e Mackintosh Boring a n d Prospecting Tool.133 23. A device commonly u s e d i n Hong Kong is t h e GCO Probe ( F i g u r e 36 a n d Plate 10A). In such cases. as shown in Figure 37.2 Table of Contents DYNAMIC PROBING The a p p a r a t u s f o r dynamic probing comprises a sectional rod fitted at t h e e n d with a cone whose b a s e i s of g r e a t e r diameter t h a n t h e rod. making comparative qualitative assessments of g r o u n d characteristics. t h i s f a c t o r should also b e considered. t h e maximum d e p t h t o which a GCO p r o b e c a n be d r i v e n is a b o u t 15 m. both in an attempt to overcome these drawbacks and to extend the use beyond that of detecting a hard layer. probing may 'sometimes b e unsuccessful i n soils containing corestones. The simplest probe is a sharpened steel rod wh12h I> pushed or driven into the soil unt2 it meets resistance.1 GENERAL Probing from the surface probably represents the oldest method of inves&gating the depth to a hard layer where the overlying material I> weak and not unduly thick. The method I> st~i'l of use where other means of site investiga&on have d'sclosed relatively t h ~ n layers of very soft soils overlying much harder sods. and i t is u n n e c e s s a r y to apply a correction if only qualitative comparisons between probe r e s u l t s at similar d e p t h a r e being undertaken. 23. a n d i n supplementing t h e information obtained from t r i a l pits a n d boreholes. t h e driving e n e r g y provided t o t h e t i p is attenuated b y t h e additional mass of t h e rods. cobbles or boulders. Therefore. Probe r e s u l t s are normally r e p o r t e d a s t h e number of blows p e r 100 mm penetration. In o r d e r t o minimise damage t o t h e equipment. and a vatiety of more sophisthated apparatus has been developed. A s with o t h e r t y p e s of penetrometers. Two distinct types of probe have been developed :one where the probe is driven into the sod by means of some form of hammer blow the other where the probe is forced into the so11 b y a s t a t k load. probing should f i r s t b e c a r r i e d o u t a d j a c e n t t o a t r i a l pit o r borehole w h e r e g r o u n d conditions are known. t o some extent. Probing h a s also been c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e base of hand-dug caissons (Evans e t al. The primary u s e of dynamic probing is t o interpolate d a t a between t r i a l pits o r boreholes rapidly a n d cheaply. e. a n d t h e n extended t o o t h e r areas of t h e site. however.g. PROBING AND PENETRATION TESTING Table of Contents 23. o r when t h e hammer bounces a n d insignificant penetration . A s additional r o d s a r e added f o r probing a t d e p t h . Correction of t h e p r o b e values is sometimes made t o allow f o r t h i s effect. probing should terminate when t h e blow c o u n t r e a c h e s 100. to give some measure of the affowable bearing capacity of the s017s present. at d e p t h in c e r t a i n soils. s h a f t friction from influencing t h e r e s u l t s . The method has many binitations. I t i s d r i v e n i n t o t h e g r o u n d b y a c o n s t a n t mass falling t h r o u g h a fixed distance. Probe r e s u l t s are v e r y useful f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e d e p t h a n d d e g r e e of compaction of buried fill. Table of Contents Table of Contents The f a c t t h a t t h e rod a n d couplers are somewhat smaller in diameter t h a n t h e base of t h e cone p r e v e n t s . 1982). the th~kkness the soft layer may be determined over a wide area very quickly of and economicdly. The correction is negligible at t h e shallow d e p t h s a t which many probings terminate. I n fill o r completely decomposed rock.

Table of Contents 23. a r e shown in F i g u r e 38 ( s e e also Plate 10B). a n d i t is imperative t h a t t h e actual t y p e of i n s t r u m e n t used is fully documented. 1972). An alternative quick continuous method of penetration is sometimes u s e d with t h e mantle cone. There is no British S t a n d a r d f o r cone penetration t e s t i n g . a n d t h e f r e e movement of t h e cone should b e checked at f r e q u e n t intervals. o r cone penetration testing. When cone penetration t e s t i n g is done in shallow water.3 23. t h e cone is pushed i n t o t h e g r o u n d b y a s e r i e s of hollow p u s h rods. in these c~kcumstances. For accurate work.3 respectively. o r a combination of these.25 m. t h e force on t h e cone is t h e n measured as t h e cone is p u s h e d downward b y means of i n n e r r o d s inside t h e p u s h rods. With t h e mantle cone. 23. t h e cone a n d p u s h r o d s a r e p u s h e d i n t o t h e g r o u n d with t h e cone permanently extended a n d connected t o t h e load cell. as t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s d e p e n d s o n t h e equipment used.3. a n d t h e n a second measurement is t a k e n while t h e cone a n d friction sleeve a r e t o g e t h e r pushed downward a f u r t h e r increment. This force i s generally measured at t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e b y a hydraulic load cell. 1982. b u t suitable recommendations a r e given b y t h e ISSMFE (1977) a n d t h e ASTM (1985k). This p r o c e d u r e is normally r e p e a t e d a t r e g u l a r d e p t h i n t e r v a l s of 0. mechanical a n d electrical. the weight of the Inner rods may exceed the force on the it cone or cone plus jacket. electrical o r hydraulic system.i s achieved. i s also known b y a number of o t h e r descriptive terms. With e i t h e r t y p e . t h e t h r u s t i n g machine may b e s e c u r e d t o a jack-up platform (see Section 14. the weight of the inner rods should be taken into are carried to a account in calcufai2ons.3. however. kentledge. In very soft soils when sound~ngs significant depth. The friction is calculated b y deducting t h e former reading from t h e latter. Sanglerat.3.2 a n d 23. t h e weight of t h e t h r u s t i n g machine. a r e described f u r t h e r i n Sections 23.2 o r 0. In t h i s method. t h e same initial measurement is made. With t h e friction sleeve cone. The basic principles of all systems a r e similar. Accuracy is r e d u c e d in t h i s operation.3. Two common t y p e s of penetrometers. depending on t h e manufacturer o r o p e r a t o r of t h e particular device being used.7). The r e s i s t a n c e on a segment of t h e rod s h a f t (friction sleeve resistance) may also b e measured. Thzk effect can be reduced b y the use of alumzhium inner rods. Static probing. Both of t h e s e t e s t s t a n d a r d s recognize a number of traditional t y p e s of penetrometers. t h e Dutch mantle cone a n d t h e Dutch friction sleeve cone. The reaction r e q u i r e d to achieve penetration of t h e cone may be obtained b y screw anchors.2 Mechanical Cone Penetrometers Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Two common mechanical cones.1 STATIC PROBING OR CONE PENETRATION TESTING General Description Several t y p e s of s t a t i c probing equipment have been developed a n d a r e i n u s e t h r o u g h o u t t h e world (De Ruiter. in t h a t a rod is pushed i n t o t h e g r o u n d a n d t h e r e s i s t a n c e on t h e t i p (cone resistance) i s measured b y a mechanical. is lhpossible to o b t a i ~ readings. The . These cones were developed mostly at t h e Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory in t h e 1930's.

the cone ~k advanced a t a the force on the cone and fr~ktron uniform rate of penetratron by pressure on the top of the push rods. as shown Figure 39a (see also Plate 10B). parallel-sledded electrical cones do not give exactly the same results as those obtained witb the mechanical cone penetrometer. An inchnometer built into the cone is avdable with some equ~. However. JT present. One particular type of electrical cone penetrometer is t h e "Brecone". fitted.3. Electr~kal cones with a profile modified to give better agreement witb the mechanical cone are also avadable /Figure 39b and cl. Forces on the cone.4 General Recommendations Table of Contents Table of Contents The following general recommendations apply t o cone penetration testing. In use. 1985: Fung et al. The recently developed "piezocone".Oment. should have a surface area of 15 000 m 3.inner rods should be free to slide ins]-de the push rods. and signals frm the load-measur~hg devl'ces are carried to the surface by cable threaded through the push rods. I t has t h e advantage of being able to measure cone resistances i n clays containing dense sand layers without suffering damage t o t h e more sensitive load cell. punched tape or magnetr'c tape. and the friction jkcket.3. where ~k immediate& behind the point. 0 . 1982). and these generafly lhcorporate vibratrng wire or impedance strain gauges for measuring jacket. and frictron jacket. 1984: Koutsoftas et al. 23. All push rods and inner rods should be straight. and fr~ktron jacket where used. Exclusive recording on punched tape or magnetrk tape which does not allow direct access to the data during or immediately after sounding 13not recommended Provision should be made for calibration of the force-measurlhg system a t regular intervals. preferably on site. Table of Contents Table of Contents The cones are generafly parallel-sided. can either be dlkplayed on a readout a t the surface or recorded autmatrkally on a chart recorder. 1987) 23. which has a combined 5 kN and 50 kN force measurement range (Rigden et al. and the cone. altbough the dfyferenceis u s u d y of little hportance.3 Electrical Cone Penetrometers A number of types of electr~'cally-operated cone are in use. clean and we//-oiled i n t e r d y . The accuracy of the load and pressure gauges should be checked period~'callyby calibratron. should be checked for free sliding both a t the start and a t the end of each penetratron test. which incorporates a pore pressure transducer within an electrical cone. m fcl The rate of penetration should be 2 r 5 mm/s. has also found application in some Hong Kong marine investigations (Blacker & Seaman. whether undertaken with mechanical o r electrical cone penetrometers : fal The cone cross-sectronal area should be 1 000 mm? and the cone apex angle should be 605 fbl The fricclbn sleeve.

Table of Contents 23. and where hard driving is not antbpated. the cone penetrometer test has also been used to give an indication of the contJfluous soil profile by interpretation of the r a t 0 of friction sleeve and cone resistances. defined a s ffricton resistance/cone resistance) x 100. The friction ratio. t h i s technique i s f u r t h e r discussed in BSI (1981a). This ratio is used to assist in interpreting the soil type penetrated. The static-dynamic test combines t h e two methods (Sherwood & Child. it is preferable to carry out the test in conjunction with some other means of determ~h'ng the nature of the soil present. The cone penetrometer test is also the preferred substitute for the standardpenetration test i n soil conditons where results of the latter test are suspect. highly t o moderately decomposed rock. a n d t h e t h r u s t available f o r pushing i t into t h e g r o u n d . Although it may be possible to estimate the type of so17 through which the cone is passing a s described above.5 Uses a n d Limitations of t h e Test The cone penetrometer test is relatively quick to carry out. In addition. o r cobbles are encountered. and the end bearing capacity of driven p17es in granular soils. t h e cone penetrometer is of limited u s e when d e n s e o r stiff l a y e r s a r e encountered. . may also be plotted agru'nst depth. 1974). there is substantial pubfished informtion relaohg cone resistance value with other soil parameters. some machines are capable of c r u s h i n g t h e i n n e r r o d s before t h e r a t e d capacity of t h e machine is reached. In recent years. Cone penetration is limited by both t h e safe load t h a t c a n b e c a r r i e d b y t h e cone. skin fricoon. Suitable scales for plotting the results are given i n ISSMFE UP??).6 Table of Contents Table of Contents Presentation of Results Results are normally presented graphicfly with cone resistance /and local skin friction where a fricton jacket cone is used) plotted against depth. 23. penetration normally h a s t o b e terminated where d e n s e s a n d o r gravel. 23.3. cone penetration t e s t i n g in Hong Kong h a s been limited t o t h e Recent alluvial a n d marine sediments. It has traditonaily been used to predict driving resistance.4 STATIC-DYNAMIC PROBING Table of Contents The s t a n d a r d penetration test is r a t h e r insensitive in loose materials a n d i s not t r u l y r e l e v a n t t o cohesive soils. s@ng and laboratory testing. Because of limited cone capacity. I t is also limited b y t h e compressive s t r e n g t h of t h e i n n e r r o d s .3. On t h e o t h e r hand. The test is aIso commonly used as a rapid and economical means of interpolating between borehok./dl Force measurements should be accurate to wfthin ?5%of the maximum force reached in the test. and inexpensive in cornparson with boring. For t h i s reason.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents PART V FIELD AND LABORATORY TESTS .

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the selection and preparation of samples in the field is subject to the same requirements a s for should be given in the field to laboratory s a d e s . pore pressure and degree of saturation. to Field tests may therefore be necessary where the preparation of representative laboratory samples is complicated by one or more of the following conditions : fal The spacing of the discontrnuitres in the mass being considered is such that a .wn. are the controfled effects of the nature. persistence and spacing of dicontinuities fGeolog~kalSociety. one or two kilometres in the pumping test. to several metres for fied tri. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents fbl . 1l The size of sample tested in a fild test w 7 depend on the nature of the ground and type of test. The insitu conditrbns of a field sample may be affected b y the process of gaining access to the test position fe. the effect is very much less than for a laboratory sarn.sa. such a s in the insitu triawial state of stress measurements. the nature of any infilfing.1 GENERAL Field tests are generally des~rablewhere it is considered that the mass characteristics of the ground would differ appreciably from the material characteristics determined by laboratory testrhg. however. The discontinu~'tresare assumed to govern the geomechanical response of the mass relative to the scale of the engineering structure concerned There is difficulty in obtaining samples of adequate quality owing to the lack of cohesion or ~ireversible changes in mechanical propertres.g. Considerable attent~on these aspects.de. partly related to the insitu cond12ions of stress. These differences generdy arise from several factors. including the discontinuitl'es. fewer field tests can be carried out than laboratory tests. degree of saturation and stress environments during sampLing and from physical disturbance resulting from the samp/ing procedure. Consequently.de. Factors affecting sample quality are dealt with in Chapter 12 and attention is drawn to factors These factors are affecting the representative nature of a laboratory s. their influence cannot be accounted for in laboratory testhg. To ensure that they are representative. resulting from changes in pore pressure. generafly. The material tested insitu by a field test is analogous to a laboratory sampJe. and can be considered a s a 'field same'. and may vary from a fraction of a metre.w. digging a trial p i 0 but. generdy. and the qua/ity of the sample that can be obtained for laboratory testing.de representing the mass. More obvious.139 24. orientation. FIELD TESTS Table of Contents 24. and the size of sample required for it to be representative. wouM be too large for laboratory test equipment. and can be altered from an unknown insitu state by the sampling processes.?/s. 19721. because. the most important of which are the extent to which the laboratory samples are representative of the mass.

5 a n d 40. 24.2 24. A s t a n d a r d t e s t procedure has been recommended b y t h e ISRM (1985).2. Broch & Franklin. a n d t h e index t e s t s described in Section 24. field density t e s t s described in Chapter 27. indications of s t r e n g t h anisotropy a n d tensile (splitting) s t r e n g t h of discontinuities can be obtained. Some field t e s t s a r e relatively inexpensive a n d a r e u n d e r t a k e n on a routine basis (e. Other field t e s t s a r e expensive and must be designed specifically t o account f o r both t h e n a t u r e of t h e works a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e ground mass. a n d if t h e failure passes along a discontinuity. The t e s t equipment is easily portable. Table of Contents /dl Sample disturbance due to delays and transportation from The locations a n d levels of all field tests should be fully recorded d u r i n g t h e execution of t h e work. Point load tests can be c a r r i e d o u t in t h e field o r in t h e laboratory.g. with minimal sample preparation. The t e s t r e s u l t s a r e a useful aid t o rock description a n d classification ( G C O . . degree o f saturation. a s t h e t e s t is destructive. Irfan & Powell (1985) a n d Lumb (1983). The t e s t gives a n i n d i r e c t measure of t h e tensile s t r e n g t h of t h e rock. t h e failure s u r f a c e from each t e s t should be examined. 1975. 1972. t h e t e s t r e s u l t should be discarded. remote sites is excess~'ve. The r e c o r d s should be s u c h t h a t t h e locations a n d levels can be readily incorporated into t h e r e p o r t on t h e investigation ( s e e Sections 10. a n d a 50 mm s t a n d a r d reference diameter h a s been selected f o r t h e r e p o r t i n g of results. t h e visual examination a n d logging of samples described in Section 36. t h e various borehole and penetration t e s t s previously described in Chapters 21 a n d 23.1 R O C K STRENGTH INDEX TESTS Table of Contents Point Load S t r e n g t h The point load s t r e n g t h index t e s t measures t h e s t r e n g t h of rock material b y means of a concentrated load applied t o specimens of rock core o r i r r e g u l a r lumps of rock ( F i g u r e 40). as can i r r e g u l a r lumps of rock. The point load s t r e n g t h s of some Hong Kong r o c k s a r e discussed b y Gamon (1984133.3 should be u n d e r t a k e n prior t o testing. 1988). Similarly. Specimens of rock core can be t e s t e d in e i t h e r a n axial o r diametral mode. provided specified s h a p e c r i t e r i a a r e met. The t e s t r e s u l t s a r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e size of t h e specimen t e s t e d . Norbury. Table of Contents Table of Contents The t e s t is intended t o measure primarily t h e i n t a c t s t r e n g t h of t h e rock material.2).(cl There is difficulty in determining the ~ h s i t u conditions such as those o f pore pressure. The main a d v a n t a g e s of t h e point load t e s t a r e t h a t a l a r g e number of t e s t s can b e completed rapidly.8). and stress environments for reproduction i n the laboratory testing. These l a t t e r t e s t s should not be u n d e r t a k e n before a comprehensive u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e geology a n d n a t u r e of t h e g r o u n d h a s been obtained. which has been correlated with t h e uniaxial compressive s t r e n g t h (Bieniawski. a n d by t e s t i n g samples of t h e same material i n various orientations. 1984). In e i t h e r case. a n d specimens f o r t e s t i n g should t h e r e f o r e b e selected t o meet t h e necessary s h a p e c r i t e r i a without incorporating discontinuities.2.

This device. t h e L t y p e (impact e n e r g y of 0. c r a c k e d o r f i s s u r e d . t o e n s u r e a good contact between t h e rock s u r f a c e a n d t h e hammer head. originally developed t o measure t h e h a r d n e s s of concrete. a n d i t cannot b e used on rock c o r e unless t h e c o r e i s held in a heavy vice o r a steel cradle. I t i s also possible t o perform simpler single r i n g infiltration t e s t s a n d c r u d e soakaway t e s t s (i. i t i s recommended t h a t a number of seating blows a r e t a k e n initially.s t a t e conditions i s used t o determine t h e limiting infiltration r a t e ( F i g u r e 42). Use of t h e t e s t r e s u l t s i s discussed f u r t h e r in Geoguide 3 ( G C O .735 N-m) a n d t h e N t y p e The N Schmidt hammer i s more r o b u s t . b u t t h e recommendations a r e equally applicable to t y p e N hammers. The t e s t can b e performed a t s u c c e s s i v e d e p t h s t o give a complete permeability profile. 1965. a n d t o t h e a n n u l a r s p a c e between t h e rings. The r e s u l t s may be useful in a comparative s e n s e b u t should not b e r e g a r d e d a s a n Table of Contents . Hucka. Because of t h e percolating water from t h e o u t e r r i n g ( t h e ' b u f f e r zone'). measures t h e r e b o u n d of a spring-loaded piston from a metal anvil r e s t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e to b e tested.e.2 Schmidt Hammer Rebound Value Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The Schmidt impact hammer can be used t o measure t h e h a r d n e s s of rock. Although t h e Schmidt hammer i s quick a n d e a s y t o use. 24. water within t h e i n n e r r i n g i s constrained t o infiltrate vertically i n t o t h e g r o u n d . i. Water i s fed from g r a d u a t e d bottles t o t h e exposed soil s u r f a c e in t h e i n n e r r i n g . Irfan & Powell. The amount of water flowing o u t of t h e bottle i s measured with time. hand-operated device a n d i s available in two models. resulting in a flow with approximately u n i t hydraulic g r a d i e n t . complete s a t u r a t i o n of t h e g r o u n d may not o c c u r d u e t o e n t r a p p e d a i r in t h e soil voids.2.207 N-m). The height of t h e piston r e b o u n d i s t a k e n a s a n empirical measure of rock h a r d n e s s . However. 1966). hole o r trial pit of s t a n d a r d dimensions). Poole & Farmer (1980) concluded t h a t reliable values could b e obtained b y ignoring artificially low r e a d i n g s a n d selecting peak r e b o u n d values from a minimum of five consecutive impacts at a point. a n d (impact e n e r g y of 2. The Schmidt hammer i s a portable. timing a known water head loss in a steel t u b e . generally t o b e p r e f e r r e d f o r field t e s t i n g of rock exposures. The Schmidt hammer i s relatively insensitive on v e r y weak r o c k s which yield r e b o u n d values below 10. t h e limiting infiltration r a t e is roughly e q u a l t o t h e ' s a t u r a t e d ' field permeability of t h e soil. 1985). o r a n y rock s u r f a c e which i s r o u g h . i t must be appreciated t h a t no b u f f e r zone i s provided in s u c h t e s t s t o e n c o u r a g e vertical infiltration. in which c a s e t h e t e s t r e s u l t will only give a lower bound value f o r t h e s a t u r a t e d permeability (Schmid. a n d t h i s value has been correlated with rock a n d weathered rock properties (Hencher & Martin. 1988). In practice. 1982.24. The flow u n d e r s t e a d y .3 INFILTRATION TESTS The limiting infiltration r a t e f o r water e n t e r i n g t h e soil c a n b e determined with a double r i n g infiltration t e s t ( F i g u r e 41). Therefore. Brown (1981) recommends a s t a n d a r d t e s t method for t h e t y p e L hammer.e. g r e a t c a r e should b e t a k e n when t e s t i n g weak r o c k s . In s u c h cases. The t e s t i s commonly c a r r i e d o u t a t t h e bottom of a trial p i t o r caisson. o r on s u r f a c e exposures. The Schmidt hammer t e s t provides a rapid quantitative assessment of rock h a r d n e s s a n d i s suitable f o r u s e in trial pits o r caisson excavations.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents indication of the true permeability of the soil. 142 .

I f the test is intended for the evaluation of permeability in the design of dams and other similar projects where seepage is an important consideratrun. or otherwije. tides. Ideafly. The naturaf groundwater conditrons should be determined b y careful monitoring over a sufficient period before the pumping test. The interpretation of the data from a pumphg test can be . e. This i s particularly important in highly permeable ground subject to rapid recharge. From the data obtained from the test. The geolog~kal units encountered may then be units on the basis of permeabifity ( Leach & Herbert. the coefficients of permeabifity. groundwater extraction from wells. Pumping t e s t proposals for Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . the shape of the groundwater table. It shouh' be noted that a given coefficient of transmissivity can result from many different distributions of permeabifity wfth depth.25. pumping tests have been used occasionally to determine hydrogeological parameters (as described above) b u t are more often carried out for the purpose of estimating the yield of water wells. expert advice should be sought.3. the conditlbns should be stable during the test. The permeability of the ground is obtained b y a study of the shape of the cone of depression. Pumping tests can be expensive. and the nature of recharge. Lf they are not. the nature of the ground. as we//as i n the design of positive groundwater cut-offs. settlements and inducement of negative skin-friction on piles.compficaated and is much affected b y the inferred ground conditrbns and b y the influence of any boundaries. In Hong Kong. the use of down-the-hole vel0c1'ty pmfifing a t constant outflow can provide a permeabifity prome of the ground. refiab/e data should be obtained on the ground prohi/e. They are also conducted occasionally to provide data for the design of major dewatering schemes associated with the construction of deep basements. PUMPING TESTS Table of Contents 25. Fluctuations can be caused by rainwater infiltration. which is indicated b y the water levels in the surrounding observation wells. of intermediate or other boundaries. The shape of the cone of depression depends on the pumping rate. The possible effects on adjacent ground and structures. ifnecessary b y means of boreholes sunk especidy for the purpose. should be carefully considered before conducting a pumping t e s t ( s e e Section 8. Before attempting to carry out a pumping test. suitable pump~hg and support equipment. creating a 'cone of depression'. grouped into hydrolog~'cal 1982). the fluctuat~bns have to be recorded. the existence. andpersonneL Care should be taken therefore to design a suitable test programme. phreatic and piezometric leveh around the pumping we// will fall.g. and nearby construction activities. the duration of pumping. a pumping test involves pumphg at a steady known flow from a well and observing the drawdown effect on groundwater levels at some distance away from the pumped welL In response to pumping.1 GENER:AL PRINCIP LES In principle. The results 1 can be used in the evaluation of dewatering requirements and groundwater resources. requiring adequately screened and developed pumping and observation wens. Where necessary. transmissivity and storage can be determined for a greater mass of ground than b y the use of the borehole tests described i n Chapter 2 .2(e)).

It is desirable that they penetrate the full depth of the water-bearing zone being tested. In this case. The hydrological conditions should not change appreciably over the site. Table of Contents Intermediate between the above two groundwater conditbns is a third called the semi-confined condition. confined and unconfined. 1981a). fully saturated ground is overlain by material of signficant but lower permeabi/ity. 25.oe and velocity meter. Andysis of data from semi-confined conditions is possible. then confined conditions are said to exist. fa) Confined. They should be provided witb an adequate well screen. The three types of groundwater conditions may be recognized by the t e s t response ( B S I . then unconfined conditions are said to auist. such as access and avai/abjXty of existing borebolees. The minimum borehole d~ameterwhkb will achieve this purpose is often 300 mm.8).2 CROUNDWA T ' CONDITIONS There are two main types of groundwater conditons. I f the original phreatib level is everywhere below the upper surface of the aquifer. Table of Contents 25. each should be tested separately. but the condition 15 less commonly encountered than the other two types. I f the ground under investr'gation is fufly saturated and the water is confined under pressure between two impermeable layers. and fifter pack where necessary. and s~gnificant leakage takes place across the boundary in response to pumping. together with a standpl.4 PUMPED WELLS Table of Contents Table of Contents Pumped wels shouh' be of sufficient dlhA9ter to permit the inserton of a rising main and pump of a suitable type and capacity.private developments must be submitted to the Buildings Ordinance Office for approval and consent prior t o the commencement of works (see Appendix A. 25. to prevent the withdrawal of fine part'des from the surrounding soil. It IS essental that discharged water is not able to return to the ground under test. the screen intake area shoula' be such as to ensure that the maximum velocity of water enter~hg the well is not greater than about 30 mm/s to ensure that hydraufic well looses are of an acceptable /eve/. In a// cases. the data have to be corrected before analysis. ifrequired. I6 during the test. the site should be representative of the area of interest. Where fufly penetrathg cond12ions do not exht. then the resulthg estimate of permeabi/ity may become unacceptable. . and these shouh' be recognized for analybbal and design purposes. changes in the shape of the cone of depression that are due to extraneous causes are a significant fraction of those due to pumping. Where the ground is composed of two or more independent horiions. fbl Unconfined.3 TEST SITE Although the choice of test site may be dictated by practibd considerations.

The pumping rate may be cohtroM by a gate valve in the discharge fine or b y varying the speed of the pump. resulting in a stab& porous and permeable medium surrounding the welL Successful well development r e s u l t s in r e d u c e d hydraulic head losses a s t h e water e n t e r s t h e pumping well b u t . Development of a well is the process b y which particles surrounding the screen are rearranged. It particu/ar/y important to mahtmh a constant pumping rate when vertical flow velou'ties in the pumping well are being measured for the purpose horiions in the ground of determining the relative permeab~jrihesof spec~zc under test. or b y a notch tank with automahk recordng. submersible pumps are preferable. Maximum development is ind~katedwhen the ratio of pumping rate to fall in water level i n the pumping we/l reaches a maximum. it can be achieved in a number of ways (Johnson. the pumping rate should be chosen so that resulting changes i n water leveh are much greater than those due to extraneous causes. This has several disadvantages. thus minimizing the effects of the latter on the results. Fine partices from the ground are removed during development. It is essenh. Where possible. t h e y should be s u r r o u n d e d b y a suitably g r a d e d filter material. pumping tests a r e sometimes c a r r i e d o u t i n l a r g e diameter h a n d .Such influences can be corrected b y monitoring Mdton. The more permeable the ground. or both. 25. a s t h e caisson may only p a r t l y p e n e t r a t e t h e a q u i f e r being t e s t e d . t h e s e losses (well losses) should b e accounted f o r in t h e analyses of t e s t results. l962/. Suctlbn pumps can be used where the groundwater does not have to be depressed by more than about 5 m below the h t a k e chamber of the pump. If t h e r e i s a n y r i s k t h a t fine soil particles may clog t h e observation wells. a n d t h e well s t o r a g e is large. the greater the pump capacity required to produce measurable drawdowns in the observation we&. both before and d u r k testing. a n d f o r t h i s reason observation wells should always be used in conjunction with pumping tests in caissons.is too l a r g e t h i s may c a u s e a time lag i n drawdown. with coarsening grade and better uniformity towards the screen. The rate of flow from the pump may be measured by a flow or or12ce meter. i n any case. It is important that pumping wefls should be adequate& developed. Also. b u t if t h e diameter. Observation wells should p e n e t r a t e t h e same g r o u n d a s t h e pumping well a n d should permit e n t r y of water from t h e full d e p t h of g r o u n d being tested.d u g caissons.d that the dlicharge is kept constant for the durahon of the test and that a// the water level observahons are related to a hhe-scale referred to the onset of pumphg. Although the permeab~jrity of the ground may be estimated from the . high well losses a r e often i n c u r r e d . I n Hong Kong. For greater depths. and drawdown can be increased b y setting the pump in a pit.5 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents OBSERVATION WELLS Table of Contents Observation wells should have a n i n t e r n a l diameter l a r g e enough t o permit insertion of a dipmeter o r o t h e r water-level measuring device. Standpipes with a n internal diameter of 19 mm a r e often used. and within the limitations set by the permeability. 1982).

it is desirable to have an additional standpipe inside the pumping well in order to obtan a rehkble record o f the drawdown of the well itself Depths to water levels shou/d be measured to within 25 mm.pumping wel/ drawdown data alone. shorter intervals may be required initially. the nature of the response. recovery data shouM be taken a t 1 m h intervals for 15 mi' following cessa&on o f pumping and thereafter at . However. although these g e n e r d y require observation wells o f 100 mm d~ameter greater. for example. a graduated steel tape. water levels shou/d continue to be monitored wit15 respect to time from cessation o f pumping unM recovery o f levels to the original values is complete. In additon to the observation wefls described above. Sometimes. and then b y one or more observers thereafter. Water levels in a// we& are then measured with respect to time since commencement of the pumping. A s in the drawdown phase. the test programme designed and the wels developed. river. canal or an impermeable subsurface bedrock scarp. I f linear boundary conditions are associated with the site /e. and the required duration of pumping. or The measurements should be plotted during the course of pumping t o evaluate the quality of the data. Hence the appropriate distance of the observation wells from the pumping we// and the t h i n g o f observations can be assessed.6 TEST PROCEDURES Once the character o f fluctuatJons and other extraneous influences has been established. more reliable values are obtained using data from one or more observa&on web. Table of Contents In all cases. semi-confined and unconfined aquifers. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 25. The mh~inum distance between observafion wells and the pumphg well should be ten times the pumping we// radius. and a t least one o f the observation wells in each row shouh' be at a radid distance greater than twice the thickness o f the ground being tested. i The water levels can be monitored with either an electrical dipmeter or an automatic well level recording system. Johnson (1982) and Kruseman & DeRidder (1980) have discussed the time requirements for both steady and non-steady state pumping tests carried out on confined. unless the pumping rate is very h g h . pumping o f the ground at a constant rate should commence. This usua//y means that measurement devices have to be checked a t regular ~ n t e r v agahst. Their distances from the pumping we// should approx~inateto a geometr~kal series.g. Therefore each wefl may have to be monitored b y independent observers for the first 100 min. Prehininary calculations using assumed permeabifities esthated from borehole data wifl help to indicate the fikely response in observation weUs to pumping. arranged i n two rows at right angles to each other. partrkularly in low permeability ground under unconfined conditions. fault or dyke). The recommended mh~inum number of observation weh's required to yield reasonably representative results is four. It may be necessary to add more wefls ifthe initlal ones yield anomalous data. Typically the frequency o f measurement might be at 1 m ~ h t e r v a h n for the first 15 min and at regular logarihmic intervals thereafter. and the duration o f pumping long. In distant observation we& where head changes are smdd automatic recorders can be used. falls i n water levels may be s W at such distances. the two rows o f observation wells are best arranged p a r a m and normal to the boundary.

be caused b y inhomogeneity a n d anisotropy i n t h e aquifer. The analysis technique is also d e p e n d e n t on aquifer A response. Table of Contents 25. I n some c a s e s . This may.7 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS There a r e two forms of analysis of pumping test d a t a : (a) Steady state. a n d t h e s e a r e f u r t h e r discussed b y Johnson (1982) a n d Kruseman & DeRidder (1980). a n d i t is t h e r e f o r e common t h a t t h e actual drawdown d a t a collected in t h e field may lead t o ambiguities in t h e analysis. summary of some of t h e available analysis techniques is given in BSI (1981a). high flow velocities a r o u n d t h e well may invalidate t h e u s e of Darcy's law. ( b ) Non-steady s t a t e . b u t t h e necessary duration of pumping can b e significantly longer t h a n t h a t necessary f o r nons t e a d y s t a t e analysis.regular intervals on a logarithmic scale. Before equilibrium is reached. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . upon which most methods of analysis are based. i.e. water levels cease t o fall. a n d t h e hydraulic condition of t h e g r o u n d is said t o be i n a s t e a d y s t a t e with r e s p e c t to time. o r t h e presence of unknown b a r r i e r s to g r o u n d w a t e r flow. If pumping continues long enough. water levels fall at a changing r a t e with r e s p e c t to time a n d t h e hydraulic condition of t h e g r o u n d is said t o be in a non-steady state. The simpler form of analysis is t h e s t e a d y s t a t e t y p e . A number of simplifying assumptions r e g a r d i n g g r o u n d conditions are r e q u i r e d in whatever method of analysis is used. whether confined o r unconfined conditions are p r e s e n t .

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e. t h e application of a r o u g h n e s s s u r v e y a t a n engineering s i t e in North Point. in c u t slopes a n d excavations. An experienced s u p e r v i s i n g engineer o r geologist ( s e e Section 15. DISCONTINUITY SURVEYS Table of Contents 26. F u r t h e r guidance on joint s u r v e y s a n d description can b e found in Geoguide 3 ( G C O . unfavourably orientated relict joints may c a u s e slope failures. a n d on t h e selection of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sampling points. The need t o c a r r y o u t a joint s u r v e y f o r c u t slopes formed in soils derived from insitu rock weathering should also b e considered. Procedures f o r u n d e r t a k i n g a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g field r o u g h n e s s s u r v e y s a r e described in detail b y t h e ISRM (1978). discontinuity r o u g h n e s s s u r v e y s a r e often u n d e r t a k e n t o supplement such t e s t s . . d u e t o limitations on t h e length of t h e joint plane which can be t e s t e d in s t a n d a r d equipment. 26. c a r e must be taken t h a t rare b u t critical joints a r e not overlooked by t h e usual statistical methods of d a t a s o r t i n g (Beattie & Lam.g. The accuracy of t h e s e measurements is improved by taking a l a r g e number (e. The methods a n d equipment used t o c a r r y o u t a joint s u r v e y a r e described in ISRM (1978). The main engineering u s e of a field r o u g h n e s s s u r v e y is f o r t h e a s s e s s ment of design values of discontinuity s h e a r s t r e n g t h (Hoek & Bray. 1988). 1983). a n d techniques f o r analysing t h e r e s u l t s a r e given b y Hoek & Bray (1981). 1977: Brand e t al. 1981). 50 o r more) r e a d i n g s f o r each plate a n d by e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e discontinuity s u r f a c e i s relatively l a r g e a n d reasonably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a particular joint set. The slope o r exposure should be examined again d u r i n g construction f o r t h e presence of unfavourable joint sets not identified i n t h e s u r v e y . The most commonly-used method is t o employ a s e t of thin circular plates of various diameters. These are t a k e n i n t o t h e field a n d a series of discontinuity dip directions a n d dip angles a r e measured in t u r n f o r each plate when placed on t h e discontinuity surface.2 DISCONTINUITY ROUGHNESS SURVEYS Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents I t i s often not possible t o account fully f o r discontinuity r o u g h n e s s in a n insitu o r laboratory s h e a r t e s t . A graphical plot of maximum r o u g h n e s s angles v e r s u s plate diameter i s often used t o a s s e s s t h e sensitivity of t h e relationship between r o u g h n e s s a n g l e a n d length of potential s h e a r displacement along t h e discontinuity plane.1 GENERAL Discontinuities s u c h a s joints usually control t h e mechanical behaviour of a rock mass. Where s u r f a c e exposures o r o u t c r o p s of t h e r o c k s exist. During analysis.3) should visit t h e s i t e t o examine in detail t h e n a t u r e of those discontinuities t h a t have been identified a s critical.g. This is achieved b y combining t h e s u r v e y r e s u l t s with d a t a from d i r e c t s h e a r t e s t s o r assumed basic friction angles. The smallest base plate will give t h e l a r g e s t s c a t t e r of r e a d i n g s a n d t h e l a r g e s t r o u g h n e s s angles ( a n d vice v e r s a ) . The r e s u l t s a r e often presented as contoured polar diagrams on a n equal-area s t e r e o g r a p h i c projection. a joint s u r v e y may be c a r r i e d o u t t o a s s e s s t h e r i s k of joint-controlled instability. Methods f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e contribution of r o u g h n e s s t o discontinuity s h e a r s t r e n g t h in Hong Kong g r a n i t e a r e discussed b y Hencher & Richards (1982). Hong Kong i s described by Richards & Cowland (1982).149 26. Therefore.

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However. is suitable for fine.81.7 a r e a n exception t o t h i s general rule. is used for f i e and medium grained soi/s. t h e n t h e sample should be t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e laboratory f o r oven d r y i n g in accordance with BSI (1975b3. In a n y case. followed b y determinations of t h e mass of t h e sample a n d t h e volume i t occupied prior t o removal. t h e y a r e normally r e s t r i c t e d t o soil within 2 t o 3 m of t h e surface. depending on t h e technique used. t h e nuclear methods discussed in Section 27. Therefore. which is in t u r n d e p e n d e n t on t h e n a t u r e of t h e soil being tested. but it is less precise than the first two and yields less rehkble results. o r o n e of t h e rapid methods described in BSI (1975b3. although t h e y can also be u s e d equally well within caissons o r shafts. its use should be restricted to occasions where no pouring cylinder is available. Mass determinations a r e relatively straightforward b u t a c c u r a t e measurements of sample volume a r e more difficult a n d may lead to significant variations in t e s t r e s u l t s . o r s e v e r a l determinations should be made in o r d e r t o obtain a reliable mean value. all s u c h rapid determinations should b e thoroughly correlated with t h e s t a n d a r d o v e n . The second. When coupled with moisture content determinations. Use of t h e nuclear probe technique is a n exception t o t h i s d e p t h limitation. t h e test r e s u l t s can be used t o obtain t h e d r y density of t h e soil. employing a small pouring c y h d e r .d r y i n g technique f o r t h e particular soil t y p e being tested. t h e weight of t h e moisture content sample should be determined on site. t h e e n t i r e sample h a s t o b e p r e s e r v e d in a n a i r t i g h t container until i t can be weighed. The methods described generally measure bulk density. where i t provides a direct determination of density t h a t is independent of t h e sampling d i s t u r b a n c e normally p r e s e n t i n laboratory t e s t s . Field density t e s t i n g may also be used in evaluation of insitu materials a n d old fills. the scoop method. With t h e exception of t h e water replacement method f o r rock fill (see Section 27.2 SAND R P A C M N METHOD EL E ET BSI (197561 describes three variathns on the sand replacement method. where i t forms t h e 'field' portion of a relative compaction t e s t ( t h e o t h e r portion of t h e t e s t being c a r r i e d o u t in t h e laboratory). However. using a large pouring c y h d e r . Alternatively. The third. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 27. most of t h e available methods of field density testing depend on t h e removal of a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of soil. FIELD DENSITY TESTS Table of Contents 27. All t h e t e s t methods described below r e q u i r e physical access t o t h e soil insitu. medium and coarse graned soils. Test 1A. a rapid determination of moisture content can be made using a microwave oven. medium and coarse grahed soils. A major use of s u c h testing is f o r t h e control of compaction of embankments. . t h e methods outlined below a r e described f u r t h e r in Test 15 of BSI (l975b) o r t h e ASTM s t a n d a r d s quoted. a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e moisture contents a r e r e q u i r e d if t h e d r y density is t o be calculated. Otherwise. Ideally. moisture content samples should b e a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d a s l a r g e a s practical. Test I. t h e 'Speedy' moisture t e s t e r . In essence.1 G E N E R A L PRINCIPLES Field testing of soil bulk density is a common a n d useful procedure. as defined in BSI N975b/.27. The first. may be used for fine.

These methods are unsuited to soils containing a high proporfion of very coarse gravel or larger particles because the apparatus 12 not large enough to cope with a hole of suffiient size to obtain a representative sample. The method is g e n e r w less accurate than the sand replacement method because driving the sampler tends to alter the density of the soil. Table of Contents Table of Contents 27. It also loses accuracy i n soils where it is difficult to excavate a smooth hole because the sand cannot easily occupy the full volume. or densometer. After each t e s t . method can be found of in ASTM f1985b). 27. It is applcable to any so17 where representative samples occur in discrete lumps that wi7l not disintegrate during handlng and submersion in water. It is an alternative to the sand replacement method with the limitation that it is not suitable for very soft so17 which win deform under slght pressure. In practice the method is restricted mainly to cohesive soils.3 C R CUTTER METXOD OE The core cutter method is described in BS/ 09756). The sand should be oven-dried and stored for about a week for the moisture content to reach equilibrium with atmospheric humidity. The t e s t should not be carried out when compactim plant is operating nearby. The ASTM standard does not describe the apparatus i n precise terms and hence the method couM be used for coarser soils than the sand replacement method ifa sufficiently large apparatus were constructed Table of Contents The densometer allows a simpler and more rapid determination of density . The method cannot be used in so17s where the volume of the hole cannot be maintained constant. EX D N 27. The calibration of the sand i s sensitive t o humidity and should be checked daily. and to completely decomposed rock free of large fragments. 27. or when ground vibrations are present. In essence it is a water replacement test with a rubber membrane retain~ngthe water. or i n which the volume of the hole cannot be maintained constant.5 WATER DISPLA CEMENT METHOD The water displacement method is described in EST 09756). It is an alternative to the weight in water method and has the same lm12afions.6 RUBBER BALL DON METHOD A descr~bfibn the rubber ba//oon. thus leading to inaccurate results. the sand should be dried and sieved to remove arty extraneous material before further use. The method depends upon being able to drive a cylndrical cutter into the soil without significant change of density and to retain the sample inside it so that the known internal volume of the cylinder is completely W e d It is therefore restricted to fine so17s that are sufficiently cohesive for the sample not to fa// out. also the sand win tend to run into the interstices of the material.4 WEIGHT I WATER M T O Table of Contents The weight in water method is d e d b e d i n BSI N975b).

However. Meigh & Skipp. s u c h a s in some fine g r a n u l a r soils. T h ~ k IS made up from structural steel plate.7 Table of Contents NUCLEAR METHODS Nuclear methods of density measurement at shallow d e p t h a r e described in ASTM (1985e). fining the hole with fl~ible po/yetbylene or simIi'ar sheeting and then determz'nhg the volume o f water required to fi// the hole. 1984). has been dewked for such soils. I n many modern nuclear instruments. which is described below. AAlthough it is not covered by any standard specificatJon. measurements of both density a n d moisture c o n t e n t a r e made simultaneously. Nuclear measurements of density a n d moisture c o n t e n t can b e made at d e p t h b y employing a nuclear probe within a borehole (Brown. The measurement of moisture content at shallow d e p t h b y t h e nuclear t e c h n i q u e is described in ASTM (1985h). Table of Contents Table of Contents All nuclear techniques utilize radioactive materials. ZOD m in height and provided with a mark on the insI. t h e method is v e r y much f a s t e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s .2 t o 27. which involves measuring t h e densities of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of t h e soils concerned b y o n e of t h e d i r e c t methods discussed i n Sections 27.t h a n t h e s a n d replacement method. b u t t h e a p p a r a t u s is somewhat cumbersome a n d may be prone t o leakage ( G C O . ZI. Table of Contents The procedure I> to place the ring on a levelled surface. i t is essential t h a t nuclear determinations (which often overestimate moisture c o n t e n t of local soils obtained b y t h e oven-drying method) a r e correlated with conventional ovend r y i n g moisture determinations f o r t h e particular soil being investigated. 27. They d o not measure density directly. some experience in its use has been gahed In principe. 1981. it cons~kts f excavating a o hole large enough to obtain a representative sample. A s t h e moisture c o n t e n t determination is indirect.6. once t h i s has been done. MA TER REPLA CEMENT METHOD FOR ROC' FILL 8 The methods quoted in Secthns ZZZ to ZI. a n d calibration c u r v e s have t o be confirmed f o r each soil t y p e . t h e limitations mentioned above f o r shallow nuclear techniques apply equally well t o t h e nuclear probe. A s only i n d i r e c t measurements a r e obtained. a n d a p p r o p r i a t e s a f e t y precautions must be followed. and for rack /i// may be Z m in d~kmeter. I t is t h e r e f o r e most suited t o situations w h e r e t h e r e is a continuous need f o r many density determinations o v e r a period of time.de. 1960). pressed into it and smoothed out as far as poss13le so as to fine completely the cyfindrkal cavity . I t should be noted t h a t t h e density determined b y nuclear methods is not necessarily t h e a v e r a g e density within t h e volume involved in t h e measurement. packing sand under it where it I> not in contact with the soi4 and weighhg it down with sandbags. A 'density rzhg' is used as a template for the size o f hole and aho as a datum from which to measure water levels. The u s e a n d handling of nuclear i n s t r u m e n t s should be fully i n accordance with t h e manufacturer's recommendations a n d applicable regulations (see Appendix E). Polyethylene sheeting is placed over the rig. a n d provided t h e r e a r e no significant c h a n g e s in soil. a n d where t h e soils do not v a r y t o a n y significant extent. This technique may be particularly useful when u n d i s t u r b e d samples cannot be obtained readily.7 can rarely be used in materids conta'ning a s u b s t a n M fracthn larger than coarse grave4 and the water replacement method.

(c) A s th~ina gauge of pohetbylene as possh5le should be used.so formed A measured supply of water is then run into it and the volume required to fill it up to the mark on the density ring I> noted The polyetbyJ. 2requ1ied Care s is needed i n the excavaaon to ensure that the density ring is not disturbed and.1 mm polyethylene laid together have been found to be sathfactory. at the same time. but is less prone to punctures. the hole excavated. This continues until the water level is again up to the mark on the inside of the density ring. Accounts of the practhaf use of this method can be found ekewhere (Frost. It is not quite so flexible a s one sheet of the same thickness. Polyethylene sheeting is then placed over the ring and hole and partidly secured with sandbags.ene sheeting is then removed. the edge of the excavation should be kept a t least 150 mm away from the inner edge of the ring. Table of Contents Table of Contents The accuracy of the results of this test can be enhanced b y attention to the following detahs : (a) The hole should be made as large as possible. Table of Contents Table of Contents . b The sides of the hole should be made as smooth as possible. It is customary to aflow the water to remain i n the hole for a period of t h e to see whether there is any fafl of water level which would indYcate leaks in the polyethylene lining. and the spo17loadedlinto s k ~ p for subsequent weighing and grading. Stephenson. helping it into crevices and minimking folds. Water I> then run in from a measured source and. consistent with it not fracturing tw easiy. 1973). the po/yethylene lining is fed into the hole. to this end. The difference in the two volumes is then a measure of the volume of the hole. The sides of the hole should be trimmed to minimize projecting stones. 1973. Two sheets of 0.

INSITU STRESS MEASUREMENTS Table of Contents 28.2 STRESS MEASUREMENTS IN ROCK The methods available are generally based on induced stress changes. Stress measurements may be made us~ng electrical strain gauges. homogeneous and isotropic manner. and. In order that both total and effective stresses can be estimated.l GENERAL The stresses existing in a ground mass before changes caused b y the apflication of loads or the formation of a cavity within the mass are referred to as the 1nih. in the case of underground works.155 28. the a vailable techniques generally require that the material in which the measurements are made behaves i n a near elast~k. With the exceptJon of the static equifibrium method /Morgan & Panek. whereas slotting is used for surface stress measurements. close to the working face. the elastk constants behg obtained from laboratory tests. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Over-coring is used for measurement within the rock mass. 28. Measurement of insitu stress in so17s may be made. it is usual to measure the pore water pressure i n addiion to the total stress. the elastic behav~ouris assumed to be reversible. and that it is not excessively fractured or prone to sweliXng as a result of the effects of drilfing water. although the equ~pment used generdy provides an estimate of horizontal stress only. These stresses are the resultant of gra vitathnal stress and residual stresses related to the geological history of the mass. such as an adit. The accuracy of most methods of measurement of ~ h s i t u stress in rock fimits their use to locatrbns where the rock cover is at least 75 m. Some equ~pment des~gnedto measure stress change with is . Stress measurements may also be determined from the measurement of disp/acements of the walls of a tunnei or of an expiratory adit. which in turn often exceeds that calculated assuming that only gravity is acting on the ground mass. when the measurement is made in the zone of influence of the main access. The mpst favourable or~entation. more particularly when using lin12e element analysis. photoelastic discs. Measurements taken have to be a d h t e d to take account of the redistributlbn of stresses as a result of formation of the borehole or slot. The interpretation of insitu stress measurements requires specialist experience.shape. sofid inclusions and systems for measur~ngthe diametral change of a borehole. achieved in some cases by over-coring or slotting an instrumented test area. For the over-cor~hgmethods. Data on the initlk/ insitu state of stress lir rock and so17 masses before the execution of works are increas~ngly important in design.2 insitu state of stress. execution sequence and support of large and complex underground cavitks and the predicthn of the fiial state of stress existhg around the completed works are dependent on knowing the initial insitu state of stress. 1963). Measurements of insitu stress have shown that in many areas the horizontal stresses exceed the vertical stress.

Temperature and humidity at the test location. biaxial or triaxial state of s t r e s s in a rock mass are described in BSI (1981a). Special methods for measuring and interpreting the uniaxial. /el ff) (g) The six components of stress fox. 28. Strain gauges cannot be reliably to highly porous or wet rock. d a t e d to both a borehole or adit awik system and a global w k system. . whereas other equipment ik designed to obtain an instantaneous measurement of stress. a s these are stress dependent. .t i .. as determined from statik laboratory testing of core {preserved a t insitu moikture content) over the appropriate stress path. Date of measurement and date at which the excavation passes the poiht of measurement. T. The accuracy of most instruments that have been developed suffers because of the dikturbance created h the ground on ihsertion. fh) The three prinwpal stresses and thmi directions fto the nearest degree). fd) Table of Contents Type and sizes of straih gauges. Diiect insitu measurements of the ihi'tikl state of stress in smi's is difficult because the dikturbance created by gaining access to the ground mass ik generally non-reversible. and. method of dr2ling and d i m t e r s of cores. 02 1 ( 7 Cohur photographs of the cores or test location. fc) Gdogikal descri)tion of the rock materia and rock mass. The modulus of elastikity. . The technique selected has to be chosen in relatrbn to the rock materia and mass q u a y . & r. rr. and strain readings to the nearest 10 micro-strah. ?L of the rock sampled fmeach stress measurement area. 6 and Poisson's ratio. b Depth below ground level of the point of measurement. Table of Contents The report on the results of insitu stress measurement should include information on the followihg : fa) Location of test and direction and depth of the boreholes. a knowledge of the insitu state of stress assists in thek evaluatrbn by laboratory testhg.. Table of Contents . and temperature of the flush water ifamcable.3 STRESS MEASUREMENTS IN SOILS The analysis of the response of soil masses to applied loads requires reliable data on their strength and deformatrbn characteriktiks. L/ Table of Contents at each point to the nearest 100 kPa. or stress change due to an advanwhg excavation. and several tiines that produced by a stressrelieving technique.

Some of t h e factors t h a t affect t h e accuracy of contact pressure cells a r e discussed by Pang (1986). because t h e introduction of t h e cell into t h e soil causes a redistribution of t h e s t r e s s e s around it. a self boring pressuremeter. o r installed in a pre-bored hole (Kenney. 1977). Table of Contents Table of Contents - Table of Contents Table of Contents . the pore water pressure at the test level has to be measured or assumed. pressure cells a r e sometimes used t o measure t h e contact pressure between t h e soil and a retaining structure. Facilities t o measure pore pressure a r e available in t h e same instrument. to determine the effecti've stress conditbns. and t h e e r r o r s depend on t h e geometry of t h e instrument. In large excavations. 1972). hydraulic pressure cells have been carefully jacked into t h e ground. reduces disturbance t o a minimum by fully supporting t h e ground it penetrates (Windle & Wroth.2 In soft clays. The "Camkometer". and to make assumptions concerning the level of verb'cal stress based on the overburden depth. The total horizontal insitu s t r e s s may then be obtained by measuring t h e contact pressure. The type and position of a cell should be chosen with g r e a t care. Details of t h e types of cells available and t h e problems t h a t may be encountered when using them a r e given by Brown (1981) and Hanna (1985). On& total stress may be measured. 1967).It is usual to masure only horizontal stress. therefore. Hydraulic fracturing has also been used t o estimate minimum horizontal stresses in soft clay (Bjerrum & Anderson. Methods of detennh~ngpore water pressure in the M d are dlkcussed in Secbon 20.

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In spite o f this effect. . and the test gives the corresponding undrahed deformafion and strength character~ktt'cs. where the test I> more frequently used to determine the defomaation characteristics. In soils. the r e s u b of load~hg tests carried out at a shgle elevah-on do not n o d l y give a direct indfbath? o f the &owable bear~ng capacity and settlement characteristics o f the full-scale structural foundathn. 91 VERTTCAL L OAD/NC TESTS 2 . It should be emphasized that the results o f a single loadfhg test apply only to the ground whf'ch is s~gnificmtly stressed by the plate.61.29.ameter or width of the plate. Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 . blastrirg for rock excavaaon may seriously affect the rock to be tested This effect can be minlinied by u s h g s d charges. the moduli determined from plate tests are more &able and often many t . The test can be carried out in shallow pits or trenches. In the former. or at depth h the bottom o f a borehole. The test is usually carrfed out either under a series o f rnahtaned loads or at a constant rate of penetrabon. The depth of ground stressed by a structural foundation wi. thk IS typically a depth o f about one and a half tiines the df. a bu17di'ng with a deep and extensfive basement.% in general. pit or adit (see Secaon 21.. i wf7lg e n e d y be necessary to t carry out a series of plate tests at different depths.this wil/ is yield the drained deformahon characteristics and also strength characteristics if the test is continued to fa7ure. These should be c a r r i d out such that each test subjects the ground to the same effecive stress level it would receive at working load W h e r e tests are carrfed out h rock. Limiattons o f the Test 912 The m a n lim'tathn o f the test lies fh the possibfZity o f ground disturbance during the excavaoon needed to g a h access to the test position.g. ~higher than those obtained from standard ~ laboratory tests. 2 . In a project whkh ihvolves a large excavation. with a consequent effect on the defomathn characteristics. the rate of penetration is generally such that little or no drainage occurs.1 General Princfples 91 Insitu verthal loading tests h v o l v e measuring the applied load and penetration of a plate being pushed into a sod or rock mass. In such a case. In order to determhe the variathn of ground propertres with depth. Excavafion causes an unavoidable change in the groundstresses and may result in h-eversible changes to the properties whf'cb the test is intended to study. the test is carded out to d e t e m n e tbe shear strength and deformation characteristr'cs of the materfkl beneath the loaded plate. BEARING TESTS Table of Contents 2. For this reason. and by l i n h h h g the excavafion by hand methods. . the ground is allowed to consohdate under such a load before a further ~ncrement applieed. e. it wf7l be necessary to allow for thh unavoidable disturbance when interpretihg the results of Joadhg tests. be much greater than that stressed by the loading test. the excavation may cause dfkturbance to the ground beneath. Table of Contents . In the latter. The ultimate load is often not attanable h rocks.

which usually consists o f cement mortar or plaster o f paris. elsewhere. Changes in water content of the ground being tested shouh' be kept to a min~imm. 1973. The foundations of this frame or gantry should be sufficiently far away from the sample not to affect 12s behaviour to any significant extent. special tools are required to trim and prepare the surface from a remote point.1.3 Site Preparathn It is necessary to ensure that any material loosened or softened by the excavauon 13 removed and that the plate will lie in direct planar contact with the sample surface. Table of Contents Table of Contents l. 1 6 ) 98.K. Test Arrangement 914 The test I> subject to scale effects. tension piles or ground anchors. the delay between setting up and testihg should be minimzed and the tihe lag should be reported with the results. The test is sometines Table of Contents Table of Contents . to some Went. Ward et a/. Where tension piles or ground anchors are used. the nearer the soil or rock under the plate approaches the point o f shear failure. Where the test is being performed to measure the deformation character~istics of a relabbvely stiW materia4 considerable care is required in setting the plate. 1971. 1968). and a series o f bedd~hg layers may be needed /Ward e t a/. Where kentledge 13 used. by econom~'cconsiderations.When camying out the test below the prevailing groundwater table. The amount of kentledge or jacking resistance that needs to be provided I> governed by the purpose for which the tests are carried out and also. depending on the johting frequency. Bu17ding Research Establishment 13 shown in Figure 43 and 13fully described elsewhere /Marsland. they should be sited sufhently far away from the sample so as to have no s ~ g n ~ Z c ainfluence on nt i s behaviour. the seepage forces assou'ated with dewatering may affect the properties to be measured This effect is most severe for tests carried out at signiifiint depths below the water table in sods and weak rocks. Moore. 1972. The loading may be applied directly by kentledge or j'acking agahst a reaction system provided by means of kentledge. the most ccnnmon being uicu/ar plates ranging from 300 mm to 1 000 mm in d i m t e r . The choice depends on the problem b e ~ h g studied In rocks. 2 . The normal practice 13 to maintain a m~nimum t distance of three t i k s the plate diameter from the centre o f the plate to the centre of the pile. It may therefore be necessary to lower the water table by a system of wells set outside and below the test positibn. the more hWrthwh~7eare the data derived from the tests.ne even transference of load onto the test surface can best be achieved by setting the plate on a suitable bedd~ngmaterial. it should be supported on a properly designed f a e or gantry such that there is no poss131Xty of the load ti7ting rm or ca'lapsihg. The plate has to be rigid and the d~iectibn f the resultant appfled load has to be vertical and without o eccentr~WYy. A s the sample preparation involves stress d e f and exposure to different temperature and humidity conditibns. In genera/. The need sometrines a r ~ k e s measure displacements in the ground below to the plate /Marsland B Eason. Several plate sizes and shapes are used. 1 7 ) 9 4 . The test arrangement used by the U. It 1 essentia/ that th13surface is undisturbed. plates larger than 1 000 mm d'kmeter may be used. 29. . planar and s free from any crumbs or fine loose d e b r k Where access is possible the surface is best prepared by hand.

Table of Contents Table of Contents The dikphcement of the plate is related to a fied datum. 19781. character13tiks o f the ground need to be detemined as in rock foundations. they are usualy taken through a central hole in the loaded plate. parti'cululy at low stress lev& requiies the utmost care in sample preparation and settrig-up irmeaningful results are to be achieved The errors that can be introduced by sample dikturbance and . This often consists of a reference beam supported by two foundations positioned outside the zones of ifluence of either the loaded area or the reaction area. The reference beam and measuring devices should be protected fm the d i k c t rays o f the sun and from wind by means o f tarpaulins or other forms o f shelter. Such measurements are intended to provide more realistik data on the mass behavihur of the ground. The deflecction-measurihg equipment has to be set up li.1. errors of measurement can eas17y arise fnxn these causes. Dikplacements ih the direcrbn of load appkatron may be measured by didgauges or electri'cal transducers and the readings can be taken continuously ifrequiked DikplaCements should be measured to an accuracy o f 0. In order to minihize the effect of poor bedding and sample dikturbance. the dikplacement o f the material at some depth beneath the prepared test surface can be determined by inserting reference datum rods anchored at various depths W.fiecords of tihe for the various stages o f setting-up and testing are required parti'cu/ary where cycl~c loadihg and creep tests are being carried out. (41 Tem~erature.conducted ih a sihilar fashion to the constant rate of penetration fCRPI test for piles (ICE.6 Test Methods (11 General. The test 13 most frequently used to measure the ultihate In cases where setdements and elastic deformaation bearing capacity. The load on the plate 13 best measured by means o f a load eel4 which should be capable of readihg to an accuracy of 1%of the maximum load I t ik advisable to have the cell calibrated over the anticipated range o f loadihg before and after the test programme. The observatrbn of defomation. Table of Contents Table of Contents (21 Displacements. e (31 L . The penetratibn or deflectibn o f the plate should generally be measured at the centre and the edge o f the plate. Dial gauges are dften used and the rods transm'ttihg the displacements o f the plate should ihcorporate a b d joint or other sim1ar device to elimhate the effects o f bendihg.1 mm.1.zlace e t al. 19691.5 Measurements /fl Ap~lied Forces. The measurement o f temperature will be required ih the event that correctibns to the settlement or load readings are considered necessary. such a way that any tiltng of the plate wi2 not cause errors in the measurements. 29. care should be exeruked to work at stresses that are relevant. A comparable arrangement for performing the test in an adit is given in BSI (1981a). 29.

5 mm/mn. 1 13 preferable to 2 carry out preliminary load c y c h g . 29. Constant rate o f penetratlbn tests are more suitable for soils. The undrained deformation modu4 as measured after prefiminary load-cycfing. The rate of loading rapid to prevent any s~gnificant consofidation or creep. or an acceptably low rate o f increase has been reached increments are continued up to some multipe of the proposed working load. by carrying out prefiminary c y c k s o f loadhg and unloading. Creep. the stress/sett/ement graph will g e n e r d y tend to become repeatable.1. the test programme will probabb include cycfic loading. the value o f the bearing pressure at a settlement o f 15 per cent o f the plate diameter is used I f the undrained deformation modulus IS required. isotropic and that the classic equation for the penetration of plate on a semi-infinite plane surface appfies : a rigid c~rcular Table of Contents where E I> the elasth modulus. the s h e o f the load/deformatron curve may be used to determine the undrained deformaobn modulus.7 Analysis o f Results The assumpOons made for the analysis are that the material is homogeneous. Such tests are descr18ed b y Marsland (19711 for plates ranging from 38 mm to 868 mm diameter. ~n relatively permeable ground this may not apply. ii. or an approximaation to it. q is the pressure app/ied to the plate. generally give a more refiable 1ndicar2bn o f the true properties of the undisturbed ground (21 Maintained Load The load is u s u d y app/ied IR equal ihcrements. but it is preferable to carry out a separate test wi2h the load apphed increment&y a t a rapid rate. The maximum load ii. with each increment being maintained untY a// movement of the plate has The ceased. However. Cycles of unloading and reloading may a/so be carried out at various stages in the main test to gain some indicatlbn of the relative amounts o f reversible e. should be suffic~ently A f t e r two or three cycles. The measurement of creep under sustained loads 12 some4 tlhes carried out i n connecfion with the design o f foundatlbns which are highly stressed or where the structures concerned are p a r t i c u M y sensitive to If the structure ik to be subjected to settlement /Meigh e t a4 19731. and the test can then be extended to the main t e s t h g programme. .inaccuracies of measurement can often be similar data sought. fluctuating loads. The data from the preliminary load-cycles give an indicatlbn o f the effect o f the sampfing disturbance. these cycles should not exceed the intended load. the plate diameter should be greater than 750 mm. using a penetration rate of Z. to When the test is carried out to failure or to the full avdable load ihves&yate the deformation characteristlics o f the ground. elastk. 'elasticY and irreversible deformt2on that have occurred I f the rate o f unloading and reloading is sufficient/y rapid. size or greater than the Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The effect o f sample dikturbance can be reduced. 3 Constant Rate of Penetration. Where the maximum bearing capacity is not clearly defined. to some extent.

10 and 0. .S I> the average setuement of the plate. When this is not dearly defined the bearhg pressure at a penetration of 15% of the diemeter is used. A n equatrbn for cdculatihg the modulus at any depth beneath the centre line o f the loaded plate is given elsewhere (Benson et al.1. 19691. is the bulk density of the soiX is the height of soil above test ]eve/. when the test is carried out in an adit. .YH . Table of Contents 29.25 for pracb'cal purposes. NO1 Table of Contents where q.15 for a circular surface load Some dlowance should be made for side shear on the plate where this is appropriate. or IT the depth is less than four tihes the plate diameter. but also o f other data concerning the ground ( Sweeney & Ho. IT the plate has a significantly smaller dieameter than the shaft. the value of N may be . 19701. For johted rock. 1970. . . However. 1982). If the test ~k carried out at the end of a borehole. Dependihg on the objectives o f the investigation. the expressbn becomes : where Id is a depth correctibn factor (Burland. such data m g b t . be obtained from the plate test carried out i a borehole by using the h following equation . ' C " = Table of Contents 9" N . Y X N . C. N ~k assumed to have a value of 9. ik the ultihate bearing capacity of the soil under the plate. smaller and approaches 6. For a rigid ciicuhr plate at the base of a deep shaft of the same diameter as the plate. . . Wallace e t al. not only of the loading tests. V is Poisson 3 ratio. Finite element ana/ysk can sometihes be appfied to problems where rigorous solutions are not available. 1970). although the problem o f cboos~hg representative soil parameters to put into the analysis still remans.8 Interpretation of Resufts The correct hterpretatibn of the behaviour of the mass o f ground under investigation requires a careful examination of the results. . Table of Contents B is the di-meter of the plate. is the bearing capacity factor. This equation can be used when the test is carried out either at the ground surface or in a pit whose p h dihensions are at least five trines those of the plate /Ireland e t a/. 1984). . can .25. other modificatrbns to this equation will be required depending on the extent and planarity o f the tested surface (Carter & Booker. Poisson's ratio can be assumed to be between 0. For cohesive so& an estihate o f the undrahed shear strength.

and the variability of the ground Table of Contents Table of Contents Several deformation moduli can be obtained from these tests. PRESSURIZED CHAMBER TESTS 93 The test is carried out in an underground excavation or length of tunnel and consists o f charging the chamber with water under various pressures and measuring the deformathn moduli o f the surrounding ground The test I> generally carried out for projects h v o l v h g tunnels carrying water under pressure. Carter & Booker. O n completron of the test. so 2 . Care should be taken to support the we~ghtof the jack and other loading equ~pment as to prevent the applicafion o f shearhg forces to the test area. unless allowance can be made for the end effects. A s ~ h p l e test. Results obtained from these tests w f l in many cases ass&t in extrapolating the test results to other areas on the site. a comparable way /see Section 21. horfzontal and i n c h e d loading tests are the same as vertkal loading tests. a deep excavatlbn might affect the deformation moduli of a so~Y. whether the modulus determhed is drained. The results obtained and will r e f / c t the effects o f the width and frequency of the discontinu~'~es wi'l give an indicatlbn of the mass behaviour under loading.include the geological structure. The moduli to be used for design purposes should be those which d a t e to the ground at the t h e o f construction and after it has been affected b y the construction procedures. The stress level at which these parameters should be examined w17l depend on the working stress levels. the effect of a construcfion procedure may be suf/li&ntly severe to justify the examinatlbn o f alternative methods of construction. 1981. The method of excavation quality to the used should be capable of producing a formed surface o f s ~ h i l a r actual excavaoon. 29. In the case o f tests on rock in adits. 1984). . depending on the method used and the application (Brown. carried out between the opposite sides of a trial pit or caisson using an hydraulic jack. i i necessary to know the draffage t s conditlbns wh'ch applied during the test. for example. and are carried out and andysed li. Interpretatlbn o f the elastk modulus o f soil from lateral loading tests shouh' follow the advice given b y Carter & Booker (1984). it may be necessary to consider the insitu stresses in the test samp/e. and blasting may affect the properfies of a rock. 1981).101. full identifia&on of the material beneath the loaded area should be carried out b y samphhg and testing in the laboratory.2 HORIZONTAL AND INCLINED LOAD/NC TESTS Basically. or be o f the same size and para//e/ to the axis in representative ground The length o f a test sectlon should be at least five bhes the excavated diameter. partlblly drained or undrained. forms a very convenient means o f measurhg the insitu modulus and shear strength o f soils. Loading tests at a preferred orientatlbn are carried out to They are frequently invesaqate particular characteristl'cs o f the ground carr~edout in rock for hvestljrations concerning tunnels and underground lateral loading excavations (Brown. Table of Contents Table of Contents The test site should preferably form part o f the actual excavation.6. the nature and d'ktribufion of disconthu~'tl'es. Sometlhes.. In order to ascertai.

1 General The CBR method of flexible pavement design is ementidy an empirical method in which design curves are used to estimate a pavement thickness appropr~ate the CBR of the so11 There is no unique CBR of a soil and ih to any CBR test the value obtained depends very much on the manner in which the test is conducted The design curves are usually based on one carefully specified method o f measur~hg the CBR.lcking resistance. The moisture content at a depth o f I to 2 m below ground surface. the pavement has been laid and sufficient time has elapsed for equilibr~um mo~sture content to become established. provided that there is no s~gnificant change o f soil type. T h h because o f the confining effect o f the mould h the laboratory tests. The test is most suited to clay sois.4 INSITU CALIFORNIA BEARINC RATIO fCBR) TESTS Table of Contents 29. where the soil is normally unaffected by seasonal mokture content changes.2 Test Method The test is carrled out by the method described in Test 16 of BSI f1975b) excluding the compactrun. 15 . care being taken to remove any plaster extend~hg beyond the area of the plunger. subject always to the soil under test being at equZbrium mohture content.3 Llinitatrons and U s e o f Test The test is unsuitable for any soil contah~hgpartr'cles o f longest dimens~on greater than 20 mm because the seating of the plunger on a large stone may lead to an unrepresentative result.. The parameter r e q u ~ i e d for the des~gnof flexible pavements is the C ? attahed by the soil at formation level after al/ necessary compactkm has & been carried out. Further deta& of the ihsitu test are given elsewhere (Road Research Laboratory. and deflectrons are measured by dial gauges carried on a bridge with ~hdependent foundatrons resting on the ground we// clear of the test area. Before embark~hg on insitu CBR tests. spec~al care being taken with the central area on whkh the plunger w12 bear.4. The test 13 of dubk~usvalue with sands because it tends to give results much lower than the laboratory tests on whkh the design charts are based. 29.4. A careful study o f all the resulohg data may allow a Table of Contents . I f it is rinpossLble to trim the soil suffiaently to obtah good seatrhg of the plunger. 9. ) 2 Table of Contents Table of Contents 29. A n alternative is to carry out the test directly beneath an existrhg pavement having identr'cd subsoh' conditions to those o f the proposed constructron. A circular area of about 300 mm diameter is t r i m e d flat. often gives a good indication of the equfZbrium moisture content.4. and whether the condition of equi/irium moisture content I> M e l y to pertah. A thin layer of fine sand may be used to seat the plate but the use of sand to seat the plunger itself should be avoided. a thin layer of plaster of paris may be used. t h ~ k method has been used with some success for the deslgn of mifield pavements.29. it is therefore necessary to consider carefufly how relevant they wi'l be to the proposed design method. and this is usuafly a laboratory method. and subject only to those alteratJons necessary to enable i to be carrfed out in the field The load is generally t applied through a screw jack using the weight of a vebkle as j. I&u CBR tests have sometimes been carr~ed out lh conj#nc&on with i m i t u density and moisture content tests and then /inked with laboratory compacthn tests.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . Attempts have somet/mes been made to use the test as a means of controlfing the compaction of fi// or natural formatlbns.reasonable design parameter to be chosen for suitable soils. but they have not usually been successful and the procedure cannot be recommended.

2 SAMPLE PREPARA TIQN Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Samples are generally prepared a t the bottom of pits or trenches in soA Adits are more common for rock testing. Larger samples may be requked in ground containing boulders or in coarse fi// material. a sample of soil o r rock is p r e p a r e d a n d s u b j e c t e d t o d i r e c t s h e a r i n g insitu. INSITU DIRECT SHEAR TESTS Table of Contents 30. however. The t e s t is generally designed t o measure t h e peak s h e a r s t r e n g t h of t h e intact material. However. The normal a n d s h e a r i n g s t r e s s e s a r e generally imposed a s forces applied normally a n d along t h e s h e a r plane. Insitu s h e a r t e s t s on specific discontinuities in rock may also be conducted using similar equipment. Great care h a s to be exercised in preserving the environmental . The orientation of t h e sample a n d t h e forces applied t o i t a r e generally governed b y t h e direction of t h e forces which will become effective d u r i n g a n d on completion of t h e works.30. but a usefulindication of residual strength may be obtained b y conthuing the test to the limits of travel of the apparatus. the test may be designed to establish the strength of the hterface between concrete and rock or soil Insitu s h e a r t e s t s on soil may b e carried o u t e i t h e r within boreholes (Bauer & Demartinecourt.1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES In t h i s t e s t . the sample s ~ z e should reflect the roughness of the rock discontinuity being tested For stronger rocks. t h e r e s u l t s may b e used t o confirm t h e s t r e n g t h of discontinuities derived from laboratory t e s t s a n d field r o u g h n e s s s u r v e y s ( s e e Section 26. More t h a n one t e s t i s generally r e q u i r e d t o obtain r e p r e s e n t a t i v e design parameters. 1981). In many cases. b u t modified t o t a k e account of t h e orientation of significant discontinuities. m Samples between 300 mm and 1 500 m square have been used for testing soil and weak rocks. 1983b). t h e sample is p r e p a r e d with t h e s h e a r plane horizontal. t o facilitate t h e s e t t i n g . a n inclined s h e a r force passing t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r e of t h e s h e a r plane may be p r e f e r r e d a s t h i s t e n d s t o produce a more uniform distribution of stress on t h e s h e a r s u r f a c e (Brown.2). 1982. the sample dimension shoula' be a t least ten t h e s that of the largest partice. in rock. o r of a discontinuity (including a relict joint in soil). 30. Handy & Fox. In certain applications. A s a rough guide. the s a m e can be rendered with suitably strong cement and reinforced concrete to ensure adequate load distribut~on. a s a function of t h e normal stress acting on t h e s h e a r plane. The equipment shouM be of robust construcbon.u p of t h e test. 1967) o r near t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e (Brand et al. The measurement of residual shear strength can present m a & practical problems in arranging for a sufl'iiently large length of travel of the shear box. and i n many cases provide a suitable means of setting-up the reaction for the applied forces. Equipment f o r testing close t o t h e g r o u n d s u r f a c e in trial pits may b e adopted t o enable testing t o b e c a r r i e d o u t within deep excavations. The applied s t r e s s e s a n d b o u n d a r y conditions a r e similar t o those in t h e laboratory direct s h e a r test. l a r g e diameter s h a f t s o r caissons. The excavathns permit access to the material at the zone of interest.

suitable draihage layers can be inserted around the s d e and on the loaded upper surface. e.3 TEST ARRANGEMENT Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The equipment for app/ying the norma/ load can consist of weights. The spat'al orientathn of the discontinuity should be defined by dip d2-ectbn and dip measurements. but care i s required during the formation of t h e borehole s o a s to limit disturbance of the surrounding soil (Bauer & Demartinecourt. The reacton system can frequently be provided by the excavation sidewalls. Where draned condhlbns are required. Suffic~enttravel in the shear force application system should be provided so that the complete test can be run without interruptrbn. A porous phton or other suitable medium can be used to d~ktribute load where drahed cond~'tbns required The alignment o f the are the force needs to be maintahed during the test. fracturing or excessive dynam~k to shock loading. &%ere i h c h e d shear force an is required. suitable reducton has to be made to the applied normal load durihg testing to compensate for the increase in vertkal component with increashg shear force. precautons should be taken to avoid the effects of water pressure and seepage fsee Section 2 .4 MEASUREMENTS Prov~k~on should be made for the following : . 1 912. the resultant o f the. m e r e it I> htended to test one d~kcontinuity only. 30. The reacton system should ensure the unl'form transfer of the normal loads to the test sample and minimum resistance to the shear displacement. it may be necessary to provide the shear force by traction on a system anchored by pi& or cables. In both cases.g. I f a constant norma/ load lk required for this type of test. The shearing force apphkation system should ensure that the load I> applied un~Yormly over the p h e of shearing. e. care has to be taken to avoid d~kturbanceto the surface o f the discontinuity. by the use of low-friction devices such as ball seathgs or &ers s( Brown. a?e . hydraulic rams. 30.conditions when fording the excavation. . there is no sample preparation a s such. Hand sawing. flat jacks acting agahst the excavaton m o X or an anchor system. t h e which give r ~ k e crumbling. cuttihg and dfeamonddr17ling should be used to prepare and trim the sample. care has to be taken to ensure that the ground reactbn does not extend to the snd.g. 1985). Adequate protection from the elements should be provided F~hal exposure and trimming of the sample to fit the loading frame and the testing itself should all be completed with m~himum delay to a void possible significant changes ih the moikture and stress conditbns of the sample. Excavaton techniques whkh would affect the dikconthuites in the sample test area shouh' be avoided. and that the load and geometrical centroids are matched to eliminate movement. kentledge. I f tests are carried out below the water table. 198 1 1. With the borehole shear device. 1981).sbear force shouMpass through the centre o f the base of the shearing plane (Brown. and to prepare the sample so that the forces are a p p W correctly in the plane o f the discontinuity. In certah cases. The shear force application can be developed by sim17ar means to the normal loading.

6 ANALYSIS OF R E S U L T S Graphs of consolidation behaviour (if applicable) and shear force (or s t r e s s ) plotted against both normal and shear displacements a r e prepared in t h e analysis. Where drained t e s t conditions a r e required. For drained tests.2). 30. t h e r a t e of shearing has t o be sufficiently slow t o e n s u r e t h a t induced pore pressure changes a r e a very small proportion of t h e shear stress. no& Table of Contents and lateral displacements should be measured Suflicibnt travel should be provided to run the cmplete test without the need to reset the gauges. A t best. fc) Steps should be taken to guard agahst tbe effects of changes in temperature. 1981).fa) The appled forces shouM be capable of being measured with an accuracy of 92% of the mminum forces reached i n the test. a s this is useful for determining t h e r a t e of shearing (Brown. including those applied by t h e final structure. t h e appropriate shear r a t e can only be estimated prior t o t h e test. On completion of t h e test. a consolidation stage is necessary t o allow t h e pore water pressures t o dissipate under each increment of normal load. For tests on discontinuities in rock. 30. Photographs of t h e shear surface form a useful record of t h e t e s t conditions and may assist in t h e interpretation of results.5 TEST METHODS Table of Contents Table of Contents The s t r e s s e s applied in t h e testing programme should be within t h e range of t h e relevant working stresses a t t h e site. fb) Shear. Alternatively. 1967). and experience gained in similar soil o r rock conditions and with similar t e s t configurations is beneficial. sampling and laboratory testing. this should be accounted for in t h e analysis (Bishop I Little. The r a t e of consolidation should be monitored. When failure occurs i n a plane dipping a t an angle to t h e applied shearing force. if appropriate. t h e results from individual tests should not be extrapolated to t h e rock mass without confirmation t h a t t h e surface tested is representative of t h e overall roughness of t h e discontinuity (see Section 26. Table of Contents . The peak shear s t r e s s and corresponding shear and normal displacements may then be obtained and related to t h e applied normal stress. The anchorage datum of each gauge needs to be rigid and set up at a paint sufliuenffy remote that 1 is not 2 affmted by the forces appfied during testing. full identification of t h e material sheared should be carried out by visual examination. temperatures should be measured and any sensitive equipment shouid be calih-ated.

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An accuracy of 20. subsidence a n d ground r e s p o n s e in large-scale field t r i a l s (BGS. such trials are likely to be costly in terms of instrumentation. However. A review of instruments commonly used in Hong Kong is given b y Coleman (1984).u s e d techniques if pennit the movement or relative displacement of points to be referenced to and vertical planes.2 METHODS OF INSTRUMENTATION Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Several techniques can be used in g r o u n d investigation t o monitor displacements a n d s t r a i n s associated with known o r s u s p e c t e d g r o u n d movements resulting from slope failures. The absolute movement of a point has to be referred to a stable datum. 1984. resu/ting in considerable savings and enhanced safety. 1985). handling and placing. Such methods and trials can be usefully extended into the construction stage.171 31. LARGE-SCALE FIELD TRIALS Table of Contents 31. G C O . The techniques for the measurement of pore pressure response are covered in Sectrons 2 . BSI. the requirements for purpose-made equipment and technical support. Hanna. foundation displacement. S u r f a c e observations of g r o u n d movements c a n b e made b y a n a c c u r a t e s u r v e y (Cole & Burland. Tb~k arbitrary hor~zontal relative movement can be used to obtain strain. O large pro/. Brown. Handfelt et a1 (1987) h a v e described t h e performance of t h e instrumentation u s e d in a n offshore t e s t fill (see also Foott et al. normal and shear stresses can be measured b y special transducers (Arthur & Roscoe. monitoring t k l d tests are given in b r ~ e f together with some of the more common large-scale fied trials used to obtain geotechn~cal data for design and construction. a s we// as valuable constructhn data on excavatron. and sufficient measurements should be taken to define movement in three d~hensions this is required. 1981. Ground movements are generdy associated with stress redistribuaion and pore pressure changes which are character~ktrc the particuhr ground.6. 1972). The methods and types of instrumentatrbn available for outline in the fohwing sectrbns. Total of stress can be monitared using total pressure c e h /see Chapter 2 1 while 8. Large -scale fiild trials involve the princzples of site in vestigatlbn embodied in this document. and wou/d usuafly include the use of ground investigation techniques ah-eady described. Large-scale field trials are not standard tests. and should be designed to suit the ~hdiv~'dual requirements of or the proposed works and the particular ground on wh~kb within which they can are to be performed.5 mm c a n b e achieved in levelling (Froome & Bradsell. 31. 1966) a n d t ( 5 mm + 5 ppm) f o r distance . 1961). field tr~als provide the necessary n desfgn parameters. 1987).3 to 20. . 1973.ects.1 I> GENERAL Large-scale field trikls are carried out in such a manner that the ground tested on a scale and under conditions comparable with those prevailing i n the project under ~hvest~gatrbn. Some of the c o m y . 1981b. and also to the monitoring of the interrelated response of the ground and structure after completion under the working conditions.2. OZ Ground movements are generafly measured in terms of the displacement of po~htswhich can be positioned on the surface of the ground or with~ff the ground mass.

access from both ends of the tubing i s preferable. Table of Contents Table of Contents Photogrammetric techniques can be used to survey inaccessible sites such as steep slopes and ravines (Borchers. to obtain a specificathn standard. more detaih are given b y m Dunnicfiff (19711. Mulopoint displacement measurements can also be employed fEurland e t a4 19721. the quality and compaction characteristics of avdable borrow materials can be determined at the field scale and compared with laboratory test results. and therefore a t r i a l bank may be constructed so as to h d u c e f a i h r e defiberately. Lateral movements can be measured b y offsets and triangulation. &>st. 1985). 1980). A f u / / profile-measuring technique which uses a m torpedo traversing a flexible tube i s described b y Penman & M12chell (19701. the results should be compared with those from laboratory compaction tests. fa7ures i n deep excavations are correspondingly more dangerous than Table of Contents Table of Contents .3 TRTAL EMBANKMENTS AND E K A VAT/ONS The construchon o f trial embankments may serve three purposes. third. and with ins12u borrow p i t densities. the characteristics and performance o f placing and compachhg equ~pment can be investigated. otherwke the effects o f variathn o f an hdividua/ factor cannot be esthated Trial excavathns yieM informathn on the material excavated and the performance o f excavating equipment. Rods. F d u r e o f a trLd embankment will usualy not be o f mdybr consequence. and the engineer shouM take precautions t o ensure that no i n j u r y to persons o r unexpected damage i s caused. amounts o f watering and amounts o f work performed in compacthn. any lhstalled instrumentation may be destroyed Such fa7ures sometimes occur i n an unexpected manner. ~hcfinometers and tensioned wires anchored in boreholes at stable points can also be used f o r measuring strains o r displacements. so that the degree o f bulking o r volume reductkn can be estimated f o r given quantitres fESL 198161. Measurements should be made o f insitu density and water content. second. layer thicknesses. 1 m fEjerrum et a/. 19691. Compaction tria/s can h c l u d e experiments with variable borrow materials. 19651. Telescopic tubes. However.' they also permit more detailed examination o f the ground than is possible from borehole samples.measurement using electro-optical instruments (Mayes. Care has to be taken to position datum points away from the effects of movements due to load and water changes. 1968). the strength and settlement characteristics o f the ground on which the embankment is placed can be exdned. Bishop & Green (1973) have described the development and use o f t r i a l embankments. Tbe value o f such a f a i h r e i s that back analysis {see Chapter 321. telescopic tubes and tensioned wkes can also be employed Where a torpedo i s used. Vertical movements can be observed b y means o f settlement gauges with an accuracy o f 0 . Trials o f equipment can also be undertaken. The accuracy of measurements taken by a photogrammetric method is about ~1/10000of the camera to object distance under normal working conditions (Cheffins & Chisholm. either i n the embankment alone or i n the embankment and the foundations. 31. hence they can sometlines be used to test the short-term stability o f excavated shpes. Care should be taken not to vary too many factors at the same time. Exca va&ons can be cons2ructed such that falures are caused defiberateh. However. can be used t o check strength parameters. The use of vertical tubes gives an accuracy o f about t 3 m fpenman.

failures of f l and increased vigilance is needed ik Table of Contents I f the maximum information is to be gained. the more directly app/icab/e w 7 be the 1l results obtaned from the trial. A s with all large scale testing. the more closely the size of the trial approaches that of the prototype. considerable value can be derived from trials carried out before the commencement of the permanent works. tr~alblasts for explosives and dewatering. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . ekperihentaf shafts and adits for tunnels. adequate instrumentation of trial embankments or excavations is essentid together with continuous observation (see Secthn 31.g. ground anchor tests. a prior knodedge of the characteristics of the ground 13 essenth/. grouting.21. 31. The scale of trid embankments or excavatJons needs careful consideration. Clearly.4 CONSTRUCTION TRIALS In many projects. A wide range of construction methods is c o d y tested i n trials. pile tests. The resufts of the trial will often permit an assessment of the properties of the ground and hence enable a correlation to be made with other results obtained from routhe ground investigation methods. e. compaction tests for earthworks. Such trids permit the evaluation of the procedures to be adopted and the effectiveness of the various aupedients.

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The pitfalls of back analysis a r e discussed f u r t h e r by ~ e r 6 u e i l& Tavenas (1981). However. but care is required i n assessing actual loadings and the hhes for which they have acted All applications of back analysis should b e accompanied b y rigorous geological a n d geotechnical investigations.175 32. i t can b e useful i n o t h e r cases where conventional predictive methods may not lead t o realistic design solutions. 32. 32.2 Table of Contents FAILURES I n Hong Kong. i t is v e r y important t o check t h a t t h e assumptions made i n t h e back analysis a r e valid. However. Since i t is v e r y r a r e f o r a unique analytical solution t o be obtained. in the case of a slope failure. Examples of such phenomena are slope failures and settlement of structures. Back analysis should only b e u s e d if i t i s applicable t o t h e problem in hand a n d t h e g r o u n d conditions encountered. back analysis may b e j u s t a s useful in permitting a rational. An example of t h i s application in Hong Kong is in t h e design of preventive works f o r existing s t e e p slopes formed in soils derived from insitu rock weathering. a note of caution is necessary r e g a r d i n g t h e interpretation a n d u s e of t h e results.3 Table of Contents OTHER CASES Although back analysis i s carried o u t typically when slope failures o r significant ground movements have o c c u r r e d . which should include a t h o r o u g h review of t h e history of t h e problem a n d examination of relevant climatic a n d groundwater records. I n such cases. 1984). i t i s extremely r a r e t o have a c c u r a t e information on t h e specific g r o u n d conditions a t t h e time of failure.1 GENERAL Natural or man-made condihbns on a site sometimes create phenomena which may be used to assess parameters that are otherwise difficult to assess or which may be used as a check on laboratory measurements. 1984). All parameters t h a t can have a significant effect on t h e analysis should b e carefully considered. conventional slope stability analysis will often yield factors of s a f e t y l e s s t h a n unity even when a slope h a s stood safely without s i g n s of d i s t r e s s f o r many years. for example. S h e a r s t r e n g t h parameters obtained from back analysis of hypothetical failure s u r f a c e s t h r o u g h t h e existing slope often allow a more realistic form of stability improvement t o be made t h a n would be possible from conventional analysis. f o r example. For t h i s reason. t h e failure s u r f a c e s selected should be realistic a n d t h e proposed works should Table of Contents . BACK ANALYSIS Table of Contents 32. a n d back analysis i s sometimes carried o u t t o d e r i v e s h e a r s t r e n g t h parameters a s p a r t of t h e design p r o c e d u r e f o r slope remedial or preventive works. sensitivity s t u d i e s a r e normally c a r r i e d o u t t o a s s e s s t h e effect of parameters t h a t cannot be obtained b y d i r e c t means. particularly with r e g a r d t o pore water p r e s s u r e s (Hencher e t al. Back ana/ysis of settlements is also possible. starting from the observed phenomena. numerous landslides a r e caused b y i n t e n s e rainfall e v e r y y e a r . It may then be possiMe. qualitative assessment of t h e failure mechanism as in deriving information specifically on s h e a r s t r e n g t h parameters f o r use in design (Hencher & Martin. to perform a back ana/yss. to arrive at shear strength parameters which fit the observed facts. Although t h e failure itself can be s t u d i e d i n g r e a t detail a f t e r t h e e v e n t .

o r in g r o u n d from which i t i s impossible t o r e t r i e v e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . back analysis of settlement d a t a from a n a d j a c e n t s i t e i n similar materials may b e t h e only satisfactory means of producing sensible predictions. in t h e prediction of settlements in variable g r o u n d . Similarly.not r e s u l t i n a n y s u b s t a n t i a l c h a n g e t o t h e form of o r loadings on t h e slope.

the results obtained shouki always be confirmed by directly measured parameters. for example. The aim of most geophysical methods of ground investigatzbn is to locate some form of subsurface anomaly where the materials on either side have markedly dzyferent physical properties.21 would n o r d l y entrust it to an organ~zatrbn speciafizing in this work. a fault.177 33. with large clear-cut contrasts in the relevant physical properties between the formatzons. where there 13 no distinct change in physical propertkc across the anomaly. However. The htention of the following sections is to fist the various geopbysicd methods whkh are currently a vazhble. 19821. for example. when this is done.1 GENERAL Geophysics a speciafized method of ground investzgation. Where a geophyskal investigation is required. G o results in geophysical techniques are obtained when the geo/ogcal od conditions are relativey szhple. the geophys~'cal investigation may then yield useful results rap~Idlyand economically. Adequate borehole control is essential for the interpretation of geophysicaf observathns. and often there is a transitzon zone a t a boundary. Ridley Thomas. and it is important that the type of hformatzon supp/ied by the investzgation is suitable for the project (Griffiths & King. to give some indicatzon of the problems they may help to solve and to indicate the fimz'tation of each method. Thzk may lead to a margin of uncertaznty. Engineering appficationsof geophysics have sometzines been disappointing. Once a correlatzon between the geophysical test results and the underground phenomena has been established. the engineer directing the ground investigation (see Section 15. Geophysid methods can also be used to deduce soil and rock parameters. I n the initial stages it win almost &ays be necessary to check the true nature of these anomales by physical means. Moreover. magnetic susceptz'bifity fmagneticl or velm2y of sonic waves fsezkmic1. underground services. e. or a cavity. the geophysical investigatzon may not detect a boundary. variations in density fgra vimetrlk1. partzcularly a t an ear@ stage in an investigatzon. to assist in ehhhatrirg alternative explanations of . 1983. such as electrical conductivity fresktivity1. less favourable ground condithns may st271 warrant consideratrun of geophysics. The appficabifity of the various geophysica2 methods is summarized lh Table 11. GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYING Table of Contents 33. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . This organliatzon wdl usua/ly adv13e on the detays of the method to be used and will interpret the results once they have been obtained into a form that can be used directly by the dziectzhg engineer. It foLhws that. There 13 advantage in mahtaining a close hison between the directing engineer and the geophysicist since difficultground conditions may give rise to problems of interpretation and hence a need for further zhvestigatzon. Anomafies such as near surface disturbance (often known as Woz3e9 are common in the urban environment and may Mt the usefulness of geophys~ks these areas. which are best included in a ground investzgation employing more con ventzonal methods. in detemuning the depth of sound rock that has a weathered boundary or overlying boulders. because of the relatively low cost and h~gh speed of the methods. These anomdies may take. n o r d l y by boreholes. a geophysical anomaly does not always in match an engineer~hgor geological boundary.g. the form of a boundary between two rock types. Geophysical survey techniques are based on determining variatzons in a physical property.

In suitable circumstances.24 Seismic Table of Contents The seism~ctechnique.the geology. lateral changes in res~stivity (constant separation tra versing) or local anomdous areas lequipotenhhl survey).2 3 Magnetic . It can sometimes be used for locating OMmine shafts and areas of fij% In using this method to detect the locatlbn of faults or dykes. disused tunnels or shafts. the system may be used to provide information on the variation of geo-electrical properties witb depth (depth probes). render the results unrelkble. faults or dykes) between rocks which display magnetic contrasts. 1965). a geophysical technique may jhdicate varjatlbns and anomalies which can be correlated witb geological or man-made features. essenhhl to ehinhate the poss1E17ity that the anomaly detected is in truth buried metal. Precision levelfing and positionlirg of the instrument a t each station is essentiaL With the more accurate instruments now available. Table of Contents Geophysical surveying is genera& used in a ground inveshgation to make a prefiminary and rapid assessment of the ground conditions. particuMy as the number of subsurface l a y e r s increases. and the potential difference is measured between two similar electrodes fBS/. 33.g. the technique may locate boundaries fe. because it involves a curve matching technique which requh-es the assumption of idealised conditions. It may a t t i m be necessary to use two or more methods on a trial and error basis to ascertain which yie& the most reliable results. may be used to locate subsurface boundaries which separate materials havlhg dXferent values . pzpes or cables.2 1 Resistivity This technique is used for in vestigating the simper geological problems. karst features. and to indicate locations where further boreholes are needed so that the significance of a geophys~kal anomaly can be investigated 33. A current Table of Contents 33. either refection or refraction. of course. Local changes in the earth's magnetic field are assoc~htedwith changes in rock types. e. The results of geophysical survey can then be used to ~hterpolatethe ground condihons between boreholes. e. The unsuspected presence of electrical conductors. With suitable deployment of the electrodes.g.2 Gra v~inetric Table of Contents In ground investigation.2 LAND GEOPHYSICS 33. the gravity survey is nerdy fimited to locating large cavitles or faults. In favourable condZions. 33. it is. its main use in the civd eng~neering field is the location of buried metafliferous man-made objects. The interpretation of the results obtained b y this method does not always provide a definl'te solution. under the site wili of course. such a s cables or pipelines.2. it is possible that the gravity survey method wi// become a useful tool in Iocatlirg hidden shafts and smaller cavities.g. However. is usuafly passed into the ground through two metal electrodes.

3 MARINE GEOPHYSICS 33. Another use of this technique I> to provide wave velocity data for the assessment of h s i t u dynamk modulus values of rock masses fMeigh. Of greater use. and where the site lies near to the source of vibrations. It involves producing seismic waves. Cross hole surveys. but results can only be confirmed by subsequent drilling.g. the presence of sewage-rich seabed layers and certain naturally gassy marine mud deposits results in 'masked zones'. are the techniques that have been developed specifically for offshore work. if very compact gravel overhks a clay). By travershg a seismic refraction survey configuration. to Direct seismic measurements can also be taken between two boreholes. exp/sives cannot be used in urban areas. or from surface to borehole or borehole t o surface. may provide the best geophysical means for detecting cavities a t depth (McCann et al. Environmental consideratibns sometlines limit the applicatibn o f this test.1 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents General lu'ih suitable md~ficationso f equipment. In carryhg out geophysical surveys on land. Therefore. then the intervening boundary cannot be detected and false layers may appear to be present. Where appropriate. O n l y rarely will the dynamic and static modulus values be the same. For example. a hammer). Echo -Soundhg 332 A continuous water depth proflye dong the track o f a survey vessel is . electronic naviqation systems should be employed. these are described ~n the fofloowing three sections. . the land survey techn~bues. between boreholes. 1977). may be extended to the marine environment. These techniques may be useful for assessing the properties of the intervening rock mass.e. which can severely limit the effectiveness of a geophysical survey. such as a busy road. magnetik and gravimetric techniques. either from a snm7 explosive charge or from a mechanical source fe. It is necessary to a p d y tidal corrections to the data obtahed.o f sonic wave velocities. IS that when the velocity o f transmiss~onin the upper layer is greater than that below fe. and in detecting geological features such a s cavities. Table of Contents In Hong Kong. 33.3. I t is also important to establish preche survey 7 control 1 the capacity for detailed structural identZcafibn I> to be explo12ed fully. 1987). of The greatest use o f th& technique is in the determ~naation bedrock level (McFeat-Smith et al. the lnduced vibration may not be detectable. 12 IS commonly used i f f the estimation o f quanti'ties o f soft mated& avadable from a borrow area site.g. One limitaation o f seismic refraction. and measuring accurately the time taken for them to travel from the point o f origin to vibration detectors fgeophones) at varying distances away. reduchg them to an appropriate datum level for proper interpretation. i. 3 . however. the resulting variation o f velocity along the traverse can be used to indicate areas o f different rock types or fracture zones. 1986). such as s e k m ~ crefraction. the refraction method is the one most frequently used. however. This information is useful in dec~'ding the type of equ~bment be used for rock excavation.

but quantitative data on depths to interfaces can only be determined if vel0c1. natural gamma fborehole diameter datal.oe. These borehole logs may be used for geologial correltrbn purposes across a site. trenches and seabed obstruct~ons. such as wrecks. A s a guide. 33. The system is partkularly useful in searches for rock outcrops. The instrumentation required. 33. near-seabed ref/ctors may be obscured b y multlkle reflectlbns originathg from the seabed. depends on the local ground cond~'tronsand its choke should therefore be left to a geophysickt who has suitable exper~ence. ~dd~%ionally. analysh o f the data can assist ih the assessment o f insitu values o f parameters such as dynamic moduli and density. whereas 'standard boomers' and 'sparkers' are more suited for coarser and t h ~ i k e r layers. However. It is based on the reflctlbn o f high frequency p u b o f sound b y the seabed.s of transm~ision are known. h g h r e d u t i o n boomers have a resolution of about 0. eleceical fstratigrphical data). The results may give a vkual representaoon of geologfid features.4 Side Scan Sonar This is an underwater acoustk technique analogous to oblique aer12 photography. The results provide a quantitative guide to the posioon and shape o f seabed features and a qualitative gukfe to the type o f seabed material. and dual frequency sounders may be useful for th~i. Firstly. especially the types of acoustk source. the higher frequency sources such as pingers' and 'high resoluthn boomers' are generally suitable for resolving near surface layering.3. pipelines. enabling dz>conthu~'oesand profiles offset fm the line o f traverse to be recorded for subsequent bathymetric charthg by echo-sounding or other techniques. Table of Contents Table of Contents There are two m a h M t a t l o n s to the technique. additronal control may be required to ascertain whether the sounding is reproducing reflectrons from soft surface sediinents or higher density m a t e n 2 underneath.3.obtmhed b y using an instrument that measures the t h e taken for a short pulse o f a high frequency sound wave to travel from a transducer attached to the survey vessel down to the seabed and back again. in water depths of less than about 2 m. gamma gamma fdensity datal. O t h e r problems are described in Table 11.5 m and a depth penetrahon o f about 80 m. 12 cannot u s u d y delineate the boundary between two different materikls that have s1in17ar geophysical characteristhx. all these techniques fstrahgraphical datal and cal~. The normal techniques cons~kt o f sehmic /structural data). certain geophyskd techniques may be adapted to provide logs o f boreholes that are anahgous to convenfional geologial logs. secondly. Such profies are combined to produce a bathymetric chart.3 Table of Contents Continuous Seismic Reflechon Profiling The use of continuous s e ~ k m irefiecoon profizng should always be ~ 0 f l s ~ ' d e as d complementary aid to exploratory boreholes in major offshore ~ea investigations. A n extension of the echo-sounding principle is used to provide informaobn on sub-seabed acoustic reflectors which usually correspond to changes ~hmaterid types. Typically. Table of Contents W12h suitable instrumentaoon.Oer .

C nvenobnal traverses with fixed hterva/s between o electrodes enable rapid coverage of the ground and the locaoon of areas of low res~ktivjty.211 may also be used to determine the var~athn s 1 resistivity with depth. Experience in the use of these methods I> at by present relatively lim'ted and the data obtruned should always be correlated agahst the examinathn and testhg of borebole samples and against the results of other insitu tests. . The conventibnal 'expansion' technique using "depth probes" (see Secfion 33. the likelihood in o 7 of severe corros~bndecreases as the resistivity rises (see Chapter 13 and Table 1 2 ) . The spacing between electrodes should be appropr~kte the to depth of bur12 of the ferrous materfa.5 CURRUSIDN TESTING Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Electrical res~ktrkitymay be used to assess the corrosivity of sods towards ferrous materials. 33. Generdy.are d~kcussed Brown ( 1981 ).

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origin and condition. 1988). PRINCIPLES OF LABORATORY TESTING Table of Contents The ams of laboratory testing of samples of soil and rock may be summarized as follows : fa/ to identify and classify the sampfes with a vfew to making use of past experfence w~2hmater~klsof similar geofoqical age. and to obtain soil and rock parameters relevant to the technical objectives of the investigation. a n d t h e overall s i t e investigation would normally not be complete without it. t h e t e s t method t o be used should have d i r e c t relevance t o t h e engineering problem at hand a n d should simulate t h e field conditions a s closely as possible. fb/ A thorough discussion of laboratory testing is beyond t h e scope of t h i s Geoguide. I t is also necessary t o consider carefully how t h e d a t a obtained from t h e tests a r e t o be used. However. The Geotechnical Manual f o r Slopes ( G C O . Guidance on t h e description a n d classification of Hong Kong r o c k s a n d soils is given i n Geoguide 3 (GCO. 1984) discusses t h e testing of Hong Kong r o c k s a n d soils in particular.34. some basic a s p e c t s a r e briefly reviewed i n Chapters 35 t o 38 a s laboratory testing is considered t o be a p a r t of t h e g r o u n d investigation. a n d whether t h e information can a s s i s t in t h e solution of t h e engineering problems concerned. As general guidance. F u r t h e r guidance on laboratory testing of r o c k s a n d soils is given i n Brown (1981) a n d BSI (1975b3 respectively. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . A general u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e ground conditions a t a s i t e i s essential before embarking on a programme of soil a n d rock testing.

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Disturbed samples should be stored on shelves. The sample storage area should be of sufficient size to cater for the number of samples being hand/ed. The fohwing equipment should be provided : (a) an extruder for removing general purpose 100 mm diameter samples from the sampler tubes. a sufficient number of dustbins. fel Table of Contents ffJ fg) fhl means o f resealing samples required for further use. and an adequate amount of bench space for the actual inspection.Oped out for inspection. while thin-walled or piston samples containing soft clays shouM be stored ver&bally with the same orientation as in the field prior to sampling. SAMPLE STORAGE AND INSPECTION FACILITIES Table of Contents 35. they should be placed in purpose-made carrirs.1). Samples should be treated with equal care on arrival at the core store or at the laboratory. or other means of disposal.10. to contain samples not required after inspec&on. 35. and some means of returning them quickly to the]>containers afterwards. a water supply and appropriate sieves for washing the fines out of samples of soils to facilitate descr~ptionof the coarser particles. without overcrowding (see also Secoon 19. fd) dilute hydrocMoric acid for the ia'en&Zcation of soils and rocks. 35.3 INSPECTMh' FACILITIES Table of Contents A n important feature is a sufficient area for the temporary stacking of the samples.2 STORA CE OF SAMPLES A n orderly procedure shou/d be established so that each sampfe is registered on arrival and is then stored away in such a manner that it can be located readily when required for examinalbn or testing. and. a balance suitable for check~hgthat the weight of bulk samples I> adequate for testing.10. Table of Contents fbl an adequate number of trays to enable disturbed samples of granular soils to be &. fcl spatulas and knives for splitthg general purpose 100 mm diameter samples.35. . and for cleaning rock cores and block samples.1 HANDLING AND LABELLING The general procedures for handling and labelling o f samples in the field are given in Sec&bn 19. General purpose 100 mm diameter samples shou/d be stored on their sides in purpose-made racks. where jars are used.

metre scale and protractor for logging cores. simple stereo-microscope where necessary.4).fi) washing facifities for the person inspecting the samples. penknife. so that notes can be kept as tidy as possible. with magnification to x30. Table of Contents lj) fk) f/l adequate photographic facilihes (see Section 36. hand lens. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . geological hammer.

both t h i s a n d t h e a d j a c e n t materials should be described.3 ROCK A complete rock descriptlbn should cover both the rock material and rock mass characteristics. m e n it i s known that no further soil testing i s likely to be required. The latter cannot be determined from individual samples. If t h e discontinuities contain infilling material. all undisturbed samples shou/d be re-examined each time a specimen i s taken f o r testing as colour changes o r drying o f the s a m e may have taken place. the only remaining evidence o f what was discovered. particular attention should be paid to t h e location a n d n a t u r e of discontinuities. the same scale should be used throughout. a n u n d i s t u r b e d sample of both t h e infill a n d i t s surroundin. However. shouh' be examined individually and described b y means o f a permanent record made either on site or short& after the samples arrive i n the laboratory. i n which case the descriptions are. particulary if they are in colour. VISUAL EXAMINATION Table of Contents 36.1 GENERAL The exam~hraOon and d e m p t i o n o f samples o f so17 and rock i s one o f the most linportant aspects o f ground investigation. or both. Where the mater~hl characteristics are not obvious. It i s customary during sample descript~onto examine the ends o f undisturbed samples o r to examine the j a r sample obtained from the cutting shoe where it has been used. 36. r o u g h n e s s and infilling should also be noted. 36. The results o f a ground investigatlbn may need to be used long after the disposal o f the samples. The photographs shou/d be free from distortlbn norma/ to the surface and should contain a clear scale.2 SOIL All disturbed soil samples. a s e p a r a t e detailed discontinuity log should be p r e p a r e d (Figure 35).187 36. i n many cases. Table of Contents Table of Contents I n t h e examination a n d description of l a r g e rock samples a n d rock cores. Where the purpose of the photographs i s to provide a continuous record. but may be deduced to some extent from many sampfe descriptions and other data. Other details s u c h a s orientation. description and photographing. For projects where t h e n a t u r e of discontinuities i s particularly important. Where possible. are a most valuable supplementary record. . 1988). Table of Contents 36. The reduced level of s h e a r zones a n d o t h e r major discontinuities should be deduced a n d recorded.g material should be extracted f o r testing purposes.4 PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORDS Photographic records. both j a r and bulk. the remaining undisturbed samples shou/d be extruded and split down the midde f o r examinatlbn. Detailed guidance f o r t h e description of soils and r o c k s is given in Geoguide 3 ( G C O . thin sections are a valuable aid to f i r s t assessments made with a hand lens. althaugh they cannot reflace visual descripoon comp/ete/y.

When photographing rock core. particularly if testing is t o be u n d e r t a k e n on t h e samples. t h e b e s t effect can often be obtained b y wetting t h e s u r f a c e of t h e c o r e first. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .2). In some instances.A s t a n d a r d colour c h a r t should be included in all colour photographs. Soil samples should be photographed a t natural moisture content w h e r e v e r possible. allowing a soil sample to d r y o u t partially may make differences in composition o r s t r u c t u r e clearer (see Section 22.

2 SAMPLE QUALITY Quah2y classes are defined in Secbon 19. e. and hence the test is not as ~ S g e n e r d y carried out under the same stress C O ~ ~ J . there is a large body of practr'cal experience behind some o f the common laboratory tests. collapse potential. in the determinoon o f soil strength. In addition. 37. the samp/ing process itself will have released the ii71'21kl state of stress in the samp/e. 1984). In preparing the laboratory test specimen. a field test wifl give more reafistic resufts than a laboratory test because of reduced problems of sampfe disturbance.2 It is essenttkl that the sample used is of sufficiently h~gh quality for the test in questlbn.41. Table 12 lists the range of laboratory tests on soil and groundwater. strength.~ Othose which exist in the natural ground (see Section 37. When laboratory tests are not likely to be representative of the mass behaviour of the ground a t the site. permeability.189 37. I> 37. Very often tests are carried out on 'undisturbed' samples whlich are far from undisturbed. HaffdHng o f samples ~ i . 37. A s the behaviour of the ground I> greaffy affected by discontinuioes.g.4 T E S T CONDITIONS Where the test can be carried out under severaf d~yferentsets o f conditons.1 GENERAL Laboratory tests on soil are undertaken on a routine basis to determine classification. and when the data derived from them are used w11h skdL reliable predictions can be obtahed. together with references and remarks on their use. Table of Contents fn many cases. When samples arrive in the the laboratory. ThLs can often be achieved by the use of large 'undisturbed' samples.10. Dispersion. However. chemical and corrosivity tests may also be carried out. TESTS ON SOIL Table of Contents 37. the parb'cular test . compaction and pavement design parameters. the laboratory tests should be supplemented or replaced by appropriate field tests. The general consideratlbns set out in the following four sections should be borne in mind. SectJon 19. Some of these tests are reviewed in more detail in the Geotechnical Manual for Slopes ( G C O . deformation. For this purpose. field is described li. there is further disturbance and unavoidable change in the stress conditons. 'undisturbed' samples should ideafly be sufficiently large to include a representative pattern of these discontinuities. It is important to ensure that tests are carried out on samples that are truly representative of the materials a t the site. dl necessary steps should be taken to ensure that they are preserved and stored at their natural moisture content and suffer the minimum amount o f shock and disturbance.3 SAMPLE Table of Contents SIZE Table of Contents For disturbed sampfes. a full and accurate description of all samples tested should always be recorded. the amount o f so17 required for any partjcular test given in Table 7.

where a test has been carried out and it i s found later that the test was not relevant to the actual sample used. 37. on& for p a r t k u l ' r types of sod In cases.. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .selected should be the one in which the cond~'&ons correspond most closely to t h e that win exist i n the field at the particular t h e which i s being considred ~h the des~gn.5 RELEVANCE OF TEST RES'UL TS Some laboratory tests are suitabl. the result shouh' be discarded.

a s discussed in Chapter 37 f o r soils. TESTS ON ROCK Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The behaviour of rock masses is often controlled by the nature of the discontinuities present and their orientation to the stresses created b y the works or during their construction. . 1984) a n d BSI (1981a). In most cases. t h e t e s t conditions a n d t h e relevance of t h e r e s u l t s . Tests t o determine t h e basic s h e a r s t r e n g t h of specific discontinuities may also be undertaken. a clear distinction needs to be made between tests which relate to the behav~burof the ruck mass as affected b y the proposed constructhn and tests which are relevant only to the rock materid. Laboratory t e s t s on rock material a r e u n d e r t a k e n t o determine classification. The significance of t h e size and quality of t h e sample. also apply in general t o tests on rock. Some of t h e s e t e s t s a r e reviewed in t h e Geotechnical Manual f o r Slopes (GCO. the scale of disconthuitlis is such that tests on laboratory specimens may yield results whch cannot be appfied directly to the behaviour of the rock mass. s t r e n g t h a n d deformation parameters. In considering laboratory tests on rock.38. t o g e t h e r with r e f e r e n c e s and remarks on t h e i r use. Table 13 lists t h e r a n g e of common laboratory t e s t s on rock.

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Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents REPORTS AND INTERPRETATION PART V I .

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Examples of o t h e r field r e p o r t forms can be found in BSI (1981a). Daily r e p o r t s form t h e basis of good field r e p o r t s on r o t a r y drilling. I t is not uncommon f o r drillers t o keep t h e i r r e c o r d s on odd s c r a p s of paper while drilling i s in p r o g r e s s a n d t o make u p t h e i r daily r e p o r t forms from t h e s e notes at t h e e n d of t h e day. FIELD REPORTS Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents The essential requirement of a field r e p o r t i s t h a t i t should contain all t h e d a t a necessary f o r t h e s u b s e q u e n t interpretation a n d u s e of t h e borehole o r field test. . This practice should b e s t r o n g l y discouraged a n d t h e driller should b e provided with a s t a n d a r d notebook which c a n . b u t t h e s e need not b e r e g a r d e d a s s t a n d a r d a s o t h e r forms may also be satisfactory. be checked against t h e daily r e p o r t a t a l a t e r date. Field r e p o r t forms should b e e a s y t o fill in a n d well laid o u t s o as t o encourage t h e o p e r a t o r o r field s u p e r v i s o r t o record all necessary data. Where possible. t h e locations should t a k e t h e form of r e f e r e n c e coordinates based on t h e Hong Kong Metric Grid a n d levels should b e r e f e r e n c e d t o t h e Hong Kong Principal Datum. a n d t h e location a n d level of a n y points of sampling o r t e s t i n g . should always be recorded. if necessary.39. Such forms can in many cases be based u p m t h e illustrative logs contained in t h i s Geoguide. The existing g r o u n d level. t h e location of a n y boreholes.

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197

40,

SITE INVESTIGATION REPORT
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Interpretation is a contrhuous process which shouM begin in the prehhinary stages o f data coflectron and should proceed as information fm the ground invesligation becomes available. By using this information J? 13 often possible to detect and resolve a n o d e s as fied and laboratory work progresses. Engineering problems should be considered as the data becomes available so that the engineer in charge of the ~nvestigationcan decide what additional exploration and testing needs to be carried out or conversefy, where appropriate, what reductions in his original programme are possible. When an engineer~hginterpretatrun and recommendations are r e q u ~ i e d the report is best prepared in two distinct and separate parts, one a descriptive report covering theprocedures employed and the data obtained, and the other the analysis, conclusions and recommendations. A general account o f the style and format of a report is given ekewhere (Palmer, 19571. 40.2 DESCRIPTIVE REPDRT
40.2.1 Report as Record

In preparing a report, it should always be remembered that a few months after it is written, when all the samples have been destroyed or rendered unrepresentative, the report w j1 be the o d y record of what was 1r found Generdy, the results will be presented in an appropriate format ln a formal report, which shouh' be bound and issued in a number of copies. This f o r d report wi// contain a description of the site and the procedures used, together with tables and d~kgrams giving the results. In additrbn, there w~jrl be the field and laboratory report forms and data sheets, whkb provide a detaiM record of the data that were obtahed These forms are sametlines not included in the f o r d report, but shoufd i n any case be preserved for a suffic~ently long periad so that they can be made a va~Yable reference when for necessary at a later date.
A copy of all descriptive reports should normally be lodged in t h e data bank of the Geotechnical Information Unit ( s e e Appendix B).

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40.2.2 Introduction

The report should have an introductron stating for whom the work was done, the nature of the in vestigatron and its genera/ /ocatron, the purpose for which the investigatrbn was made and the period o f trine over which the work was carfled out.
40.2.3

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Description of Site

The report should contain an unambiguous description of the geographical location of t h e site, s o that the area covered by t h e investigation can be located readily a t a later date. This should include street names together with Hong Kong Metric Grid references and a location map a t an appropriate scale. The description should also include general statements on site

conditions at the time of investigation.
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40.2.4 Geology

A n account should be given o f the geology o f the site, and the sources from which the information was obtahed should be stated (see Section 4.21. The amount of the data included w i l depend upon the nature of the work being planned and also upon the amount of data available. The soil and rock types identified and described in the report should be linked with the known geology o f the site, see Geoguide 3 ( G C O , 1988).
40.2.5 Field Work

A n account should be given of the methods of investigation and testing used. It should include a description o f a// equipment used. e.g. types o f dr17iing rigs and took. A note should be made o f any d2Yficu/tls exper~enced. e.g. problems i n recovering samples. Tbe dates when the exploratory work was done should also be recorded. together with a note about the weather conditions where appropr~ate. The report shouh' contan a drawing indicating the positions o f all pits, borehoks, field tests, etc. I t should contain sufficient topographkal ~nformathn that these positlbns can be located a t a so later date.
4#,2.6 Borehole Logs

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1 Genera/. The final borehole logs should be based on the visual examination and descriptrbn o f the samples, the laboratory test results where appropriate, the drifler's da7y report forms and what I> known o f the geology o f the site. Being an interpretation o f ground data which may at times be confiicting. the logs should be finaiised only when the appropriate field and laboratory work has been conpleted. It IS important that dl relevant data collected b y the driller, once checked and amended where necessary, shouM be recorded.

The method of presentation o f the data IS a subject on whkh there can be no hard and fast rules. In prhcip/e, the borehole logs shouh' give a picture in diagrams and words o f the ground profi/e at the particular point where the borehole was formed. The extent to which minor variations in soil and rock types should be recorded. together with any disconthuities and anomaiies, will depend on the various purposes for which the information wifl be used. Most organizations carrying out site investigation have standard forms for borehole logs. It IS se/dom practicable in these to make aflowance for all data which may possibly need to be recorded. It is therefore h p o r t a n t that an adequate space for remarks is available to allow a record to be made o f items that are not specifically covered. An expedient which makes a standard form rather more flexible is to leave one or more columns without headings so that they can b e used according to the data to be recorded.
A l l borehole logs are a compromise between what it is desirable to record and what can be accommodated. lu%ratis actually presented will need to be considered i n d ' u a f l y for each inves&gatzon. Where the data are copious, it may be preferable to record part o f them elsewhere ~hthe report,

with a cross-reference on the logs. The subsechons whkh follow indicate the data which a well-prepared borehole log may contain. f2l General Data Common to A l l Logs. recorded on all logs : The foflowing should be

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/a)

title of inveshgation,

/bl job number or report number. fcl /' a) /el
///

location detailed by grid references, date of exploration, borehole number and sheet number. e.g. sheet 2 of 2 method of forming borehole, e.g. cable percussion or rotary,
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fgl make and model of plant used,
( h ) ground level related to the Hong Kong Principal Datum,

fil

d~ameter borehole, of taken,

fJ'I dimeter of casing and depth to which the casing was
fkl a depth scale such that the depth of sampfing, tests and change I R ground conditions can be readily determined,
/I,

depth of termination of borehole,
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fml depths of observatlbn wells or piezometers, where these have been ~hstalled, together with details of the installation, preferably in the form of a diagram, fnl groundwater levels measured subsequent to the completion of piezometers, unless recorded separately. (3) Le.qend and Symbols. The ground profiles shouh' be illustrated by means of a legend using the symbols ii'lustrated on figures in this document, andmore fuflypresentedinGeoguide 3 (GCO, 1 9 8 8 ) . The legendis most commonly placed near the centre of the sheet, which enables reduced levels, depths, thicknesses and sampling data to be arranged conveniently on either side. An alternative i s to have it a s the extreme right hand column, which enabfes the logs of adJhcent and nearby boreholes to be readily compared wit3out fold~hg cutting the sheets. or Apart from the symbols referred to above, no recommendahons are given for the many other symbols required for the preparation of borehole logs. Many different types are in use, and provided an adequate key is given with every set of borehole logs, there shouh' be no difficulty in interpreting them. The symbols may be given on a separate sheet or on each sheet Both methods have advantages and corresponding disadvantages. The first saves space on the actual logs, thus enabling a greater depth to be logged on each sheet or a larger 'remarks' space to be provided. It does have the

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disadvantage that the reader may need constantly to refer back to the key.
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f4l Light Cable Percuss~on Boring. For light cable percussion bor~hg, in addition to the items referred to in Sections 40.2.6f21 and 40.2.6f3, the foflowinq information should be recorded in the log : fa/ fbl fcl
A

descr~bfionof each zone or materid type together with its thickness.

The depth and level of each change of zone or material type. The depth of the top and bottom of each tube sample, or bulk sample and its type (see Chapter 191; the depth of each small disturbed sample. The deith at the top and bottom of each borehole test, and the nature of the test.

/dl

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( e ) For standard penetration tests, it should always be noted if the sampler has not been driven the full 450 rnrn required for the test ( s e e Section 21.2.3).
ffl
fgl

The date when each section was bored.
A record of water leveh, including rate of rise of water

/eve/, depth of water in the borehole a t the start and f i n i s h of a shift, and the depth of casing when each observation was made.

fhl A record of any water added to facilitate boring. 5 Rotary Dr17fing. For rotary drilling, in additon to the items referred to i n Sectlbns 40.2.6f21 and 40.2.6f31, the following information should be recorded in the log : fa) A description of a// ground cond1Zi0n.s encountered fbl fcl fdl fel The depth and level of each change in ground conditions. The depth of the start and finish of each core run. The core recovery for each run, usuafly expressed as percentage total core recovery( G C 0 . 1988) . For rock, the fracture state, expressed in terms of one or more of the foflowing : rock quality designation /ROD), solid core recovery or fracture index ( G C O ,
1988).
ffl

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The date when each section of the core was drilled

fgl An indication of the drifling water recovery for each core run, with a note on any change i n colour. fhl A record of the depth of water in the hole a t the start and finish of a shift and the depth of the casing, where

used, at the t h e the observafions were made.
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0 A record o f tests carried out, such a s permeability and packer tests.
fj,

The or~entation the boreholes. of

(8) Summary or Condensed Log. Where an investigation contains a large number of deep boreholes, the full logs can add up to a substantial weight of paper, and to include all of these in each copy of the report may be unnecessary. An alternative i s to include only summarized o r condensed logs in the report itself, provided these are sufficiently comprehensive and significant details are not omitted.

An example of a borehole log is given in Figure 4 4 .

40.2.7 Incidence and Behaviour o f Groundwater

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/n order to obtain a clear understanding o f the incidence and behavbur of groundwater, it is essential that al/ data collected on the groundwater shouh' be included and that, where no groundwater was encountered, this too should be recorded. &%ere the informaatlbn derived from boreholes is not too voluminous, it is best included i n the logs. When this is not possible, the data should be given elsewhere in the report and cross-referenced in the b o r e m e logs. m e r e the pos12ion o f the borehole casing at the time o f an observation is relevant, 12s positlbn should be stated All other data, including those from separate observation wells or piezometers, should be given separately. Where drMng with water or air flush has been used, this should be recorded and 12s effect on groundwater levels should be assessed.

The report should contan a plan showing the prec~selocation and top level o f each borehole (see Chapter 3 ) 9.

40.2.9 Laboratory Test Results and Sa&e

Descr~pfions

Where test procedures are covered b y recognized standards, the reporting o f the results shouM be in accordance with those standards, where they are not so covered, relevant data should be given. For example, i n a triaial compression test the actual numerical result on each specimen should be given and not only the hterpreted parameters, Where an extensive programme o f testing has been undertaken, a summary should be provided in addition to the detailed results. The precise test carried out should a/so be stated without ambiguity. Where the test is reasonably standard, for instance "consoLidaated drained t r ~ k i a compression test on 100 mm diameter samples'; l the name alone wAl suffice, but where the test is not standard, a full d e s ~ r ~ p should be given. t~~n The visual descriptions o f a// samples tested should appear i n the report. The precise method o f recording them wifl depend upon circumstances. I t may be convenient to show them on the same sheets as the results o f the laboratory tests, or a separate table may be preferable.

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In a n y e v e n t , t h e descriptions should all a p p e a r in one place. A t times, t h e r e s u l t s of t h e laboratory t e s t s . a n d in particular t h e identification t e s t s , will indicate a soil different from t h a t indicated b y t h e visual description. The original description should not be discarded on t h a t account b u t should b e p r e s e r v e d a s a record of t h e o b s e r v e r ' s opinion. If soil descriptions h a v e been modified in t h e l i g h t of laboratory t e s t data, t h i s should b e indicated clearly in t h e r e p o r t , s e e Geoguide 3 ( G C O , 1988). The laboratory r e p o r t forms a n d d a t a s h e e t s should b e filed f o r possible f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e ( s e e Section 40.2.1).
40.3 ENGINEERING ZNTERPRETA TION 40.3,J Matters to be Covered

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Methods o f analysing ground data and apply~hgthem to the solution o f engineering problems are not covered ~n this Geoguide. Guidance on analysis and application o f ground data may be found in various Britsh Standards (e.g. BSI. 1965; 1973; 1974b; 1975a; 1977; 1981b; 1986) and localguidance documents (e.g. Geotechnical Manual f o r Slopes a n d Geoguide 1 ) . Sections 40.3.2 to 40.3.9 deal w12h the form o f the report, and fist the most common topics on which advice and recommendations are required. Tbese sectJons also contain some guidance on what shou/d be included. The topics are listed briefly under the general headings :design, construction expedients, sources o f mater~als,and f i e . It is M e l y that ~ i zmany cases the d e n t commiss~oning the investigation wz7l indicate those aspects of the project on which he requires advice and recommendations; the topics fisted below are intended as a guide where t h z s may not have been done.
40.3.2 Data on which Interpretation is Based

fie data on which the analysis and recommendations are based shouh' be clearly indicated. The information generafly comes under two separate head'ngs : (a/ Information related to the project (which is usually suppfied b y the des~gnerl.For example, for buiMings and other structures this should include full details on the /Oadlhg (including dead and five loadsl, column spacing (where appropriate/, depth and extent of basements and details o f neighbouring structures. For earthworks, the h e ~ g h o f embankments, the materials to be used and the t depths of cut slopes are relevant to the interpretatJon.

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fb1 Ground parameters (which are usuafly selected from the descriptive report by the engineer who performs the analyszk and prepares the recommendatJbns). There is no universally accepted method of selecting these parameters, but the following approach may he& to arrive at refible values :
fil

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compare both laboratory and insitu test results with ground descriptJons, cross-check, wherepossible, laboratory and insitu results in the same ground,

fiil

triaxial tests and representative parameters from consoMation tests. sparse and variable informat~oncan sometimes be supplemented by means of hformation from soundings and geophysical in v e s t i g a t h on areas between borehok. i t may be useful t o c o n s t r u c t c o n t o u r s of t h e bedrock a n d groundwater s u r f a c e s from borehole data. It can be helpful to indicate relevant soil parameters on cross sechons. The sections should preferably be plotted to a natural scale. and also what should be included in the report. Possible methods of stabilizing local a r e a s of instability a n d s u r f a c e protection measures should be recommended. Mere the ground information is either very var~kble too sparse to enable cross sechons to be prepared. I f it is necessary to exaggerate the vertical scale. contours of t h e seabed. fffdicatesthe topics on which advice and recommendations are often requ~ked. In marine investigations. where possible. These are best conveyed in a report by a series of cross sections i//ustrating the ground profile. and decide representative values appropriate to the number of results. foundation bearing capacity. for example.hi2 colect individually acceptable results for each ground unit. I f it is particularly important to prepare cross sections. a n assessment of potential failures d u e t o unfavourably orientated discontinuities should be made. Table of Contents Table of Contents 40.3. assessment of risk t o life and economic r i s k .4 Design The following list. simpfified as requ~ked. Table of Contents fivl 40. recommended slope angle. In certain engineering problems. may b e c o n s t r u c t e d . Retaining walls: e a r t h a n d water p r e s s u r e s . which is by no means exhaustive. Table of Contents (b) . s h e a r s t r e n g t h parameters. it I> frequently necessary to make simp/iying assumptions about the ground profile at the site. For rock slopes. and contours a n d isopachs of t h e various s t r a t i g r a p h i c units below t h e seabed.3. passive a n d frictional resistance. s e e Geoguide 1 (GEO. Comment should be made on s u r f a c e d r a i n a g e a n d protection measures. indJ'v~'d~ia/ or borehole logs plotted diagrammatically are an acceptable alternative.Olying factor should be hinited to a void conveying a misleading impression. water p r e s s u r e s f o r t h e design condition.and showing the groundwater levels. a n d on a n y s u b s u r f a c e drainage r e q u i r e d . 1984). compare the representative values with pubfished data for similar geological formathns or ground units.3 Presentatrbn of Borehole Data For the purpose of analys~s. (a) Slope stability: geological model. Advice on monitoring of potentially unstable slopes should also b e given ( G C O . 1993). the mult~. results of standard penetration tests.

fikely amount o f movement caused b y adbcent excavations and groundwater lowering. comment on the possibility of flotation. Table of Contents . where appropriate. Pavement des~gn: design Cafiforn~k Bearing Ratios.g. and recommendatrons f o r deafing with it. An estimate of the rise of the basement floor during construction should be made. suitabifity tests (Brian-Boys & Howells. recommendahons f o r taking photographs before the commencement o f works (see Section 4. possibi/ity o f encountering groundwater. grouhng and ground freezing or other geotechnical processes. 1984).. estimated settlements o f structures. recommendations.. f o r sub -grade drainage. possibifity o f using soil stabfization f o r forming pavement bases o r sub-bases. general permanent land drainage schemes f o r extensive areas. possible use o f rock bolting.(c) Embankments: stabifity o f embankment foundahons.21. compressed air working. Table of Contents fdl (e) Basements: earth and water pressures on basement walls and floor. estimated safe working loads. together w12h recommendahons on the method to be used (see Sectian 16. The possibifity o f movement due to increased loading on adjacent ground may also need to be considered /hl fi) Table of Contents f ) Safety o f neighbourhg structures: j fkl Monitoring o f movements: need f o r measuring the amount o f movement taking place i n structures and slopes. suggested methods o f f i n g i n unstable excavahons. e. specia1 features f o r pressure tunnels. assessment o f amount and rate o f settlement and the possibifity o f hastening 12 by such means as vertical drains. or data from wh12 they may be calculated. whether exca vahun is likely to be stable without support.. Table of Contents fg) Ground anchors: bearing ground layer and eshhated safe loads. Tunnels and underground works. methods and sequence o f excavation.1. recommendations f o r side shpes (see fa) abovel. If) P~i/es.' types o f piles suited to the ground prome and environment. Drainage. type and thickness o f pavement.' possible drainage methods during construction f o r works above and below ground. 1 Chem~eal attack: protechon o f buried steel or concrete against attack from aggressive soils and groundwater.4). choice of construction materiXs and methods. where appropriate. or data from which they can be assessed.

Safety aspects should be included where appropriate. Groundwater: M e l y flow. cause o f excessive vibrations of machhe foundabbns. /al Open excavations. together with an assessment o f how much more is likely t o occur and its probable effect on the structure.40.5 Construction Expedients Table of Contents comments and recommendabons are often required on the points listed below. head and quantity and how to deal with 12.3. possible off-site sources o f filk bulking factor. relative merits o f sheet pihng and diaphragm or contiguous bored p17e wa//s where appropriate. esbhated upward movement o f floor of excavation. Underground excavations. idenbficathn o f the cause o f faihre and. concrete aggregates. an estimate of the amount o f settlement which has already occurred. what support is needed.3. where appropriate. . method and sequence o f excavabbn. Mechanical improvement of so17 below ground /eve/. recommendations for remedial measures. method and sequence o f excavation and the need for temporay roof and side support.6 Sources o f Materjals The foflow~hgare suggested : fa) F i f l possibility o f using excavated mater~hl for filfing with an assessment o f the proportions of usable materiak methods and standards o f compaction. /bl /cl /d/ Table of Contents Driven piles. Grouting: types o f grouts M e l y to be successful in the ground and recommended method o f injecbon. suitabifity of techniques for the consolidation o f loose soils. (b) Filter materials. /el ftl 40. bored piles and ground anchors: methods o f driving or construction suited t o the ground profile. environment and neighbouring buildings. Table of Contents Table of Contents Where site ~hves&gabon has been undertaken ~han attempt to ~'denbyy the cause o f faii'ures the undermenboned points may be relevant. fal Foundations: nature and d'hensions of the foundabbns. how to avoid 'boiling' and bottom heave. road base and surfacing materials: possible sources and the suitability of the materials from these sources.

determfnation o f whether the f a k . within the pavement itself or the sub-grade and recommendations for repairs or strengthening or both. the probable cause and suggested method o f repair and strengthening.9 References A l l pubfished works referred to h the report shouM be fisted. Table of Contents Where cdculations have been made. 40. identification o f whether the seat of faihre f i e within the embankment itself or the under/yig foundatJun.3.e is fe) Pavements.or a clear indication o f the methods used shouM be given. cause of failure or excessive defectJon. they shouM be included as an append~k. Table of Contents Table of Contents .fbl Landsfides: cc/assificatJbn o f the type o f movement and locatfun of the fa~jrure planes. forecast of future behaviour of wall and recommendations where appropriate for strengthening it. Table of Contents fcl Embankments: fdl Retaining waLls. recommndathns for immediate stabifizing expedients and long term measures.

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& Barber. Phillipson. C. 68 p. 4. A. (1971). (Reprinted in Buildinq Research Establishment. H.M. Honn Konn Engineer. A.N. p p 75-82. U K . A. Hawkins.A.D.. P. (1986).. Proceedings of t h e Specialty Conference on Enqineerina a n d Construction in Tropical a n d Residual Soils. Proceedings of t h e Conference on Pore P r e s s u r e s a n d Suction in Soils. 6 p). Amsterdam.B. I. Table of Contents Table of Contents Pang. Palmer. Technical Report TR91. edited b y E. Instrumentation f o r e a r t h a n d rockfill dams. May 1969. Water Power a n d Dam Construction. 9. U K . Penman.J. D.P. (Published a s Site Investigation Practice : Assessing BS 5930.H. p p 325-329. 4. 2. Dam. vol. BNCOLD News a n d Views.B. Phillipson. The point load test. D. (1982). A simple d r i v e n piezometer. no. 24 p.D. no. Scorpion Press. Sampling a n d t e s t i n g of residual soils i n Hong Kong. Soil Mechanics Ltd.W. Honolulu. 19 p). UK. pp 163-173. Phillipson. edited b y A. Young. 20/70. London. Geotechnical Testing Journal. & Brand. (1985). & Chipp. 1986). Norbury. London. C u r r e n t P a p e r no. proceedings of t h e Tenth Conference of t h e International Commission on Larqe Dams. A. Nixon. Montreal. E. Air foam sampling of residual soils in H6ng Kong. p p 72-79. C. vol. p p 723-747. Proceedings of t h e 20th Regional Meeting of t h e Engineering Group of t h e Geological Societv.B. Pore p r e s s u r e a n d movement in embankment dams. High quality c o r e sampling recent developments in Hong Kong.W. Sampling a n d Testing of Residual Soils : A Review of International Practice. P a r r y . 1. Field measurement of pore p r e s s u r e s . (1978). Geoloqical Society. p p 339-356.t h e . (1981). H. (1978). Writing Reports. (1957). (1984). H. Phillipson.M.D.D. p p 7-10 (Reprinted i n Buildinq Research Establishment. A new boundary stress t r a n s d u c e r f o r small soil models in t h e centrifuge. Engineerinn Geology Special Publication no. p p 344-352). Hong Kong. A.B.R. 1. Singapore.Naylor. 9. C u r r e n t Paper no. P. & Chipp.M. p p 915.o f .L.D. -~ ~ Table of Contents Table of Contents - Initial behaviour of Scammonden Penman. Proceedinns of t h e Fourth lnternational Geotechnical Seminar on Field Instrumentation a n d In-Situ Measurements.G. Penman. - . 21. p p 53-58. 30.B. C. (1960). The investigation of landfill sites. (1982). Water Research Centre. S t a n d a r d penetration test : s t a t e . (Also published in p r e p r i n t vol.K. Rowland. vol. & Mitchell. UK.N.B.R. vol. Guildford.M. (1970).D. P. Penman. ~ 6 o t e c h n i q u e . Proceedings of t h e Second European Symposium on Penetration Testing. A s t u d y of t h e r e s p o n s e times of various t y p e s of piezometers. p p 3-24. R. (1986). Brand & H.M. (1969). p p 163-167. J. P. 35/69. Penman.a r t report. vol.

R. & Chipp. p p 205-226. Soil Mechanics f o r Road Enqineers. (1982).. Elsevier Sanglerat.G. 1. 11971). London. da. vol. no.M. Proceedings of t h e F o u r t h International Conference on Soil Mechanics a n d Foundation Engineering. Richards. A. Proceedinss of t h e F i r s t Congress of t h e International Society f o r Rock Mechanics. & Farmer. I. Her Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents M. 7 p p 129-153. vol. A new consolidation cell. Silveira.A. Grossmann.W. p p 787-796. Pope.E. A portable s h e a r box f o r t e s t i n g rock . Rowe. joints. (1975). Psychrometric techniques f o r field measurements of negative pore p r e s s u r e in soils. (1972). Schmid. 1. P. 417. G. American Society f o r T e s t i n s a n d Materials. (1972). p p 167-171.C. A. 1. The application of engineering geophysical techniques t o s i t e investigations in Hong Kong. p p 697-704.W. & Oliveira. Hong Kong. P. Rigden. Determination of t h e deformability of rock masses along boreholes. T h o r b u r n . 1. G. W. The Penetrometer a n d Soil Exploration. & Walton.N. Rowe. The relevance of soil f a b r i c t o s i t e investigation practice.R. Publishing Co. 1. Honn Kong Engineer. vol. p p 195-300. Amsterdam.W. Melbourne. (1966). Lisbon. D. 10. (1982). 27. Rocha. (1980). (1982). Majesty's Stationery Office. Undisturbed sampling techniques f o r s a n d s a n d v e r y s o f t clays. Weeks. & Cowland.. & J e n n i n g s . 17. Hong Kong. R. 565 p. Richards. Consistency a n d repeatability of Schmidt hammer r e b o u n d data d u r i n g field testing. (1966). P P 387-394. p p 39-43. B. (1982). London. Field determination of permeability b y t h e infiltration test.vol. International Journal of Rock Mechanics a n d Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts. S. The effect of s u r f a c e r o u g h n e s s on t h e field s h e a r s t r e n g t h of sheeting joints in Hong Kong granite. P. R. vol. (1966). ~6otechniaue. 16..Poole. ~ 6 o t e c h n i a u e .. Marsland. p p 142-159.. L. on Road Research Laboratory (1952). Permeabilitv a n d C a ~ i l l a r i t vof Soils. Rock Mechanics. W. A dual load r a n g e cone penetrometer. vol. Ross-Brown. Amsterdam.W. Automatic recording of s t a n d p i p e piezometers.J. Serota. vol. Proceedings of t h e Second European S v m ~ o s i u m Penetration Testing.N. S ~ e c i a l Technical Publication no. ~ r o c e e d i n q sof t h e Seventh Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference. 464 p. Table of Contents . W. vol. proceedings of t h e Seventh Southeast Asian Geotechnical Conference. p p 245248. vol. S. L. & Barden. N. R. A. Proceedinqs of t h e F i r s t AustraliaNew Zealand Conference on Geomechanics.W. & Quartermain.G. vol. p p 77-89. J. (1958). lo. Ridley Thomas. de. p p 162-170.. E.

D. vol. & Finn.E. Sweeney. S t a n d a r d s Association of Australia (1980). vol.. Decker.C. e d i t e d by P. J u n e 1985. (1976). pp 361-366. & Shaw. S t a n d a r d p e n e t r a t i o n test p r o c e d u r e s a n d t h e e f f e c t s i n s a n d s of o v e r b u r d e n p r e s s u r e . T. J o u r n a l of t h e Soil Mechanics a n d Foundations Division. 36.H.. vol. a s s e s s m e n t in Hong Kong. pp 73-91. 4. (1968).J. drilling quality. R. . & McSweeney. D. (Discussion. ( A b s t r a c t i n Geological Society of Honq Konq A b s t r a c t s . Hong Kong Geological S u r v e y Memoir No. D. . (Published a s Geological Society of Hong Konq . Geotechniaue. ~ ~ Evaluation of Relative Density a n d I t s Role i n Geotechnical P r o j e c t s Involving Cohesionless Soils. Australian S t a n d a r d Methods of Testinq Soils f o r Engineering Purposes. Hong Kong. Bulletin no. 523. 2 pp 93-96). no.T. Proceedinqs of t h e Symposium on t h e Role of Geoloqy i n u q Hong Kong. Determination of t h e Emerson Class Number of a soil. 1:20 000 S h e e t s 11 a n d 15. Honq Kong Enqineer.W. (Published as Geological Society of Honq Kong.2. R. Bulletin no. p p 181189. vol.J. AS 1289. 2. D. D. P. C. (1973). 136 p. p p 75-88. & Steele. 1987). D. Hong Kong.M. p p 91-106. Pinhole test f o r identifying d i s p e r s i v e soils. 3.Sherwood. (1986). Power swivel improves Smyth. U r b a n geological mapping . no. Geoloqy of Honq Kong Island a n d Kowloon. 2. ~ ~~~. editgd b y I. (1982).V. particle size. E.t e c h n i q u e s u s e d i n Kowloon a n d Hong Kong.L. S t a n d a r d s Association of Australia. pp 234-247.R.1-1980. American Society f o r Testinq a n d Materials. J. pp 13-15. P. Practical a s p e c t s of rock slope stability S t a r r . ageing a n d overconsolidation. A. A static dynamic s o u n d i n g technique. J o u r n a l of t h e Geotechnical Enqineering Dvso i i i n voof. 1986. offshore Table of Contents Table of Contents Snow. & Wong. Relative d e n s i t y tests on rockfill a t C a r t e r s Dam. openings. p p 439-452. p p 425-447. L. vol. (1985). P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e S e v e n t h S o u t h e a s t Asian . 1. (1979).S. Rock f r a c t u r e s p a c i n g s . (1974). Deep foundation d e s i g n u s i n g plate load tests. 94. G. & Child. a n d porosities. 1.J. Geotechnical Conference. 3 p. (1984). r e l a t i v e d e n s i t y . McFeat-Smith. Siu.S. S t e o h e n s~o n . (1986). no.S. Proceedings of t h e European Stockholm. P.P. Concealed marble f e a t u r e s a t Yuen Long. 1985). . Contractor (Hong Kong). S y d n e y . (1982).J. Geotechnical Control Office. p p 14) S t r a n g e . K. S ~ e c i a Technical Publication no. SMl. no. Dunnigan. American Society of Civil E n g i n e e r s . 7.J. S y m ~ o s i u m on P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t i n s Table of Contents S h e r a r d . Proceedings of t h e S e v e n t h S o u t h e a s t Asian Geotechnical Conference. vol. Skempton. Table of Contents Sweeney.D. K. (1986).L. p p 49-56. 102.F. & Ho. 2. l ~~ ~ S t r a n g e .G. p p 69-85. Hong Kong. Hong Kong. Some i n s i t u soil suction measurements i n Hong Kong's r e s i d u a l soil slopes. vol. C8.V. Whiteside. 10.

B. P. Construction Weltman. Slebir. Proceedinqs of t h e 20th Renional Meeting of t h e Enqineering Group of t h e Geological Society. Table of Contents USBR (1974). W. (Second edition). ITC Textbook of Photo7 vols. (Second edition). p p 399-431.E. 144 p. 10.A. The UNESCO Press. Selected analytical methods f o r well a n d a q u i f e r Walton. 18. 1 4 a n d vol. Proceedings of t h e Symposium on Field Instrumentation in Geotechnical Engineering. Norfolk. London. (1968). no. (1968). Determination of t h e In Situ Modulus of Deformation of Rock. United S t a t e s Bureau Reclamation. 1. Washington D.C. & Van Zuidam-Cancelado. American Society of Testinq a n d Materials. (Published as Site Investiqation Practice : Assessinn BS 5930. f o r a l a r g e proton accelerator. 2. Geotechnical assessment of a s i t e at Munford. Engineering Geology Special Publication no.I. G. American Society f o r Testing a n d Materials.D. p p 419-423. 25 / PSA Civil Enqineerinn Technical Guide no. Hong Kong Engineer. (1962).UNESCO (1976).M. Illinois S t a t e Water Survey. Special Technical Publication no.R. A Guide t o Their Preparation. p p 377-385. Way.L.W. The Netherlands.. Whiteside. & Gallois.J. Engineering Geological Maps. Urbana. classification using aerial photographs : A geomorphological approach. P. N. (1970). J. 49. Terrain Analysis .S. Ward. The quality of U l O O sampling.Use of Aerial Detection in G e o m o r ~ h o l o g ~ n d Geographical Landscape Analysis. R. 1986). 14.A Guide t o Site Selection Usinq Aerial Photoqraphic Interoretation. E. D. p p 37-39. . 14. I. The measurement of pore p r e s s u r e with piezometers. 15. p p 411-422. p. evaluation. Delft.H. F. T. 81 p. Burland.C. & Head. Vaughan. Enschede. interpretation. p p 485-494). Geological Society. Laboratory S h e a r Testing of Soils.. (1984).J. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Wallace. U K . Guildford. I n d u s t r y Research & Information Association Special Publication no. no. no. 48). Site investigation manual. ITC Textbook of Photo-Interpretation Volume VII . (1963). McGraw Hill. Verstappen. Whyte. The Netherlands. 333 p. Paris. Earth Manual. F. of Terrain analysis a n d Van Zuidam. Laboratory v a n e s h e a r t e s t s a n d t h e influence of pore water s t r e s s e s . US Government Printer. H. (1986). p p 3-26. & Van Zuidam. (1974). a International I n s t i t u t e of Aerial S u r v e y a n d Earth Sciences (ITC). New York. p p 7-14 (Discussion. Bulletin no. (1979). W.A. 477. Horizontal plate loading tests in completely decomposed granite. ~ g o t e c h n i a u e . Insitu methods f o r determining deformation modulus used b y t h e Bureau of Reclamation. 10. & Anderson.G. (1983).J. 361. 2. (1978). Wilson. vol. (Also published in p r e p r i n t vol. R. J. 438 p. 35.B. Illinois. A. edited b y A. Hawkins. ITC. vol. 810 p. vol. R. Special Technical Publication no. 79 p.B.

no. pp 85-88. 5. C. Geotechnical Testina Journal. 10. E. I Wroth. Winter. vol. 3/4. (1977).Windle. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . Ground Enqineerins. pp 37-46.P. no. 6. The use of a self-boring pressuremeter t o determine t h e undrained properties of clays. vol. (1982). D. Suggested practice for pressuremeter testing in soils.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents TABLES .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents [BLANK PAGE] .

Casing and Drill Rods Used in Hong Kong Principal Causes of Soil Disturbance Mass of Soil Required for Various Laboratory Tests Expected Sample Quality from Different Sampling Procedures for Hong Kong Materials Soil Sample Quality Classification Page No. Plans and Aerial Photographs Available from the Lands Department Aerial Photographs Available from the Lands Department (two sheets) Guidance on Site Investigation for Slopes and Retaining Walls in Hong Kong Content of Site Investigation for Slopes Retaining Walls in Hong Kong Sizes of Commonly-used Core-barrels. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Selected Maps. Table of Contents Table of Contents Evaluation of Piezometer Types Field Geophysical Techniques Used in Ground Investigations Tests on Soils and Groundwater (four sheets) Tests on Rock Table of Contents .227 Table of Contents L I S T OF TABLES Table No.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents [BLANK PAGE] .- .

Shatin.229 Table 1 - Selected M a ~ s . Tsuen Wan & Tsing Yi Kowloon Hong Kong Table of Contents Full Full Full Full HM2OC HM50CL HM50CP HMlOOCL HMZOOCL Full Map Sheet 7 HGM2O & 11 Table of Contents Full * - I Legend : See Figure 3 for full programme of the new geological survey See Table 2 for further details . Price Per COPY 1987 HK$ Full NT & Islands HPlC Table of Contents Urban Urban & NT Urban & NT Townships Urban.Plans and Aerial Photographs Available from the Lands kpartment Table of Contents Number Coverage of Sheets Size Series (mml No.

I:1L 000 4 I 30 30 I Remarks Medium t o l o w r e s o l u t i o n . - Table of Contents 1976 b0 Coverage of Urban Areas and New Towns. Coverage of north west and west New Territories. 1963 Excellent resolution. 60 . f u l l stereo coverage.w e s t s t r i p f r o m Tuen Mun t o Sai Kung. Coverage of n o r t h . Good resolution some s t e r e o overlap. Excellent coverage of north-west New Territories. 1964 40 1967 20 1968 . Good r e s o l u t i o n . s i n g l e f r a m e s w i t h incidental stereo overlap. Good coverage of lowland areas. 1977 1978 t0 present Detailed coverage of north-west and north New Territories plus New Towns. Table of Contents Coverage of Urban Areas.Table 2 .Aerial Photographs Available from the Lands Department (sheet 1 of 2. large scale photographs) Table of Contents * Year p~ Approximate Coverage 1%) 1924 Approx. small relief exaggeration. Coverage of trunk roads.1971 20 30 1972 1973 90 1 1 I I 1 I I Coverage o f m a i n Urban Area o n l y . 1945 19L9 1956 1959 1961 lo 1 I 1 I Table of Contents . Coverage of a l l areas except M a i Po t o Sha Tau Kok. Medium t o good resolution. Almost a l l a r e a s except east . Coverage o f t r u n k r o a d s . Urban Areas only Most of Territory. Good resolution . Annual coverage of Urban Areas i n c l u d i n g New Towns and lowland areas.w e s t and west New Territories 1974 30 1975 30 1 .

Annual coverage. . East to west flight lines. 1980 Southern h a l f of Territory only Table of Contents Complete coverage.1976 Obliques only Good resolution. 1978 Complete coverage. East to west flight lines 3 to Skm a p a r t . 198L Table of Contents 1985 Complete coverage. L to 5 k m a p a r t . Clearwater Bay and S a i Kung Peninsula. 1981 Urban Area and Lantau only 1982 Complete coverage Complete 1983 coverage. 1986 Complete coverage 1987 Complete coverage. west New Territories and Sha Tin. 1 to L k m apart. 1973 Table of Contents 1974 . East to west flight lines. Good resolution.Table 2 - Aerial Photographs Available from the Lands Department (sheet 2 of 2. Coverage of Lantau. 1977 Obliques only of Urban Area. Almost complete coverage. 1979 Complete coverage. high altitude photographs) Table of Contents Year Approximate Coverage (%) HKI Remarks I K Good resolution 1954 196L Excellent resolution. Coverage of Urban Area. Mosaic of aerial photographs available.

Table 3 - Guidance o n Site Investigation for Slopes and Retaining Walls in Hong Kong Table of Contents S. I. the l e a s t stringent 5. depending on t h e particular site conditions. c l a s s boundaries. . Each situation must be a s s e s s e d on i t s own Table of Contents merits t o decide on the appropriate scope o f the S . 198LI and should be assessed w i t h reference t o both the present use and the development potential of t h e s i t e .I. More or l e s s intensive S. Notes : ( 1 ) This Table i s intended t o provide general guidance o n l y . The risk categories are those given in t h e Geotechnical Manual for Slopes IGCO.. c l a s s for different r i s k categories should be Class 1 for 'High' r i s k .I. 1 2 ) Irrespective o f t h e above S. .1. I t should be read in conjunction w i t h Table 4 .. Class 2 tor ' L o w ' risk and Class 3 f o r 'Negligible' r i s k .I. I . than that recommended m a y be required. Class Table of Contents Rock Retaining Wall I Legend : H 0 oc Height Angle Angle (Table of feature o f feature of natural hillside L) Table of Contents Cut slope Retaining wall .. Class Boundaries for Different Features Other Features Soil F i l l Slope S.

remoulded strength tests on f i l l should be carried out. For f i l l slopes steeper than 1 on 3 . As for 0'to 20'. Survey o f 1. boulders and hydrological features 2.such a s t r i a l p i t s . AS f o r 0' t o 20'. . Table of Contents Topographical and geological survey of t h e s i t e and i t s surroundings. Visual examination of geologica 1 materials G2 G3 A B1 C1 D 82 C2 E2 F2 G2 E3 G3 As for 20'to 40'. Extend investigation outside l i m i t s of s i t e t o permit s t a b i l i t y analysis o f features above and below t h e s i t e . c o r i n g . including survey of boulders and hydrological features affecting the site. w i t h survey o f topography and geology. Mapping o f 1 . classif icationlindex t e s t s 1. probing and piezometer installations. s u r f a c e features F. Extend investigation more widely outside Limits of s i t e t o permit s t a b i l i t y analysis of features above and below the slte. geological and s u r f a c e drainage features E. Survey of boulders and hydrological features affecting the site. boreholes. As f o r 20' t o 40'. topographical. i n t a c t strength t e s t s f o r soils and r o c k j o i n t s . a e r i a l photos and geological maps 3.Content of S i t e Investigation for Slopes and Retaining Walls in Hong Kong Table of Contents Angle of Natural Hillside in the Vicini of the Site. Stabilit: analysis of features w i t h i n the site. Extend investigation Locally outside Limits of s i t e t o permit s t a b i l i t y analysis of features above and below the site. . q u a l i t y c l a s s Io r 2 2 . Laboratory t e s t s I . B1 D 8 2 C2 E3 Assessment of surrounding topography and geology f o r mdication of s t a b i l i t y . Table of Contents 4. d e n s i t y t e s t s for f i l l materials 3 . Survey of boulders and hydrological features affecting the s i t e . Examination of terrestrial photographs. oc Greater than 40" A 61 C1 D E l F1 GI 8 2 C2 E2 F2 G2 E3 G3 Detailed topographical and geological survey o f t h e s i t e and i t s surroundings. using strength and groundwater parameters obtained f r o m the investigation As for 0 ' t o 20'. as appropriate Notes: Table of Contents ( 1 1 T h i s t a b l e i s intended t o provide general guidance o n l y . permeability 2 .Table 4 . remoulded s t r e n g t h t e s t s for f i l l 2 . Ground i n v e s t i g a t ~ o n . geological structures 2 . pore pressures G. quality class 3 3 . Sampling 1 . Stability analysis of features within the site. ( 2 ) Installation of instruments f o r long t e r m monitoring o f ground displacements and pore pressures should be considered during t h e s i t e investigation s t a g e . It should be read in conjunction w i t h Table 3 . quality class G :. As for 20' t o 40'. Area outsidc t h e s i t e boundary should also be examined for potentia instability. Field measurements o f 1 .

jointed Drill Rods Flush coupled - - Nominal Diameter n .Table of Contents Table 5 .Sizes of Commonly-used Core-barrels.i. ( 2 ) For additional information.1981a 1 . Casings and Drill Rods Used in Hong Kong Core Double tube . Design NMLC 43% Design OD ID Outer diameter Inner diameter I Coupling Table of Contents * ** 3C-MLC Mazier 7L 101 11 1 Table of Contents 76 Legend : * ** Notes : With retractor shoe With or without retractor shoe ( 1 ) This l i s t i s not exhaustive and should not i m p l y t h e exclusion of other recognised core b a r r e l s and Table of Contents casing I r o d s systems.barrels Triple -tube Nominal Diameter Casings Flush . . reference can be made t o BS LO19 : Part 1 (BSI 197La) on r o t a r y core d r i l l i n g equipment and Figure 29 of BS 5930 ( BSI . ( 3 I A l l dimensions are rn millimetres.

Table 7 - Mass of Soil Required for Various Laboratory Tests Table of Contents Purpose of Sample Soil indentification. silt. sieve analysis. silt. sand Fine and medium gravel Coarse gravel Note : Table taken from BS 59: 0 ( BSI. sand Fine and medium gravel Coarse gravel Mass of Sample Required Compaction tests Comprehensive examination of construction materials. 1981a .23 5 Table 6 . moisture content and sulphate content tests Soil Type Clay.Principal Causes of Soil Disturbance Table of Contents Before Sampling During Sampling After Sampling Stress relief Swelling Stress relief Remoulding Stress relief Migration of water within the sample Loss of moisture Overheating Compaction Displacement Base heave Piping Caving Displacement Shattering Stones at the cutting shoe Mixing or segregation Failure to recover Table of Contents Vibration Chemical changes Disturbance during extrusion Note : Table adapted from Clayton et a l (1982). including Atterberg limits. including soil stabilization All Table of Contents Clay.

silty sands or sandy s i l t s ) Piston sampler or compressed air sand sampler UlOO sampler ( w i t h core-catcher) SPT split barrel sampler Light percussion shell Piston sampler Thin-walled sampler UIOO sampler Delft continuous sampler Light percussion clay cutter ( d r y boreholes) or shell ( w e t boreholes) Triple-tube core-barrel w i t h retractor shoe UlOO sampler Light percussion clay cutter The sampling procedures for s o i l s derived from insitu rock weathering apply. Quality Class Soils derived Composition of soils varies from insitu depending on the nature of rock weathering parent rock material. s i l t y clays or c l a y s ) Table of Contents t c ) F i r m to very stiff cohesive s o i l s [ d l Cohesive and granular soils containing boulders. The latter generally causes less disturbance and gives better core recovery. rock fragments and building debris mixtures A l l rock types found in Hong Kong. silt and clay The following materials Alluvial and marine deposits can be found : [ a ) Granular soils (sands. especially in highly fractured or jointed rocks. which can include compacted or uncompacted soil. a s sample quality i s highly dependent on workmanship and on the compactness tor consistency) and grading of the s o i l .Table 8 . ( 3 ) The expected q u a l i t y c l a s s e s g i v e n should only be t a k e n a s a guide. Table of Contents Colluvium Fresh or variably decomposed rock fragments (boulders. Notes : ( I ) The typical composition of materials should only be taken a s a general guide. including boulders in colluvium Table of Contents Diamond core drilling with double or triple-tube core-barrel. See sampling procedures for relevant soil type and composition under 'Alluvial and Marine Deposits' above. S o i l s derived from granitic rock are usually s i l t y and clayey sands s o i l s derived from volcanic rock are usually sandy and clayey s i l t s . ( 2 ) The quality c l a s s e s are defined i n Table 9. air-foam f l u s h Iriple-tube core-barrel ( 374mm diameter cores) with retractor shoe UlOO sampler SPT split barrel sampler w i t h or without liner 3ulk samples and jar samples from dry open excavation Light percussion shell and chisel for boulders The sampling procedures for soils derived from insitu rock weathering PPP~Y. (b) Very s o f t to soft cohesive soils (sandy clays.Expected Sample Quality from Different Sampling Procedures for Hong Kong Materials Material Type Typical Composition of Materials xpectec Table of Contents Sampling procedure Hock sample fr'om dry excavation Large diameter triple-tube core-barrel 1102mm diameter cores) w i t h retractor shoe. cobbles and gravels) within a matrix of varying proportions of sand. cobbles or gravel Fill I IRock Variable material. .

deformation and consolidation characteristics Table of Contents Class 2 Classification. density Class 3 Classification.Table 9 - Soil Sample Quality Classification Table of Contents Sample Quality Soil Properties that Can Be Reliably Determined Class 1 Classification. . moisture content. (21 Remoulded properties c a n be obtained using class 1 to class L samples. moisture content. moisture content Table of Contents Class L Classification Class 5 None (approximate sequence of materials only 1 Table of Contents Notes : I1 1 Large diameter class 1 and class 2 samples are often sufficient to allow the ' f a b r i c ' of the soil to be examined. ( 3 I Table taken from BS 5930 ( BSI . Sometimes t h i s moy also be done using class 3 and class L samples. strength. density.1981a 1.

checking jf pore water no gouge house Or 'Ore ' r pressure I required. but long term very little experience available Signal quality degenerates w ~ t htime.only partipt!y self de-alrlng Yes As above CC Pneumatic positive pressure Electric vibrating wire type Any positive pressure pressure Below -1 Rapid Yes some head loss over long Yes. Useful when remote reading. very insitu permeability AS mwsurements .red. reading required. irreparable.poor ~ ~ . simple to read and maintain.made if required' moderate but easily reploced - Gauqe house usually required. i s measured. regular de-airing necessary. As above. - First choice for meosuring pore suction. Only suitable when tip almos' always below groundwater leve and no large suctlons occur. be checked. Useful for meosuring small suctions. simple to within positive pressure rangc reod 8 maintain. Table of Contents Variable Not relevant Short distances only Not accurate between 0 and -1 atmosphere.~/. expensive. de-airing required."idpipe Any positive pressure Slow Self de-airing Very good Closedhydraulic [Low air entry pressure) Moderate tan be de-aired Yes Depends on pressure measuring system 1) Mercury manometer insitu permeability Fairly cheap . liable to rodent attack or damage if left exposed. Not generally recommended. instrument life about ten years. but possible with bubbler system Long-term Reliability Other Recommendations Advantages Disadvantages First choice for measurement Cheop.n regular de-airing required when low permeability measuring suctions.Table of Contents Table 10 . of Halcrow buckets system. unless rapid response or remot' Vandal damage insitu permeability often irreparable. uncovered tubing m ~ ~ n for artesian pressures. " be ~ in humid atmosphere 3) Pressure transducer . but with core because of transmission losses Yes Moderate to poor. but reliability of instrument that cannot be checked is always suspect Poor Fairly cheap. Research stage at the momer . Table of Contents a [High oir entry pressure) to ony positive pressure Moderote Can be de-alred Cann-ot be de-o. little long term experience available Vandal damage Often Cheop.. soil are No method of Fairly cheap. Table of Contents Rapid As above - ~Z'.Evaluation of Piezorneter T y p e s U m $ - 1 Piezometer Type I Pressure Range I Responsc Time De-airing Capability Remote Reading Capability Not normally. but special cable requlred Yes. Openhydraulic (Casagronde) Atmospheric Of '' z.'J$# As above. response measurement peaks can be detected by us1 possible. As - Not recommended. very good 2 ) Bourdon gauge . Can be de-owed Good Instrument life one to two years.

Table of Contents Seismic direct methods Determination of m a t e r i a l properties of the ground (sonic wave velocities. Background 'noise'. laboratory tests (Table 13). Data are indirect and represent averages. downhole and crosshole surveys are carried out. Determination of compression wave velocities. pipelines. I Normally used only to locate cavities. dynamic moduli and rockmass q u a l i t y ). Bathymetric mapping to determine water depths.g. gas bubbles trapped within sediments. and i s generally used a s a search tool only. Data are indirect and represent averages. Table of Contents Seismic reflection Long continuous traces can be obtained. s o l i d waste on the seabed. Variable weathering patterns often complicate interpretation. by the use of a gravity corer. but explosive charges are needed for deep investigations (>30mJ. . Large scale surveys are generally carried out from an aircraft.g. Estimation of soil resistivity (hence corrosivity). Location of geological features (e. e. Water t a b l e location often limits the depth for practical study a s conductivity rises sharply i n saturated m a t e r i a l s & makes differentiation between horizons impossible. Magnetic Table of Contents Echo sounding Suspended sediments created by dredging the seabed can render the dredged levels obtained by t h i s method unreliable. Location of buried metalliferous man-made objects (e. May be unreliable unless velocities increase with depth and bedrock surface i s regular.g. Mapping of subsurface material interfaces (including saltwater boundaries). Location of geological features. etc. e.Table of Contents Table 1 1 - Field Geophysical Techniques U s e d in Ground Investigations Technique -.. and variable weathering patterns often complicate interpretation. The technique does not give accurate distances or depths to an object.g. Location of geological features. Excessive background 'noise' may preclude surveys a t some sites. borehole correlation. disused tunnels. Computation of depths to interfaces requires velocity d a t a obtained by other means. Does not provide sound velocities. Sunken objects on the seabed can render the location of specific objects d i f f i c u l t . Location of metalliferous man-made objects on or below the seabed (including sunken vessels). and may be affected by other m a s s characteristics.- Application -- Remarks - Seismic refraction Mapping of subsurface m a t e r ~ a linterfaces (including groundwater table). wrecks.g.I - Side scan sonar I Mapping of the seabed (surface only). e. . and underground cavities. f a u l t s a n d caverns ). e. Uphole. A hammer impulse may be used for shallow Investlgatlons. Electrical resistivity Gravimetric Magnetic I Location of geological features. Location of rock outcrops. Variable weathering patterns often complicate interpretation. Mapping of the seabed and material interfaces below t h e seabed. gravel deposits. cables and pipelines) and geological features. i n k a r s t terrain. The trace obtained by the echo sounder should be checked against depths obtained by conventional methods.g.

Tests on Soils and Groundwater (sheet 1 of 4 ) Name of Test Moisture content Recommended References BS 1377 IBSI 1975 b l Test l ( A l . Care is required with soils derived from insitu rock weothermg. Seclion 3. Frequently used i n the determination of soil properties.2.1 I b l BSI I1975 b l Test 7lC) or 71D). Soils containing halloysitic clays. 198LI. gypsum or calcite con lose water of c r y s t a l l ~ s o t ~ owhen heated.5 Wide application i n Hong Kong i n the classification of s o ~ l s . Section 3. particle size d t s t r ~ b u t i o n by sedimentation Table of Contents : Particle size d i s t r l b u t ~ o n lo1 Sieving la1 BSI 11975 b l Test 7 I A ) . l a ) Sieving gives the groding of so11 coarser than silt. i t will be appropriate to exclude the use of dispersont when determining particle size distribution for certaln appllcatlons. Geotechnical Manual for Slopes. As a variation to the standard method of wet sieving 1851. The relative proportions of silt and clay can only be determined by sedimentation. Br~anBoys e t a l 119861 Clause 5. 19881.Table of Contents Table 12 . e. Lineor shrinkage BSI 11975bl Test 5 Used to detect the presence of expansive clay minerals. Lambe 11951 1 Chapter 2 Frequently used i n the determination of other properties. n and should be dried o l various temperatures ta assess the effect on determination of moisture content. degree of saturation. Limited application i n Hong Kong.g.g. I b l The proportion of the soil passing the finest sleve 163 p m l represents the combined silt and cloy fraction. Table of Contents Liquid and p l a s t ~ cl l m ~ l s (Atterberg limits) BSI 11975b) Test 21AI or 2181 and Test 3. e.2. Section L.2. Geotechnical Manual for Slopes. 3 Used to classify fine-grained soils and as an aid i n classifying the fine fraction of mixed soils Soils containing halloysitic clays must be tested o t natural moisture content.6. The standard method of dry slevlng IBSI. for designing filters. void ratio.2 Remarks . Speclftc gravity BSi l1975b) Test 6 . to ovold crushing of soil grains during disaggregation.L. 1975 b Test 7 I B l I i s not recommended for general use In Hong Kong. 1975b Test 71AI). Table of Contents Laboratory vane shear Wilson 11963) A useful test for c l a s s ~ f y l n gsllts and clays i n term of consistency See also Geoguide 3 (GCO. Geotechnical Manual for Slopes. dry density. . e.g. Geotechnical Manual for Slopes Section 3 2 . and i n selecting fill for reinforced fill structures. Section 3. Geotechnlcal Manual for Slopes (GCO.

bearing copocity and compressibility. Corrosion of steel i n soils is discussed i n BSBOOL IBS1. Table of Contents . The quoted reference gives a test method for compacted f i l l . 1985hl.L 0 r E. Redox potential Brian .19731.1986) and King 119771. .Boys et a1 119861 Clause 5. Therefore Test 9 of 8. sterilized containers. Local experience indicates that sulphate content of Hong Kong soils is generally low. l i v l promote microbiological corrosion of buried steel. l i i i ) influence the magnitude of the correction foctar require when using nuclear methods to estimate the insitu ma~sturecontent of sails IASTM. The quoted reference gives a test method for compocted fill 0s opposed to field measurement. which promote microbiological corrosion of buried steel.Boys et a l (1986 1 Clouse 5.2 11. 0 'D C 0 0 . i i i ) influence shear strength.0 V) 0 C Total sulphide content of groundwater and aqueous soil extracts American Public Health Association 119851 Part 427 Assesses the aggressiveness of soil and groundwater to buried steel In I - 0 m pH value BSI ( 1975 b l Test 11 IA1 Assesses the aggressiveness of sol1 and groundwoter to buried concrete and steel. . Assesses the likelihood of sulphote reductng bacteria' being present.5 Assesses the potentiol far electrochemical corroston of buried steel.In L Department of Transport 119761 Clause 2 7 2 2 e Carbonale content Road Research Laboratory (19521 Assesses : lil the aggressiveness of soil to buried concrete and steel l i i ) the suitability of tone aggregate for use i n concrete.51 11975 b l IS normally adequate. which can : l i t interfere with the hydration of Portland cement In soil -cement pastes. L X Chloride Ion content > .Table of Contents Table 12 - - T e s t s on Soils and Groundwater ( s h e e t 2 of 4 ) Category of Test Name of Test Organic matter content Recommended References -- Remarks Detects the presence of organic molter. 851 11975bl Test 8 L 0 * u C 2 : e Sulphate content : 'a) Totol sulphate content of so11 Ib) Sulphote ion content of groundwater and oqueous sod extracts la1 BSI 11975 b l Test 9 I b l BSI 11975 b l Test 10 These tests assess the aggressiveness of soil and groundwater to burled concrete ond steel. Table of Contents 0 'D C 0 In . which is described i n CPt021 iBS1. Table of Contents Bocter~ological tests BSI 119731 Undisturbed specimens should be stored ~n olr-sealed. a s opposed to field measurement using the four electrode method (see Section 33.- 0 The reference describes the method using the Collins calcimeter 0 Resistivity Brion.

where the test specimens hove been consolldated under effective stresses wrrespondlng t o those In t h e field However.s t r a l n curves from trloxlal tests. values obtolned In thls way frequently do not correlate well w l t h I n s ~ t uobservot~ons I t IS now generally considered t h a t the p l a t e test ( s e e Sectton 21 6).Table of Contents ategory )f Test Table 12 Name of Test - Tests on Soils and Groundwater (sheet 3 of 4 ) Recommended References Remarks Trioxlol compression tests la1 Quick undrained ( b l Consolidated drained l c l Consolidated undrained w i t h measurement of pore water pressure la1 BSI 11975 b l Test 21 ( b l Bishop 8 Henkel 119761 I c l Geatechnlcal Manual for Slopes. the l n s ~ t upenetratlon vane test 1 see S e c t ~ o n21 3 1 . Head 119861 These tests yleld soil parameters from whlch the amount and time scale of settlements con be calculated The simple oedometer test 15 the one i n general u s e . more reliable data moy be obtoined from tests In tho Rowe c e l l . the pressuremeter I see Sectlon 21 7 ) and back onalysls of exlstmg structures y ~ e l dmore rellable results compression .8 . 5 1 . will normally be the best method for measuring undromed shear strength T A number o f other t r m x l a l tests are possrble. Sections 3. and has appl~catlont o s h o r t . e g follure by mcreasmg pore pressure. decreasing K 3 e t c T r l a x ~ a l tests can also be used t o f m d KO Table of Contents Direct shear test Akroyd 119691.7 and 3. Heod 119861 The qulck undralned test gwes undrolned shear strength I n terms of t o t a l stresses.t e r m s t a b ~ l ! t yand b e a r ~ n gcapaclty analyses E f f e c t ~ v estress onalysls 15 relevant t o most solls and engmeertng appllmtlons ln Hong Kong consequently the consolldated dramed test or consalldated undrolned test w ~ t hmeasurement of pore water pressure should generally be used Tests should be c a r r ~ e dout In t h e stress range appropriate to the analysls . Another olternotrve 1s to obtain values of permeobility.9 . m. which i s ovolloble In slzes up t o 250 mm diameter and where a larger and potentially more representative sample of soil can be tested (see Section 1 2 . obtained from the simple oedometer test Table of Contents Modulus of deformation Heod 11986 1 Values of the modulus of deformatlon of sol[ can b e obto~ned f r o m t h e s t r e s s . Heod I1986 1 test for sheor strength measurements A u s e f u l and practical alternotwe to the consolldoted drotned t r ~ a x ~ o l on fill c o l l u v ~ u mand 5011s derlved from weather~ng of rock ~ n s l t u The test speclmen can be orlented to measure shear strength on o pre-determmed plane The m o p l l m l t o t ~ o no f the test I S t h e speclmen thickness whlch governs the maxlmum portlcle srze that c o n be tested Common speclmen slzes ore 60 mm and 100 mm square by 2Omm thlck The less common 60mm dlometer by 20mm thlck and 300mm square by 160mm thlck dlrect sheor boxes hove olso been used In Hong Kong Table of Contents Consolidotion l o 1 One-dimensional consolidotlon ( oedometer test I I b l Triaxial consolidation I c l Rowe c e l l la1 BSI 11975 b l Test 17 I b l Bishop 8 Henkel (19761 I c l Rowe B Barden 119661. k from rnsltu p e r m e o b ~ l l t y tests. where t h e horizontal permeability 1s much greater than the uertlcal . For saturated cloys w ~ t hundra~nedshear strength less than about 75 k P o . This i s particularly true for cloy s o ~ l scontaining layers and partings of slit and sand.7 and 3. and combme them w i t h coefficients of volume decrease. Although reosonoble assessment of settlement can be made from the results of the test. ASTM 11985 il Geotechnical Manual for Slopes Sections 3. used I n conjunction wlth the cone penetratlon test I see Sectlon 23 3 I. I n these cases. estimotes of the time scale hove been found t o be extremely inaccurate for some s o i l s .

ASTM. The different tests M y not give consistent indications of dispersion. The Rowe cell allows the direct measurement of permeability by a constant head. Table of Contents . Head 119861 Id1 Head 119861. consequently i t i s advisable to use more than one test method.6 I. but the results may be substantially different from the laboratory test due to the difference i n the confining condition. 051 (1975 b l Test 16 This is an empirical test used i n the design of flexible pavements. Table of Contents Double oedometer test 1 f8 Hilf 119751. 1985h. For various reasons. s For soils of lower permeability the falling head test is opplfcoble. Table of Contents Dry density 1 moisture content relationship 851 11975b1 Tests 12. 1985b. principally sample size and ground varlobllity. see also Chapter 271. The test con also be curried out lnsitu l see Section 29. with a bock pressure and confining pressures more closely consistent with the field state. 1 Assesses the potential for soils to collapse on wetting Double hydrometer ldispersion lest l test Decker 8 Dunnigan 11977 1 Flanagan 8 Holmgren 119771 Standards Association of Australia 11980 1 Sherord et a l 119761 Exchangeable sodium percentage test Emerson crumb test lturbidity test 1 Pinhole test Used to identify disperswe soils.Table of Contents Table 12 Nome of Test - Tests on Soils and Groundwater (sheet 4 of 4 ) Recommended References Remarks Permeability : la1 Constant head permeability test I b l Falling head permeability test I c l Triaxial permeability test I d ) Rowe cell f a ) Akroyd 119691 f b l Akroyd 119691 f c l Bishop 8 Henkel 119761. i n order to assess the potential for dispersive piping and internal eroslon to occur i n slopes and earth structures. especially for sands. and by both vertical and radial flow. 851. California bearing ratio ICBRl Akroyd f19691. 1985e. laboratory permeability tests often yield results of limited value. It is carried out in conjunction with determinotions of insitu dry density I ASTM. Holtz f 9. 1975b Test 15. Test 12 is commonly used i n Hong Kong.~ r n lto 10-*mls. ASTM.L). 13 and 14 Indicates the degree of compaction that can be achieved at different molsture contents and with different compactive effort. Rowe Borden 11966) The constant head test is suited only to soils of permeability roughly within the range l ~ . and insitu tests should generally yleld more representative data l s e e Section 21.

Brown 11981I pp 119 .116. 1988).121 . Both are sufficiently portable far f i e l d use. Geotechnical Manual for Slope IGCO. pp 135 . Gyenge 8 Herget 119771. but specimen preparation time i s a disadvantage. - Unioxml compresslve strength and deformability ASTM 1198591. Haas 119831.127. 19841 Section 3. absorption. Table of Contents . The results are used i n rock slope stability analysis. Cbpullo 8 lrfan 1198L I. Ross-Brown 8 Watton 119751 Used for determmat~onof trmxlal compresswe strength. and to assess dynamlc properties of rock Tests are usually carrled out on small specimens usmg u l t r o s o n r frequencies Table of Contents Thin section Brown 119811 p p 73 . Hoek 8 Broy 119811. and slake durability Sonic wave velocity (sound velocity 1 - Tests on Rock Recommended References Brown 119811 pp 79 . Howkes 8 Mellor 119701 -- Table of Contents Triaxial ComDression ASTM 1 1 9 8 5 ~ . stability of underground excavations and to design rock support measures. and for local stability calculations i n tunnels.77: Oearman 8 lrfan 119781 Gamon 11984b). I t can also be carried out In t h e field ( s e e Section 24 2 1 I Used for direct determination of uniaxial compresslve strength. Hawkes 8 Meltor 11970 1 Brown 11981 1. see Geogulde 3 IGCO. l r t a n 8 Powell 119851. 19661.Table of Contents Table 13 Name of Test Water content. Lumb 119831 Used for petrographic descript~onof texture. Unioxial compressive strength can be used to classify rock moterml for descr~pfive purposes.9L Remarks Used for classification and choracterisat~on of rocks ASTM 11985d1. swelling.137. Point load Used to meosure the p o ~ n t load strength index and strength anlsotropy The results are used a s an ~ n d e x test for strength classification of rock material. The test can be carried out on pleces of drlll core or ~ r r e g u l a rlumps of r o c k .110 Used to measure v e l o c ~ l ~ eof compresston and shear waves for the determlnatmn of elostac constants of s ~sotroplc and sl~ghtly omsotrop~c rocks The test results ore used I" conjunct#on wdh geophys~cal survey data (Table Ill. stotlc Young's Modulus of E l a s t l c ~ t yand Po~sson's rotlo Test results are used to assess the stablllty of underground excovatlons and to deslgn support measures - - D ~ r e c tand indirect tensde strength Used ~n s t a b t l ~ t yassessment of underground excavat~ons Specimens for dlrect tests are dlfflcult to prepare. ISRM 119851. The results can be used in conpnctlon w ~ t h ~ntormationon the nature and spacing of d i s c o n t ~ n u ~ t ~to s e assess allowable bearing stress and settlement i n rock foundation deslgn. and for determination of static Young's Modulus of Elasticity and Pmsson's r a t i o . Hencher 8 Richards 119821. ASTM 11985il. They may olso be used for classification of rock materlal IDeere 8 Miller. Hosk 8 Franklin 119681 ASTM 11985 f 1 . Brown 119811 pp 105 . density. Gamon 8 Szeto 119841. fabric and state of alteration in rock material. porosity. and m d ~ r e c ttests such a s the 'Brazll Test' a r e more commonly performed D ~ r e c tshear Used to determine the shear strength character6stics of rock discontinuities. and to predict i t s uniaxial compressive strength. I Brawn 119811 pp 123 . Franklin 8 Haek 11970 1. R~chards8 Cowland 119821. Franklin 119851. see Geogulde 3 (GCO. 1988). Brown 1 1 9 8 i i pp 113 .10. The Robertson Shear Box and the Golder Associates Shear Box are routmely used.

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Page No.247 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No.b a r r e l (Craelius T2-101) Example of a Non-retractable Triple-tube Core-barrel (Triefus HMLC) Example of a Retractable Triple-tube Core-barrel (Mazier) Typical S t a n d p i p e a n d Open-hydraulic Piezometers 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Table of Contents Table of Contents . S t a g e s of a Site Investigation Locations of t h e Mid-levels Scheduled Area a n d Mass T r a n s i t Railway Programme of t h e New Geological S u r v e y The Geotechnical Area S t u d i e s Programme Examples of Maps Available in t h e Geotechnical Area Studies Programme Table of Contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table of Contents Comparison of Geological Map a n d Aerial P h o t o g r a p h f o r Identifying Major S t r u c t u r a l a n d Lithological F e a t u r e s Trial Pit Log (Example 1) Trial Pit Log (Example 2) Example of a Log S h e e t f o r Slope S u r f a c e Stripping Example of a Caisson Log Typical Configuration of a Rotary Drilling Rig Typical Arrangement of Air Foam Mixing a n d Flushing System General P u r p o s e Open-tube Sampler Thin-walled Sampler Thin-walled Stationary Piston Sampler Example of a Double-tube C o r e .

Typical Twin-tube Closed-hydraulic Piezometer Tips Typical Installation Details of a Piezometer in a Borehole Example of Piezometer Record Piezometer Buckets (British P a t e n t No.Figure No. 1538487) Example of Piezometer Bucket Data Split Barrel Sampler f o r S t a n d a r d Penetration Test Vane S h e a r Devices Typical Arrangement f o r Field Permeability Test I n t a k e Factors. F. Page No. in Borehole Permeability Tests Relationship between Dimensionless I n t a k e Factor a n d Length t o Diameter Ratio of Piezometer Example of Results from Falling-head Permeability Test Typical Arrangement f o r Packer (Water Absorption) Test Example of Packer (Water Absorption) Test Data Example of Packer (Water Absorption) Test Calculations Impression Packer Device Impression Packer S u r v e y a n d Discontinuity Log G C O Probe G C O Probe Record Table of Contents 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Table of Contents 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Table of Contents Table of Contents Mechanical Cone Penetrometers Electrical Cone Penetrometers Point Load T e s t e r a n d Example Data .

Typical Arrangement for Double-ring Constant-head Field Infiltration Test Example of Results from Field Infiltration Test Typical Arrangement for Plate Load Test Example of a Borehole Log (two s h e e t s ) Table of Contents 42 43 44 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .Figure No. 41 Page No.

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Figure 1 - Stages o f a Site I n v e s t i g a t i o n . I CONSTRUCTION Construct ion Recording actual ground conditions I Further inv&tigation 4 4 ! I I I Modifications to design Modifications to design + + 1 I I Post construction Monitoring behaviour in operation Legend : Maintenance works Table of Contents - I COMPLETION OF CONSTRUCTION ) Note : Exchange of information Figure adopted from IAEG (1981 ) . to obtain basic knowledge of ground conditions Recognition of major problems Site reconnaissance and preliminary field investigations Design of main ground investigation Ground lnvestigation l nformation recovered during investigation Report on Mam Ground l nvest igat ion I J + + Basic project concept designs Preliminary Confirmation or amendment of design concept Table of Contents t 4 prelimindryl ~ e t a i l e d Design t + t i Main Modifications to detailed design Finalise Design of Project Table of Contents I .I Site lnvestigation Stage Investigation Activities j I Design and Construction Progress Table of Contents Recognition o f need for project I Desk Study + I INITIAL PROJECT CONCEPTION Desk study.

Mass Transit Railway Figure 2 - Locations of t h e Mid-levels Scheduled Area and Mass Transit Railway .Table of Contents NEW TERRITORIES Table of Contents HONG KONG Table of Contents Table of Contents (r/J@ Mid-levels Scheduled Area ---.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Geological Memoir Nos.Programme of the New Geological Survey . 1 : 2 0 0 0 0 Map Sheet Nos. p u b l i s h e d i n Memoir No. Map Coverage 1 : 2 0 0 0 0 Sheet Nos. Figure 3 . Date Available Table of Contents Table of Contents I I Legend : * Note : M i n o r p a r t o n l y . 2 1 : 2 0 0 0 0 M a p S h e e t No. I w i l l n o t be i n c l u d e d in t h e new geological s u r v e y .

Figure 4 - The Geotechnical Area Studies Programme .Table of Contents Table of Contents I Boundaries of the GASP Areas Geotechnical Area Studies Programme (GASP) Reports and Maps ( 1 : 20 000 scale mapping] Date Available Table of Contents I II I11 IV V VI VII VIII IX X X1 - Hong Kong and Kowloon Central New Territories West New Territories North West New Territories North New Territories North Lontou Clear Water Bay North East New Territories East New Territories Islands South Lantau Territory of Hong Kong XI1 Note : - Table of Contents Reprints o f all maps are held in the Geotechnical Information Unit.

Geotechnical Land Use Map Engineering Geology Map Table of Contents Table of Contents 0 200 400 :- 600 800 1 OM)m Scale 1 : 20 000 Legend : Class I - Low Geotechnical Limitations Moderate Geotechnical Limitations High Geotechnicol Limitations Extreme Geotechnicat Limitations m i F d Class I1 Class I11 Class I V 1 1 E d Colluvium lunditterentiated Hong Kang Granite v { m ] VTA -----.5% . Figure 5 - Examples of Maps Available in the Geotechnical Areas Studies Programme .--- Table of Contents Dominantly broclastic Rocks with some Lavas Quartz Monzonite General instability Geological boundary Isolid I Geological boundary 1 superficial I --- .Hong Kong and Kowloon.. Photogeologicol lineament Catchment boundary S t r i k e and dip of beds Table of Contents Note : Examples taken from GASP Report I .

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4 4 N 15555. dry.1983 Date Backfilled : 20. moist. slightly gravelly..dark brown. inequigranular. : 2 11 193 Engineer : A. SILTICLAY (Old Top S o i l Soft..reddish brown.1.55 Date Excavated : 1.- egend . Sheet 1 of 1 : I TP -6 Table of Contents Logged by : A. gravelly.N. light brown.with pieces of glass Sott. dark greenish grey. slightly SAND.gravelly silty SAND ( F i l l ) Loose.83 Method of Excavation : Hand ( timber shoring f u l l height) Co-ordinates : E 3 4 4 4 4 . N.orgnnic. I Undisturded sample.1. Company Works Order No.1. : Location 11SW B ICR685 Garden Road - Trial Pit No. hori. Lau L Partners Figure 7 - Trial Pit Log (Example 1) . vert. Hand penetrometer strength = 40 k P a " I I -LTlnsitu density test Moisture content test Water sample Seepage 3 " rn - Angular t o sub-angular cobbles of moderately strong. dry.N. Slakes easily. light brown. reddish brown.N.1983 Table of Contents Table of Contents . Undisturbed sample. dry. SILTICLAY (Colluvium-matrix I . Chan Checked by : A. dry.moist. Lau Date : 5. . El Block sample C-I Photograph Table of Contents I Small disturbed sample + Bench mark Contractor : A.grovelly silty SAND with many roots ( F i l l ) Loose t o medium dense. a Description Loose.Slope No. moderately decomposed coarse a s h TUFF ( CoIIuvium rock f ragrnent ) A - .

1 mPD : : E 4238112 N 19234. : TRN 6 Face C Sheet 3 of 4 Table of Contents : Hand-dug : Nil Contractor : A.I Type of Excavation Trial Pit NO.75 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Figure 8 - Trial P i t Log (Example 2) .N. Company Date Excavated : 171 3 1 8 2 Date Backfilled : 2 / 4 \ 8 2 Study Area Location Ground Level Co-ordinates Area A : : King's Park 87.

83 Logged by : A. 235172 Surface staining 6.3- I s ! 10. dry. d a r k greenish grey. dry. rough and planar. dark greenish grey. light yellowish brown.. Chan Checked by : A. silty SAND with some sub. dry.23 N 11 302.. .0- Description and Sample Data Drainage channel (300 x 250mm ) Natural slope covered with small trees and grass with colluvium below. dry. 23C/71. The boulders are up t o 3OOmm i n diameter and their proportion decreases in an upward direction on the slope. dry. Boulder of strong to very strong. I - -'t) '-.11 I Strip NO. Lau listance from Datum (ml 14 Slope Angle - [educed Level [mPD) 18.4 - Loose. moderately decomposed fine ash TUFF with very closely-spaced. 4 + 9 5 Date Completed : 19. 302115. : Slope a Ch. light yellowish brown. N. with yellowish brown surface staining.N. slightly gravelly sandy SILTICLAY 1. slightly decomposed f i n e a s h TUFF. persistent lover 15 rn I rough and planar.---Grade - 11.rounded boulders of highly te moderately decomposed f i n e a s h TUFF I Colluvium 1 .-12. 23015 6.12 N 11 302. -:. Ptoiect : Slope ~ c k e d i I Works a LocatiorI : Ap L ei Chau s Contrac to1 A. : s4 Table of Contents Slope No. " Sketch Section : Nalural slope Table of Contents inage channel b ~ h u n a r n e dslope k ~ o c slope k Figure 9 - Example of a Log Sheet for Slope Surface Stripping . Moderately strong. persistent. Joints are medium-spaced. 215167. tight and dry joints dipping 10' 20'.N. I Date S t ted : 83 Datum (toe) Co-ordinates : E 33 320.highly decomposed fine a s h TUFF ( v e r y dense.12. slightly decomposed fine ash TUFF.0- - Table of Contents Very strong.0 Remarks : Legend : - ~ a s e the slope of 11 ! J Sketch Plan : Small disturbed sample Large disturbed sample Block sample lnsitu density test Moisture content test Water sample Seepage Photograph >-\ 4 .83 Date Reinstated : 26.43 Datum (crest Co-ordinates : E 33331. Very weak highly decomposed material exists adjacent to isome joints. I kdisc on ti^ I I Legend Dip Directio~ Nature 0 Infilling I I 30' Table of Contents 14. 600 mm i n diameter.12.:' -. dark yellowish brown.6- Too of chunamed cut slooe ~ 12. Extremely weak. t i g h t and dry.

1 3 mm t h i c k . 30 I Base of Caisson 1 19.5 24. .0 l o 29. rough ~ n plonar. very narrow ~ n d dry. F I = 3 .5Legend : 20. Some joints :ontain quartz veins. 2.53 The joints ore closely t o medium. rough md planar and dry.q o j e c t : New Territories Trunk Road . Chan Joint Mineralized quartz vein Fracture index Schmidt hammer test at 0 . Some horizontal oints are widely-spaced. rough and planar.0 31. tight and dry with wown-stains.6 . late : -.6 .dug 0.53 V H 24. 0 3 rnPD Table of Contents N 34 902 iheet 2 of 2 - T Discontinuities inishI Tests :ompletely weathered lranodiorite The joints are medium-spoced. Company . Some joints contain quartz veins..84 Contractor : A. extremely narrow and d r y d with brown-stains. medium-spaced. 18. 2 5 rn Co-ordinates: E m Ground Level: 4 9 .ock.paced. i sub-vertical fault of less than 00 mm t h i c k containing s o f t :ohesive soil i s present.03 The joints are closely t o mediumspaced. 2-3 mm thick. Table of Contents Moderately weathered lranodiorite 22. F I = 4 .Example of a Caisson Log .-f AD I 2 9 . Date S t a r t e d : 4 6 8 4 . ( 2 ) Discontinuity data are given separately. rough and planar and d r y .63 The joints ore dominantly vertical or rub-vertical . (1) Mixtures of Grades I V and V materials present are shown using overlapping symbols. - Table of Contents Highly weathered lranodiorite Ground water level 26.83 28. Occasional joints :ontain extremely weak highly decomposed .ocation: North Tai Po to Lam Kam Road rtethod of Excavation : Hand. and contain extremely weak iighly decomposed rock.- D a t e Finished: 2 6 .4 Slightly weathered jranodiorite 29.84 Figure 10 . N.N. 1 A1 2 1 d by : Material grades D v IV Completely decomposed Highly decomposed Moderately decomposed Slightly decomposed or Fresh Fault q-m A.5m Weathered Mass Zone Caisson No: 1 of Bridge 18 Diameter : 1 . 9 m c l c Air d r i l l test Table of Contents ma onor I F I .ough and planar. F I=2 .5 mm thick.OccasionaL joints contain rxtnmely weak highly decomposed rock.53 The joints a n medium t o widely-spaced . 2-5mm thick.

Table of Contents Bolt and clevis Double sheave Water swivel Wire drum hoist Cathead hoist Pressure hose Swivel drill h e a d Table of Contents Table of Contents Diamond casing shoe '-'m~mfDrill rod coupling Drill rod Core.barrel Rock Reamer Table of Contents Diamond bit I Note : Figure adopted from Acker Drill Co. data.Typical Configuration of a Rotary Drilling Rig . Figure 1 1 . Inc.

Typical Arrangement of Air Foam Mixing and Flushing System .pass control Table of Contents Rotary swivel Air pressure Air from Table of Contents Water and foam additive Suction hose 200 litre drum- Table of Contents Figure 12 .Table of Contents Valves : A B C D Air supply control Foam pump speed control Drilling supply fluid control By .

( 4 ) A core-catcher device (not shown) may also be included with the cutting shoe. ( 3 ) The vents in the sampler head should have a minimum collective cross sectional area of 600 mmz t o allow tree exit of air and water above the sample. Table of Contents ( 2 ) Two sample tubes may be coupled together to provide a Longer sample or additional overdrive space.Table of Contents . - General Purpose Open-tube Sampler .Sinker bar Area ratio 1%) = 02. DC 2 D : ( 1001 Inside clearance 1 % 1 = Ds Dc Dc (1001 Outside clearance 1% 1 = Dw Sliding hammer - D~ (1001 Table of Contents Drive head Vents to ball valve assembly Sample tube (a) Ul00 Sampling Arrangement 1' Figure 13 Sampler head with overdrive space Cutting shoe Table of Contents Sample tube 100mm diameter by 500mm Length Cutting shoe (see detail 1 ( b ) Detail of Cutting Shoe and Definition of Sampler Proportions Notes : ( 1 ) The open-tube sampler may also be attached to drill rods and driven or pushed into the ground by the drilling r i g or SPT hammer. ( 5 ) Samplers smaller in diameter than the U 100 are available which are of similar design.

samples commonly 75 to 100mrn diameter by I m long Table of Contents Table of Contents Figure 14 - Thin-walled Sampler .Table of Contents - Non return valve with parts having a minimum cross sectional area of 600mm2 to allow free exit of water and air above sample Table of Contents - Screws attaching sample tube to drive head - Thin -walled sampler tube.

Table of Contents Coupler to hollow drill rods .Thin-walled Table of Contents sample tube. left hand thread Spring-loaded cone clamps Exit ports Table of Contents -Piston rod .Piston - - rod screw clamp. samples commonly 75 or 100mm diameter by Irn long Table of Contents Piston with rubber sealing ring and vacuum release screw F i g u r e 15 - Thin-walled Stationary Piston Sampler .

cores commonly 61 to 79 mm diameter by I m long Table of Contents E x t e n s ~ o n tube Table of Contents Core l ~ f t e rcase Figure 16 .Example of a Double-tube Core-barrel (Craelius T2-101) .Table of Contents Drill rod coupling Water flush duct B e a r ~ n g housing Table of Contents Inner tube.

Example of a Non-retractable Triple-tube Core-barrel (Triefus H M L C ) .Table of Contents - Drill rod connection Plug to blow out valve Water f l u s h duct - . Bearing housing Table of Contents Blow o u t valve Split inner tubes. cores commonly 52 t o 102 mm diameter Table of Contents Reaming shell Table of Contents Core lifter Adaptor Drill b i t Figure 17 .

core 7Lmm diameter by I m long Table of Contents Inner barrel cutting shoe. 72mm internal diameter ( max. protrusion 50 mm Figure 18 .Table of Contents Drill rod coupling Drill bit Table of Contents Flush water (a) Coring Soft Material ( Inner tube extended ) Retractor spring Table of Contents ( b ) Coring Harder Material (Inner tube retracted 1 Liner.Example of a Retractable Triple-tube Core-barrel (Mazier) .

Cement .hydraulic Piezometer Table of Contents I~ o tto scale Figure 19 - Typical Standpipe and Open-hydraulic Piezometers . Table of Contents ( a ) Standpipe (b) Open.0.hydraulic Piezometer (C ) Casagrande .13.plastic pipe . Perforated plastic pipe wfabricp p . lower part perforated Protectwe drained metal surface box (lockable ) 19mm 1. 19mm I. i d A .Table of Contents Ventilated plastic cap -1 -PVC pipe.D.bentonite Table of Contents Gravel or sand .type Open. 300mm x 3 5 mm 0.. . filter r a 'Io 1 1 Tamped bentonite pellets or bentonite balls Low air entry porous plastic f ilter-or similar.

3 mm I. Table of Contents Rubber gasket Fine .198la) and Penman (1986) .D.polythene tubes.D. 5 mm O.D. Table of Contents (a) Piezometer Tip for Use in Borehole Twin nylon. 100 mm long by 37 to 50 mm diameter Rubber gasket Table of Contents (b) Piezometer Tip for Use in Embankment Note : Figures based on BS 5930 ~BS1. F i g u r e 20 - Typical Twin-tube Closed-hydraulic Piezometer Tips .pored high air entry pressure stone. . approx.Table of Contents Twin plastic tubes Rubber ! Filter 75 mm x 50 mm O.

Table of Contents 2 Ground level in urban area Ground level 1 n rural area iron with vent hole Drain conduit daylight face laid to T Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Bottom v of hole Notes : (1) Scale ( 2 ) All is diagrammatic. are in millimetres.500 sq. dimensions Figure 21 - Typical Installation Details of a Piezometer in a Borehole .

3mPD - Top of standpipes P I & P 2 1 IL~.Project : Slope Remedial Works Location : Royal Observatory Piezorneters : Co-ordinates : P1 & P 2 Table of Contents 150 1L8 Ground level.1 km Table of Contents Table of Contents Legend : - Observed piezometric response pierorneter tip level - Figure 22 - Example of Piezometer Record .S~P[ 0 Installed ILL Table of Contents 132l April I May I I June I JULY I I August Raingauge : R 0 1 Distance from site : 0. 1L9.

Figure 23 - Piezometer Buckets (British Patent No. ( 2 ) Assembled bucket string must fit into a 19 mm internal diameter standpipe without sticking. British patent No. 1 5 3 8 ~ 8 7 (See detail ) Intake hole Plastic float for easy visual observation of water level in bucket Table of Contents 6 number lead weights (min.Table of Contents Rigid plug. 1538487) . 2 5 0 by LO approx. Non -slip bowline knots Table of Contents Auxiliary draingge Nylon fishing line Halcrow bucket. total weight 1009 1 FRONT VIEW 0 Figure 8 knot 10 SIDE VIEW 20mm Scale (a) Assembled Bucket String (b) Bucket Detail Table of Contents Notes: (1 ) Scale is diagrammatic.

Depth* lml Ground Level : 149. Depth* lnd~cated by Buckets (m) Depth of Tip below Top of Standpipe : 6.00 4 4.Piezometer Buckets Record Piezometer No.5 HYC Table of Contents Legend : Depth measured from top of standpipe Bucket No. : Depth* (m) 1 2.0 m 149.5.lrnPD Measured G.8 J J d J J Table of Contents <2. .7.8.5 rn 5.5 Fine WPF 11.50 Figure 24 - Example of Piezometer Bucket Data .W.83 6.25 3 4.5 d J Sunny HYC 2.5.0 Cloudy HYC 14.75 5 5. L.2 > 5.5 d 3.3 - 4.83 5. W L.8.5 rnPD Buckets : - 145.6.5rn Depth : Spacing : 0.83 Dry > 5.8 Sunny HYC '.3 rnPD Buckets Found to Contain Water 1 2 3 4 5 G.5 4.8.75 rn 2 14 183 Date Installed : Depth of Critical Water Level below Top of Standpipe : 4.83 3.50 2 3.8 Cloudy After storm Ifine today Exceeds critical depth CKC 30.9 .5 mPD Level of Top of Standpipe : Tip Level : 143.83 5. : Location : Table of Contents P1 Design (Critical) Water Level : Royal Observatory Number : 5 2.6 J J 4.83 4.4rn Date Comments /Weather Recorded by Table of Contents 12.0 4. I 20.

l 9 7 5 b ] . (4) All dimensions are in millimetres. ( 3 ) A ball valve in the base of the coupling as shown in ASTM l 1 9 8 5 a 1 is also permitted. Figure 25 - Split Barrel Sampler for Standard Penetration Test . ( 2 ) A slightly enlarged inner diameter of the split barrel is permitted. provided removable (iners are always used which have an inside diameter of 35mm.Table of Contents Connection t o BW or larger d r i l l rods Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Notes: (1IFigurebasedon B S 1 3 7 7 ( B S l .

1975b). Figure 26 - Vane Shear Devices .Table of Contents Torque measuring - Sleeve (packed with grease)- Extension rods Table of Contents k D SECTION 4 Table of Contents VIEW FROM BOTTOM ( a 1 Borehole Vane Test ( b ) Penetration Vane Test ( c ) Details of Vane Table of Contents Note : Figure based on BS 1377 (051.

150 diameter borehole Table of Contents Notes : ( I ) Scale i s diagrammatic.Table of Contents Hollow drill rods or GI pipe with watertight couplings (or standpipe piezometer 1 The water level inside the casing to be maintained a t the same level a s the Borehole casing Table of Contents Bentonite seal (Attapulgite may be u s e d i n saline w a t e r ) Table of Contents Graded filter material Base of standpipe perforated wrapped in filter fabric % I 100. F i g u r e 27 - Typical Arrangement f o r Field Permeability Test . (21 All dimensions are in millimetres .

Where the horizontal permeability i s much greater than the vertical permeability. see Hvorslev (1951) (4)Cases [a) and l b ) tend to measure the mean permeability of the soil. in Borehole P e r m e a b i l i t y Tests .[(~~~l+Jh LID)^)^ F= 20 1+(8IT)(LIDl ( f ) Soil i n Casing with Bottom i n uniform Soil ( d l w e l l Point or Hole Extended i n Uniform Soil ~otes : (el Soil i n Casinq with Bottom a t impervious Boundary ( 1 ) Expressions come from Hvorslev (1951 I. 198la) ( 2 ) Values are primarily for tests carried out through the open ends of boreholes. Where this i s not so.Table of Contents Table of Contents (a) Soil Flush with Bottom at lmpervious Boundary ( b l Soil Flush with Bottom i n Uniform Soil (c) Well Point or Hole Extended a t lmpervious Boundary Table of Contents F= 2 n ~ log. Table of Contents the soil in the casing t o be the same as that below it. Case I d ) may be used for tests carried out using piezometer tips. a l l tests w i l l tend to measure t h e former 1 3 ) Cases (e) and (1) assume the permeability of . figure based on BS 5930 [BSI. but more accurate results w i l l be obtained by using Figure 29 especially for values of L 1 0 > 2 . [ e l and ( f ) the horizontal permeability. F i g u r e 28 - I n t a k e F a c t o r s (F). I c ) and ( d l the v e r t i c a l permeability.

2 LID +J(1 + 11. whatever the relation between L and D . (5) The intake factor may also be calculated from the expression I Brand & Premchitt 1980 : 2. [ L ) Where the horizontal permeability of the soil i s much greater than the vertical the test will measure the former. ( 2 ) Where a piezometer tip i s surrounded by a granular filter material. Table of Contents .2 LID 12)1 .L7rL F = log. Figure 29 - Relationship between Dimensionless Intake Factor and Length to Diameter Ratio of Piezometers . the test will tend to measure the horizontal permeability of the soil .Table of Contents Table of Contents For cylindrical piezometers Table of Contents L is t h e length D i s the diameter I 1 I I I 0 2 4 6 8 10 Length 1 Diameter Ratio of Piezometer (LID) Notes : ( 1 1 Graph comes from Brand & Premchitt I1980 1 . (31 Where L i s large compared with D . i t is the dimensions of this filter which should be used t o derive valiles of F. i1.

I- Depth of casing above G.07n Table of Contents Depth of water a t t i m e of l e s t = 11. q A where : A .s7(based on case ( d l i n Figure 28 1 2 m i n x 60 z 720sec Figure 30 - Example of Results from Falling-head Permeability T e s t .L. Chan D7 Observer Use only CLEAN water for test Has water been added during boring ? .L.Falling head Permeability Test Table of Contents FIELD DATA : Borehole Drillhole BH1 D~~~ - 18. = l.* = z Table of Contents L :0.L. E Depth of casing 10.86 A-N. Depth of hole 12.66 m below G.L.1 I 0 2 4 6 B 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time Imin) CALCULATIONS : K = . W I N O Internal diameter of casing 127 m m - .67 m below G.01539 m2 F T 2.12.9 m below G. = Table of Contents Diameter of hole D :160 m m 0.

Table of Contents By-pass valve Surge bottle r Water supply lnf lating pressure O valve n I Air line taped to drill rods Discontinuities : : Drill rod F i g u r e 31 control valve XControl perforated r o d 7 Airline connecting top and bottom packers- Top packer Table of Contents I: Uncased borehole % / / ' lnf lated single pneumatic packer in testing position Table of Contents Bottom of borehole v 5 Bottom packer ( a 1 Single Packer Test Arrangement ( b 1 Arrangement of Double Packer Table of Contents - T y p i c a l A r r a n g e m e n t for P a c k e r (Water A b s o r p t i o n ) T e s t .

3 10.86 m 19.17 Water t a k e FOURTH PERIOD T i me Flowmeter Gauge p r e s s u r e (minutes) 0 54.6 T H I R D PERIOD Gauge p r e s s u r e (minutes) 372 k ~ a T i me 0 255.1 Average FI ow ( Ilmin1 3.6 10 239.5 Average Flow ( Flowmeter r e a d i n g take 1 I 1 1 (I/min) 2.8y3skdt Water take ( 1 ) Flow (Ilmin1 2.5 Average Table of Contents F lowmeter FI o w reading 1 ( 1 1 ) llmin ) 4.2 15 326. 11.8 Average .9 10 297.28 11.32 m D e p t h t o C e n t r e o f Test S e c t i o n ( m e a s u r e d down l ~ n e of b o r e h o l e ) 21 34m 21.7 10.1 Average Flow ( Ilmin 2. Table of Contents T3 T e s t No.8 10 3 1 1 .8 5 296.Field Data f r o m Water Absorption Test Borehole No. Chon 4 Date of test 2 4 .7 5 229. N .T i me PERIOD Gauge (minutes) pressure 248 k P a 0 281.9 20.9 15 250.5 Figure 32 - Example of Packer (Water Absorption) Test Data .14 Table of Contents ( 1 ) IS E C O N D .81 m Hole at T i m e of T e s t 33.0 15 411.7 FIFTH PERIOD Gauge ( minutes) pressure 124 kPa Table of Contents 0 377. A .10 Q F =+ + + ' reading ( I I 1 T ime Water Water take ( 15.5 15.6 10.4 5 69.3 11.6 20.6 11.5 15.0 2 4 8 kPa 15 318.4 14.3 5 388.3 15.9 10 85.75 Tested by Tested S e c t i o n f r o m of t o 22.5 21.4 10 400.7 5 276.34m D e p t h t o Groundwater L e v e l ( m e a s u r e d d o w n line o f b o r e h o l e ) Packer t y p e ( delete a s necessary ) St~gtelo u b l e D Depth -- - - Gauge p r e s s u r e Time Flowmeter reading minutes) 1 2 4 kPa 0 218.96 reading ( 1 1 ) 1 Water take ( ) 14.4 15 101.86 m D e t a i l s of Casing at T i m e of T e s t Packer pressure 276 kPa Gauge Height a b o v e Ground L e v e l 1.

3.3Lrn ( 2 1 Height o t Pressure Gauge above 3.81 rn to 2 2 . . N . 4 Test Section from 19.75 Packer Type (delete as necessary) S m g k l Double Pneumatic.6-7-8 1 1 1 Table of Contents (1 Vertical Depth to groundwater from S.05m Table of Contents T3 Test No. Figure 33 - Example of Packer (Water Absorption) Test Calculations .Water Absorption Test Borehole No. 21.84 rn Depth of Hole at Time of Test 102 rnrn Diameter of Hole in Test Area Drillhole Inclination from Horizontal 90' Casing Deta~ls GRANITE GRADE I 1 Rock Type Pressure F r i c t i o n Headloss in Basic in Extra Rods or Pipe pipes Work I Gauge I 1 1 Total Head h (2. 1. Chan I Note : If groundwater level unknown or below test section use depth to centre of test section. I A .11.L.q = 2.Packer Pressure 276 kPa Flow Legend of Test Section 3. Date of Test 24.N.32m (31 Table of Contents From graph : q/h = 34/54 100 ~ = . 8 6 rn 33.06 lugeon units Ih where I = length of test section in metres Tested by Calculated by Table of Contents 1 A.

Figure 34 - Impression Packer Device . length 1. ( 3 ) Figure adopted from Triefus data sheet (Triefus Industries ( A u s t r a l i a ) Pty L t d ) . connection to drill rod or cable Blee hole Foam rubber pad i - Table of Contents Brass or stainless steel leaves 4/- Pins to guide leaves Brass or stainless steel leaf with foam rubber pad on outer surface Impressionable thermoplastic film Drillhole wall Impressionable thermoplastic film Table of Contents / L Central perforated metal tube -Inflatable rubber membrane Central perforated metal tube. approx. Table of Contents ( 2 ) The rubber membrane may be inflated either by water pumped down through hollow drill rods or by compressed air ( a i r line connected to top body).8m ( a 1 Deflated Position Inflatable rubber membrane Retraction rings or springs Bottom body Nose cap or orientation instrument Table of Contents ( b ) InfIated Position Notes : ( 1 ) Scale i s diagrammatic. The latter arrangement must be used when the device i s suspended from a cable.Top body.

Yery strong I3.Mod.Rough stepped 2.Smooth sleppcd 3.Fault zone 1.Rough undulltinp 5.Slickenslidcd planar - in degICeS 2.Extrrmely strong Uneveness (small-scale roughness) 1.Mod.Kaolin 9. Davis Road Orientation : Vertical - Discontinuity Log Table of Contents I Sheet I of 3 I Logged by : A.Narrow 16-20mml 5.Clran 1.Ext.Shear plane 8. llSW-C(C207.Firm &Weak 9.Fault 2. Manganese 8.VWY n a r r o w l l .Decomposedl disintcgraled rock 3. Aperture D~D 1.Rough planar 8. inequigranular.Smooth planar 9. ~ h a n lChecked by : A. dry.Calcilr 7. Mt.Moderaldy weak *Stiff 5. slightly decomposed coarse a s h TUFF Joint Table of Contents Joint Type D. : SBHI Nature and orientation of discontinuties Extremely weak.Othrr-specify Soil strength Rock strength l. Bedding Dip direction. inequigranular.Cohcsivc r o i l 5.Granular r o i l 4.Cleavage L.Very weak 3.65 mPD N 814 942 Drillhole No. sandy clayey SILT1 Table of Contents Stronq to very strong.N.Slickenslided undulating 7.Slickcnslided stepped &. Join1 >. dry.Schistosity i. completely decomposed coarse a s h TUFF (Dense.narror(20-6Omm~ &.2 m m ) 7.Wide 12200mml Nature of Infilling Consistency of lnfillinq O. d a r k g r e e n ~ s h grey mottled with black.Surlace staining 2. Tension crack I. Foliation I .wide160-200mml 3.Moderatcly strong or hard 1l. light brownish red.N.Extrcmely weak 2.Very s t i f f 1O.Soft 7.6 m m l 6.yery soft 6.Slrong 12. n a r r o w b 0 .Impression Packer Survey Project : Location : Stage 2 Studies Slope no.Tight I z r r o l Table of Contents F i g u r e 35 - Impression Packer S u r v e y a n d Discontinuity Log .Buartz 6. Fissure 1.Smooth undulating 6. Lau Co-ordinates : E 830 610 Ground Level : +127.

5 mm ( 4 I Only straight extension rods should be utilised j rods deviating Smm or more from a straight Line at any point should not be used. ( 3 ) The point should be sufficiently sharp that x + 1. Coupler Table of Contents Extension rod. Table of Contents 1 ) A l l dimensions are i n millimetres .[ . ( 2 1 The hammer should be provided w i t h a 2 2 mm diameter central hole. The hammer should be drilled out as necessary so that its weight (including handles) is 10.0 f 0.1 kg. .eta. 20 @ 20 9 I 45' chamfer 10 kg sliding hammer with handles. Figure 36 - GCO Probe .Table of Contents L5' chamfer Guide rod. 136 (tobeadded as required 1 f - Table of Contents &Notes : ( Coupler. see detail Point Point see .

1. N . : P3 Level 50.77 FilL Slope Investigation company Date : 16/3/83 Co-ordinates 836600 mPD Contractor : A . Shatin Table of Contents I Probe E NO. Chan N 825 100 Blows 1100mm Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents F i g u r e 37 - G C O P r o b e Record . Logged by : A . N .GCO Probe Record Site : Fill Job : Slope along Slip Road No.

Table of Contents lnner rod. w 35 9 lnner rod. then the mantle and friction sleeve together are extended another 35 m m . Table of Contents Friction sleeve Mantle Mantle Cone angle 60'Table of Contents ( a ) Collapsed (b) Extended Cone angle 60" Dutch Mantle Cone ( c ) Collapsed (d) Extended '3) Dutch Friction Sleeve Cone Notes : ( 1 All dimensions are in millimetres.-. Table of Contents . ( 2 ) Details shown follow the ISSMFE (1977). 35 m m . 131 The friction sleeve cone extends in two increments to reach the position shown in ( d ) . The mantle is first extended Figure 38 - Mechanical Cone Penetrometers .

( c ) after Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory 11977).6mm drameter with 60' cone angle.Table of Contents Cable /+ Electric cable Table of Contents - Adjustment ring -Strain gauges Friction sleeve -Strain gauges Table of Contents -Load cell ( a ) Electrical Friction Cane ( b ) Constricted. Figure 39 - Electrical Cone Penetrometers . l b ) 8.type ( c ) Constricted-type Electrical Cone Electrical Friction Cone Table of Contents Notes : ( 1 1 ( a ) after BS5930 ( B S I . l 9 8 l a ) . ( 3 ) A l l cones shown are 35. ( 2 ) Scale is diagrammatic.

air ary .nalural moisture d Diametral f Table of Contents 21 Test Type and Direction .31 Table of Contents d 5 A L 11 Mloiisture Condition . )iameter: Width. 83 Gauge #ample Platen pressure Failurc quivalen at Load.3W < D < W D~~ E L W D I ~ Irregular Lump iJQ 0.26 1.saturated n .diametral n .perpendicular lo planes of weakness r . Test Machine : ELE s4 PLT 3 Project Contracl 529 180 : Location : North Tai Po to Lam Kam Road NO.3W < D <W Figure 40 - Point Load Tester and Example Data .axial L .with reddish brown stains from original joint surfaces around the edges. F - 1.random or unknown orientation Axial 0.dry greenish grey to grey. eparation. medium to coarse -grained GRANODlORlTE .37 orrectior Factor.Table of Contents Adjustable crosshead Conical platen (see detail) Quick release valve Conical Platen Detail Table of Contents Schematic Diagram of Point Load Tester Point Load Test New Territories Trunk Road Borehole No.26 1.irregular lump /I .parallel to planes of weakness 1 . or eptt Rock Type and Description - l a t e Tested : 7 1 8 1 8 3 rested by : KYC I m) Test Moisturc Type Conditio~ and irtctior - Ram Area : - '10 Very strong . slightly decomposed. inequigranular. De W Failure (mml (mm) 83 83 91.

300mm diameter Table of Contents Figure 41 - Typical Arrangement f o r Double-ring Constant-head Field I n f i l t r a t i o n Test .t Table of Contents Test pit or caisson Table of Contents A frame with I . f I I 10 litre bottles with calibrated graduations Constant head of water for Stiff nylon tubing supplyins water Table of Contents Test surface. 600mm diameter Inner steel ring. hand excavated and level Outer steel ring.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .

1981a I . Figure 43 - Typical Arrangement for Plate Load Test .Table of Contents Settlement measurement Main loading frame Reference Table of Contents gf column Loading I Loading column Centralising fins Skirt Loading plate Bedding material Line of tension piles Table of Contents \I L Measuring column Table of Contents I Note : Details of Loading Plate Figure adopted from Brown (1981 1 and BS5930 1 BSI.

1 2 t o m 12 10 . sondY . t g h t . .1 2 I O m 101 mm 89mm 76mm 8 2 3 0 Permeab#lty lest - PW NW 78 Figure 4 4 . lOOmm t h l c k . yellowish b r o w n ~ n e ~ u ~ ~ r a hmoderotely decomposed lor. Samples ond Instrumentottan nspectlon pot excovoted t o 1 5 m depth 1%) 0 50 + Sheet No Of : I I Logged by : A N Chon of ~ o t e works I Checked by : A N .s t o l n e d j m t dlppmg a t 7 0 ' ot 9 1 . brown-stained jolnts a t 9.2 11011 Moderately weok. d e p t h 1 Plant used Longyeor L 3 L .74 N 19259 5 5 9 1 6 mPD Vertical Locatmn Lom T I P Ground L e v e l : Contl(l~t0r A. smooth ond ~ L a n a r .100 I ~. N Cornpony Orlentatmn ' epth of 2s. completely decomposed c o a r s ~ .g r a i n e d GRANITE I M e d u m dense t o dense.Project : Co-ordinates : Table of Contents E 12197. b l o c k .6. reddish b r a w n .2 and 10 5 m I see Sheet 2 I \C 1 Remarks : f F r o m s ~ t e o r m a t i o n d r o w m g no A130791 o r l g t n o l ground level before canstructmn of f l l l Platfarm a n d playground w a r a p p r a x 8 8 m P D . t l g h t .11 5 0 m 11 50 .g r o ~ n e d GRANITE ' 4 1 t h generally wldely-spoCed lOltlt5 Smooth and planar.t l g h t . Sandy SILT 1 CLAY 1 1 Table of Contents 8. slightly decomposed coarse t o m e d u m . ongular COBBLES o f - n e d w m t o c o o r s e . coarse t o medium-grolned GRANITE w i t h sub.oose. v e sample. Lou 2 2 / 2 / 8 6 to 2L 12186 Descrtptlon o f M o t e r m l s I Grodr :ancrete s l o b . Type of b o r l n g l d r i l l l n g : Rotmy d r l i ~ n g U76. b l o c k .RAVEL w ~ t h~ c c o s i o n o l ongular cobbles 2nd some r o o t l e t s - Table of Contents : Fill 1 Medlum dense yellowish b r o w n silty SAND s S o n g u l o grovel ond ~ t O C C Ou b -I O ~rO I h cobbles o f moderotely t o h l g h l y decomposed coarse-grotned g r o n l t e I Calluvlum 1 Extremely weok.closely-spaced. of 76 mm or 100 mm d o I b l o w c o u n t .9 3 m . Sub-horrzontal.~ h . s l l t y l clayey.o(rse. . smooth ond planar. 10.l medium . i l g h t r e d d l s h brown.18 1 0 m C w m g tubes 000 8 20m 8 20 . inequigronulor.ng %re1 Imm 1LOl - Field Tests. p m k l s h grey.w a t e r Table of Contents M o r n m p l w c n l n g water Level a t 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2312 2 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2112 18 1 12 1 7 6 I 13 2 12 1 3 5 13 2 12 1 SPT inner sample 3 H depth :arlng Nalsr - 8 2 8 2 8 2 2 9 I Stondord penetratton t e s t N value b l o w count I p e n e t r a t ~ o n 1 8 20 .Example of a Borehole Log (sheet 1 of 2) . Fill 1 .h o r ~ z o n t o l .g r o ~ n e d slightly jecomposed granite w i t h much coarse grovel. . II t I $ I S m o l l d t s t u r b e d eomple L a r g e disturbed somole Undasturbed dr .s t a i n e d jotnts Strong. p ~ n k f s h grey.

X . f r e s h .h o r ~ z o n t a l . Samples ond nstrumentat~on eger + i + + + i X X < ' X . X .- Sheet NO 2 01 2 I Contractor A N Cornpony Or~enlotm- Sample Field Tests.highly \decomposed coarse-grained GRANITE from 107-llOm NII recovery f r o m 11 0 .n 3 - n .s p a c e d rough and pionor t l g h l b r o w n . pcnklsh brown sandy SILT w i t h some rellct graolte t e x t u r e IHlghly to completely decomposed GRANITE 71 - - .s t a ~ n e dp n t s dbppmg o t 40' o t 13 3 m and 1L 8 m - - + + + 4 * + + + .+ * + Jlezometer Allb + + + + + + + + . b e n t o n l t e s e a l f r o m 1 2 l r n t o 8 Zm. t ~ g h t .11 5 m !iZlP Small disturbed sample No 10 c o n t o l n s dense.12 t o m PW NW Permeablllty test F i g u r e 4 4 .b e n t o n ~ l c grout f r o m L 5 m to ground s u r f o c e I Legend P l o d used Small disturbed somple L o r g e d l s t u t b e d somple Longyeor L 3 L + U76 100 Type of borlng I d r l l h n g Rotary drlllkng Table of Contents Undisturbed drlve s a m p l e s of 7 6 m m or 100 mm d m I b l o w count depth I F l u s h ~ n gmedium Water 1 M o l t e r sample SPT ltner somple Standard penetration test N v a l u e I blow count I penetrotlon I D ~ o m e t e rof b o r n g I drllllng 0 8 11 12 00 20 50 10 a $ - 8 2Om 11 5 0 m 12 1 0 m 18 1 0 m l4Omm 101 mm 89mm 76mm Casing tubes 0 0 0 . m e q u ~ g r a n u l a r . II .+ + + Very strong hght p m k l s h grey ~ n e q u ~ g r o n u l a r . S l ~ g h t l y decomposed GRANITE for deta1151 I see Sheet 1 - . medwm to c a o r s e . .h o r ~ z o n t o l c l o s e l y .g r a ~ n e d GRANITE wtth generally widely-spoced p n t s Smooth ond plonor tight b r o w n .8 2 O m 8 2 0 .+ .X + + + + Weak yellowish brown. w h l t e .Barehole No Prqcct Project A A 11 Table of Contents Job No Co-ordonotes LTlDLl11 E 4 2 L 9 7 7L N 19259 55 91 6 mPD Verl8col Date of w o r k s 2 2 1 2 1 8 6 to 24 1 2 1 8 6 Locot~on Lom Tin Ground Level .2 m m t h ~ c k chlorite lnflll a t 17 1 17 6 m S u b . s m o o t h a n d plonar tlght. X X X <.Example of a B o r e h o l e Log ( s h e e t 2 of 2) .+ + + Closely-spoced. smooth and p l a n a r .s t o l n e d ]o. smooth and unduldt8ng d o r k green joints wbth 1 . b r o w n .s t o m e d p n t 5 dlpplng a t 10" a t 15 0 15 5 m - . plezometer A110 l n s t o l l e d o t 7 5 5 m depth below ground surfoce w l l h sand filter f r o m 8 2 m t o 69rn.nts Moderately to hbghly decomposed rock recovered os angular gravel o t 12 5 12 a m Table of Contents .+ Sub-vertical medium-spaced. bentonlte s e a l l r o m 6 9 m t o 4 5 m a n d c e m e n t . L .+ + + .s t a m e d p n t coated w l l h k a o l m o f 18 Om Table of Contents - - Borehale complete a t 18 l m depth t Remarks Plezometer A t l b mstolled o t 17 3 m depth below ground surfoce w l l h s a n d filter from 18 l m to 12 l m . 6 * + + + - Strong llght p m k l s h grey ~ n e q u t g r o n u l a r sllghtly decomposed medlum to coarse-gramed GRANITE with s u b .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents PLATES .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents [BLANK PAGE] .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Drilling i n U r b a n Areas of Hong Kong Drilling i n S t e e p l y Sloping Ground Ground I n v e s t i g a t i o n s o v e r Water Drilling a n d Sampling Equipment ( t h r e e s h e e t s ) Block Sampling Groundwater P r e s s u r e Measuring Equipment Page No.299 LIST OF PLATES Table of Contents Plate No. Table of Contents S t a n d a r d P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t Equipment P e n e t r a t i o n Vane T e s t A p p a r a t u s (Geonor A/S) Impression P a c k e r S u r v e y Equipment P r o b i n g a n d P e n e t r a t i o n T e s t Equipment Table of Contents Table of Contents .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .

in the Middle of a Busy Road Plate 1 - D r i l l i n g i n U r b a n Areas of Hong Kong .Table of Contents Table of Contents A : Drilling in a Densely -developed Urban Area Table of Contents Table of Contents B : Drilling.

Table of Contents Table of Contents A : Working P l a t f o r m f o r D r i l l i n g o n a Slope Table of Contents Table of Contents B : Timber Scaffolding for Access Plate 2 - D r i l l i n g in S t e e p l y Sloping Ground .

Table of Contents Table of Contents A : Jack .up Platform Table of Contents Table of Contents B : Power Swivel Drilling System Mounted on a Barge Plate 3 - Ground Investigations over Water .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents I s A : T h e ODEX D r i l l B i t B : The U100 Sampler Table of Contents -- Plate 4 .Drilling a n d Sampling Equipment ( s h e e t 1 of 3 ) .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents C : Thin -walled Stationary Piston Sampler D : Components o f a D o u b l e .101 I CoreTable of Contents Plate 4 - Drilling a n d S a m p l i n g E q u i p m e n t (sheet 2 o f 3 ) .t u b e b a r r e l ( C r a e l i u s T 2 .

barrel ITriefus HMLC) F : Components of a Retractable Triple .tube Core barrel 1 Mazier ) - Table of Contents Plate 4 .Drilling and Sampling Equipment ( s h e e t 3 of 3 ) .Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents E : Components Of a Non-retractable Tripletube Core .

Table of Contents Table of Contents A : Trimmed Block Sample Table of Contents Table of Contents B : Protection of Block Sample Plate 5 - Block Sampling .

1538L871 C : Tensiometer Jetfill) Table of Contents Plate 6 .Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents A : Casagrande Piezometer Tip B : S t r i n g of Piezome-ter Buckets 1British P a t e n t No.Groundwater P r e s s u r e M e a s u r i n g Equipment .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .

Table of Contents A : Torque Measuring Device Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents B : Vane Body Plate 8 - Penetration Vane T e s t A p p a r a t u s (Geonor A / S ) .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents .

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents APPENDICES .

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Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESK STUDY APPENDIX A .

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3 A.4 A.6 315 317 319 319 319 319 GENERAL MAPS.317 CONTENTS Table of Contents Page No.9 Table of Contents Table of Contents .8 A.2 A.7 A. TITLE PAGE CONTENTS A.5 A. PLANS AND CHARTS GROUND CONDITIONS METEOROLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION P A S T RECORDS SERVICES AND UTILITIES LEASE AND ENGINEERING CONDITIONS PLANNING A GROUND INVESTIGATION REFERENCES Table of Contents 320 320 320 322 324 A.l A.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents [BLANK PAGE] -- .

t o check t h e location a n d e x t e n t of a n old seawall o r a buried stream course.g. streams. vegetation. burial g r o u n d s and obstructions s u c h a s transmission lines a n d towers. These should b e s t u d i e d a n d useful information extracted. Sources of information a r e given in Appendix B. including temporary access f o r construction purposes. w h e r e available. These provide detailed information on t h e geology of t h e district. . old maps may be useful. seawalls a n d piers). Geological maps a n d memoirs. a n d may r e d u c e t h e scope a n d e x t e n t of t h e investigation r e q u i r e d .g. retaining s t r u c t u r e s . Admiralty c h a r t s a n d t i d e tables should also be r e f e r r e d to. slopes. t u n n e l s . Table of Contents (b) (c) Table of Contents A. s t o r a g e a r e a s a n d access.2 MAPS. a n d a r e useful a s a basis f o r evaluating t h e likely influence of t h e local geology on t h e proposed works and in t h e selection of t h e g r o u n d investigation methods. including t h e assessment of flooding r i s k a n d t h e influence of t h e proposed works on t h e local a n d downstream d r a i n a g e regimes. a n d f o r t h e identification of works a r e a s . a n d f o r identifying t h e presence of colluvium. p a s t instability of t h e ground.l GENERAL Table of Contents A d e s k s t u d y involves t h e collection and review of information required f o r t h e planning of t h e p r o j e c t a n d of t h e s i t e investigation. e. In some cases. fill a n d boulders ( s e e Chapter 6). P a s t s i t e investigation records. alluvium. s u r f a c e hydrology. Archaeological maps may also b e r e q u i r e d t o establish t h e boundaries of a n archaeological site. e. erosion. Availability of good s i t e investigation r e c o r d s in t h e vicinity of t h e s i t e will greatly a s s i s t t h e planning of t h e ground investigation. photolineaments and o t h e r s u r f a c e geological f e a t u r e s . They a r e also useful f o r t h e assessment of t h e effect of t h e proposed works on a d j a c e n t properties a n d s t r u c t u r e s .4 METEOROLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION Local rainfall r e c o r d s should b e collected where t h e proposed works r e q u i r e slope a n d d r a i n a g e design. A. Table of Contents For works t o be c a r r i e d o u t in a marine environment (e.3 G R O U N D CONDITIONS The following information should b e r e f e r r e d t o f o r a preliminary s t u d y of t h e g r o u n d conditions : (a) Aerial photographs. PLANS AND CHARTS Topographic maps a n d plans a r e useful for s t u d y i n g t h e general f e a t u r e s of t h e s i t e . Hydrological information. These a r e particularly useful f o r s t u d y i n g t h e s i t e history.g. i s useful i n d r a i n a g e studies. A. a n d for identifying ground f e a t u r e s of engineering significance.A.

(b) Provision of s e r v i c e s a n d utilities f o r t h e project. I t is essential t h a t t h e s e conditions a r e s t u d i e d thoroughly d u r i n g t h e d e s k s t u d y o r a s soon a s t h e y become available. f o r example. d a t a on ambient t e m p e r a t u r e s (including a i r a n d ground temperatures) a n d solar radiation should be r e f e r r e d to. g a s mains a n d telephone ducts.In t h e design of temperature-sensitive s t r u c t u r e s . Provision of temporary electricity a n d w a t e r supplies f o r t h e g r o u n d investigation. Table of Contents (b) Foundation works such a s piling.g. should be r e f e r r e d t o f o r t h e following p u r p o s e s : Table of Contents (a) Assessment of t h e effect of t h e proposed works (including g r o u n d investigation w o r k s ) on t h e existing s e r v i c e s a n d utilities. sewers. A. f o r both t h e s i t e a n d f o r a d j a c e n t properties. o r w h e r e t h e p e r formance of t h e construction materials can be affected b y temperature. (c) Details of preventive o r remedial works a n d of a n y continuing monitoring of. a n d slope a n d retaining wall movements. depending o n whether t h e proposed project is t o b e u n d e r t a k e n privately o r b y Government. t h e r e should be available a s e t of lease conditions o r engineering conditions. slopes. f i r e fighting mains. A. t o provide information on t h e following : (a) Site formation works s u c h a s construction of retaining s t r u c t u r e s a n d basements. should b e obtained w h e r e appropriate. provision of cooling water f o r t h e air-conditioning system. (c) A.6 SERVICES AND UTILITIES Details a n d locations of existing s e r v i c e s a n d utilities. electrical cables. t h e e f f e c t of dewatering settlement on a n old water main o r gas main. f r e s h a n d s a l t water mains.7 LEASE AND ENGINEERING CONDITIONS Table of Contents Except where a n investigation is being planned for a s i t e t h a t has not been allocated t o t h e p r o j e c t (e. building settlements. e.5 PAST RECORDS P a s t construction records. including stormwater d r a i n s . Tunnels a n d disused t u n n e l s . . a n investigation t h a t is f o r t h e p u r p o s e of selecting s i t e s o r establishing t h e suitability of a site).g. horizontal drain installations. including details of linings and g r o u n d s u p p o r t . flooding a n d settlement of g r o u n d a n d s t r u c t u r e s should also be noted a n d s t u d i e d where necessary. e. g r o u n d a n c h o r installations.g. Table of Contents (d) Records of p a s t failure.

They also s e t down t h e requirements a n d restrictions on development. These conditions govern t h e use of t h e site. drainage r e s e r v e s . governing t h e s u p p l y of f r e s h water a n d s a l t water. appliances a n d personnel. 1981a). This Ordinance also g o v e r n s s i t e investigation work within t h e Mid-levels Scheduled Area. within. water supply. governing t h e provision of f i r e services. 1974). possession a f t h e site. and define t h e responsibilities of t h e related parties a n d authorities. removal of t r e e s . adjacent to t h e site. connections t o sewers a n d stormwater drains. services. Table of Contents Restrictions. governing t h e s a f e t y a n d t h e design a n d construction s t a n d a r d s of buildings t o b e erected. layout of t h e site. bilities for : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) The conditions normally cover responsi- maintaining both t h e stability of t h e land a n d i t s s u r f a c e condition. These normally include : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) formation a n d landscaping. drainage. and t h e planning and administrative procedures t o b e followed. channels. u s e of water s u p p l y . . drains. Examples of common items covered a r e : non. establishment of rock c r u s h i n g plants. The Waterworks Ordinance (Government of Hong Kong. installations a n d equipment. height of s t r u c t u r e s . Table of Contents The following local s t a t u t e s may be mentioned in t h e lease conditions : The Buildings Ordinance and i t s s u b s i d i a r y Regulations (Government of Hong Kong. access.Engineering conditions a r e issued b y t h e appropriate District Lands Office of t h e Lands Department. 1985). blasting. a n d w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e .building a r e a s . i n t e r f e r e n c e with o r damage t o roads. a n d t h e provision of access f o r f i r e services. pile driving. a n d lease conditions a r e normally issued b y t h e Registrar GeneraVLand Officer. The following items a r e normally covered : (a) Requirements. dumping on Government land a n d public roads. Table of Contents The Fire Services Ordinance (Government of Hong Kong. Table of Contents (c) Responsibilities. etc.

even if powered mechanical equipment i s not being used. a n d . a geotechnical clause may be used t o indicate t h a t a s i t e is considered t o b e geotechnically difficult t o develop. i. For example. t o 6 a m . a n d on a n y public holiday.and t h e s t a n d a r d s equipment. a n d to enable work to be c a r r i e d o u t on site. The land matters should include : (a) (b) (c) (d) confirmation of land ownership a n d lot boundaries. hence forewarning a developer t h a t a high d e g r e e of skilled geotechnical engineering i n p u t will be required. In some cases. governing t h e storage. For example. transportation a n d use of d a n g e r o u s goods. w h e r e appropriate. This Ordinance also controls t h e general level of noise a t night. a n d 7 a. permission t o e n t e r i n t o a n d t o t r a n s p o r t t h r o u g h adjacent land. . Table of Contents I t is important t h a t t h e exact locations of s i t e boundaries of private a n d Government land. The a p p r o p r i a t e District S u r v e y Office of t h e same Department may also have t o b e consulted f o r information on delineation of t h e g r o u n d . t h e relevant District Office. For t h i s purpose. 1983).. allocation of a n y necessary works a r e a s a n d s t o r a g e areas. including Sundays. especially in t h e New Territories where land demarcation h a s not been c a r r i e d o u t t o a high s t a n d a r d in t h e past.m. equipment Table of Contents Table of Contents permission t o c a r r y o u t g r o u n d investigation work outside t h e s i t e boundaries.m. The District Lands Office should also b e consulted on matters relating t o 'fung s h u i ' a n d burial g r o u n d s . Requirements a n d restrictions imposed by local s t a t u t e s should b e studied a n d observed in t h e planning a n d execution of t h e investigation. 1981b) r e s t r i c t s t h e u s e of powered mechanical equipment between 7 p. t h e e f f e c t of flushing water from drilling on existing slopes a n d retaining walls should be considered. Land matters should be dealt with well in advance of t h e r e q u i r e d d a t e of commencement of investigations. installations and Table of Contents The Dangerous Goods Ordinance (Government of Hong Kong. a n d of allocated works a r e a s a n d s t o r a g e a r e a s . t h e a p p r o p r i a t e District Lands Office of t h e Lands Department. S t a t u t e s governing safety. should b e ascertained from t h e a p p r o p r i a t e District Lands Office. t h e Summary Offences Ordinance (Government of Hong Kong.8 PLANNING A G R O U N D INVESTIGATION I n planning a ground investigation. from 11 p. health a n d welfare of workmen a r e given in Appendix E. should b e consulted. on a d j a c e n t properties a n d s t r u c t u r e s a n d on existing services a n d utilities. t h e effect of t h e proposed works on t h e ground. For example.e. s o a s t o a r r a n g e f o r unhindered access f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g equipment t o site. special clauses may also be p r e s e n t in t h e lease conditions. should be thoroughly examined. (d) of plumbing. A.m. .

Office. Where t h e proposed g r o u n d investigation work may d i s r u p t t h e u s e of public footpaths. including high speed roads. t h e Water Supplies Department. a s appropriate. If it is intended t o u s e explosives. typhoon s h e l t e r e n t r a n c e s . The approval of t h e Buildings Ordinance Office. Where t h e proposed g r o u n d investigation works fall within a gazetted historical site. e v e n if i t is not gazetted. permission must f i r s t be obtained from t h e Civil Aviation Department. s t r e e t s o r r o a d s . t h e prior permission of t h e Commissioner of Mines a t t h e Civil Engineering Department must be obtained. road excavation permits must be obtained from t h e Utilities Section of t h e Highways Department. Plans showing t h e b o u n d a r y of t h e Mid-levels Scheduled Area may be viewed in t h e Buildings Ordinance Office a n d t h e Geotechnical Engineering . Pumping test proposals f o r p r i v a t e developments must also be submitted t o t h e Buildings Ordinance Office f o r approval. terminals and piers. prior permission should be obtained from t h e appropriate District Lands Office. The Environmental Protection Department must also b e consulted where toxic effluents a r e involved. Ltd. whose advice must b e s o u g h t where t h e proposed ground investigation work falls within t h e protection boundary. Urban Services Department o r Regional Services Department. t h e Cross Harbour Tunnel Co. must b e obtained f o r site investigation work t h a t falls within t h e Mid-levels Scheduled Area. pipelines o r utilities. o r t h e various public utility companies. f o r example in a seismic s u r v e y . Whenever possible. There may be circumstances w h e r e contractors vessels will need t o provide mooring arrangements outside typhoon s h e l t e r s for t h e i r vessels d u r i n g t h e passage of typhoons. s o t h a t t h e root system of any t r e e suitable f o r t r a n s p l a n t i n g may be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e move. permission should be s o u g h t twelve months in advance.Where t r e e s need t o b e felled o r removed. If i t i s necessary t o excavate public roads. t h e Marine Department must be notified of t h e details of t h e proposals. if investigations a r e proposed n e a r submerged t u n n e l s . permission m u s t f i r s t b e obtained from t h e Drainage Services Department. channels. Similarly. Special restrictions may b e imposed by Director of Marine where works i s t o be c a r r i e d o u t in close proximity t o fairways. permission must be obtained from t h e Antiquities & Monuments Office of t h e Government Secretariat before commencement of a n y work. The Antiquities & Monuments Office should also be consulted before a n y historical s i t e is e n t e r e d . Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents . Where investigations a r e proposed close t o t h e runway of Kai Tak Airport. I n t h e case of marine investigations. s o t h a t notices t o mariners can be issued. permission must b e obtained from t h e Mass Transit Railway Corporation. Information on t h e as-built alignment of t h e Mass Transit Railway a n d i t s "protection boundary" may be obtained from t h e Mass Transit Railway Corporation. t h e Highways Department should be consulted. who will consult t h e Agriculture & Fisheries Department. In cases w h e r e i t is necessary t o d i s c h a r g e effluents into public d r a i n s o r sewers.

r e v i s e d edition 1983. Government of Hong Kong (1981b). Government of Hong Kong (1983). Laws of Honq Konq. Waterworks Ordinance ( a n d Waterworks Regulations). Hong Kong Government P r i n t e r . Buildinqs Ordinance ( a n d Building Regulations). Chapter 228. Chapter 123. revised edition 1985. (Amended from time t o time). 45 p. Hong Kong Government Printer. Danqerous Goods Ordinance ( a n d Dangerous Goods Requlations). Chapter 95. 387 p. Summary Offences Ordinance ( a n d Subsidiary Legislation). Chaoter 295. (Amended from time t o time). revised edition 1974.9 REFERENCES Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Government of Hong Kong (1974). Hong Kong Government P r i n t e r . revised edition 1981. Laws of Hong Kong. Laws of Honq Konq.A. Fire Services Ordinance ( a n d Fire Services Regulation). Hong Kong Government P r i n t e r . Hong Kong Government P r i n t e r . 278 p. Government of Hong Kong (1985). 45 p. 26 p. . (Amended from time t o time). Laws of Honq Kong. Government of Hong Kong (1981a). r e v i s e d edition 1981. Chapter 102. (Amended from time t o time). (Amended from time t o time). Laws of Hong Konq.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents SOURCES OF INFORMATION APPENDIX B .

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1 .1 MAPS.6.9 8. 3 Aerial Photographs Page No.2 B.2 8.8. 325 327 329 329 329 329 B.8.7 B.1 B.2 Other Maps 8 .6.10 Table of Contents .4 B.1 The Geotechnical Information Unit of t h e Civil Engineering Library 8.8 SERVICES AND UTILITIES LOCAL LIBRARIES 8.327 CONTENTS Table of Contents T I T L E PAGE CONTENTS B. 1 .3 GEOLOGICAL MAPS AND MEMOIRS ADMIRALTY CHARTS.1. TIDE TABLES AND NOTICE O N SHIPPING MOVEMENTS B. PLANS AND AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS 8 .3 RECORDS Records from Previous Investigations Design a n d Construction Records Other Public Records Table of Contents 329 330 330 330 331 331 331 331 332 332 332 333 333 336 B.2 Other Libraries ADDRESSES OF LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS REFERENCES Table of Contents B. Maps a n d Plans Produced b y t h e S u r v e y & Mapping Office B.6 METEOROLOGICAL AND SEISMOLOGICAL INFORMATION HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION PAST B.5 B.6.

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l. b u t t h e y can be examined b y authorized personnel i n connection with Government projects.2 Other Maps Other map sources include t h e following : ( a ) Early maps o f Hong Kong are held for r e f e r e n c e b y t h e S u r v e y & Mapping Office and t h e Public Records Office. ( c ) The Hong Kong Archaeological Society holds selected maps. These services are available from t h e Office's Map & Plan Sales outlets. and leaflets on t h e services o f f e r e d and on copyright. Territory back t o 1924 and full coverage i s available from 1963 onwards.1 MAPS. is given i n Table 1.1. orders may be placed at either t h e Hong Kong or Kowloon outlets. together with map catalogues. will comprise a series o f Table of Contents .l Maps and Plans Produced b y t h e S u r v e y & Mapping Office Table of Contents Table of Contents The Survey & Mapping Office o f t h e Lands Department provides basic large-scale plans. which include historical buildings and boundaries o f archaeological sites. Once t h e reference numbers o f t h e required photographs have been obtained. Services o f f e r e d b y t h e Survey & Mapping Office include t h e supply o f negative or photographic copies o f available maps and plans. t o allow time for production and delivery. and their coverage. The s u r v e y began i n 1982 and.2 G E O L O G I C A L MAPS AND M E M O I R S A new geological s u r v e y o f Hong Kong i s being carried out b y t h e Geotechnical Engineering Office o f t h e Civil Engineering Department. P L A N S AND AERIAL P H O T O G R A P H S B. 8. The maps are not available t o members o f t h e public.3 Table of Contents Aerial Photographs Aerial photographs may be purchased from t h e S u r v e y & Mapping Office's Map & Plan Sales outlets. derived medium-scale plans. ( b ) The Antiquities & Monuments Office o f t h e Culture Division. B. Orders for enlargements and other nonstandard items should be placed well i n advance.1. whole or partial-frame enlargement prints.B. approved town plans. when completed i n 1991. and topographic maps o f Hong Kong. as well as producing enlargements and reductions. Services include t h e supply o f vertical and oblique aerial photographs as contact. Indexes and contact prints of aerial photographs may be inspected only at t h e Map and Plan Sales (Hong Kongf outlet. Municipal Services Branch holds a series o f large-scale archaeological maps covering t h e whole o f Hong Kong. The availability o f black and white vertical aerial photography is Aerial photography exists f o r some parts o f t h e summarised in Table 2. 8. A list o f t h e currently available plans and maps.

from which local information may be obtained. weathering. B. t h u n d e r s t o r m . Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents B. The Geotechnical Engineering Office also holds a collection of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e rock t y p e s a n d thin sections. structure and metamorphism of Hong Kong have been reviewed by Bennett (1984a. Tide tables a r e readily available in Hong Kong a t t h e Government Publications Centre and selected bookshops.6 B. A summary of t h e n a t u r e a n d o c c u r r e n c e of Hong Kong rocks a n d superficial deposits is given in Appendix A of Geoguide 3 ( G C O . The superficial deposits. namely t h e 1:50 000 scale maps a n d memoir b y Allen & Stephens (1971).5 HYDROLOGICAL INFORMATION The Water Supplies Department has a comprehensive system of stream gauging in t h e main catchment areas. relationship and phasing of t h e maps a n d memoirs a r e shown in Figure 3. manuscript geological maps a t 1:10 000 scale.fifteen maps a n d six memoirs.9). 1984b. These a r e available f o r inspection b y arrangement. Rainfall r e c o r d s a r e published monthly a n d annually. Daily weather r e p o r t s a n d forecasts a r e issued t o g e t h e r with individual tropical cyclone.6. The new publication s e r i e s will replace t h e c u r r e n t reference geological document. 1988). TIDE TABLES AND NOTICES O N SHIPPING MOVEMENTS Admiralty c h a r t s may be obtained from t h e accredited a g e n t in Hong Kony.3 ADMIRALTY CHARTS. The coverage. namely George Falconer Ltd ( s e e Section B. The Marine Department i s s u e s notices t o mariners regularly concerning s h i p movements a n d h a r b o u r obstructions. o r from t h e Map & Plan Sales outlets of t h e S u r v e y & Mapping Office.4 METEOROLOGICAL AND SEISMOLOGICAL INFORMATION The Royal Observatory collects a n d publishes meteorological information in Hong Kong. Both t h e new a n d existing maps a n d memoirs can be obtained from t h e Government Publications Centre. a n d offshore data. B. 1 9 8 4 ~ ) . The Planning Division of t h e Geotechnical Engineering Office is t h e repository f o r geological r e c o r d s . B. Requests f o r information should be directed t o t h e Chief Geotechnical Engineer of t h e Planning Division. These include t h e field observations embodied in t h e geological maps a n d memoirs. a n d a list of publications on meteorological statistics is available from t h e Observatory. stratigraphy. The Royal Observatory also maintains a well-equipped seismological unit. tectonic history. providing detailed descriptive a n d 1:20 000 scale map coverage of t h e e n t i r e land a n d s e a a r e a of t h e Territory. a n d t h i s information is published in annual r e p o r t s on rainfall a n d runoff. landslip a n d flood warnings.1 PAST RECORDS Records from Previous Investigations The Geotechnical Information Unit of t h e Geotechnical Engineering Office Table of Contents .

Copies o f design reports and record drawings o f completed projects are also k e p t . who will require t o know t h e address o f t h e property and t h e lot number. b u t i t does have some much earlier material. B. together with almost complete collections o f t h e Hong Kong Government Gazette. from 1889. . Annual Departmental Reports. reservoirs and ancillary structures. The Civil Engineering Office o f t h e Civil Engineering Department maintains records o f all known waste t i p s i n Hong Kong. The Geotechnical Information Unit also contains a large amount o f other information o f direct relevance t o site investigation.3 Other Public Records The Public Records Office o f Hong Kong is t h e central repository for t h e permanent archives o f t h e Hong Kong Government. a f t e r which time t h e files are transferred t o t h e Public Records Office.2 Design and Construction Records Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Several Government Departments possess information t h a t is o f value t o t h e planning and execution o f site investigation i n Hong Kong. The Architectural Services Department maintains records o f Government buildings. The Water Supplies Department holds records o f water tunnels. and some natural slopes. and Hong Kong Hansard.8. The majority o f i t s holdings date from 1945. arrangements can usually be made for specific information t o be made available t o bona fide users. The Buildings Ordinance Office o f t h e Buildings Department retains records o f private developments for about seven years following their completion. Reports are referenced b y means o f a simple map grid system. Each Government Department retains i t s own files on projects t h a t are carried out under i t s control. However.1.6. I t maintains catalogued collections o f maps and photographs dating from 1860. The Geotechnical Engineering Office o f t h e same Department holds records o f all known disused tunnels and quarries. The Sessional Papers are o f particular interest because.6. Ordinances and Regulations. A brief summary o f information possessed b y some o f t h e Government Departments is given below. and t h i s is described in Section B. catchwaters. b u t this i s o f t e n not readily accessible. B. The Highways Department holds records o f t h e majority o f public roads and road tunnels. Permission t o view a particular set o f records may be obtained from t h e Buildings Ordinance Office. and maintains records o f all known retaining walls and man-made slopes.holds reports o f previous site investigations. The Mines and Quarries Division o f t h e Civil Engineering Department maintains records o f all known disused mines. Sessional Papers. t h e y include t h e Annual Reports o f t h e Director o f Public Works. which o f t e n include borehole logs and results from laboratory testing o f soils and rocks. Blue Books.

In addition to records from previous site investigations. and applications for water supply should be directed to the Department's Consumer Services Division. the Geotechnical Information Unit contains records of landslides. Information on the location of water supply mains (including private cooling water mains). The Drainage Services Department maintains as-built records of public drains and sewers.7 SERVICES AND UTILITIES the Table of Contents Table of Contents Information on gas. list of gazetted historical sites is maintained by Antiquities & Monuments Office of the Government Secretariat.8.which give information on failures and remedial works. 1994) produced by the Geotechnical Engineering Office. and factual reports and drawings prepared by Government Departments and Consulting Engineers for a wide range of large and small building and civil engineering projects. These are listed in the Bibliography on the Geology and Geotechnical Engineering of Hong Kong to May 1994 (Brand. Table of Contents A. should be sought from the private companies supplying these services. including both the locations and details of existing facilities and the provision of further services. B. The Photographic Library and Reference Library of the Information Services Department holds sets of old photographs. which is operated by the Geotechnical Engineering Office of the Civil Engineering Department. This includes Sessional Papers. A full copy of every 'short' publication listed is kept in the Geotechnical Information Unit. and similar services. Also of great value is the comprehensive newspaper collection held by the Public Records Office. telephone. Notable examples of the latter are the various Landslide Studies Reports and the Mid-levels Study Report.8 B. which were commissioned by the Government. electricity. together with geotechnical and geological textbooks and journals. Statistical Abstracts and Legislative Council Minutes. It also contains a large collection of published and unpublished documents specific to Hong Kong (including references on site investigation).1 LOCAL LIBRARIES The Geotechnical Information Unit of the Civil Engineering Library The Geotechnical Information Unit forms part of the Civil Engineering Library. ' Almost 1500 items are known to have been published specifically on aspects of the geology and geotechnical engineering of Hong Kong. fill and natural slopes and retaining walls. B. The Government Secretariat Library contains information that could be useful from an historical point of view. The addresses of the major utility companies are listed in Section B.9. Geotechnical Area Studies Programme maps. microfilm of newspaper cuttings and other useful material. Administrative Reports. public drains and sewers may be sought from the relevant Government Department. The Water Supplies Department holds records of public water mains. a catalogue and records of existing cut. together with copies Table of Contents . rainfall and piezometric data.

8. Pioneer Centre. Photocopying facilities are available for public use. No direct access is permitted to the shelved items. 35th Floor. Ltd. Kowloon.9 ADDRESSES OF LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS Table of Contents Agriculture & Fisheries Department. These copies are contained in bound volumes by year of publication and then in alphabetical order by authors' surnames. (Tel. (Tel.: 2678 8111) Table of Contents . 136 Nathan Road. Copies of new publications are added to the collection as they become available. as well as a large number of master and doctoral degree theses on geological and geotechnical topics.6th. together with some unpublished reports.: 2721 2326) British Forces Hong Kong. Table of Contents Table of Contents B. 12th-18th Floors. 3rd. can only be accessed by special permission.of the title and contents pages of the 'long' publications. 750 Nathan Road. and items required for examination must first be located in the card catalogue syskems.: 2733 2211) Architectural Services Department.2 Other Libraries The City Hall Public Library and the Kowloon Central Library each houses a reference section which contains a number of published documents on the geology and geotechnical engineering of Hong Kong. HMS Tamar. Full copies of some of the 'long' publications are also available in the Geotechnical Information Unit. but these are shelved separately. (Tel.: 2588 3111) China Light & Power Co. 393 Canton Road. which contains considerable unpublished information. Queensway Government offices. The University of Hong Kong. Hong Kong. however. Kowloon (Tel. The University of Hong Kong maintains an outstanding Hong Kong Collection. the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Polytechnic University each has a large library which contains a collection of general geological and geotechnical information. (Tel. Photocopying facilities are available in the library. Tsirn Sha Tsui. They also house Hong Kong Collections of considerable interest.. (Tel. Kowloon. All three.: 2626 1616) Antiquities & Monument Offices. Hong Kong. Kowloon. B. Photocopying facilities are available. 66 Queensway.8th8llth-14th Floors.: 2867 3628) Buildings Department. All the information in the Geotechnical Information Unit may be consulted by bona fide users. 147 Argyle Street. Canton Road Government Offices. although this is usually not difficult for bona fide visitors to obtain.

43rd Floor. (Tel. Hong Kong. Hong Kong. Quarry Bay.: 2788 8311) Civil Engineering Office. (Tel. 66 Queensway.: 2762 5111) Government Publications Centre. (Tel. Kowloon. Civil Engineering Building. Revenue Tower. Hong Kong. (Tel. Tat Chee Avenue. (Tel.: 2888 2888) Table of Contents Table of Contents . Hong Kong. Kowloon. Hong Kong. Kowloon.: 2367 1124) Hong Kong Electric Co. 5 Gloucester Road.: 2762 3333) Hong Kong and China Gas Co. ~ t d .: 2808 3620 2808 3817) Geotechnical Engineering Office. Hunghom.: 2880 6988) Hong Kong Polytechnic university Library. (Tel. Homantin. Yuk Choi Road. Hong Kong. 12% Milestone. 15th Floor. 66 Queensway. Queensway Government Offices.O. (Tel. (Tel. (Tel. 98 Caroline Hill Road. Homantin Government Offices. 2762 5148) : Highways Department. Hong Kong.: 2867 4332) Cross Harbour Tunnel Co. Quarry Bay. 46th Floor. City Hall. 88 Chung Hau Street.: 2843 3111) Hong Kong Telecom.. Administration Building. Homantin. Run Run Shaw Library. Wan Chai. Connaught Road Central. Ltd. Homantin.: 2333 4141) Table of Contents Table of Contents Electrical and Mechanical Services Department. 101 Princess Margaret Road. Tai Po Road. New Territories. Homantin. P. Hong Kong Jewellery Building. (Tel. City Garden. Kowloon. The ~lectricCentre. (Tel. Kowloon. (Tel. (Tel. Box 9896.: 2766 6863) City Hall Public Library.: 2537 1910) Hong Kong Archaeological Society.Chinese university of Hong Kong Library. (Tel.. 9th Floor. Hunghom. Ground Floor. Kowloon. (Tel. Hong Kong Telecom Centre. LG1.: 2877 06601 George Falconer (Nautical) Ltd. 15th Floor. Kowloon Park. (Tel. Hong Kong. Hong Kong. Ltd. Kowloon. Lower Block. Queensway Government Offices. Kowloon. (Tel.: 2921 2555) Civil Aviation Department. lock 58. 363 Java Road.: 2609 7301) City University of Hong Kong. Civil Engineering Building. Sha Tin. Civil Engineering Library. (Tel.Civil Engineering Building. 178-180 Queen's Road Central. 101 Princess Margaret Road. 101 Princess Margaret Road. 5th Floor.: 2854 2882) Geotechnical Information Unit.: 2762 5111) Drainage Services Department. 979 King's Road. C/O Museum of History.

Civil ~ngineeringDepartment. Civil Engineering Building. (Tel. Mezzanine Floor. Hong Kong. Tuen Mun. (Tel. Kowloon. Murray Building. KCRC House. (Tel. Garden Road. 134A Nathan Road. (Tel.: 2848 2480) Marine Department.21st Floor. 5 Pui Ching Road. Harbour Building. Tuen Mun Government Storage Centre. (Tel. 101 Princess Margaret Road. Kowloon. (Tel. Hong Kong. 8 Wang Hoi Road. New Territories. 2 Connaught Place. Kowloon. 14th-15th. (Tel. 1st Floor. Hong Kong.. 7th Floor. (Tel. General Post Office. 1st-4th.: 2460 3736) Regional Services Department. New Territories. 14th Floor. 2852 3001) Mines and Quarries Division. Tsim Sha Tsui. Clear Water Bay. Hang Fook Building.: 2688 1333) Map Publications Centre (Hong Kong) . Fo Tan Station. New Territories. Hong Kong.: 2993 2111) Post Office. (Tel.: 2926 4055) Lands Department. 38 Pier Road. Hong Kong. (Tel. 1-3 Pai Tau Street. 6th Floor. West Wing. (Tel. Homantin. Homantin. (Tel. . Kowloon Bay. Lands Department. Kowloon. (Tel. Garden Road. Shatin.: 2730 0272) Royal Observatory.: 2780 0981) Mass Transit Railway Corporation.: 2926 8200) Town Reading Centre. Central. Kowloon.: 2921 2332) Table of Contents ow loon-Canton Railway Corporation.: 2848 2278) Table of Contents Table of Contents Rediffusion(Hong Kong)Ltd. (Tel. Shatin.14th-15th Floors. 382 Nathan Road. Hong Kong.: 2848 2198) Map publications Centre (Kowloon). Murray Building. Central Government Offices. : (Tel. Flat C.: 2810 3693) Table of Contents . Kowloon. Garden Road. 9 Lok King Street. Regional Council Building.: 2358 6747) & Kowloon Central Library. (Tel.Hong Kong University of Science Technology Library. Murray Building. 17-23 Shang Hai Street. Kowloon.: 2601 8500) Survey & ~appingoffice.: 2762 5331) Public Records Office. 1 San Yick Lane. Chevalier Commercial Centre.

& Stephens. (Tel. 6/84. 39). E. (1984b). Brand. Bibliography on the Geology and Geotechnical Engineering of Hong Kong to May 1994 (GEO Report No. Hong Kong. (1971). 66 Queensway. Queensway Government Offices. Geotechnical Control Office. 86 p. Report on the Geological Survey of Hong Kong.M. plus 2 maps .D. (Tel. (1994) . Hong Kong. Bennett. (Tel. 116 p. J. (1984a). Geotechnical Control Office. Hong Kong Government Press.10 REFERENCES Allen.D. Hong Kong. 51 p. Structure and Metamorphism of Hong Kong. Pokfulam Road. Geotechnical Control Office. Guide to Rock and Soil Descriptions (Geoguide 3).: 2859 2203) Urban Services Department.: 2829 4500) B. Hong Kong.: 2867 5596) Table of Contents Water Supplies Department. 189 p. Hong Kong. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents GCO (1988). 7 Gloucester Road. Wanchai. GCO Publication No. Bennett. J. Immigration Tower. 42nd-45th Floors. GCO Publication No. 63 p. Hong Kong.D. J.University of Hong Kong Library. P. Geotechnical Control Office. Hong Kong.A. 4/84. E. Review of Hong Kong Stratigraphy. 202 p. 5/84. . Geotechnical Engineering Office.W. 1967-1969. Hong Kong . (1984~). GCO Publication No. Bennett. Review of Tectonic History. Review of Superficial Deposits and Weathering in Hong Kong.

Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents NOTES ON S I T E RECONNAISSANCE APPENDIX C .

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2 C.l C.4 C.339 CONTENTS Table of Contents Page NO.3 C.5 GENERAL PREPARATORY WORK GENERAL PROCEDURE INFORMATION ON GROUND CONDITIONS S I T E INSPECTION PRIOR TO COMMENCEMENT O F GROUND INVESTIGATIONS 337 339 341 341 341 342 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 343 . T I T L E PAGE CONTENTS C.

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buildings.2 PREPARATORY WORK Prior t o undertaking t h e site reconnaissance.3 GENERAL PROCEDURE Where appropriate. including t h e effects of construction traffic and heavy construction loads on existing roads. gas and water pipes. C. Although site reconnaissance is normally carried out after completion of a thorough desk study (see Section 4. bridges and services. records should be made. should be checked. t h e following procedure may be adopted : The whole a r e a should be traversed. notebook. Any equipment necessary to ensure t h e safety of field personnel should also be included. large clip board. historical features. geological compass (compass and clinometer). roads. Differences and omissions on plans and maps (e. measuring tape. camera. site boundaries. where appropriate. and.g. The site reconnaissance may include both site inspection and local enquiries concerning existing and proposed features on and adjacent t o t h e site. C. etc) should be recorded. for example. geological hammer. electricity cables and sewers) should be recorded. topographic and geological maps and t h e necessary equipment should be available. An inspection should be made of t h e details of all existing structures. preferably on foot. and photographs should be taken of selected features of t h e site and its surroundings. For large sites.2 and Appendix A). t h e following preparations should be made : (a) Permission to gain access t o t h e site should have been obtained from both t h e owner and occupier.g. Table of Contents ( b ) The site plan. penknife and hand lens ( ~ 1 0 ) .C. a range finder and binoculars may also be useful. transmission lines. Access. telephone lines. pencil. Potential obstructions (e. The proposed location of work shown on plans should be set-out. large trees.l GENERAL Table of Contents The purpose of t h e site reconnaissance is to confirm and supplement t h e information collected during t h e desk study (see Section 4. Table of Contents Table of Contents .2). an early site visit/reconnaissance preceding t h e desk s t u d y may sometimes be very useful.

and any other features. Comparison of topography with previous map records o r aerial photographs t o check for t h e presence of erosion. Positions and extent of tension cracks o r other features which may indicate impending slope instability. Surface features which may indicate geological faults. should be noted where relevant. a s follows : (a) Surface features. Table of Contents (iii) (iv) ( b ) An inspection should be made of soil and rock outcrops and c u t slope exposures. and any evidence of seepage erosion. and also flood levels and tidal and other fluctuations. both on site and nearby. . c u t slopes. both on site and nearby should be studied and recorded. groundwater levels. previous slope instability o r k a r s t formation.4 INFORMATION O N GROUND CONDITIONS Data on and relating to ground conditions should be gathered and recorded. The following should be noted : (i) (ii) Slope angles. preferably i n conjunction with geological maps and aerial photographs. t h e occurrence of seepage. Relevant details should be recorded. Table of Contents (c) Where relevant. gullies) should be noted. fill o r buried stream courses. flooding and land instability. Features of t h e adjacent property should be recorded. positions of wells and springs. should be assessed and recorded. direction and r a t e of flow in nullahs and streams. and t h e likelihood of these being affected by proposed works should be assessed. Table of Contents Table of Contents C. Such information should be treated with due caution. Old structures. ( d l The surface drainage pattern and any evidence of active soil erosion from surface water (e. types of slope (convex o r concave) and sudden changes in slope. structural damage t o buildings on o r near t h e site. shear zones. but should be recorded and evaluated. Local inhabitants should be interviewed about t h e past uses of t h e site.Water levels.g. including soil pipes and sinkholes. should be inspected and relevant records should be made.

(e) The n a t u r e a n d distribution of vegetation on t h e site should b e s t u d i e d a n d noted. t h i s should include t h e following activities : Table of Contents (a) The locations a n d conditions of access to t h e working s i t e s should b e inspected a n d recorded. t h i s information may provide a n indication of soil a n d g r o u n d w a t e r conditions. Table of Contents .g.5 SITE INSPECTION PRIOR TO COMMENCEMENT OF G R O U N D INVESTIGATIONS A supplementary s i t e visit will often b e necessary j u s t prior to commencement of t h e actual g r o u n d investigations. Table of Contents ( d ) Where applicable. a n d o t h e r f e a t u r e s (see Chapter 9 ) . a site reconnaissance s u r v e y should b e c a r r i e d out. telephone lines. t u n n e l portals a n d ventilation s h a f t s ) in t h e vicinity should b e s t u d i e d a n d recorded. suitable points of water s u p p l y a n d electricity s u p p l y should b e located a n d recorded. should b e located a n d recorded. followed b y t h e production of engineering geological maps a n d / o r plans a n d a n evaluation of t h e t e r r a i n based on t h e underlying soils. boundary fences a n d t r e n c h e s . Table of Contents ( g ) On extensive o r more complex projects. Where appropriate. (c) Areas f o r sample s t o r a g e should b e identified. buildings a n d o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s (e. ( b ) Obstructions. This t y p e of mapping should be c a r r i e d o u t with t h e assistance of a n engineering geologist. s u c h a s power cables. (f) The condition of embankments. C. vegetation cover.

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Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION APPENDIX D .

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2 D.l D.5 D. TITLE PAGE CONTENTS D.CONTENTS Table of Contents Page No.6 GENERAL DETAILED LAND SURVEY AND ENGINEERING A S S E S S M E N T HYDROGRAPHIC AND HYDRAULIC DATA INFLUENCES OF WEATHER MATERIAL SOURCES D I S P O S A L OF WASTE AND S U R P L U S MATERIALS 345 347 349 349 349 350 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 350 351 .3 D.4 D.

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will be necessary. The following may also be r e q u i r e d : Table of Contents Particulars of existing s t r u c t u r e s o r obstructions. flood levels . which are considered elsewhere in t h i s Geoguide. o t h e r information t h a t may be r e q u i r e d f o r design a n d construction i s briefly summarised in t h e following sections. including building heights. s t r u c t u r a l condition. Exact locations of s i t e boundaries should b e ascertained from t h e a p p r o p r i a t e District Lands Office (see Appendix A. S u r v e y coordinates should b e referenced t o t h e 1980 Hong Kong Metric Grid a n d levels t o t h e Hong Kong Principal Datum. size a n d n a t u r e of catchment areas. a n d whether t h e y have t o be demolished o r maintained.D. in which c a s e allowance should be made in t h e design. s u c h as t u n n e l s o r cavities. t o supplement t h e Admiralty c h a r t s a n d o t h e r available data. by adopting conservative assumptions f o r design parameters. t y p e s of foundations.g. a n d o t h e r p e r t i n e n t information.2 DETAILED LAND SURVEY AND ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT A detailed s u r v e y of t h e s i t e a n d i t s boundaries. documentation of s i t e m a r k e r s a n d bench marks. w h e r e known. nullahs or streams may r e q u i r e information on t h e following : (a) Marine s u r v e y data. Table of Contents Table of Contents D. floor levels. Time c o n s t r a i n t s may limit t h e extent of detailed s t u d y t h a t c a n b e given t o t h e project. including assessment of stability a n d details of a n y necessary s u p p o r t o r remedial works. Locations of s u r v e y m a r k e r s a n d bench marks n e a r t h e site. D. ( b ) Detailed information a b o u t nullah o r stream flows. e. showing means of access. with s u p p o r t i n g details. Locations a n d d e p t h s of a n y u n d e r g r o u n d o b s t r u c t i o n s o r f e a t u r e s . The items listed in t h i s Appendix a r e b y no means exhaustive. with accompanying details. easements a n d d r a i n a g e networks. utilities a n d services. tidal limits. This assessment should include boulders t h a t may pose a hazard t o t h e s i t e or t h e work. Particulars of a d j a c e n t o r n e a r b y s t r u c t u r e s t h a t may b e affected b y works o n t h e site.3 HYDROGRAPHIC AND HYDRAULIC DATA The design of s t r u c t u r e s in.l GENERAL Table of Contents In addition t o t h e determination of g r o u n d conditions at t h e site. a n d r e l e v a n t guidance documents on t h e information requirements f o r design a n d construction should b e consulted f o r additional advice. adjoining o r n e a r t h e s e a . Particulars of a d j a c e n t slopes a n d retaining walls t h a t may affect t h e site.8).

pitching. ( d ) Range of temperature. seasonal and diurnal. and wave data. o r riprap. including ~ . D. (c) Local wind speeds and wave heights generated during tropical cyclones. breakwaters and training works.and their relation to t h e Hong Kong Chart Datum. such a s attack by marine growth and borers. including clearances of obstructions. Observations on t h e condition of existing structures. (c) concrete aggregates. stone for building.5 MATERIAL SOURCES Sources of materials for construction may need t o be located and proven. Table of Contents ( b ) Groundwater responses t o major rainstorms. wrecks and other obstructions above and below t h e water line. Table of Contents ( b ) road base and surfacing materials. disintegration of concrete and attrition by floating debris o r bed movements. stability conditions of beaches.4 INFLUENCES OF WEATHER Information on t h e following may be necessary : (a) Predictions of surface water flows and groundwater levels resulting from rainfall events with r e t u r n periods of 10. (el Locations and details of existing nullahs. . streams and marine structures. t h e effect of obstructions and floating debris on permanent and temporary works. (dl (e) water. o r from more extreme rainfall events. (c) Observations on tide levels (referred to Chart Datum) and t h e r a t e of tidal fluctuations. including : (a) fill and filter materials for earthworks and reclamation. r o-j e c t i o n so r assessments of response to a one-in-ten year rainfall event. (f) Table of Contents ( g ) Data on water quality. D. Table of Contents ( d l Information on scour and siltation. 50 and 200 years. movement of foreshore material by drift. corrosion of metal work. velocity and direction of currents.

. (c) building d e b r i s a n d construction wastes. a n d methods of disposal resolved.351 (f) topsoil f o r landscaping. f o r s u c h materials as : (a) excavated soil a n d rock. Table of Contents D. as well as t r a n s p o r t requirements a n d environmental controls. (dl liquid wastes. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Access t o controlled t i p s a n d public dumping a r e a s m u s t be determined. ( b ) d r e d g e d materials.6 DISPOSAL OF WASTE AND SURPLUS MATERIALS sites f o r disposal of wastes o r s u r p l u s materials may need t o b e located.

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Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents SAFETY PRECAUTIONS APPENDIX E .

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3 E.l E. TITLE PAGE CONTENTS E.355 CONTENTS Table of Contents Page NO.5 Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents 358 .4 E.2 GENERAL SAFETY REGULATIONS SERVICES AND U T I L I T I E S WORK DISRUPTING ROADS. STREETS OR FOOTPATHS REFERENCES 353 355 357 357 3 58 358 E.

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1983b). Table of Contents E. dealt with under Regulation 52A in Part VII of t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations. These statutes cover general a s well a s specific areas of construction works. Efficient communications with outside services (police. dealt with under Part VI of t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations. including : (a) Excavations. Safety helmets. 1983a). The use of explosives and compressed gas (for example. and t o t h e British Standards and Codes of Practice for advice on t h e manufacture and use of equipment. 1982). gloves.E.l GENERAL Table of Contents The prime factors required t o ensure safe working conditions a r e supervision by a competent person and t h e engagement of a suitably experienced contractor who possesses adequate resources for t h e project in hand.2 SAFETY REGULATIONS A comprehensive set of regulations exists i n Hong Kong governing t h e safety. t h e principal statutory requirements a r e given in t h e Factories and Industrial Undertaking Ordinance and its subsidiary Regulations (Government of Hong Kong. Reference should always be made to relevant Ordinances and Safety Regulations. and t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations (Government of Hong Kong. dealt with under Regulation 47 in Part VII of t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations. caissons and shafts. I11 and V of t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations. in seismic surveys) is dealt with under t h e Dangerous Goods Ordinance and its subsidiary Regulations (Government of Hong Kong. 1985). Such equipment should always be used fully in accordance with t h e manufacturers' recommendations. and should include Emergency procedures should be decided a t t h e commencement of a job. A first aid kit should be readily accessible. dealt with under Parts 11. Reference should also be made to t h e following publications : (a) A Guide to t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations (Labour Department. items suited t o t h e working conditions. which briefly s e t s out t h e provisions of t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations . Table of Contents ( b ) Construction sites situated on o r adjacent t o water. For construction sites generally. ( d ) Working i n t h e vicinity of cables. fire and hospital) should be established. safety footwear. health and welfare of personnel employed in construction works. (c) Use of lifting appliances and lifting gears. 1985). Table of Contents The use of equipment incorporating radioactive sources is dealt with under t h e Radiation Ordinance and its subsidiary Regulations (Government of Hong Kong. goggles and masks should always be worn when required.

(dl Guidance Notes on Hand-dug Caissons (HKIE. hand-excavated inspection pits should b e u s e d t o establish t h e p r e s e n c e or otherwise of all s u c h services. Code of Practice f o r Safetv Precautions in t h e Construction of Large Diameter Boreholes f o r Piling a n d Other P u r ~ o s e s(BS 5573:1978). ( b ) Reference Manual f o r Construction Sites Inspection Report (Labour Department. b u t should be u s e d with extreme care. significant h a z a r d s may be e n c o u n t e r e d from u n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e s s u c h a s electricity a n d gas. Before a n y t r i a l pits. revised edition 1982. Hand-operated power tools may b e necessary i n inspection pits t o a s s i s t excavation t h r o u g h h a r d materials. 1 9 8 3 ~ ) must b e complied with. i t also s e r v e s as a check-list of m a t t e r s r e q u i r i n g attention. Signing & Guarding of Road Works (Highways Office. g a s pipelines a n d associated installations. This is designed s o t h a t . Laws of Hona Kona. 19811. Table of Contents (c) BS 5573 : Code of Practice f o r Safety Precautions in t h e Construction of Large Diameter Boreholes f o r Piling a n d Other P u r p o s e s (BSI. Reference should also be made t o t h e Code of Practice f o r t h e Lighting. 1984). . 1986).a n d explains t h e law in simple language.5 REFERENCES Table of Contents BSI (1978). E. E. Table of Contents E. This describes t h e s a f e t y precautions t h a t should b e t a k e n . Particular attention should be paid t o t h e hazards resulting from damage t o high voltage power cables. 1978). a n d t h e g a s h a z a r d s which might b e encountered in deep a n d l a r g e diameter boreholes. t h e specific s a f e t y requirements f o r t h e equipment t o b e u s e d . 47 p. probes or boreholes are commenced in a r e a s where t h e r e may b e u n d e r g r o u n d services. which contains most of t h e requirements t h a t are necessary t o maintain a favourable working environment f o r t h e workforce a n d t o comply with t h e provisions of t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations. British S t a n d a r d s Institution. Hong Kong Government P r i n t e r . STREETS O R FOOTPATHS Table of Contents For works on o r a d j a c e n t t o public r o a d s a n d pavements. Government of Hong Kong (1982). which deals with t h e s a f e t y a n d technical a s p e c t s of hand-dug caissons. t h e r e q u i r e ments of t h e Road Traffic (Traffic Control) Regulations (Government of Hong Kong. London. (Amended from time t o time). Chapter 303. 8 p.3 SERVICES AND UTILITIES I n u r b a n areas.4 WORKS DISRUPTING ROADS. besides s e r v i n g a s a handy reference. Radiation Ordinance ( a n d Radiation Regulations).

Laws of Honq Kong. Laws of Honn Kong. HKIE (1981). A Guide t o t h e Construction Sites (Safety) Labour Department (1985). Government of Hong Kong (1985). Regulations. Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Highways Office (1984). revised edition 1983. Hong Kong Institution of Engineers. Signing & Guardins of Road Works. 41 p. revised edition 1983. Hong Kong Government Printer. Hong Kong Government Printer. Guidance Notes on Hand-dug Caissons. (Amended from time t o time). Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (and Subsidiary Legislation). Chapter 295.Government of Hong Kong (1983a). Labour Department (1986). Government of Hong Kong (1983~). Hong Kong Government Printer. . revised edition 1983. 24 p. 278 p. Code of Practice for t h e Liqhtinn. Reference Manual for Construction Sites I n s ~ e c t i o n Re~ot-t. Dangerous Goods Ordinance (and Dangerous Goods Requlations). (Amended from time to time). Hong Kong Government Printer. Road Traffic (Traffic Control) Requlations. C h a ~ t e r 374. Government of Hong Kong (1983b). 58 p. Laws of Hons Kong. revised edition 1985. Chapter 59. 134 p. (Amended from time t o time). Hong Kong Government Printer. Hong Kong Government Printer. 15 p. 48 p. (Amended from time t o time). Hong Kong Government Printer. 270 p. Laws of Honq Konq. Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations. C h a ~ t e r 59.

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